Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum sextumdecimum.

THE Romanes desirede lawes of men of Athenes by legates and messyngers. Then men of Athenes willenge to proue wheþer thei were worthy theire lawes, sende a discrete man, with the lawe of x. tables, to attempte the wisedome of the Page  253, vol.3 Romanes. But the Romanes sende a foole to answere, leste perauenture a moore discrete man scholde be rebukede. The man of Athenes in the firste metenge did erecte his fynger as to signifye the unite off the Godhede. The foole thenkenge that he wolde doo owte his eie with that oon fynger, extended to þe man off Athenes ij. fyngers, thenkenge to pulle owte his too cien. The Greke supposede the Roman to haue expressede the son with the fader consubstancialle, and extendede furthe his honde, signifienge by hit that alle [folio 141b] thynges scholde be open and be knowen to Allemyȝhty God. The Roman thenkenge to ȝiffe hym an other buffette, helde his honde y-folden to geder thenkenge þer-by his stroke to be of moore greuaunce. The Greke supposenge the Roman to haue schewede Godde as to haue disposede and con|clusede the worlde vnder his honde and powere, iuggede the Romanes worthy his lawes ℞. And thei were the lawes of Salon, for thei sende not to men of Athenes for the lawes of Ligurgus, other elles to the men of Lacedemonia, whiche were noble lawes, sithe thei hade hym suspecte of a lesynge in that he seide he hade receyvede those lawes of Appollo. The Romanes didde redresse and redacte these lawes of Salon in to x. tables, to whom thei didde adde ij. tables afterwarde, where of the famous lawe of xij. tables spronge, as hit is redde in the digeste de origine iuris in the secunde booke in the gloose. Ysidorus, libro quinto. Moyses ȝafe lawe to men of Hebrewe; Foroneus the kynge to men of Grece; Mercurius Trimegistus to men of Egipte; Salon to men of Athenes; Ligurgus to men of Lacedemonia; Numa Pompilius Page  255, vol.3 to the Romanes. The peple of Rome not suffrenge afterwarde the sedicion of þe magistrates, ordeynede x. men to write þe lawes, whiche did translate the lawes of Salon from Grewe in to Latyn. The grete Pompeius was the firste whiche willede to haue redacte the lawes in to bokes, but he was not perseuerante for drede of obtrectatores. And after hym Iulius Cesar, but he was sleyne soone after. And so the lawes decreasede by a lytel and lytelle vn tille that grete Con|stantyne founde newe lawes, but Theodosius þe yonger made a booke callede Theodosian. And sone after that Iustinianus redintegrate the lawes of the digeste allemoste of ij. ml bookes, and iijc. ml of versus. The power of the con|sulles seasede abowte this tyme in Rome, and x. men were create and ordeynede for the ij. consulles; but in the secunde yere after, as Seynte Austyn seithe, De Civitate Dei, libro primo, capitulo nono, oon of theyme, Appius Claudius, bren|nenge [folio 142a] Page  257, vol.3 in the luffe of a doȝhter of a knyȝhte of Rome, commaun|dede oon of his servauntez to aske the maide in to seruitute, whiche thynge y-grauntede, the fader did sle his doȝhter; whiche thynge rehersede to þe peple of Rome, the x. men create were ammovede, and tribunes and other gouernoures were subrogate. Petrus, capitulo 186o. Neemias, a man of Hebrewe, and boteler of kynge Artaxerses, wente from Babilon thro the graunte of his lorde vn to the Iewery, where he was gouernoure of the peple by xij. yere; whiche began to repaire in his vthe yere þe walles and ȝates of Ierusalem; whiche werke he finischede after the continuacion of hit by ij. yere and iiij. monethes, with suche impedimentes and tribulacion that the halfe parte of the peple stode with owte the cite in armes to fiȝhte ageyne theire enmyes and that other parte laborede in theire armoure, holdenge a swerde with the oon honde and laborenge with that other. After that, Neemias perceyvenge that the Iewes hade noo Page  259, vol.3 fyre from heuyn, openede vp a pitte in the vale of Iosephath where Ieremy the prophete hidde fire in the tyme of the capti|uite of men and peple of Ierusalem, where he founde coles and fatte water, where of thei hade fire. Therefore if thow wille annumerate the lxxti wekes of yeres whom Daniel propheciede to be abbreuiate on the peple of God from the xxti yere of Artaxerses, in whom Neemias come from Babilon, vn to Criste, that is to say, to the xviijthe yere of Tiberius Cesar, thou schalle fynde so þat a weke of yeres be vnderstonde of þe yere of the mone, and not of the yere of the sonne other embolismalle, ccccxc. yere of the moone, with owte monethes embolismalle, whiche make cccclxxv. yere of the Page  261, vol.3 sonne. ℞. Whiche thynge may be provede by Bede in his boke de temporibus: for the realme of the londe of Persida endurede from this xxti yere of Artaxerses vn to the vjthe yere of kynge Darius, in whiche yere he was ouercommen by grete Alexander, as by an c. and xv. yere. And the realme of Grece stode and contynuede vn to the tymes of Iulius Cesar [folio 142b] as by cclxxxij. yere; and from the begynnenge of þe reigne of Iulius Cesar vn to the xviij. yere of Tiberius be lxxxviij. yere, whiche yeres alle aggregrate to gedre make cccclxxv. yere of the sonne. Orosius, libro 3o. The nyȝhte was extendede abowte this tyme in to a grete parte of the day, and an haile of stones descendenge from the clowdes Page  263, vol.3 did bete þe erthe like to stones. Petrus, capitulo 188o. Esdras the scribe diede in a goode age, and Neemias the prophete wente to kynge Artaxerses, but he returnede a litelle afore his dethe to Ierusalem, and did chide the transgresores of the lawes, whiche dyenge was beryede nye to the walle whiche he made in Ierusalem. Beda de compot. The ordre of the diuine story is taken ȝitte hider after the computacion of men of Hebrewe, but these thynges folowenge be of þe writenges of Iosephus Affricanus, and taken owte of the bokes of Machabes. Also consulles were create at Rome ageyne. Ypocras, the noble man in þe arte of medicynes was in this tyme. Ysidorus, libro quarto. Appollo founde firste the arte of medicynes amonge men of Grewe; after that Esculapius his son did ampliate hyt, but he was pereschede thro a stroke of liȝhtenge, whiche arte was alle moste forgeten by vc. yere vn to the tyme of this kynge Artaxerses, in whos tyme Ypocras renewede that arte Page  265, vol.3 in the yle of Choo. The seide Ypocras made three bookes, the firste was callede Methodica, the secunde Emperica, the thridde Logica; but tweyne of the firste be erroneus, in that the firste, whiche is callede, Methodica, considrethe neither tymes neiþer the elementes nor ages, but oonly the substance of þe sekenes, and also hit folowethe wycchecrafte and charmes. The secunde, whiche is callede Emperica, inquirethe oonly experience. The thridde is approbate, whiche is clepede Logica.