Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum tricesimum nonum.

PTHOLOMEUS SOTHER, expulsede by Cleopatra his moder, whiche was sleyne by Ptholomeus Alexander, recurede the realme of Egipte, in whom he reignede viij yere. For the cite|synnes expulsede Tholomeus Alexander for the sleenge of his moder. Salustius, the writer of storyes, was borne this tyme. [folio 182b] Mony meruayles were seen abowte this tyme: for a quantite of fire apperede vnder the sonne at the risenge of hit; and bloode ranne owte from brede kytte, as if hit hade commen from a wounde, in a feste amonge the Aretynes; and hayle made holowe the grownde thro the fallenge of hit continually by Page  153, vol.4 vij. daies. Also at the Sampnites and amonge the Beneven|tanes therthe openynge, a flamme brekenge up from hit was seene to be extendede vn to hevyn. Also bestes vsede to be and lyve amonge men levenge theire stables and pastures, ranne up to the hilles, and dogges lefte the companye of men. Orosius, libro quinto. Men were seen as fiȝhtenge in mony daies by continuacion in a pleyne grounde in Campania, where the strokes were herde, and after that the stappes of men apperede þer and of horses. And a batelle ciuile folowede soone after, whiche was movede by ij. breþer german for the lawe of feldes, in whom it was rehersede that þe senate scholde not intromitte of the feldes of eny man dyenge whom he hade afore in his lyfe, but the grownde scholde be taken to the Page  155, vol.4 nyeste of his bloode. But the senate did other wise that tyme, for thei occupiede the londes and possessiones of mony other peple. Wherefore a man callede Graccus desirede those pos|sessiones to be restorede to the peple in a day of Rogacion, when thynges to be restorede awede to be askede. Anoon the noble men did arise, and did slee cc. of the commune peple, whom thei caste in to the water of Tiber; and also that Graccus was sleyne, lyenge long after or that he was beryede. Also Silla the consul, beenge in Campania to finische the batelle socialle ageyne Mitridates, Marius, whiche was consul vj. tymes covetenge to be consul in the vijthe tyme, offrede hym selfe to take that batelle ageyne Mitridates. Silla, the consulle, hauenge knowlege þeroff, returnede to the cite of Rome with iiij. legiones, which entrenge in to hit did slee the messynger Page  157, vol.4 of Marius, desirenge fyre to brenne the cite, segenge Marius within the Capitolye. This Marius gedrenge helpe, and not able to ȝiffe resistence to Silla, fledde ageyne to the Capitoly, from whiche place he fledde with grete difficulte, mony of his men sleyne. Marius departenge from the Capitoly fledde in to [folio 183a] myry places, whiche founde by scheperdes amonge elmes, was sende to Silla the consul, whiche sende hym to his moste adversaries, the Cumbres, a certeyne peple, whiche prisonede hym anoon, and sendenge þis Marius to be hedede, the hondes of the heder began to tremble, and a voice was herde in the aier, þro whom the Cumbres, aferde, returnede, and suffrede Page  159, vol.4 Marius to departe. Titus. This Marius delyverede thro the helpe of the godesse Marica, to whom he hade made promyse of honor to be doen to here, takenge with hym Cynna his felowe grevonde the Romanes in mony wise, and occupiede the consulate the vijthe tyme, wherein he contynuede but xiij. dayes, that is to say, from the kalendes of Ianuary, when the consulles were wonte to receyve theire power and noble thynges, vn to the idus of Ianuary. This Marius wente to Affrike after his delyueraunce, whiche gedrenge a grete hoste wente to Rome, and dividede the hoste in to iiij. partes, of whom he hade oon parte, Carbo an other, Sextorius an other, Synna the iiijthe. Sertorius ȝafe soore batelle to Pompeius; Marius, and Synna entrenge the cite, did sle mony of the senatores and consulles. Augustinus de Civitate, libro tertio, capitulo 24o. This Marius causede Octavus the consul to be Page  161, vol.4 hedede, commaundenge his hedde to be sette up to a siȝhte in the cite, where the citesynnes were wonte to sitte and talke. ℞. And as Lucanus reherseth he causede the hedes of the noble men of Rome, in a feste that he made, to be seruede to hym and to be sette on the table. Titus. The cruellenesse of Marius was soe grete that mony men hade leuer to sle theym selfe then to putte theyme in his mercy. Wherefore Catullus the consul drunke poyson, and Merula the byschop Iouialle bledde to dethe þro the kyttenge of a veyne. This Marius ȝafe a commaundemente that his men scholde not spare eny man thawȝhe the man askede mercy of men, withowte that he did holde up his riȝhte honde in signe of mercy. Wherefore the [folio 183b] residu of the senatores and noble men fleenge to Silla in to Grece, causede hym thro theire preiers to helpe the cite of Rome. Eutropius. Silla the consul hade devicte Archelaus, Page  163, vol.4 gouernour of the hoste of Mitridates, at Athenes, that c. ml men sleyn, that Archelaus lay bare in a marras by the space of iij. dayes. Mitridates vnderstondenge that askede peas. Silla made grawnte to hym þerof, in that he myȝhte be moore sure ageyne his enmyes knowenge noo treason to be behynde hym as by Mitridates. This Silla commenge to Rome did slee as peple innumerable, in so moche that Quintus Catulus seide un to Silla the consul: "What men schalle we haue hereafter to fiȝhte with vs if we slee so mony men?" Augustinus, libro tertio, capitulo 24o. In whiche conflicte a wey of malice was made open, in that Silla the consul ȝafe to his men licence to sle whom thei wolde for betwene Marius and Silla peple as innumerable were sleyne. Eutropius. This batelle civile Page  165, vol.4 contynuenge as by x. yere destroyede and wastede cl. ml of the Romanes, excepte senatores, consulles, and mony men of other grete offices. ℞. Wherefore hit is to be attended that þer were vj. civile batelles amonge the Romanes. The firste was of Marius ageyne the cite. The secunde was of Silla ageyne Marius and his supporters. The thridde was of Stertorius ageyne Pompeius. The iiijthe was of Catilena ageyne the cite. The vthe was of Lepidus ageyne Catulus. The vjthe was betwene Iulius and Pompeius. Eutropius. Cilla departenge from Rome after that batelle, hade a victory glorious of Mitridates. Trogus, libro 17o. Mitridates, the son of Mitridates and kynge of Pontus, rebellede ageyne the Romanes by xlvj. yere, whiche was more myȝty after that he semede to haue loste the victory. This Mitridates delyverede from the power of his moder, whiche hade sleyne v. childer of Page  167, vol.4 her awne, by his cosynnes was taken to tutores, whiche settenge that childe on a wilde horse, tauȝhte hym to ryde. But when this Mitridates hade connynge to rewle an horse, his tutores ordeynede poyson for hym, whiche removenge that drunke diuerse pociones and medicynes for poyson, where þro he [folio 184a] cowthe not be poysonede thauȝhe he wolde hym selfe. This Mitridates dredenge hym to be sleyne priuely of his tutores, feynede hym as to go to hunte, where he wente up and downe in þe woodes, and hade his bedde in the hilles, and comme not in eny cite or towne by the space of vij. yere, where he vexede wilde bestes oftetymes thro rennenge, puttenge his body oþer|while in grete exercise of laboure. Whiche made kynge hade victory of men Scicia, whiche were afore that tyme as vincible, and made þeim tame, occupienge Pontus and Macedony. Page  169, vol.4 Also this Mitridates entrede secretely in to Asia with fewe men of truste with hym, to knowe the costes of þat region alle abowte, whiche taryenge a longe season, his wyfe conceyvede a childe by a concubyne, wherefore sche ordeynede poyson for Mitridates. But that treason expressede to Mitridates by a maide longenge to his wife, that treason was fullefillede by his awne wife poysonede thro Mitridates, in that sche wolde haue destroyede hym. Also in wynter he usede to labor in the feldes, causenge his hoste in the same wise, whiche causede theyme to be invincible in a maner. After that Mitridates entrede in to Galacia, despisenge in a maner the Romanes and theire powere. The secunde wife of Mitridates, schauenge the heire of her hedde, chaungede her clothenge, and usede her to armes, that sche myȝhte helpe to avoide the perelle and Page  171, vol.4 treason of her howsebonde. Giraldus. This Mitridates ap|perede ever moore myȝhte and victoryous after that þe noble consulles of the Romanes, Silla and Pompeius, hade victory of hym, for he occupiede Babilonia and Asia, and hade reste with men of Scicia, subduenge to hym Capadocia, Midarmenia, and encreasede hys realme vn to Ynde. Whiche commenge to Ephesus causede alle the Romanes beenge lefte in that cuntre to kepe hit to be sleyne in oon day. Also Archelaus, a prince lungenge to hym, haue*. [Sic in MS.] an hoste of a c. thowsande men with [folio 184b] hym, made the londe of Grece subiecte to hym. Which holden of his awne son, Farnax by name, drunke poyson voluntaryly, but hit grevede hym not; whiche was sleyne of a knyȝhte whom he hade offended, desirede by Mitridates to do so. After the dethe of whom Pompeius made Tigranis kynge of Siria, and brente also the temple of Ierusalem.