Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
Page  75, vol.4

Capitulum tricesimum quartum.—Iosephus, libro xijo. Trogus, libro tricesimo.

PTHOLOMEUS Epiphanes, the vth kynge of men of Egipte, and son of Eupator, reignede xxiiij. yere. This Ptholomeus begynnenge to reigne the vthe yere of his age, legates of Alexandrye preyede the Romanes thei wolde be tutores of þat childe, and defende the realme of Egipte; whiche kinge Philippe, gouernoure of Macedony, and Anthiocus, kynge of Siria, hade intendede to haue diuidede hit betwene þeim. This message was accepte of the Romanes, whiche sende legates to those kynges that thei scholde not entre in to Egipte. Eutro|pius, libro tertio. After that Anthiocus Magnus mariede the doȝhter of Ptholomeus, grawntenge to her in the name of her dowery Siria, Iudea, and Phenicia. ℞. Wherefore the Iewes peiede tributes to bothe the kynges, Onias the bischoppe of Page  77, vol.4 þe Iewes denyenge that, and movenge the contrary as for the luffe of theire lawe, but rather for auarice, in that he wolde not go to the kynge. Iosephus, the son of the suster of Onias, wente to kynge Ptholomeus, whiche obteynede not oonly the fauor of the kynge and releische of his tribute by the space of vij. yere, but he was made also gouernoure of his howse, and the colector of tributes to be paiede by that kynge by the space of xxij. yere. Iosephus, libro duodecimo, capitulo quarto. This Iosephus willenge to prove the discrecion of Hircanus his son þe yonger, hauenge xij. yere in age, whom he gate by the doȝhter of his brother, toke to hym iij.e. yocke of oxen to ere and sawe in wildernes by the iourney of ij. daies from his howse, whiche hidde awey the thynges with whom the oxen scholde be bownde and drawe; whiche com|menge [folio 174a] to the place assignede, the laborers movede Hircanus that somme of theyme myȝhte goe home and brynge gere necessary for theym, he wolde not consente þer to; whiche sleenge diuerse of the oxen for the meyte of the peple, made Page  79, vol.4 instrumentes for the oxen of the skynnes of þeim. The fader meruellenge the discrecion of the childe, sende hym in his stedde to honoure the feste of Ptholomeus, kynge of Egipte, whiche hade a son borne to hym but late. The fader willenge to take to hym a certeyne summe of money for his costes by the weye, and to honoure the kynges son, Hircanus þat childe refusede that money, seyenge that he cowthe lyve sobrely, and not to spende so moche. Neuerthelesse, he movede his fader that he wolde sende to Arion, his proctor, of Alexandrye, letters that he scholde take to hym suche thynges as were profitable and necessary to hym. Iosephus supposenge x. talentes to suffise for the honour of þe kynges son, wrote to Arion that he scholde delyuer to his sonne x. talentes. This childe Hircanus commenge with the letters and delyuerenge theym to Arion, the same man inquirede of hym what summe he wolde haue. The childe answerede and seide a ml talentes. Then Arion seide that he wolde delyuer to hym but x. talentes, wherefore this childe Hircanus caste hym in prison. The wife of Arion compleynede to the kynge of that Page  81, vol.4 childe, to whom the kynge seide: "Why haste þow done soo?" Hircanus seide to the kynge that those ministres were worthy to be punyschede that cowthe not discerne a grete thynge from a lytelle. Arion herenge that the kynge did approbate the answere of the childe, toke to the childe a ml talentes, whiche bouȝhte anoon a c. childer litterate, and a c. virgynes, of men sellenge childer, payenge for eiche of theym a talente. The day commenge of the kynges feste, this childe Hircanus was sette in the loweste place of worschippe, in that he was but yonge in age, afore whom mony bones were sette as in derision. And anoon a disporter seide afore the kynge: "O [folio 174b] my lorde, beholde how this lytelle childe hathe eiten the flesche off so mony bones." Then kynge laȝhede, and in|quirede of the childe why that he hade so mony boones afore hym. The childe seide with a bolde spiritte: "My lorde, dogges devoure boones with flesche, as thy gestes do this day; Page  83, vol.4 but peple of discrecion leve the boones and spare þeim, as ye see me to do." This childe, familier in the kynges palice, inquirede in the morowe folowenge of the frendes of the kynge what thei wolde ȝiffe to the kynges son; the moste noble man intendede not to ȝiffe more then x. talentes. Then this childe Hircanus fenede him soory, seyenge that he hade but v. talentes to the honoure of the kynges sonne. The day of the honoure to the kynges son to be schewede commen, this childe Hircanus presentede the kynge with a c. yonge litterate childer, and to the qwene a c. virgynes, and eiche of theyme offrede a talente. Wherefore this childe was commendede moche of alle men, whiche receyvenge grete ȝiftes of the kynge, and letteres commendatiue, returnede home to his fader; whose fader was movede gretely for þe grete ȝiftes that þe childe had ȝiffen. Also his brether herenge of his commenda|cion and glory were movede in to envy, in so moche that thei ȝafe batelle to theire broþer. Neuerthelesse this childe obtenede the victory, his ij. breþer sleyne in that conflicte, whiche goenge Page  85, vol.4 ouer Iordan gedrede the kynges tribute of men and peple of barbre by mony yeres, where he made a meruellous towre, where he fauȝhte ageyne men of Araby alle the tyme that Seleucus Sother was presidente of Siria. Whiche dedde, Hircanus, dredenge the cowardenesse of Anthiocus Epiphanes, did slee hym. The noble man Scipio was sende from Rome vn to Speyne abowte the firste yere of this Tholomeus, and soone after vn to Affrike, where he made subiecte to hym Annon, the gouernoure of Affrike, and Siphas the kynge of Numidia. Men of Ytaly herenge that lefte Hanibal. This kynge Hanibal, desirede by men of Cartago to comme vn to [folio 175a] theyme, departede from Ytaly with wepynge in the xvijthe yere of his commynge in to hit, trowblenge the peace that Page  87, vol.4 men of Affrike hade made with the Romanes. And this was the condicion of peas, that men of Affrike scholde have but xxxti schippes, and that thei scholde ȝiffe to the Romanes lti mlli of siluyr, and that thei scholde sende to þeim alle the Romanes taken in captiuite. This Hanibal sende thre spies whiche scholde beholde the hoste of the Romanes, whom Scipio toke, refreschenge theym with meytes and drynkes, sende theyme to Hanibal. Then a grete and soore batelle was made betwene ij. myȝhty men, Hanibal and Scipio; but this Scipio hade the victory, Hanibal allemoste taken. Peas was grauntede to men of Cartago, and Scipio returnede to Rome, callede from that tyme Affricanus, and so the secunde batelle Punicalle was finischede. Plauctus diede at Rome abowte this Page  89, vol.4 tyme, whiche was hirede by a baker to grynde corne at qwernes and places apte for the honde, for pouerte of exhibicion, whiche did write on holy daies fables, and solde theyme. A batelle of Macedony folowede that secunde batelle Punicalle, ageyne Philippe kynge of Macedony, whom Titus Quiricius ouer|come, and brouȝhte afore his chariette the sonne of the kynge of Macedony and the son of the kynge of Lacedemony, redemenge the Romanes solde in to the londe of Grece by Hanibal, schavenge theire hedes in a signe of seruitute. The Romanes intendede that tyme to ȝiffe batelle to grete Anthiocus, in that he wastede diuerse regiones, and in that he noryschede but late Hanibal goenge from Affrike with hym. Eutropius, libro quarto. Anthiocus seenge that Hanibal spake ofte with þe messyngers of Rome, hade hym suspecte, and despisede hys cownesaile; and thauȝhe he callede Hanibal to him, hit was raþer that Hanibal scholde not perceyve hym as despisede then for to fullefille eny thynge after his cownselle. Hanibal ȝafe cownselle to hym that he scholde ȝiffe batelle to the Romanes, [folio 175b] Page  91, vol.4 and that he scholde not make taryenge in hit, for Hanibal seide þe Romanes to be invincible but in theire awne cuntre. The cownselle of Hanibal was not fullefillede, wherefore the hostes of Anthiocus were deuicte by the Romanes, bothe on the see and also on the londe. Then Anthiocus began to take Hanibal to cownselle. Eutropius, libro quarto. Philippus, kynge of Macedony, hade his son restorede to hym, in that he schewede helpe to the Romanes ageyne that Anthiocus. Scipio Nasia, son of the doȝhter of grete Scipio, hade victory ageyne Anthi|ocus, bothe in batelle on the see and on þe londe. Then Anthiocus toke to the Romanes his yonger son, Anthiocus Epiphanes, for Seleucus his elder son, promisenge peas per|petualle Page  93, vol.4 to the Romanes, so that he wolde kepe hym within the hylle Taurus, levenge Europe and the lesse Asia, and that he scholde take to theym Hanibal, the mover and causer of those batelles. Hanibal perceyvenge that fledde to Prusias kynge of Bithinia. Trogus, libro tricesimo tertio. Prusias kynge of Bithinia deuicte by Eumenes, brother of Attalus, kynge of Asia, Hanibal movede hym to ȝiffe a newe batelle, whiche gedrenge diuerse kyndes of serpentes, and puttenge theym in veselles of cleye, and caste theyme into the schippes of theire enmyes, where þro thei aferde fledde. The mes|sangers of the Romanes herenge that, sette those too princes in concorde and vnite, and desirede to haue Hanibal delyuerede vn to þeym. This Hanibal likkenge venom of a rynge that he hade, diede at Nichomedia; of whom hit is rehersede that he wente not to bedde with owte batelle, and that he loste neuer chastite amonge maides taken in captiuite of meruellous pulcritude; and that he was neuer betrayede, neither with his Page  95, vol.4 awne men neiþer with his aduersaryes. ℞. Orosius re|hersethe, libro quarto, that an yle apperede that yere in whom Hanibal diede in the londe of Sicille, callede Insula Vulcani, [folio 176a] brekenge up from the see, and taryethe þer vn tille this tyme. Polichronicon, libro sexto. Hit is redde that Anthiocus schewede vn to Hanibal an hoste armede in golde and siluyr, inquirenge of Hanibal wheþer that rychesse was sufficiaunte to the Romanes. Hanibal answerede and seide: "Y suppose that richesse were sufficiaunte, thauȝhe thei be moste covetous." Polichronicon, capitulo octavo. Hanibal hauenge victory of the Romanes, constreynede þe Romanes taken in captiuite to fiȝhte with wilde bestes, promisenge to oon his lyfe if that he hade victory of an elephaunte. The Roman hauenge victory of that beste, Hanibal sende diuerse knyȝhtes to slee hym. Polichronicon, libro primo. Hanibal seide that man was not worthy lyfe that myȝhte be constreynede to fiȝhte with Page  97, vol.4 wilde bestes; neuertheles hit is to be presupposede that hit was doen raþer of envy that a Roman scholde do suche a triumphe, and bestes to be infamede thro whom he inducede grete fere to peple. Eutropius, libro quarto. Scipio Affri|canus*. [Noble Scipio diede in exile.] putte in longe exile diede at Amiternum. Valerius, libro quarto. This Scipio accusede by the cenate of money, answerede in this wise: "When y hade made Affrike subiecte to the domi|nacion of the Romanes, y toke noo thynge but the name. Also neither the richesse of Affrike made me covetous, neither the richesse of Asia Scipio my broþer, sithe either of vs was more riche of envye then of moneye." Salustius. This Scipio perceyvenge and seenge the bucler of a man ryally onornede, seide, "Y meruayle not þerof, for he hathe more truste in hit þen in his swerde." Valerius. Emilia, the wife of Scipio, was of so grete goodenes and patience, knowenge oon of her Page  99, vol.4 seruauntes female to be kynde to her howsebonde, dissimilate that thynge, leste that the impatience of women scholde schewe the victor of Affrike gilty or culpable of suche a cryme; in so moche that sche abstenynge from that cryme mariede that maide after the dethe off her howsebonde, and ȝafe to her [folio 176b] liberte. Policronicon. Scipio dienge at a cite callede Palus|tris, ordeynede suche an epitaphy to hym: "O cuntre unkynde, thow schal not receyve my boones." Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro primo. Scipio Nasica did prohibite a place to be edifiede callede Theatrum in the cite of Rome afore the begynnenge of the thridde batelle Punicalle, seyenge that hit was noyenge to peple bellicose to norische slawthe, causenge the Romanes to selle alle the noble apparayle ordeynede for hit, commaundenge that the peple scholde beholde suche disportes stondenge, and not sittenge, to the conseruacion of manhode, whiche was*. [Sic.] consuetude was kepede by v.c. xlviij. yere. ℞. Page  101, vol.4 After auctores theatrum is proprely a flore semicirculer, in the myddes of whom was an howse whiche was callede scena, in whom poetes and makers of dites rehersede þeim in a pul|pitte; and mynstrelles were withowte whiche did expresse as in behaver of body thynges of whom mencion was made þer. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro primo, capitulo tricesimo primo. This disporte and institucion off disportes scenicalle began þro þe instincte and suggestion of the deuelle, that man scholde be movede to like thynges as thei herde in those dis|portes goddes to haue doen. Augustinus, libro quarto, capitulo vicesimo quinto. In processe of tyme a chorle, Titus Latinus by name, dremede in his slepe that he scholde say to the senate þat thei scholde ordeyne pleyes seenicalle, whiche chorle differ|renge hit in ij. tymes loste his son. And also the same man hade grete infirmite in that he expressede not that thynge to Page  103, vol.4 the senate in the thridde tyme; after that the man expressenge hit to the senate was restorede to heale. The senate seenge that miracle expende in iiij. tymes so muche moneye as to redeme þe negligence of that chorle. Petrus, capitulo centesimo quarto. Seleucus, other Sother, son of grete Anthiocus, began [folio 177a] to reigne in Siria and in Asia, whiche reignede þer xij. yere. For Anthiocus, his fader, was sleyne of prestes in Persida, in the temple of Nanea, whiche promisede to hym the secrete treasure of theire temple.