Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum quadragesimum primum.

CLEOPATRA, the doȝhter of Ptholomeus Dionisius, reignede in Egipte xxij. yere, that is to say, ij. yere afore Iulius Cesar, and v. yere vnder Iulius Cesar, and xv. yere vnder Octaui|anus Augustus. A ciuile batelle began to sprynge betwene Iulius and Pompeius, his fader in lawe. Giraldus. For Iulius askede condigne honores after the x. yere y-paste in whom he hade soore and grevous labores. But Pompeius, Cato and Marcellus seide contrary þerto, commaundenge hym that he scholde comme to the cite withowte eny hoste. Eutro|pius, libro 6o. Pompeius Magnus was sente to the legiones Page  191, vol.4 lefte at Liceria by the auctorite of Marcellus the consul, wherefore Iulius Cesar come with his hoste to ȝiffe batelle to the cite of Rome. Suetonius. Sythe there were mony dignites of Rome, of whom somme durede by oon yere, somme by the space of ij. yere; neuerthelesse the dignite of dicta|tours was moste excellente, endurenge by the space of v. yere. Firste oon dictator was made, and after that thre, for this con|sideration, that and if þer were dissencion betwene tweyne of theyme, the thridde scholde remove hit. Hit happede that [folio 186b] Pompeius, Crassus, and Iulius were dictatores to gedre, and Pompeius was lefte at the cite of Rome for cause that he was of grete age, and owte of the rewarde or meritte of cheuallery. Crassus was sende to ȝiffe batelle to men of Parthia beenge ageyne the Romanes, whiche was taken thro treason and sleyne. Page  193, vol.4 Iulius Cesar sende in to þe weste partes taryede by the space of v. yere in subduenge to hym men of Fraunce, and the peple callede Allobroges, whiche prolongede his office by his awne autorite by v. yere foloenge, in whiche tyme he made Briteyne subiecte to hym. Whiche returnenge from Fraunce and comenge to Alpes, sende to Pompeius, the doȝhter of whom he hade mariede, that he scholde ordeyne to hym con|digne honoure for his grete tryumphes and victoryes. But Pompeius denyede to hym that honoure by the consente and cownsaile of the senate, in that he hade prorogate his office by the space of v. yere. Wherefore Iulius movede in wrathe, made haste to the cite to ȝiffe batelle to Pompeius. Eutropius, libro 6o. This Pompeius dredenge hym, fledde with the senate and consulles vn to the londe of Grece, where he instorede a batelle ageyne Iulius. But Iulius entrenge in to the cite of Rome as voide, brake up the place of þeire treasure. Orosius, libro 6o. Whiche brouȝhte owte from hit iiij. ml c. et xxxtiPage  195, vol.4liof golde, and lxxxxti mlli of siluyr, and distribute hit to his knyȝhtes. Eutropius. This Iulius occupiede that tyme allemoste alle the dignites of Rome. After that he wente to Speyne, where he hade victory of thre gouernoures and dukes of Pompeius with theire hoste. After þat Iulius wente to the londe of Grece, and ȝafe batelle to Pompeius. But Iulius was ouercommen in the firste batelle, and fledde, and Pompeius wolde not folowe for cause that hit was nyȝhte. Wherefore Iulius seide that Pompeius cowthe not haue victory, in that he folowede hym not, seyenge that Pompeius myȝhte haue hade victory oonly in that tyme. After þat thei fauȝhte at Thessalia, where the wowarde longenge to Pompeius hade xlti ml of foote [folio 187a] men, vj.c. horse men in the lifte parte, and v.c. horse men in the ryȝhte honde, and alle the helpe of the este, with the senatours, pretors, and consulles. Iulius hade in his hoste abowte the nowmbre of xxxti ml foote men and ml horse men. This batelle begunne, the hoste of Pompeius fledde, and Pompeius Page  197, vol.4 fledde to Ptholomeus, yonge that tyme of age, kynge of Egipte, to whom he was tutor, desirenge helpe of hym. But this Tholomeus, folowenge fortune rather þen frendeschippe, causede Pompeius to be sleyne, sendenge to Iulius his hedde with his rynge. Iulius seenge that wepede soore, and wente anoone to Alexandria, but Ptholomeus hade ordeynede an hoste to resiste hym, where thro Iulius compellede entrede in to a schippe, whiche was drownede thro the multitude of peple entrenge in to hit. Where Iulius did swymme by cc. passes with the oon honde, hauenge writenge in that other honde, vn tille that he comme to an other schippe. After that he other drownede the schippes of Tholomeus other toke þeim. Then the seide Iulius grawntede life to Tholomeus the kynge, at the instance of the citesynnes of Alexandria. To whom Iulius ȝafe a monicion that he scholde attempte after that the frendeschippe of the Romanes raþer then batelle ageyne theyme. But this Tholo|meus Page  199, vol.4 restorede to liberte, ȝafe batelle ageyne to Iulius, but he was sleyne anoon, and a grete parte of his hoste destroyede also. The body of Tholomeus borne vn to the londe by the impulsion of the see was knowen by hys haburion of golde. Then Iulius Cesar toke that realme to Cleopatra, with whom he taryede by the space of ij. yere, vsenge here at his pleasure. Hugo, capitulo Ianus. In whiche tyme Iulius correcte the kalendary and founde the reason of bisexte. ℞. The Romanes began the yere from Marche, like as men of Hebrewe did vn to the tyme of Numa Pompilius; and þauȝhe that Numa Pompilius did adde to the yere confuse Ianuare and February, neuerthe|lesse the yere remaynede as incorrecte vn to the tymes of Iulius Cesar. In the worschippe of whom the vthe monethe [folio 187b] from Marche, callede afore Quintilis, was callede Iulius, for cause he was borne in that monethe, other elles in that he hade a grete and solenne victory in that monethe; and also the sexte monethe was callede Augustus in lyke wise in the worschippe of Augustus Cesar. Eutropius. Then Iulius Page  201, vol.4 Cesar returnenge from Egipte hade victory of Farnaces, the son of Mitridates, in that he ȝafe helpe to Pompeius ageyne hym, and hurte hym to dethe. After that he returnede to þe cite of Rome, and made hym the thrydde tyme consul; goenge from thens vn to Affrike, where he hade victory ageyne Scipio and Porcius Cato with the kynge of Mauritany, whiche did Page  203, vol.4 slee þeim selfe at the laste. Also hit is to be attended that þer were mony noble men amonge the Romanes callede by this name Cato. For oon Cato was a questor, whiche brouȝhte Ennius þe poete from Tharentus to Rome. An other was callede Meninus Cato, whiche fauȝhte nobly ageyne the Grekes with Emilius Paulus. An other Cato was namede Porcius Cato, and also Uiticensis, for cause he did sle hym selfe at Utica, a cite in Affrike, of whom hit is spoken of nowe. And perauenture this Cato was callede Censorius Cato, of whom Seynte Ierom spekethe to Nepocianus, seyenge that he beenge of grete age schamede not neithe dispairede to lerne letters of Grewe. And this Cato was a philosophre of the Page  205, vol.4 stoicalle secte, whiche made a science moralle whiche is callede the etike of Cato, of whom that litelle boke vsede to be redde to childer in scoles is abstracte. Eutropius. Iulius Cesar returnenge to Rome after a yere i-paste, made hym selfe consul in the iiijthe tyme; after that he wente to Speyne, where the sonnes of Pompeius hade instorede a grete batelle ageyne hym. In the laste batelle of whom Iulius was so wery and deuicte, his men fleenge from hym, that he was in purpose to haue sleyne hym selfe, leste that so noble a werreour after so huge and grete glory geten scholde falle in to þe hondes of childer. At the laste this Iulius gedrenge his hoste togedre and ȝiffenge batelle to theyme hade the victory. Whiche returnenge to the cite of Rome, causede hym to be namede and [folio 188a] callede an emperour, where he vsede insolence by iij. yere and vij. monethes ageyne the consuetude of the liberte of Rome. Isidorus, libro nono. This Iulius was called an emperour Page  207, vol.4 and Cesar firste of alle the gouernoures of Rome; callede emperours for the singuler lordeschippe of oon monarchye, and Cesar in that he was taken from the wombe of his mader sche beenge dedde. ℞. Other governoures succedenge hym were callede emperoures, Cesares, and Augusti of encreasenge þe commune utilite. Eutropius. This Iulius Cesar ȝiffenge the dignites of Rome after his pleasure, vsede to be ȝiffen of the peple, and not risenge to the senate commenge vn to hym, and vsenge other cruelle actes; wherefore lx. senatores conspirede and intendede his dethe, specially ij. men of this name Brutus, with oþer ij.c. noble men of Rome; whiche commenge to the Capitoly in the day of the eleccion of the senate, was woundede in xxiijti places, where thro he diede.