Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum duodecimum.

The name of Philosophres toke begynnenge firste of Pic|tagoras. For men of Grece in olde tyme callede theyme wise men. But this Pictagoras, inquirede of his name, answerede hym to be a Philosophre, that is to say, a luffer of sapience, thenkenge that it were a prowde thynge to name hym selfe a wise man. After that tyme philosophres toke theire names Page  215, vol.3 somme of theire auctores as men folowenge Pictagoras were callede Pictagorici, and men folowenge Plato, Platonici. Policronicon, libro primo. Other philosophres toke theire names of regiones; other philosophres toke theire names of staciones and of conuenticles of places, as Stoici, Achademici, [folio 137b] Peripatetici. Men calledde Stoici were namede of a porche in Athenes, whiche is callede Stoa in Grewe, where the gestes of wise men and myȝhty men were depicte. The firste of whom was Zenon, whiche put euery synne to be of vni|formite, so that he scholde synne as moche that did steyle chaffe as the man stelenge golde, and he that doethe *. [Sic.; slee is omitted.]a horse as moche as he that dothe slee a man. For he seide the beste or body is not in blame, but the sawle and Page  217, vol.3 the wille. This philosophre Zenon seide the sawle to peresche with the body; also he and his folowers knowlegede theyme not to be eternalle, neuerthelesse thei desirede lyfe eternalle. Men callede Achademici toke theire name of a towne callede Achademia longenge to Plato, whiche towne was ruinose and nye to Athenes where he was wonte to studye. Men callede Peripatetici other philosophres so namede, toke theire name of walkenge, in that Aristotille, the auctor of theym, was wonte to dispute walkenge. Augustinus, De Civitate Dei, libro octavo. There be thre diuersites of philosophres; Page  219, vol.3 for other thei be philosophres considrenge the natures of thynges, as Tales Millesius, Pictagoras, and theire folowers were; other elles thei be philosophres compound|enge vertues, as Socrates and hys foloers were; other thei be logiciones ȝiffenge reason of either thynge as Plato was and his folowers, whiche is commendede to haue made perfecte philosophy afore alle other philosophres. Ysidorus, libro octavo, capitulo sexto. Wherefore he is callede a trewe philosophre that knowethe thynge diuine and naturalle and kepethe the weye of trewe lyffenge. The philosophres that were diuines were precellente alle other kyndes off philosophres, in that thei laborede and made tractes of God. But mony of theyme did erre gretely in theire opiniones abowte God and the worlde, and thauȝhe mony of theyme hade knowlege of Godde thei glorifiede not theire maker, but euaneschede aweye in theire [folio 138a] thouȝhtes, whiche callenge theymselfe wise men were made fooles. The errores of whom inducede heresy in to alle Page  221, vol.3 the chirche denyenge the resurreccion of the body and seyenge that mater was egalle with Godde. Augustinus, De Civitate Dei, libro octavo, capitulo 4o. The philosophres knowenge the trawthe of God profite moche to the cogni|cion of trawthe; as Plato, whiche putte in God a cause of subsistence to be, and a reason of intelligence, and an ordre of goode lyvynge; wherefore God is to vs a begynnenge of nature, a trawthe of doctrine, and the felicite of life. Also, sythe þer were philosophres whiche contriuede theire wittes in the inquisicion of the natures of thynges and in the maner of lyffenge, those philosophres ar to be en|hawncede whiche, knowenge God, founde where he was, and cause of the makenge of the worlde, and that God was the welle off felicite. The philosophres laborenge abowte that knowlege come to hit in this maner vnder|stondenge that God was noo body, sythe a body is cor|ruptible and made of contraries. Also thei considerate Page  223, vol.3 that the similitude of the body iuggede by hyt whiche is oure sawle other wille is noo body. Then sithe oure sawle is noo body how scholde God the creator of a sawle be a body? But trewly the sawle and wille of man is mutable, for elles oon man scholde not ȝiffe better iuggemente of a thynge sensible then an other, and also euery thynge receyvenge moore other lesse is mutable. For truly the firste trawthe whiche is God may not be where mutabilite is founde, wherefore philosophres and diuynes vnderstode and concludede euery thynge mutable to be of hym þat is immutable and symple. To whom Page  225, vol.3 his beenge is noon other then lyfe neither other beenge then to vnderstonde neither other beenge then goode beenge other essencialite. Eutropius et Marianus.