Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
Page  [3], vol.1

The Firste Prolog bigynnethe here in to þis Story of mony Cronicles.

AFTER the nowble wryters of artes, to whom hit was a pleasure in this life presente to fixe theire studies and laboures abowte the knowlege of thynges and virtues mo|ralle, thei ar to be enhaunsede and exaltede by merite with grete preconyes, as makenge a commixtion of a thynge profitable with a swetenesse mellifluous, whiche haue de|riviede to men succedenge thro the benefite of scripture thexcellent gestes of men precedenge. Page  5, vol.1

For in the contexte historicalle the rewle off lyvenge and forme of vertues moralle, and the incentiue of manhode, ȝiffe grete resplendence thro the diligence of croniclers. Also the triuialle of the vertues theologicalle and quadriuialle of the cardinalle vertues, to comprehende the knowlege of whom oure insufficience sufficethe not, withowte the sollicitude of writers scholde transfude to vs the memory of thynges of antiquite. For schort lyfe, a slawe sawle, and a slipper memory lete vs to knowe mony thynges, obliuion schewenge helpe, an enmye alleweies and a steppe moder to the memory. For in this tyme presente artes and lawes scholde falle vtterly, thexemplares of acciones spectable scholde not be patent, the ornate eloquence scholde peresche, but that diuine mi|seracion hath prouided vse of letters in to the remedy of the imperfeccion of man.

What man scholde haue perfecte knowlege of em|peroures, meruaile of philosophres, and folowe thapostles, but that the actes of writers made theym nowble? There|fore Page  7, vol.1 a story is the testimony of tymes, the memory of life, hauenge in possession dowerys preeminent, renewenge as thro immortalite thynges like to peresche, beynge as in a maner a conseruatiue perpetualle to thynges mortalle.

Wherefore y, wyllenge to folowe the descriptores of the storye quadriuialle, and as provocate thro thexemple of theim, intende to compile a tretys of the state of the yle of Breteyne, excerpte of diuerse labores of auctores. Page  9, vol.1

Whiche labore expressede to my felawes hauenge inop|pinable appetite to beholde gestes of antiquite, y was movede thro the importune instance of theyme to compile somme thynges of the famose storyes of the worlde from the creacion of man vn to oure age, not oonly after the [folio 17b] ordre of tymes, but also after the supputacion of euery yere congruent.

Attendenge the intricacion inextricable of this labor pre|sente as of the mase of Dedalinus [y] am preyede to attempte hit withowte drede; aduertenge ofte tymes slawthe to mete men thenkenge grete thynges, and the insufficience of my wytte, and the obnubilous and clowdy processe of this mater y-desirede, perauenture men in these dayes attend|enge but litelle the obsequy of deuocion as thei be wonte, scholde take disdeyne of this liȝhte meyte. Of whom Gregorius Naz[i]anzen spekethe, seyenge, "Suche men reprove liȝhtely straunge thinges, but vnnethe with grete difficulte thei folowe goode thynges." Wherefore y seenge the poverte Page  11, vol.1 and insufficience of my connynge after so splendidious laboures dredde to proferre a raw thynge with bareyne eloquence and to purpose as a thynge bytter to so mellifluous delices.

What man wolde not laȝhe and also haue in derision, if that a pigmei scholde make him redy to conflicte after the labores of Hercules and after the actes Olimpicalle plenerly finischede? What man wylle not haue me in derision inten|denge to decoloure the maieste of soe highe mater after so nowble wryters? Neuerthelesse y remembre the dicte of Booz to Ruth gedrenge cornes remaynenge behynde the backes of men scherenge, seyenge, "Noo man schalle be gre|vous to the." Also the Poette Mantuan Maro Virgilius, as Isidorus rehersethe, Eth. lio decimo, or elles Flaccus Horatius, as Hugo Pisanus wylle in his Derivationes (capitulo perviso), when hit was seyde in obprobry to hym of his enmyes and aduersaries, that he scholde take some versus of that nowble Page  13, vol.1 and laureate poete callede Homerus, and adde or inmixte theym vnto his werkes and labores, and callede by that a compilator of olde thynges, he ansuerede seyenge that hit was a signe of grete strenȝhte to take the mace from the honde of Hercules.

Preyenge that noo man haue indignacion thauȝhe y bere asches or sonde, whiche semenge as thynges impure and wontenge lyȝhte be wonte to yelde pure materes and fulgent, lyke as somme thynges be wonte to ministre to other thynges that thei haue not in theyme selfe. Whereof the poete Satiricus seythe "I schalle vse to make a knyfe scharpe in the maner of a whetteston." And Seynte Gregory in his Pastoralles, "Y a fowle peynter haue made a feyre man in picture." Wherefore y presumenge of that charite, whiche, as Seynte Gregory seythe in an Omely, ministrethe strenȝhtes, schalle prosecute my processe, pera|uenture contemptible to fastidious men, but as y iugge not vnprofitable to goode studentes. Makenge an entre in to [folio 18a] the feldes of olde men, folowenge the scherers after my Page  15, vol.1 power, gedrenge the eres of cornes remanent, or elles cromes fallenge from the table of lordes, whiche replete lefte frag|mente to theire childre and successores, gedrenge the litelle partes to men hungre of the fragmentes of the cophinnes remanent, schalle adde somme thynge to the labores of auc|tores. Thro whiche labour lytelle men schalle not be inducede oonly to doctrine but also grete men schalle be prouocate to exercise, that men whiche haue not seen so large volumes of this mater may be instructe by this compendious labor, where y say not that subtilite of sentence or mellifluous eloquence schal be expressede in hit, but sinceritie of deuo|cion schalle schewe obsequy to the matere. In whom alle|moste alle the problemes of grete men be seyde, and mony other thynges not founde in the bokes of auctores whom y have excerpede, as in a maner as a story by vse quotidian and experience of theyme; in parte thro*. [The text is corrupt.] the knowlege of mony thynges, parte thro the violence of hostilite, and parte Page  17, vol.1 is adempte and loste þro the slawthe of wryters, so that vnnethe the bare names of places be saluede. Thauȝhe the figmentes of gentiles and dictes of ethnikes be inmixte to this werke thei do seruyce to the Cristen religion and feythe. For it was lawefulle to Virgille the nowble poette to seche the golde of sapience in the cleye of Ennius the poete, and to the childer of Israel goenge in to the londe of promission to spoile men of Egipte. In whom alle thinges excerpte of oþer men ar*. [ar] as, Harl. MS.] broken in to smalle membres, but concorporate here lini|amentally; thynges of disporte be admixte with saddenes, and dictes ethnicalle to thynges religious, that the ordre of the processe may be obseruede, that to my power the integrite of trawthe schalle not feynte. For egalle certitude may not be holden by alle thynges and in alle thynges. For after Seynte Austyn, de Civitate Dei, diuine miracles ar to be meruailede and to be worschipped, not worthy to be discussede by disputacion. Thynges to be meruaylede be not in alle maneres to be taken to discredence, sythe Seynte Ierom seythe, "Thow schalle*. [So Harl. MS.] fynde mony thynges incredible and not lyke, and neuerthelesse thei be trewe. Truly there is noo thynge more preualent ageyne the dominy of nature Page  19, vol.1 then that nature." Neuerthelesse a dubitacion may be movede probably in mony thynges, where certitude dothe not appere to be variaunte. Isidorus seythe, Ethi. libro xvo, [folio 18b] "If that certeyne reason appere not of the construccion of the cite of Rome, hit is not mervayle if a dubitacion be movede in the oppinion of theyme. Wherefore we awe not to condempne commentatores and wryters of storyes spekenge diuersely, for the antiquite þer of causethe erroure. For hit is conueniente to ȝiffe feithe and credulite to the dictes of those men, after Seynte Ierom, the religion of whom schew|ethe not preiudice to vertues neiþer seythe contrary to the trawthe y-knowen."*. [y knowen, Harl. MS., and simi|larly elsewhere; here always print|ed conjunctim.] If eny thynge be founde disso|naunte to feithe auþer diuerse or straunge to vertues in this werke, hit schalle be ascribede raþer to the tyme then to man. Wherefore y make not to me by alle thynges perelle of trawthe to be ordeynede in this spekenge of storyes, but takenge parte withowte envye thynges of diuerse auctores whom y haue redde. For Seynte Paule seythe, "That alle thynges wryten be not trewe, but alle thynges wryten be wryten to oure doctrine." And thauȝhe y take the wordes of other men, y make hit myne that y pro|ferre Page  21, vol.1 other while of the sentence of olde men by my wordes, vsenge the auctores whom I schalle wryte in the begynnenenge of the booke as a schelde and defense ageyne men movenge contrarious thynges. When the compilator spekethe, the letter shall be proscribede in this forme folowenge [R].

Explicit Præfatio prima.

Capitulum Secundum.

THE names of the auctores been rehersede here, of whom [folio 19a] thys presente cronicle is abstracte. Iosephus, the nowble wryter of storyes of the Iewes, whiche dide wryte XXti bookes of antiquite, and vij. bookes of the subuersion of the cyte of Ierusalem and of the captiuite of the peple þer of, from the begynnenge of the worlde vn to the xiiijthe yere of Domician themperoure. Also Hegesippus, de Ex|cidio Urbis, whom Seynte Ambrose translate. Plinius, in hys XXXti vij. bookes of Naturalle Storyes. Trogus Pom|peius, in hys xlti iiij. bookes, allemoste of alle the storyes of the worlde, whom Iustinus his disciple did abbreuiate. Eusebius, in his Story Ecclesiasticalle, in whiche story xj. bookes be conteynede. Also the Ecclesiasticalle Story tri|partite Page  23, vol.1 of whom be iij. auctores, Eusebius, Ierom and Theo|dorus the byschoppe. Seynte Austyn de Civitate Dei, and specially in the xvijthe and xviijthe books. Orosius Hispanus, in his booke de Ormesta Mundi. Isidorus His|palensis, in his Ethimologies. Solinus, of the Meruayles of the Worlde. Eutropius, in his story of Romanes. Paulus Diaconus in his Story of Longobardes. Cassiodorus, of the Gestes of Emperoures and Byschoppes. Methodius, martir and byschoppe,*. [byschop, Harl. MS.] to whom, beenge in prison, an angelle schewede of þe state of the worlde, begynnenge and ende. Suetonius, of the Gestes of Romanes. Valerius Maximus, of the Gestes of Memorye. Macrobius, in Saturnalibus. Pri|cianus Grammaticus, in his Cosmographye. Petrus Comestor, in his Storye Scolasticalle. Gregorius, of the Meruailes of Rome. Bede, of the Gestes of men of Englonde; also, Bede, of the Natures of Thynges; also, Bede, of Tymes. Page  25, vol.1 Gildas, of the Gestes of Briteynes. Marianus Scotus. Willelmus*. [Willms, Harl. MS. (twice).] Malmesburiensis monachus, of the Gestes of the Kynges of Englonde and of the Byschoppes. Henry, Archi|diacon of Huntyngedon. Waltere, Archidiacon of Oxford. Alfride, Treasurer of Beuerlaye. Galfridus Monomutensis, in his Story of Britones. Willelmus*. [Willms, Harl. MS. (twice).] Riuallensis. Giral|dus of Wales, which describede Topographie of Irlonde, Itinerary of Wales, and the Lyfe of Kinge Henry the Secunde, under a triuialle distinccion. Iohannes Salesburi|ensis, in his Policraticon, whom he intitlede de Nugis Curi|alium. Hugo Pisanus Byschoppe, in his Deriuaciones. Vincentius Beluacensis, in his Myrrour Historicalle. Ivo [folio 19b] Byschoppe Carnotense, of the Storye of Frensche men. Titus Liuius, of the Gestes of Romanes. Martinus, the peni|tentiary of the Pope, in his Cronicles of Emperoures and Byschoppes. Also Florentius, monke of Wurcestre, whom Page  27, vol.1 y folowe specially with Marianus Scotte in the supputacion of yeres.

The secunde Preface vn to the storye. Capitulum tertium.

AND for cause that this cronicle presente conteynethe the gestes of mony tymes, I haue studiede that hit schal be called Policronicon of the pluralite of tymes whom it dothe conteyne. In whiche werke y haue subdiuidede in to vij. bookes, after the exemple of the firste Maker makenge alle thynges vnder the nowmbre of vj. and rest|enge in the vijthe. The firste boke of whom describethe the places of the worlde, other vj. bookes describe the gestes of the worlde after the nowmbre of vj. ages. Mappa mundi is describede in the firste boke of this werke, in the maner of a diuision genericalle in to a di|uision specificalle. After that the worlde is diuidede as in to his partes principalle. In the thrydde euery par|cialle province is discussede, till hit be commen to Breteyne the last prouince, as vn to a specialite moste specialle for Page  29, vol.1 whom his present storye was made. In whiche place xv. chapitres bene contexte, not as summary, but as conteyn|enge necessarily the knowlege of the yle of Bryteyne. The secunde boke tretethe of the gestes of the worlde, with a descripsion of the lesse worlde. Sythe the gestes of euery age be not egalle in multitude, and euery booke chalang|ethe his particion in contentes, þerfore the secunde boke conteynethe the gestes of the iiij. ages of the world, from the plasmacion of Adam vn to the incension of the temple of the Iewes. The thrydde boke conteynethe from the trans|migracion off the peple to the commenge of Criste. The iiijthe from Criste to the commenge of Saxones. The vthe from theym to the commenge of Danes. The vjthe from that to the commenge of Normannes. The vijthe from theyme to our age. And soe this presente story is smyten in to vij. ryuerers, after the prophecy of Ysay that men y-schoede may goe by hyt, and þat the weye may be patente to the residu peple of God.

Page  31, vol.1

The thrydde Preface to the storye. Capitulum quartum.

Truly viijthe thynges be profitable to men willenge to haue plenerly knowelege of this story presente, that is to [folio 20a] say, descripciones of places, states of thynges, distincciones of tymes. Successiones of gouernaunce, variaciones of cus|tomes, decursiones of ages, qualites of acciones and trewe supputaciones of yeres in alle these thynges. The firste of these is in the firste booke and oþer*. [oþer, other] See p. 63, note.] in other*. [oþer, other] See p. 63, note.] books be expressede. As vn to the secunde hit is to be attendede that þer be ij. states; oon state from þe begynnenge of the worlde to Criste, whiche is the state of deuiacion. The secunde is from Criste to the ende of the worlde, whiche is the state of reconsiliacion. As vn to the thrydde hit is to be attendede that there be iij. tymes; oon afore the lawe y-wryten. The secunde vnder the lawe wryten. The thrydde vnder grace. As vn to the iiijthe. hit is to be attendede, thauȝe þer were oþer while iiij. principalle realmes, as men of Assiria, of Persia, Grekes, and Romanes, neuerþelesse as after the course of the worlde and ordre of Holy Scripture the firste gouernayle was from Abraham Page  33, vol.1 to Moysen. The secunde was vnder Iugges from Moyses to Saul. The thrydde vnder Kynges from Saul vn to Zorobabel. The iiijthe vnder byschoppes, from Zorobabel vn to Criste. As vn to the vthe, hit is to be attendede that þere were v. rytes. The firste was in the firste age vnder*. [Ofv. rytes.] the lawe of nature commune to euery man. The secunde rite began in the secunde age, that was the rite of gentiles, when ydolatrye spronge vnder Nino. The thrydde ryte did aryse in the thrydde age vnder the lawe wryten, when þe lawe and circumcision made a distinccion betwene the Iewes and other folke. The iiijthe ryte is of Cristen men that began vnder Criste, when feithe and grace of sacramentes informede the life of theyme. The vthe rite is of Saracenys, whiche began under Machomete, as hit schalle be schewede after the tyme of Heraclius themperoure more plenerly. As vn to the vjthe, hit is to be attendede that there*. [Of vj. ages.] be vj. ages; the fyrste from Adam to Noe; the secunde from Noe to Abraham; the thrydde from Abraham to Dauid; the iiijthe from Dauid to þe transmigracion; the vthe from the transmigracion to Criste; the vjthe from Page  35, vol.1 Criste to the ende of the worlde. Hyt is to be attendede that the ages of the worlde be not diuersificate as anendes the equalites of yeres, but anendes somme mer|uellous thynge happenge in the begynnenge of that age; as the firste age began from the creation of man; the secunde of a meruellous invndacion of water; the [folio 20b] thrydde of a meruellous circumcision; the iiijthe from the begynnenge of reigne of kynges; the vthe of the transmigracion of peple; the vjthe of the incarnation off Criste. As vn to the vijthe hit is to be attended that vij. persones be redde whose gestes be remembrede ofte|tymes in storyes; that is to saye, the person of a prynce in his realme, of a knyȝte in batelle, of a iugge in his seete, of a byschoppe in the cleregye, off a politike man in the peple, of a howsebonde man in a howse, of a contemplatif man in the chirche. From whom vij. generalites of acciones doe procede corespondent to theyme, whiche be construcciones of cytes, victoryes of enmyes, sancciones of lawes, correcciones of crymes, com|posicion of a commune thynge, the disposicion of a thynge familier, the adquisicion of a hollesom merite in whom the rewardes of goode men schyne, and the peynes of ylle men. As vn to the viijthe hit is to be attendede Page  37, vol.1 that þer were viij. maneres to calcle yeres; iij. anendes men of Ebrewe, thre anendes the Grekes, oon at the Romanes, and oon now at Cristen men. Men of Ebrewe take theire yere in thre maneres. The vsualle yere is begynnenge from Ianuary anendes theyme whom thei vse in contractes. Also a lawefulle yere begynnenge from Marche, whom thei vse in cerimonyes. Also there is a yere emergente as anendes theyme begynnenge from May when thei wente from Egipte, whom thei vse in cronicles and calculaciones. The Grekes note theire yeres in thre maneres:—In the firste they cotede yeres at the glory of their victory from the captiuite of Troye. After that þe Olimpias begunne, thei assignede the nowmbre of þeire yeres after the nowmbre of theyme. In the thrydde maner, when thei began to haue dominacion, thei notede their yeres in thys maner:—In suche a yere in the reigne of men of Grewe, or in suche a yere, as hit is expressede in the bookes of Machabes. At the laste þe Romanes floryschenge ascribede theire yeres from the begynnenge of theire cite y-made. But nowe laste Cristen men suppute theire yeres from the Incarnacion of Criste. Wherefore hit is to be aduertisede that the calculation of Page  39, vol.1 Dionysius, whom Englonde and Fraunce doe folowe, hathe lesse then the computacion of Seynte Ierom by the nowmbre of xxtiij. yere. Also William Malmesburye dothe reherse in his booke of byschoppes the iiijthe that Ma|rianus a Scotte and a monke, included at a cyte callede Mangotia in Allemeyne, abowte the yere of grace mllxxvj., [folio 21a] serchede cronicles thro grete study and labour, aduertenge firste or sole the dissonaunce of the cicles after the cal|culation of litelle Dionise ageyn the trawthe of the Gos|pelle, whiche accomptenge euery yere from the begynnenge of the worlde addede to the foreseide cicles xxtiij. yere, makenge a harde and a diffusede cronicle, whose booke Roberte Byschoppe of Herefforde onornede splendidiously; wherefore commune cronicles folowenge Dionysius fayle and stumble alle day, Seynte Ierom wyttenes in the translacion of the cronicle of Eusebius, where x. yeres wonte betwene the passion of Criste and tyme of Vaspasian, and also xiiij. wonte abowte the tymes of Decius themperoure, as hit schalle be schewede under the vjthe age of the worlde. That erroure is moche encreased in so moche, that dayes Page  41, vol.1 and monethes be ouerskippede in whom hit is seyde kynges haue reignede by holle yeres; and also other spaces of tymes be neglecte betwene or amonge the endes off men reignenge and begynnenges of men folowenge. Where|fore y schalle ascribe how euery thynge hathe bene in the yere þer of after my powere in this presente wrytenge. In so moche that y schalle purpulle the mariantes nye the hedes of þe gestes with a dowble ordre of yeres. From Abraham vn to the cite off Rome y-made, the yere of the age of the worlde and of the duke and gouer|noure schalle be wryten. From the cite y-made to Criste, the yere of the age of the cite and of the transmigra|cion schalle be wryten. From Criste, the yere of grace and of the prynce reignenge that tyme schalle be wryten to gedre.

Priscian in his Cosmographie of the Dimension of the Worlde. Capitulum quintum.

Iulius Cesar ordeneide by the cownselle of the senate sette in pomposite alle the worlde to be dimencionate by men discrete and prudente. Wherefore messangers were sende Page  43, vol.1 from the consulate of Iulius Cesar vn to the consulate of Saturnius, by xxxijti yere, þro alle the worlde, to presidentes, dukes, and iuges of prouinces, that thei scholde describe and measure londes, waters, woodes, playnes, concauites, hilles, and the itinerary of the see to whiche places thei scholde sayle, and towche hyt if they myȝhte fynde eny meruellous thynge there that myȝhte be schewede to the senate. ℞. Seynte Ierom testifiethe that in the trans|lacion of þe cronicle of Eusebius, libro ijo, capitulo secundo, [folio 21b] where he saythe that Pilatus presidente of the Iewery schewede to Tiberius themperour of the meruayles whom Iesus did amonge the Iewes. And Tiberius schewede theyme to the senate, whiche despisede theyme in that thei were not schewede a fore to the senate. Priscian. And soe hit is founde by the denunciaciones that alle the worlde hathe xxxti famose sees, lxxijti yles, xlti famose hilles, lxxti and Page  45, vol.1 viij. prouinces, nowble cites ccclxx., floodes ltivij. The compasse of whiche worlde is iijc. tymes xv. tymes a c.ml of passes. The longitude of the erthe habitable from the este to the weste, that is from Ynde to the Pillers of Hercules in the see Gaditan, hathe viijthe tymes v. tymes a clxxti myles and viijthe. The dimension of the longitude of whom is more compendious by the see then by the londe. The latitude of the erthe from the este syde of the occean of Ethioppe vn to the durre or begynnenge of a floode callede Thanay in the northe is lesse in the halfe then the longitude a foreseyde, and hit conteynethe lti tymes iiijc. lxij. myles. Also hit is founde that the depeste Page  47, vol.1 place in the see Mediterrany or occean conteynethe the space of xv. forlonges by a plumme of ledde.

Of the diuision of the worlde. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro sextodecimo, capitulo octavo. Capitulum sextum.

ALSO hit is to be attendede that alle the worlde cincte to the occean is diuided in to iij. partes, Asie, Europe, and Affryke; whiche diuidede in to thre partes, Asia after nowmbre schalle be the thrydde part, and after magnitude the halfe, whiche goenge from the meridien or sowthe by the este vn to the northe, is compassede on euery syde with the occean, and in the weste hit is finischede with the grete see. Beda, de Naturis. The termes of whom be the begynnenge and durre of a floode callede Nilus in the sowthe, descendenge by the northe occean and water Page  49, vol.1 of Thanais in the northe. Isidorus, libro 14, capitulo quarto. Europa, that other parte, from the floode callede Thanay, descendenge from the northe ocean extendede from the este and meridien in to the costes of Speyne is ioynede to the grete see and finischede in an yle callede Gades. Isi|dorus, capitulo quinto. The thridde parte, which is Affrica, is protendede from the weste in to the meridien in to the coste of Egipte. And these partes, Europe and Affrike, be dividede a sundre thro an arme of the see. Plinius, libro tertio, capitulo primo. The chekes and begynnenges of [folio 22a] those armes of the see haue in longitude xv. ml of passes, and v. ml passes in latitude, from whom the see mediter|ranye begynnenge by diuerse armes is distendede towarde londes.

Of the Descripcion of Partes of the Worlde. Plinius, libro sexto. Capitulum septimum.

HIT is to be holden that Asia is moste in quantite, Europa lesse in quantite, but egalle in the numerous gene|rosite of peple. Affrike is leste in quantite of partes in Page  51, vol.1 site and in peple. Priscianus, in his Cosmographye. Therefore men that hade euidente knowlege perceyvede ij. partes of the worlde to be taken, that is to say, Asia and Europa, deputenge or ordeynenge the partes of Affrike to be added to the costes off Europa. For Affrike hathe nede to the space of latitude, subiecte to an ylle coste and laborenge with a corrupte aier, with wilde bestes, and venom. Þerfore men puttenge hit the thrydde parte of the worlde folowede not the measures of spaces but reasones of diuision, departenge hit as a wailenge parte in the wurste site and ordre from the beste places. Also Affrike of his nature hathe leste space and moste of deserte in the clemency of heuyn. And with owte dowte thauȝhe Affrike be leste in quantite, ȝitte þer is moore grownde inhabitable in hyt thro the heete of the sonne then is in Europe thro rigornesse of colde. Truly alle thynges lyffenge or groenge accede moore tollerably to the hieste colde then to the hieste heete. Plinius, libro sexto. Þerfore the cause is that men in Europe be more grete in body, more myȝhty in strenghte, moore bolde in herte, more feire in beaute, then Page  53, vol.1 in Affrike. For the beame of the sonne beenge continually by contynualle permanence on men of Affrike consumenge theire humores, causethe theyme to be more schorte of body, more blacke of skynne, more crispedde in heire, also more feynte in herte by the euaporacion of spirites: hit is in contrary wyse of men beenge in þe northe partes; for colde causenge opilacion and stoppenge the poores ex|terially causethe humores to be fatte, that makethe men more of body, moore whyte, and moore hoote interially, and by that moore bolde.

Of the grete see or Mediterranye. Plinius, libro tertio, capitulo primo. Capitulum octavum.

THE begynnenge of the grete see is in the weste, at the pyllers of Hercules, where the occean Atlantyke brekenge vp to londes makethe the see Gaditan. The [folio 22b] longitude of whom is protendede in to xv. ml of passes. The latitude of hit is extente in to v. ml passes, hauenge at the ryȝhte parte of hit Affrike, at the lyfte parte Europe: after that hit is diffusede in to sees internalle. The termes of whom be the water of Thanays at the northe, Page  55, vol.1 and Nilus at the sowthe. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. The grete see flowenge from the occean turnethe in to the sowthe, after that in to the northe, the fyrste end of whom is in to Speyne; after that hit floethe in to the prouince Narbonense; after that the bosom of þe water Ligusticus watrethe the cite callede Ianua; after that the see Tyren atteynethe to Ytaly. Then Siculus goethe from Sicille to Crete. Then the water callede Creticus in to Pamphyliam and to Egipte. Then the see Elesponte retorte with grete passage turnethe to the northe, but abowte Grece, nye a place namede Bosforus, hit is restreynede in to the streyte|nesse of vij. forlonges where kynge Xerxes*. [Exerces, MS. and α.; Xerses, Harl. MS. Here and elsewhere the classical orthography is restored, when the word does not appear to be in a manner anglicised, e.g., Affrica.] made a brigge off schippes that he myȝhte goe in to Grece. Plinius, libro sexto, capitulo primo. The see is so streyte þer betwene the costes of Asia and of Europe, that the singenge of bryddes and berkenge of dogges may be herde to gedre, with owte the wynde cause resistence. Giraldus, distinct. prima, capitulo decimo. That streyte see is callede the arme of seynte George, whiche flowethe abowte Constantinople, Page  57, vol.1 compassenge abowte also as welle Affrike as Europe. There is an yle callede Abydos. Isidorus, libro nono. The see callede Pontus, diffusede from þens towarde the northe makethe the see callede Propontides. And from thens hit is streynede also into vjc passes a[nd] causethe a water named Thracius.*. [Tracheus, Harl. MS. Trevisa has also mangled the word.] Then the see Pontike compassenge abowte from the northe the londes of Thracia and Mœsia is ex|tendede towarde Mæotides Paludes where hit receyvethe a floode named Thanay, which extendede towarde the este goethe towarde Asia the lesse to the costes of Hiberia and of Armeny, whiche is callede the see Eusyne. Isidorus, libro nono. That see is moore swete, more schorte for floodes, accurrente on euery side. In the grete arme of whom be yles callede Colchos, Patmos,*. [Patmos] Pathmos, MS. and Harl. MS.] and oþer. Plinius, libro sexto. The see Pontike reflowethe not as other sees, but hyt dothe floe alle weies in to that see Propontides and Elesponte. ℞. The cause may be assignede that im|petuosites of floedes in the backe of hit constreyne the the see Eusyne to floenge continualle, and Elesponte deriuate Page  59, vol.1 so ferre from the occean may not returne ageyne that huge impetuosite. Isidorus, libro nono. And neuerthelesse, sythe the erthe is oon or londe, and callede in diuerse names thro diuerse causes and diuerse places, soe in lyke wyse the [folio 23a] grete see is namede in diuerse maners for diuerse regiones, yles, cites, and peple that hit compassethe.

Of the Occean. Isidorus Eth. libro tertio decimo. Capitulum nonum.

THE occean compassethe the erthe in the maner of a cercle, foldenge abowte the regiones of londes, commethe to, and recedethe; the wyndes respirenge and restenge in the profundite of hit, auþer hit flowethe furthe or retractethe the sees in to hit. Plinius, libro secundo, capitulo 99. The heete and feruence of the occean swellethe on Bre|teyne viijc*. [A blunder for 80.] cubites and moore, the movenges be depre|hendede raþer abowte the sides of the sees then in an oþer hie sec. For the pulses of the veynes be felede moore in the extremites than in the myddes of the body. Euery heete and feruence hathe more invndacion in the Page  61, vol.1 occean then in the grete see. The cause is for euery thynge is of more animosite and audacite in his vniversalle then his parte parcialle. And also for the patente magnitude felethe by more efficacite the strenȝhte of þe moone then a see coartate; wherefore a lake and other waters be not y-movede in that maner. Plinius, libro 2o, capitulo 7o. The occean infusede in to diuerse places towarde londes towchethe alle moste the entiere sees in mony places, in so moche that a parte of the Redde see whiche is callede Arabicus is vnnethe distante from Egipte a c. lti ml of passes. The see callede Caspius is distante by ccc. lxxv. ml passes from the see callede Eusyne. Beda, De Naturis. Amonge alle the armes of the occean, that hit dothe cause, thre be of moste nowble fame. The firste is the see Gaditan, or Autlantike, whiche brekenge vp from the weste makethe the grete see in the myddes of the erthe. The secunde see is callede the see of Caspius, whiche goenge from the sowthe este, diuidethe the northe parte off Ynde from Scythia, and goethe from that to the see Eusyne. The thrydde is Page  63, vol.1 callede the Redde see, which entrenge from the este parte of the worlde diuidethe the sowthe parte of Ynde from Ethioppe and Egipte, which takenge his progresse from thens is departede in to ij. armes, of whom the*. [þe . . . the] So Harl. MS., and similarly the MS. of Trevisa on this page has mulleþ and woseth; whence the inconstancy of the use of þ clearly appears, when they were written. See also p. 31.] arme Per|sicalle, or of þe*. [þe . . . the] So Harl. MS., and similarly the MS. of Trevisa on this page has mulleþ and woseth; whence the inconstancy of the use of þ clearly appears, when they were written. See also p. 31.] cuntre of Perse, dothe aske the northe. The see of Araby askethe the weste towarde the grete see. That Redde see, takenge his name of a redde color whom hyt hathe not naturally, but of nye places to hyt, whiche be redde like to the colour of bloode, where redde precious stones be founde. Solinus. The hilles callede Caspii be nye the see callede Caspius, as longenge to them, hauenge in longitude vij. ml of passes, in latitude vnnethe [folio 23b] permeable with oxen, the stonys of whom as meltenge thro the veynes of salte mixte amonge theyme causethe an humor affluente; whiche compacte and constructe thro the heete of the sonne, is incorporate as in to yse, and soe the slipper waye deneyethe commenge to theyme. That drye grownde thurstethe as with owte presidye. Then the serpentes take Page  65, vol.1 theire confluence to hyt on euery syde, in so moche that commenge to theyme is denyede, but in wynter. ℞. And after Martian the ȝates of theyme be lockede with cheynes of yrne, whiche be stopped in the somer tyme with serpentes. And after the Maister in storyes, those hilles wente to gedre at the preyers of kynge Alexander. Paulus, in historia Longobardorum, libro primo. Also there be monye deipe places of waters nye to the sydes of the sees, of whom tweyne be in the grete see betwene Ytaly and Sicille. Also there be other swaloes of the see in the occean. Oon of theym is in the weste side of Briteyne the less, y-namede the navelle of the see. That oþer is betwene Briteyne and Fraunce, whiche be seyde to deuoure waters and evomette theyme twyes in a day, drawenge to theyme schippes and puttenge theyme aweye with suche a swiftenesse, that thei appere to folowe the schote of an arowe.

Page  67, vol.1

Of the Prouinces of the Worlde, and firste of Paradise. Capitulum decimum.

THRE thynges ar to be aduertisede principally as abowte the knowlege of Paradise. Fyrste hit is inquirede as vn to the existence of hit other*. [So the MS., but or the is pro|bably the true reading.] condicion wheþer hit be. In the secunde hit is inquirede as vn to the posicion of hyt where hit is. In the thrydde hit is inquirede in what maner hit is. Of the fyrste, hit is to be attendede that iiij thynges bere wyttenesse to the beenge of hit, that is to say, narraciones of storyes, the whiche do comparate the places of Sodomye to Paradise afore the subuersion of theyme. In the secunde, the testimonies of men experte whiche haue writen theyme to haue seen that place. In the thrydde, iiij. waters flowenge from hit, the begynnenge of whom was not founde in oure partes habitable, neiþer in the see, neither in eny other welle whiche hathe be laborede by diuerse kynges of Egipte and other men ofte tymes. Therefore, Isidorus wyttenesse xiijo. Eth., Seynte Ierom perceyvethe other wise of the floodes of Paradise then other auctores Page  69, vol.1 have diffinede. Basilius in his Hexaemeron and Isidorus, libro quartodecimo Eth., and Iosephus, libro primo,*. [seien, or some such word, has been omitted.] that waters fallenge from Paradise make a lake, from whom iiij. flowedes [folio 24a] hathe theire begynnenge as of a welle. Petrus, capitulo quarto decimo. The firste floode of whom is calledde Phison, the invndacion of whom is educede in to Ynde, drawenge with hit grauelle of golde, whiche is callede Ganges off a kynge some time in Ynde Gangarius by name, whiche is called a cumpanye by interpretacion, in that hit dothe receyve x. floedes. The secunde is callede Gyon or Nilus, whiche compassethe Ethioppe and Egipte. The thrydde floode is callede Tigris, after Iosephus hit is called Dig|lath, whiche sowndethe scharpe, in so moche that hit is swifte as a tigre, and goethe ageynes Assiriones. The furthe is callede Euphrates, that sowndethe as plentuous of corne, whiche goethe ageyne men of Calde. Isidorus, libro tertio decimo. Salustius, the moste certeyne auctor, seythe that a welle is spronge from the highe hilles of Armenye, at the foote of the hille callede Caucasus, whiche welle is the hede Page  71, vol.1 of tweyne waters, that is to saye, of Tigris and Euphrates, whiche be other while separate and oþerwhile commixte, oftetyme devourede of the erthe; and at the laste thei descende abowte Mesopotamy in to the Redde see. ℞. And thauȝhe men say that Nilus dothe procede from Paradise, some men afferme hit to haue his begynnenge in the weste parte of Ethiop, not ferre from the mownte Atlantike, whiche com|passenge Ethioppe descendethe by Egipte, of the properte off whom beholde with in the chapitre Egiptus. In the iiijthe, the olde fame berrethe testimonye to the existence of Para|dise. But trewely the fame of Paradise hathe stonde as inconcussede by vj. ml. yeres and more. The fame of a false thynge is wonte to falle auþer by obliuion, other by oppinion contrarious. Of the secunde, where it is, hit is*. [Paradisus.] not to take to credence after some men of pover and breve intellecte, and also of lytelle experience, Paradise to be a Page  73, vol.1 region in grete distaunce from this worlde habitable, eleuate vn to the cercle of the moone. For nature wylle not suffre that, neither reason. For if hit were separate in that maner from this worlde habitable, neither the aier, neither the water, myȝhte susteyne suche a burdon and hevynesse. Also sythe the elemente of fyre occupyethe alle the mydelle place betwene the cercle of the aier and of the moone, where|fore [folio 24b] hit may be concludede Paradise not to be there, sythe noo thynge vegetable may haue lyfe þer. That grauntede, that place scholde induce otherwhile the eclipse of the moone, and specially in the este partes of the erthe; but we haue not herde of such eclipse vn to this presente tyme. Also if Paradise were separable from oure places habitable, how scholde the iiij. flowedes aforeseyde atteyne to oure habit|acles by so grete a see other by the aier intermediate? If hit be seyde that hit is in a maner contiguate to oure place habitable, then hit scholde appere that the erthe were not rownde, as hit is describede of discrete men, but longe, and by consequent hit scholde yelde a schado inegalle in Page  75, vol.1 euery eclipse; but that may not stonde, sythe hit is provede by experience that the schado of the erthe in euery eclipse of the moone makethe a rownde schado. Wherefore hit is schewede that the erthe with his partes is rownde. Where|fore prudent men conclude that Paradise terrestrialle is in the extreme partes of the este, and that a grete porcion of the erthe is þer, not lesse then Ynde or Egipte, as a place deputate to alle mankynde if Adam hade not synnede. Of the thrydde, that is the discripsion of hit, what maner a place hit is, hit is to be attended that after Isidor, libro 14o, capitulo iijo, that this worde Paradisus turnede from Grewe in to Latyn, is callede a yorde or a gardyn. In Ebrewe hit is callede Eden, that sowndethe delites,*. [The reading of Harl. MS. may be delices.] whiche coniuncte makethe a gardyne off delites.*. [The reading of Harl. MS. may be delices.] ℞. And noo meruayle, for that place hathe euery thynge that is con|gruente to lyfe. Isidorus, libro 14o. Hyt hath salubrite and wholsomnesse, for hit ioyethe in temperaunce, felenge neither coldenesse ne heete, in so moche that a thynge lyffenge there may not dye. A testimony þerof Enoc and Helias lyve ȝitte there incorrupte. Magister Iohannes Da|mascenus, libro quarto decimo. That place hathe also Page  77, vol.1 amenite. For hit is the pantre or place of alle pulcritude, where the trees of euery kynde loose not theire beaute, floures fade not, hauenge in hit pleasaunte frute. As hit is schewede in the secunde chapitre of Genesis, where hit is seide, Paradise hathe in hit every tre feyre to siȝhte and swete to eyte. Also hit hathe securite, to the whiche sey|enge the altitude of the place berrethe testimonye. ℞. Where, after Petrus, capitulo xiijo, the waters of Noe floode [folio 25a] atteynede not to hyt. That somme men seyde Paradise to atteyn to the cercle of the moone, Alexander seythe that not to be trawthe, but after a locucion iperbolicalle, that the altitude and eminence scholde be schewede excellente, and incomparable in the respecte of oure places habitable. But allas, for as Isidorus seythe, lib. ixo, cap. iijo, the entre in to that place was schut by the synne of Adam, whiche is compassede abowte with a walle off fyre; in so moche that the heete of hit is ioynede allemoste with heuyn, to remove Page  79, vol.1 men, that thei comme not to hit, where cherubyn and other goode angelles be putte to remove ylle angelles from thens.

Of Asia, and of the Prouinces of hit. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Capitulum undecimum.

ISIDORUS rehersethe that Asia toke that name of the name of a woman, somme tyme inhabitenge in hit, whiche conteynethe mony prouinces, of whom hit schalle be ex|pressede by ordre. Inde is terminate from the este with the*. [Of Ynde and of [the] mervayles of h[it].] rysenge of the sonne, of the sowthe with the occean, of the parte weste with the floode of Ynde, and of the northe with the hille callede Caucasus. That lond berrethe twyes corne in oon yere, bryngenge furthe men of a spottede colour, hauenge in hit nyȝhtengales, elephauntes, pepir, precious stones, berilles, crisoprassus, carbuncles, adamantes, and hilles of golde. Neuerthelesse hyt is as impossible to go to theyme for dragones and grifynnes and other diuerse wonders of men. Ynde is moste amonge alle oþer regiones Page  81, vol.1 moste plentuous, moste in peple, hauenge in hit moste mer|uayles and wondres. There is a figge tre soe expande, that mony multitudes of peple may sytte vnder the latitude of oon figge tre. The plente of the sonne, the temperaunce of heuyn, and habundaunce of water do cause that. Tullius de Tusculanis quæstionibus. Ynde hathe mony kynges and peple. Somme peple tylle the erthe, somme vse marchandise, somme cheuallery, somme intende to sapience and discipline. There be trees of so semely stature that vnnethe the altitude of theym may be atteynede by the schote of an arowe, the space betwene ij. knottes of a reede makethe a bootte for iij. men. There be men also of v. cubites, whiche dye not, neither waile. Also there be men of the measure of a cubite callede pigmeis, whiche gendre in the iiijthe yere of theire age, and wexe hoore in the vthe: these men gedrede in a multitude, syttenge on wedres, fiȝhte ageyne cranes, whose nestes and egges thei breke leste their enmyes be multipliede ouer hugely Page  83, vol.1 on theyme. Also there be men hauenge hedes lyke dogges, whiche be callede Cynocephali,*. [Cenophali, Harl. MS.] berkenge more like to dogges then to the voices of men, clothede with skynnes of wylde [folio 25b] bestes y-armede with teithe and talaundes, lyffenge by haw|kenge and huntenge. Also somme men lyve there oonly by odour. Also somme of that cuntre wexe hoore in yowthe and blakke in their age. Also in somme partes of Ynde be men hauenge holowe fyngers in their hondes. Petrus, capitulo 196.*. [The reference should be to Cic. Tusc. Quæst. lib. v. c. 27.] There is a peple in Ynde to whom hit is lawefulle to haue mony wyfes; but, the man dedde, alle his wifes comme to gedre, that wife that was luffedde beste of hym schalle be buryede with hym, hauenge that for a grete solace. Petrus, 196. The trees of the sonne and of the moone be in Ynde, by the apples of whom prestes lyffede by vc. yeres. Thei were namede the trees of the sonne and of the moone, for as soone as the sonne sende Page  85, vol.1 furthe his beames and towchede the altitude of eny of theyme, alle the tre movede and ȝafe answeres to men stond|enge abowte. Hit was doen in lyke wyse to the trees of the moone. Hit was interdicte by those trees to kynge Alexander, that he scholde not entre in to Babylon. Isidorus, libro quinto decimo. Offir is an yle off Ynde, where is plente of golde, to whom hit is goen from the grete see by the Redde see.

Of Parthia. Isidorus, libro 14o. Capitulum duodecimum.

ISIDORUS schewethe that the region callede Parthia for the vertu invincible of men of that region, whiche diffusede theire name to men of Assyria and of Media, was wonte to conteyne alle the londe of Assyria, of Media, of Persida, and of Carmania, whiche is extendede in longitude from the see Caspius vn to the Redde see, and in latitude from the floode of Inde vn to the floode of Tigris, whiche is the begynnenge of Mesopotamye. Trogus, libro quinto. Men of Parthia be Page  87, vol.1 callede owtelawe after the speche of men off Scythia. For thei were firste owtelawes in the realme translate from men of Media to men of Pers[i]a, beenge to theyme as a pray of victores. Wherefore thei dwellede obscurely amonge men of the este vn to the realme of Macedony inhabitate. After that, the victory hade by Macedones, thei did seruyce to theyme; but at the laste they diuidede the empire of the worlde with the Romanes. Thei exercisede the maneres and consue|tudes of men of Scythia, from whom thei were expellede, the wittes of whom be timorous, fulle of fraude, deputenge violence to men and mansuetude to women, whiche be other in malice amonge theyme selfe, other with oþer men. Stylle in nature, moore prompte to do ylle than to speke, couerenge thynges [folio 26a] aduersaunte with silence, proiecte in the lustes of lechery, [þei] haue grete delectacion in women. Euery man hathe Page  89, vol.1 mony wifes. They punnysche noo synne more than advoutery, therefore thei enterdite to theire wifes felawschip and festes of men. Whiche be of litelle meyte, eitenge noo flesche but that is geten with huntenge. Giraldus, d. 17. After that peple failede vnder kynge Seleucus thai dwellede vnder kynge Arsace, of whom thei be callede Arsacides; informenge theym firste with lawes he gedredde a companyee of knyȝhtes, ma|kenge castelles and citees. At the laste the foreseide Arsaces adiecte to his empyre the realme of Hircanes. Amonge whom, somme kynges succedenge after that, Mithridates the sonne of Mithridatis holdede that realme by xliij. yere after the dethe of Crassus, consul of Rome; in whom he hade mony clere victories, as hit schalle be schewede in his propre place. Trogus, libro 41. The peple of Parthia is betwene the men of Scythia and Medes, amonge whom seruauntes be habundante, for thei haue not their manumission; the fre men of theym Page  91, vol.1 ryde alleweies on horses, the seruauntes goe on foote, vsenge horses in batayles, goenge to commune festes and priuate offices, techenge the childre liberalle with grete attendaunce to ryde and to schote, amonge whom euery man schalle presente to the kynge certeyne men of armes in batelles after the extent of his rychesse. Whiche can not fiȝhte and put seges to cites, for thei fiȝhte theire horses rennenge, other elles fleenge and schewenge theire backes, feynenge oftetymes theym to flee, and after that repetenge fiȝhte, that thei may hurte men folowenge theym indiscretely. A tympan is a melody to theyme in batelles, and not a claryon, whiche may not fiȝhte longe. For thei scholde be intollerable and in|vincible, if they myȝhte haue the vertu of perseueraunce after theire impetuosite. The deuourenge of bestes is a sepulture to theyme, and after that they do take theire boones to sepulture or beryenge.

Page  93, vol.1

Of Assyria, Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Capitulum tertium decimum.

HIT is to be aduertisede that Assyria toke his name of Assur the sonne of Sem, whiche inhabite firste hit after Noe floode. Assyria hathe on the este parte of hit Ynde, of the sowthe*. [Assyria.] Media, of the weste parte the floode of Tigris, of the northe the grete hille callede Caucasus, where be partes of Caspius hilles. Trogus, libro 42. Media was made of Medo son of*. [Media.] Egeus kynge of Atheynes, which, folowenge the vertu of Iaso his victrix, made that cite callede Media in to the honor of Medee his moder, whiche cite he made the hede and princi|palle [folio 26b] place of that realme. That cuntre of Media towchethe Parthia of the northe parte, and of the este Ynde, of the weste Caldea, and of the sowthe parte Persida. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Persia was namede of a man callede Persius,*. [Persia.] that conquerede hit, whiche hathe of the este parte to hit men of Ynde, of the weste side parte of the Redde see, of the northe parte Media, towchenge Carmany of the sowthe parte: in Page  95, vol.1 whiche Persia wycche crafte began firste under Nemproth the gigante, whiche goenge to that londe after the confusion of tonges tauȝhte men of Persia to worschippe fire and the sonne, which is callede El in the langage of theyme. The chiefe*. [Ars magi|ca incipit.] place of whom was callede Elam somme tyme, of Elam the sonne of Sem whiche was callede afterwarde Elamadia, now callede Persepolis,*. [Persipolis, Harl. MS.] of whom mencion is made in the booke of Machabees. And of this Elam men of Persia were callede Elamites, as hit is schewede in the Actes of Apostles. Mesopotamy lyethe betwene Tigris of the este and Euphrates*. [Mesopota|mia.] of the weste, begynnenge from the northe betwene the hilles Taurus and Caucasus, whom Babylon folowethe from the meridien. Isidorus, libro quinto decimo. Thauȝhe Babylon*. [Babylon.] was callede afterwarde a parte of Calde, fyrste hit was so nowble that Caldea, Assyria, and Mesopotamia wente into the names of hit, the hede of whom was that cite callede Babylon whom Nemproth the gigante made, but the qwene Semi|ramis made hyt more large. Petrus, capitulo 37o. Babylon is the propre name of the cite, and Babylonia*. [Babilionia, Harl. MS.] the name of the region, thauȝhe the oon be put ofte for that other, Page  97, vol.1 but Babel is the name of the towre. Orosius, libro secundo. Babylon was disposede as with egalle walles after the maner of castelles by a quadrante, the latitude of whom was of lti cubites, the altitude in iiij. tymes so moche, the lenghte of the walle from cornelle to corner holdede xvj. myles. The compasse of the walles was of iiijc. and lxxxti forlonges, whiche dothe make ljti myles. The mater of whiche walle was made of sodde tyle stones mixte with pycche, in so moche that thei myȝhte not be dissoluede with fire or water. Thro the myddes of whiche cite the floode Euphrates did flowe. Whom Cyrus kynge of Perse toke and destroyede, as hit schalle be expressede in his place. ℞. Off the levenges of whiche cite, after the seyenge of Seynte Ierom, ij. cites were made in Persida, so that the place of Babylon is nowe deserte, and fulle of wilde bestes. Caldea is seyde as Cassidea, of*. [Caldea.] Casethe the sonne of Nachor broþer of Abraham, whiche is a grete region nye to Euphrates. In the filde of Sennar*. [Turris Babellæ.] the towre of Babelle was edifiede. Josephus, libro primo. [folio 27a] Page  99, vol.1 The altitude of whom was cclxxij. passes, the latitude of whom was so huge that hit apperede to men beholdenge hit that hit was more brode than longe. ℞. After somme men that towre hade iij. miles in altitude. But after Iuo Carnotense, in his cronicle, hit hade v. miles in altitude and allemoste ijc. passes, and iiij. myles in latitude. Araby, y-sette at the sowthe parte off Caldea, of the este parte hathe Persida, of the weste parte the*. [the] of the, Harl. MS.] Redde see. A plentuous londe of encense, hauenge myrre, cinamome, and a brydde callede fenix. Josephus, libro secundo. The mownte of*. [Fenix.] Synay is in that Arabye in the partes of Madiam, a parte*. [Montes Syna et Oreb.] of whom is callede Oreb, a plentuous hille and highe, but now hit is allemoste inaccessible for schrubbes and broken stones. Moises brouȝhte his schepe to þat place firste of men: hit is callede also the mownte of fere and of luffe; for oure Lorde apperede to Moyses in hit with thundre and liȝhtenge, the peple of Israel taryenge at the foote of hit where oure Lorde ȝafe lawe. Wherefore men hade not Page  101, vol.1 audacite to attempte to goe to hit, but men devoute and clene in theire conscience. The mownte of Libanus is in the costes of Arabye abowte the sowthe weste, which divid ·*. [Mons Li|bani.] ethe a sundre Araby, Iewery, and Fenicea. Whiche is an hille of excellente altitude, in so moche that hit, counteynenge grete habundaunce of snawe, directethe men saylenge in the see to diuerse portes. Hyt is also an hille of whollesomnesse and of fecundite. For trees of cipres, cedre trees, and oþer yerbes groenge there, distille encense and gumme ȝiffenge mellifluous redolence, þro whom seke men be healede, and venomes be expellede. Syria, callede by that name by Sirus*. [Syria.] the inhabitator of hit, lyethe betwene the floode Euphrates*. [Eufrates, MSS., as usual.] of the este parte, and the grete see on the weste parte, hauenge in the northe parte Armenye and Cappadocia,*. [Capodocia, Harl. MS.] on the sowthe parte the see of Arabye, conteynenge in hit mony prouinces, Commagena, Palestina, Fenices, Canaan, Idumea, and the Iewery. The principal place of that province was Damascus, whom Eleezer the seruaunte of Abraham edifiede. Rasyn, Page  103, vol.1 the kynge of whom, ȝafe helpe alle weies to the x. tribus of Israel ageyne the kynges of Iuda. And Damascus is callede by interpretacion, schedenge bloode. For Caym did slee Abell þer, and hidde hym in the sonde of the floode.

Of the Region of the Iewery. Capitulum quartum decimum.

IUDEA, whiche is callede the Iewery, is a region of Syria, but a parte of Palestine, callede Iudea of Iuda the sonne of Iacobe, whiche was callede afore Cananea of Cham the sonne of Noe, other elles of x. peple of Chananees expulsede and contrite by the Iewes. Petrus. Iudea is taken in [folio 27b] diuerse maneres; hit is taken other while for the londe of promission, and then hit commethe of this worde, Iudeus, and not off this worde, Iuda; and so hit is vnderstonde in that sense that Pompeius Magnus made the Iewery tribu|tary to hym. Other while hit is taken for the realme of Iuda, as Ioseph herenge that "Archelaus reignede in the Page  105, vol.1 Iewery." Gir. Dist. tertia. The londe of promission is in the Iewery, the longitude of whom is vnderstonde after the letter, From Dan to Bersabe; and after Seynte Ierom, in his epistole to Dardanus, hit conteynethe vnnethe clx. myles of that cuntre. The latitude of hit is from Ioppen vn to Bethleem conteynenge vnnethe xlvj. myles of that region and cuntre. And after the boke of Nowmbres the Iewery hathe this circuite; at the meridien the Dedde see, and after that by Sina and Cades Barnee vn to the ryuer of Egipte, whiche flowethe in to the grete see. The londe of promission hathe the grete see to the weste parte of hit, and an hille callede Taurus at the northe, and on the este parte the mownte callede Libanus, and the begyn|nenges of that water callede Tiberiades, and of the water off Iordan, whiche haue their originalle principle at the foote of the mownte callede Libanus. Then that floode of Iordan floenge in to the Dedde see makethe admision*. [Jordanus fluvius.] betwene the Iewery and Araby. This londe of Iuda was promisede to oure faderes, but not utterly possessedde, Page  107, vol.1 thapostle testifienge, that "thei diedde alle, the promissiones not accepte;" by the seyenge of whom hit may be con|cludede an other londe to be the londe of promission in whom hevenly Ierusalem is, and an other in whom terres|trialle Ierusalem is, by whom heuenly Ierusalem is figurede. Also that londe of Iuda is plentuous of cornes, of wynes, of thynges aromaticalle, of cedre trees, cipre trees, bawmes, oliues, pomegranardes, palme tres, figge trees, habundaunt in hony and mylke, whiche hathe the cite off Ierusalem in*. [Jerusalem.] the myddelle parte of hit. Isidorus, libro quinto, capitulo primo. The Iewes afferme and say, Sem the sonne of Noe, other wyse called Melchisedech, to haue made that cite after the floode of Noe, whom the Iebuseis kepede after that tyme, by whom hit hade this name, Iebus; and so these ij. wordes, Iebus and Salem, copulate to gedre, this worde, Ierusalem, resultethe by composicion; whiche was callede afterwarde of Salomon, Ierosolima; callede also Page  109, vol.1 corruptely of poetes Solima; and afterwarde callede Aelya*. [Helius, and Helia, MSS. and Cx.] by Aelius*. [Helius, and Helia, MSS. and Cx.] Adrian themperoure, whom he amplifiede with more circuite of walles, in so moche that he includede the place and sepulcre of oure Lorde, whiche was somme tyme withowte the walles of that cyte. ℞. But truly [folio 28a] Seynte Ierom in his epistole to Eugenius expressethe, seyenge that the cyte callede Salem or Salim, in whom Melchisedech dwellede, to be an other cite from Ierusalem, nye to Scythopolis,*. [Sitopolis, Harl. MS.] whiche is callede Salem vn to this tyme presente, where hit is schewede the palice of Melchisedech, of whom hit is seyde in the ende of Genesis that Iacob wente in to Salem, a cite of Sichen, whiche is in the londe of Chanaan. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. There is noo welle within the cite, where waters be collecte, but in cestrens and veselles ordeynede þerfore. For the site of that cyte, hauenge the mownte of Syon of the northe descendenge towarde the sowthe with a softe dependence, is so disposede that þe reyne reynenge makethe not clay, but as lytelle ryuers, whiche is receyvede in cestrens, or elles Page  111, vol.1 the water descendenge by the ȝates of the cite increasethe the ryuer of Cedron. Therefore þer was a towre in the altitude of the mownte of Syon for worshippe and defence. In the dependence of whiche hille was a temple, as in the mydde part betwene the towre and the cite under hit, wherefore Scripture callethe ofte tymes Ierusalem the doȝhter of Syon; for like as a doȝhter is protecte of the moder, and subiecte to her, soe the cite inferior is subiecte to the temple and to the towre of Syon. The nowble and*. [De cœlesti igne Jeru|salem in vigilia Paschæ.] grete Constantyne made in hit a chirche off Seynte Sepulcre, whiche hathe not suffrede iniury vn to this tyme of enmyes of the feithe, whiche men suppose to be causede for heuenly fyre, whiche dothe illumyne the lampes there of on the vigile of Pasche or Ester, whiche miracle is incerteyne as to the begynnenge off hit. Kynge Salomon compassede that cyte with a threfolde walle not oonly for defence, but for the distinccion of men inhabitenge hit, soe that the temple of Page  113, vol.1 oure Lorde was within the fyrste walle abowte the mownte of Syon, the mansiones also of the ebdomadaries, prestes, and minstres, the kynges palice, with mansiones for his men. Nowble men and prophetes inhabite within the secunde walle, as hit is redde in the boke of Kynges that Olda prophetissa dwellede in Ierusalem in the secunde distinccion. Men of crafte and commune peple dwellede in the thrydde distinc|cion and circuite of the walles. ℞. The Mownte of Oli|uete*. [Mons Oleveti.] is nye to Ierusalem, at the este parte of that temple, callede Oliuete for habundaunce of oliues, whiche is callede by Seynte Austyn on Iohan,*. [Iohñ., Harl. MS. (which else|where writes Iohñes for Johannes.] the hille of creme and of noy[n]tenge, the hille of liȝhte and of fattenes, the hille of refreschenge and of medicyne, in that the frute of oliues is vnctuous, luminose, and delicious. Whiche was callede significatiuely the mownte of liȝhte, for the sonne schynenge hit receyvede liȝhte of hit, and of the temple by nyȝhte. [folio 28b] In whiche mownte Salomon thro þe luffe of women made hie places and chirches in hit, as hit is expressede Re|gum xo. From whiche mownte Criste ascendede to heuyn, Page  115, vol.1 where he schalle iugge also euery man in the day of iugge|mente. In the foote of whiche hille the ryuer of Cedron is spronge, whiche flowethe in to the vale of Iosaphath, betwene the brynke of whom and the mownte was that gardyn in to whom Criste entrede ofte tymes to prey, in whom he was taken, nye to whom was a litelle towne callede Gethesemani, in whiche mownte was also the strete of prestes, whiche was callede Bethfage, and in the side of the mownte was the cite of Martha, of Lazarus, and of Mary, Bethania by name. Hugo. The mownte off Caluarye*. [Mons Calvaria.] is at the northe plage of the mownte of Syon, where Criste was crucifiede, whiche is callede, after the langage of men of Sire, Golgotha, soundenge by interpretacion, Caluaria, in hat the boones of men condempnede and hedede were made bare there. As for other meruayles of the temple haue respecte to the bokes of Kynges. Isidorus, libro quinto|decimo, capitulo primo. The region of Iuda hathe in hit Page  117, vol.1 the Dedde see, beenge from Ierusalem iic. forlonges, whiche do make xxvti. myles, diuidenge the Iewery, Palestine, and Araby. Isidorus, Eth., libro 13o. That place is extendede from the costes of the Iewery, not ferre from Ierico, to Zores of Arabye vijc. forlonges and lxxxti, whiche do make xc. myles and iiij. The latitude of hit is of clti. forlonges vn to nye places of Sodome. That place is callede the place of saltenesse, in that salte is made þer. Also that place is callede the place of pycche, for it is ful þer of; whiche water susteynethe not eny schippe, but if hit be welle pycchede, or enny other mater. Petrus, capitulo quinqua|gesimo. The pycche or glu of whiche place noo thynge may dissolue, but the bloode of a woman suffrenge the monethely infirmite: whiche place noryschethe not fysches or fooles; but whikke thynges caste in to that water lepe Page  119, vol.1 furthe anoon, dedde thynges be deuourede þer anoon; in so moche that a lawnterne y-lyȝhtede putte in to hit swymmethe above, and a lawnterne extincte is drownede in to hit. Iosephus, libro primo. Whiche thynge was experte, in the dayes of Vespasian prince, of ij. men, the whiche were caste in to that water, theire hondes y-bounde behynde theym, whom the water wolde not receyve. Isidorus, libro nono, capitulo tertio. That region was callede Pentapolis, of the v. cites of wickede men drownede there. That londe was somme tyme more then Ierusalem in plentuousenesse; for [folio 29a] saphires and other precious stones were founde amonge the stones of hit, and golde, as Iob testifiethe, capitulo xxiiije. For now the similitude of fire apperethe in the trees. For apples be spronge þer vnder suche a similitude of ripenes, that thei move the appetite of man to eyte of theyme; whiche apples y-taken be redacte vn to esches, as if thei brente, to this tyme. ℞. Also þer is an other region callede Pentapolis in Affrike.

Page  121, vol.1

Capitulum quintumdecimum.

Canaan is a region of Syria,*. [Siria, Harl. MS., and so throughout.] possessede firste of the childre of Canaan, sonnes of Chayin, after Noe floode, conteynenge*. [Canaan.] in hit vij. naciones as cursede by enheritaunce of Cam the sonne of Noe. Palestina is a prouince off Syria, callede*. [Palestina.] somme tyme Philistea, the chiefe cyte of whom was called*. [Philistea.] Philistijm and now Ascalon, of whiche cite alle that prouince was callede Palestina or Philistea, and the inhabitatores of hit were callede Philisteis, for men of Ebrewe vse not this letter, f, but ph in the place of hit. Of whom the Philisteies were callede alophili,*. [The translator's orthography, who evidently thinks [gap: 1] is Hebrew, has been allowed to stand. Just before he has wrongly written f for p.] that is to say aliauntes, in so moche that they were straunge alleweyes to the childer of Israel. That region hathe Egipte on the sowthe parte of hit and men of Tire at the weste, the Iewery at the northe, and Page  123, vol.1 Idumea on the este parte. That londe is myȝhty, fulle of hilles, and hoote, extendenge hit to the Redde see. Isidorus, libro quartodecimo. The welle of Iobyn is in that Idumea,*. [Ydumea, Harl. MS.]*. [Fons Iobyn.] chaungenge his colour iiij. tymes in oon yere; in thre mo|nethes holdenge the colour of duste, in other thre the coloure of bloode, in oþer thre monethes a grene coloure, and in other thre a clere colour of water. Also Palestine was wonte to comprehende Samaria in hit; the chiefe place of*. [Samarias.] that region was callede Samaria, but nowe hit is callede Sebaste. Samaria toke the name of hit of the mownte callede Samer, whiche lyethe in the myddes betwene the Iewery and Galile; the inhabitatores of whom somme tyme eiecte and put in captiuite, men of Assyria were introducte, whiche admitte oonly the lawe of Moyses. In other thynges they discorde from the Iewes and be callede Samaritannes, whiche sowndethe kepers, for they were deputate to the kepenge of that londe, the peple of hit putte in captiuite. Sichen or Sichenia is a lyttelle grownde in Samaria, namede*. [Sichen.] so of Sichem the sonne of Emor, whiche inhabite hit firste. [folio 29b] Page  125, vol.1 And Sichem was a cite whiche is callede now Neapolis, whom Iacob bouȝte for moneye and grete,*. [The Harl. MS. has omitted trauaille, or some such word.] ȝiffenge hit to Ioseph his sonne, as Seynte Ierom seyethe on Genesim cao. xviijo., whiche was somme tyme the cite of refute with the suburbarbes of hit sette in the costes of the mownte of Effraym, where the bones of Ioseph were buryede*. [The MS. had translate before buryede, but a pen is drawn through it.] after that thei were translate from Egipte, as hit is schewede Iosuæ ultimo capitulo. In whiche place the breder of Ioseph kepede bestes: whiche place Abimelech destryede after the son of Zorobabel, sawenge there salte, the inhabi|tatores of hit y-sleyne, that the londe scholde not be plen|tuous, as hit is schewede Iosuæ nono capitulo. Where the*. [Fons Iacob.] welle of Iacob was, on whom Criste beenge feynte of labor did reste. Galile is a region betwene the Iewery and*. [Galilea.] Palestine, whiche is duplicate, the superior and inferior, drawenge to gedre as contiguate to Syria and to Phenicia;*. [Fenicea, Harl. MS.]Page  127, vol.1 eiþer of hit is plentuous, hauenge profitable waters and wholsome, whiche be callede sees what for the magnitude of theyme and for the copious multitude of fisches, as the water of Tiberiadis and of Genazareth. Also there is a welle in to whom metalles caste be turnede in to glasse in the weste partes of the inferior Galile, towarde the grete see nye to Ptolemaida,*. [Ptolomaida, Harl. MS.] whiche is the cite of Achon. Cedar*. [Cedar.] is a region in the superior parte of Palestine, whom Cedar the firste son of Ysmael didde inhabite; after hym callede more truly Agareni then Saraceni; for the progenye of theyme descendede from Agar, seruaunte and moder of Ismael, vsurpenge to theyme the name of Sara. Methodius. Theye edifie noo howses, but, goenge by a waste wildernes, inhabite tabernacles, gettenge theire meyte thro preyes and huntenges. These men somme tyme congregate schalle goe furthe from deserte, and schalle occupye alle the worlde by viij. wekes off yeres, subuertenge citees and defilenge holy Page  129, vol.1 places schalle sle prestes makenge faste theire bestes at the sepulcres of seyntes, and this schalle falle for the wickidnesse and synne of Cristen men. ℞. These thynges seme to have bene fullefillede in the tyme of Heraclius themperoure, when Machomete the false prophete occu|piede Persa, Egipte, and made Affrike subiecte to hym, com|mentenge the wickede secte of Saracenys, as hit schal be expressede after the tymes of Heraclius. Phenicia is a region*. [Phenicia.] in whom Tyrus and Sidon be comprehendede, hauenge of [folio 30a] the este parte off hit Araby, of the sowthe the Redde see, of the northe the mownte of Libanus, of the weste parte the grete see. Isidorus, libro secundo, capitulo quinto. Phenix the sonne of Agenoris toke to these Feniceonnes somme redde letters, wherefore that colour was callede pheniceus, and after a letter chaungede hit was puniceus. Hugo, capitulo Phœnix. And for cause men of that cuntre were the firste fynders of letters we wryte vn to this tyme the capitalle letters with a redde color, that we may represente theyme to be the firste fynders of letters.

Page  131, vol.1

Capitulum sextum decimum.

EGIPTE toke the name of hit of Egyptus, broþer off Danay, which was callede somme tyme Aeria, hauenge on the este parte to hit the Redde see, of the sowthe Nilus and men of Ynde, of the northe the grete see and the superior parte*. [Ægyptus.] of Syria, of the weste parte the mownte of Libanus. This region of Egipte is not vsede to reyne, hauenge water oonly of that floode callede Nilus, plentuous of corne and copious of marchandise. Petrus, capitulo nonagesimo quarto. When Egipte is plentuous of corne, hit is bareyne in pastures, ageyne the nature of other regiones and in contrary wyse; for the taryenge of þat floode callede Nilus on the londe lettethe the tymes of plowenge, other destryethe cornes and then hit noryschethe pastures. Cocodrilles be habundaunte there and horses of the floode, callede hippotauri.*. [ypotauri, Harl. MS.] Egipte hathe at the este parte of hit waste deserte, conteynenge Page  133, vol.1 diuerse wonders, at the weste parte of whom is a region callede Canopia, whiche yle is the ende of Egipte and the begynnenge of Libia, where the durre of the floode callede Nilus is, where hit fallethe in to the grete see. ℞. Nilus or Gyon thauȝhe hit be affermede to haue begynnenge from paradise, hit is seyde to haue his originalle in þe weste partes of the end of Ethiop, not ferre from the mownte Atlantike, whiche compassenge Ethioppe descendethe by Egipte, the pleyne cuntres of whom hit dothe watre and makethe the londe plentuous thro slycche that hit drawethe with hit. And so, after seynte Ierom super Amos prophetam, that floode called Nilus thro the disposicion of God, watrethe alle Egipte, the grete hepes of gravelle schuttenge the durre of hit, that hit scholde not descende soone in to the grete [folio 30b] see: after the seyde waterenge, the hepes of the gravelle loosede, hit descendenge nye to Canopea and Libia is re|ceyvede of the grete see. Neuerþelesse Isoder wille, libro 13o, that Nilus swellethe thro northe wyndes waters mak|enge grete stryvenge behynde hit; but Beda, de Naturis Page  135, vol.1 rerum, seyethe in this wise, that the sowthe wynde blawenge in the monethe of May makethe hepes of gravelle, þro whom the durres of that floode callede Nilus be stoppedde, þro whiche stoppenge the pleyne growndes of Egipte be replete with water; that wynde seasenge and the gravelles y-loosede hit returnethe in to his place, by whom hit descendethe in to the grete see.

Capitulum septimum decimum.

HIT is to be attendede that Scythia is duplicate, the supe|rior in Asia, the inferior in Europa. The superior Scythia is a grete region moche inhabitable in the northe parte of hit for coldenesse, coplede of the este parte to Ynde, of the northe to the occean, of the sowthe the hille callede Caucasus, somme tyme porrecte in to the begynnenge of Germanye, now hit is made lesse, and copulate to the region of Hircany to the weste parte of hit. In whiche londe be the hilles Yperboreus, huge griphonnes, golde, gemmes, and smaragdis. Trogus, libro secundo. There be noo endes distincte of the Page  137, vol.1 feldes of that peple. Thei haue noo howses, caryenge theire wyfes and children in waynes couerede with the skynnes of wilde bestes and not clothes of wolle, fedde with mylke and hony, ȝiffenge noo attendence to golde and siluyr, whiche ordeyne not eny thynge that thei drede to lose. There is noo trespace to theym more grevous than thefte, whiche beynge victores desire no moore but glory; not subiecte to eny man, causenge Darius kynge of Persa to take fliȝhte, sleenge the kynge callede Cyrus, and Zephirona*. [Sirus and Zephizona, Harl. MS.] the nowble duke of kynge Alexander with his hoste, conquerenge twyes Asia, whiche was tributary to theim by ml. and vc. yeres; the women of whom made the realmes of Amasonnes; hit is incerteyne to theym wheþer kynde be more nowble. In the firste expedicion Azian,*. [So Harl. MS. (z and ȝ are iden|tical in this MS.)] after Vesour the kynge of Egipte Page  139, vol.1 y-putte to fliȝhte, taryenge xv. yere to make Asia to theire pleasure, were callede home ageyne thro the instaunces of theire wifes wyllenge not to suffre the taryenge of theyme. In the secunde expedicion, the men sleyne by treason and gyle, theire wifes toke dewe vengeaunce on theire enmyes. In the thrydde expedicion, the men beenge absent by iiij. [folio 31a] yere, the wifes of theim were maryede to theire seruauntes lefte at home to kepe bestes, whiche ioinede to gedre re|ceyved theire lordes with batelle returnede after þeire victory, whiche fiȝhtenge thro diuerse chaunce were movede at the laste to putte aweye theire armor of cheuallery, vsenge not to conflicte as with theire enmyes but with theire seruaundes, takenge a flayle in theire honde, ferenge theire seruauntes and dryvenge theyme aweye. And somme of the seruauntes Page  141, vol.1 taken with theire wifes in advoutery were hongede and somme sleyne with swerde. After that tyme peace was amonge theyme vn to the tyme of Darius kynge of Persa, whiche ouer commen of theyme in returnenge from theim hade victory of the men of Macedony and did fiȝhte also ageynes men of Atheynes.

Bactria, whom Cham, sonne of Noe, inhabite firste, lyethe*. [Bactria.] from the see Caspy to the floode of Ynde protendede, hauenge of the weste parte to hit the mownte Caucasus, and*. [Mons Caucasus.] of the sowthe men of Parthia. This hille callede moste nowble in fame amonge alle other mowntes of the este*. [The verb (= porrigitur) is omitted.] to the mownte of Taurus from the costes of Ynde, where*. [Mons Taurus.] the hille callede Taurus and Caucasus be reputate oon. But somme men wille that the hille callede Taurus is made of the weste partes of Caucasus towarde Armenye. This hille Caucasus hathe of the northe to hit the see Caspy and Hircany, of the sowthe Parthia, Assyria, and Babylon, whiche hille is callede in diuerse maneres and name for the diuersite of Page  143, vol.1 men inhabitenge hit. For towarde the este, where hit dothe aryse in moste altitude, for the huge whitenesse of men that dwelle there, hit is callede Caucasus, whiche sowndethe whyte. And, after Alberte, hit is of so huge altitude that men lyffenge vnder hit see on hyt the beames of the sonne beenge in the weste by iij. howres with in the nyȝhte, and also in the mornenge iij. howres afore day on the este parte of hit. The region Hircany hathe*. [Hyrcania regio.] on the este parte to hit the see of Caspy, on the northe Albania, on the weste Hiberia, beenge subiecte to Caucasus, callede Hyrcania of a woode so namede, whiche is a region noryschenge wilde bestes, tigres, panteres, a waste region and brode, the peple of whom somme tylle erthe, somme lyve by huntenge, somme of theyme do eyte the flesche of man. There be bryddes in that region hauenge fethers schynenge in the nyȝhte. Hiberia is a region vnder that hille Taurus, whiche is*. [Hiberia.] ioinede to Armenye towarde the este.

Albania hathe on the este parte to hit the see of Caspy,*. [Albania.] descendenge by the regiones of the northe occean to Meotides paludes. That region hathe peple with white [folio 31b] Page  145, vol.1 heire, peyntede cien and ȝelowe, seenge better in the nyȝhte then in the daye. The dogges of whiche region be so greete and feerse that thei depresse bulles and peresche lyones, of whome oon was sende to kynge Alexander, whiche hade the victory with in a forlonge of a bulle, an elephaunte, and of a boore. Gothia is a region of Scythia*. [Gothia.] towarde the weste, to whom the yle of Gotlande is sub|iecte, copious of alle kyndes of marchandise, hauenge on the northe parte to hit Dacia and the northe occean. That londe was callede Gothia of Gog, the sonne of Iapheth, the peple of whom be callede rather Gothos then Gogos, whiche be myȝhty men and terrible, of whom men of Denmarke, in Europe, come, Getuliones or Getules in Affrike, and the Amasonnes in Asia.

Armenia, whiche oþerwise callede Ararthe, toke the name*. [Armenia.] of hit of Armenius, knyȝhte of Iason, whiche Armenius Iason his kynge loste gedrenge a multitude of knyȝhtes, whiche wente abowte as vagabundes, occupiede Armenye and inhabite hit, whiche region is protendede betwene Page  147, vol.1 the hill Taurus and Caucasus, from the see Caspy vn to Cappadocia. This region hathe in longitude xjc. ml of passes, in latitude lxxti ml. There the mownte of Ararth is, where the schippe of Noe remaynede after the floode. Also þer be ij. Armenyes, the moore and lesse, as þer be ij. Pannonyes.

Capitulum octavum decimum.

CAPPADOCIA is a region nutrix of horses, hauenge on the*. [Cappadocia.] este parte to hit Armeny, on the weste the lesse Asia, on the northe the Amasones, on the sowthe the hille Taurus, to whom Cilicia, Lycia, and Isauria be subacte vn to the water of Cilicia, which hathe prospecte ageyne the yle of Ci|presse. Asia the lesse towcheth in the este parte Capa|docy,*. [Asia Minor.] on other sides hit is schutte with the grete see. For in the northe parte hit hathe the see Eusyne, and of the weste Propontides, on the sowthe parte the see off Egipte, Page  149, vol.1 conteynenge in hit mony prouinces. For hit hathe firste in the northe Bithynia, in the begynnenge of Pontus ageyne Thracia, whiche is callede also Phrygia maior, the*. [Bithynia.] chiefe cite of whom is Nicomedia, afterwarde callede Ga|latia, of peple desirede to fiȝhte by the kyng of Bithynia, then callede Gallogrecia, and the peple of hit Gallogreci, as peple mixte of Frensche men and of Grekes, whiche be callede now Galate,*. [Galathe, MS, α., and Cx., and so the Harl. MS., as well as all the Latin MSS.] to whom Paule did wryte an epistole. The thrydde is the lesse Phrygia, callede by that*. [Phrygia Minor.] name of Phrygia the doȝhter of Europa, the doȝhter of Agenoris, whiche was callede Dardania, of Dardanus the son of Iupiter. In whiche londe is the cite of Troye, [folio 32a] namede so of Tros, son of Erichthonius, son of Dardanus the*. [Troja.] son of Iupiter. To whiche region Lydia is in the este parte, and Hellespontus of the weste parte. Lydia is at the*. [Lydia.] este parte of the lesse Phrygia, in whom Cresus, the ryche kynge, reignede somme tyme, whiche londe for the litelle quantite of hit myȝhte not suffre and suffice to ij. breþer, Page  151, vol.1 Lydus and Tyrrhenus, ij. kynges. Tyrrhenus enchaunce movenge goenge furthe with a grete multitude occupiede a place in the superior parte of Fraunce, whiche londe he namede Tyrrhenia,*. [Tirea, MS.; Turea, Harl. MS.] lyke as that londe Lydia was namede of Lydus his brother, the chiefe cite of whom is Smyrna, to whom Seynte Iohn Euangeliste wrytethe in his Apoca|lypsis: the principalle floode of Lydia is callede Pactolus gendrenge gravel of golde. The vthe prouince of the lesse*. [Pamphylia.] Asia is callede Pamphylia and Isauria, hauenge Seleucia the chiefe cite of hit, whom Seleucus Antiochus causede to be edifiede. After that is Cilicia, in whom Lycia or Lyca|onia*. [Cilicia.] is conteynede, the nowble cites of whom were Lystra and Derbe, as hit is expressede in the Actes of thapostles, by whom hit is saylede from Syria to Ytaly. The now|bleste cite off theyme alle was Tharsis, more inferialle*. [Tharsis urbs.] towarde the see.

Amazonia is a region parte in Asia and parte in Europe,*. [Amazonia.] nye to Albania, and the Amazones were firste the wifes of Gothes, the husbondes of whom sleyne by gyle, they toke dewe vengeaunce on the enmyes of theym þerfore. For thei robbede, sleenge the male childer and reseruenge Page  153, vol.1 the childer female, lyvenge longe with owte howsebondes. At the laste thei made ij. qwenes, oon of whom gouernede the hoste, that oþer kepede residence at home, hauenge vic|tory ouer a grete parte of Asia by c. yere. At the laste thei toke to theym men of ferre costes for cause of mul|tiplicacion, vsenge the acte venerealle in certeyne tymes, and absteynenge oþer certeyne tymes, auther sleenge the male childer other elles sendenge them to the faders after a certeyne tyme, reseruenge the female childer, informenge þeym to hunte, to schote, and to vse cheuallery, brennenge the ryȝhte pappe of theyme in the vijthe yere of theire age, leste the grosenes of hit scholde lette theyme to schote. Wherefore thei were callede Urimammæ, or Amazones, as [folio 32b] with owte a pappe; the cruellenes of whom Hercules did mitigate firste, after that Achilles, and at the laste kynge Alexander. ℞. Thauȝhe Isidorus, Eth. 14o, seye Ama|zones to be destroyede by kynge Alexander, neuerthelesse the story of Alexander seythe that Thalestris, qwene of Page  155, vol.1 wryte to kynge Alexander in this forme.*. [fforme, Harl. MS., which com|monly uses the ff merely as a capital letter.] "Hyt is to meruayle of thy prudence wyllenge to make batayle with women: for if hit happe vs to haue the victory, fortune [folio 32b] schewenge fauor, thou scholde*. [So the Harl. MS.] be confusede by merite, sythe that thou was*. [So the Harl. MS.] ouercommen with women; and thauȝhe thou haue the victory of vs, thow schalle*. [So the Harl. MS.] obteyne but lytelle worschippe, hauenge victory of women." Kynge Alexander pleasede grauntede to theyme liberte, seyenge, "Women ar to be ouercommen not with feere, but with luffe." Trogus, libro secundo. That qwene Thalestris, after that sche had vsede the bedde of kynge Alexander by xlti daies to haue a childe, returnenge to here realme felle at variaunce soone after with here peple.

Of Affrike and the prouinces of hyt. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Capitulum nonum decimum.

ALLE scriptores historicalle and croniclers afferme þat Affrica toke the name of hit of Affer, son of Madian, the son Page  157, vol.1 of Abraham, geten of Cethura. Whiche procedethe from the costes off Egipte, nye the meridien by the inferior Ethiop vn to the mownte Atlantyke, schutte of the este parte and northe with the grete see, hauenge on the weste to hit the westerne occean. ℞. This Affer, after Iosephus, libro primo, capitulo octavo, and also after Isidor, in his Ethimolo|gies, libro nono, hade an hoste, ledenge hit towarde Libya, hauenge victory of his enmyes thro helpe of grete Hercules. namede that cuntre Affrica, after his name; whiche toke to his wife Editha, doȝhter to Hercules, of whom he gate Dodoris. This regien of Affrike conteynethe mony pro|ninces, that is to say, the weste parte of Ethioppe, Libya, Tripolis, Getulia, Numidia, and tweyne Mauritanyes, of whom hit schalle be seyde by ordre. Ethioppe hathe thre*. [Ethiopia.] partes; the firste parte of it, that is in the weste, is fulle of hilles, whiche is protendede from that hie hille Atlantyke vn to Egipte. The mydde parte is fulle of gravelle. The thrydde parte, that is of the este, is alle moste fulle of deserte, whiche is sette between the sowthe occean and the floode of Nilus, hauenge on the este to hit the Redde See. Hit is callede Ethiopia, of the colour of peple whom Page  159, vol.1 the nyȝhenesse of the sonne dothe brenne, whiche con|teynethe in hit peple to be meruaylede, that is to saye, Garamantes, Troglodytes, which renne and turne hertes and other bestes thro rennenge, somme of whom curse the sonne*. [Troglodyte.] for the grete feruent hete of hit. Somme do eite serpentes, somme men of theyme hunte panteres and lyonnes. Somme [folio 33a] of theyme make caves in the erthe, whiche berke rather then speke lyke men. Somme men of theyme goe nakede, not occupyenge theyme in eny exercise. Somme with owte hedes, hauenge theire mowthe and eiȝen in the breste. Somme of theyme haue a dogge to theire kynge, thro movenge of whom thei vse wycchecrafte. There be also cocatrice, cameles, cattes of the mownteyne, and dragones from the hedes of whom and breyne pannes gemmes be extracte. Isidorus, libro tertio decimo. There is a welle amonge the Troglodytes in Affrike, the water of whom y|drunke Page  161, vol.1 yeldethe clere voices. Also thei seye an other welle to be amonge the Garamantes, the water of whom is soe colde on the day that hit may not be drunke, and soe hoote in the nyȝhte that hit may not be towchede. Libya Cyre|nensis*. [Libya.]*. [Cretensis, Harl. MS.] hathe of the este parte to hit Egipte, of the sowthe parte the weste Ethioppe, of the weste the more Syrtes and Troglodytes, of the northe the grete see. And Libya is callede, for libs, the sowthe wynde, blawethe from thens, and after Isidorus, libro xvo, hit is callede of Libya, the doȝhter of Epaphus, reignenge þer; and peple be namede there Phutei of Phut, the son of Cam. The region Tripolitan*. [Tripoli|tana.] hathe of the este to hit the cuntre of Philenes, sette be|twene the grete Syrtes and the Troglodytes, and of the weste parte Byzantium*. [Bisancium, Harl. MS.] vn to the Dedde see, hauenge of þe northe to hit the see Mediterrany and the lesse Syrtes. Getulia*. [Getulia.] is a litelle region of Affricke. Sothely Getulia toke the Page  163, vol.1 name of hit of Gothes, of whom Getuliones didde procede, and, as Seynte Gregory seythe in a*. [So the MS.] omely, that region hath no fischers in hit for the wontenge of fisches.

Capitulum vicesimum.

NUMIDIA hath on the este parte to hit the lesse Syrtes,*. [Numidia.] of the weste men of Ethiope, on the weste Mauritany,*. [Mauritamy, Harl. MS., and so below.] and on the northe parte the see of Sicilia.*. [Silicia, Harl. MS.] This region hathe in hit Rusicada*. [Ruscida, MSS. of both versions and Cx.] and Carthago,*. [Cartago, MSS. of both versions and Cx., here and below. Cartage has been retained below, as an En|glish form.] whiche was edifiede in this*. [Carthago.] maner after auctores. Isidorus, libro vicesimo quinto, capi|tulo tertio decimo. Men off Phenicia, goenge from the Redde See, made the cites of Sidon and of Tyrus in Syria, Utica in Affrike, Thebas in Beotia, Gades in the mowthe of the occean. For a consuetude was vsede amonge theyme somme tyme to goe in to ferre regiones from theire cuntres, and when thei perceyvede the hertes of straunge peple to haue theyme in fauour, thro the merchaundise of newe thynges thei toke places apte to make cites. Trogus, libroPage  165, vol.1octavo decimo. Dido goenge furthe from theyme, whiche was callede by an other name Elissa, takenge a multitude of yonge men with here, come firste to the yle of Cyprus,*. [Cipres, MS., α., Harl. MS.; Cipris, Cx.] and [folio 33b] lxxx. virgynes to norysche multiplicacion, come to Affrike, whiche byenge a place þer for noryschenge of men, trauayl|enge as ferre as the skynne of an ox myȝhte extende, causede hit to be kytte in as smalle partes, and so the grownde to be compassede abowte, whiche place was callede Byrsa,*. [Birisa, Harl. MS.] that is to say, leder. Isidorus, libro xv o. Or elles that cite was callėde Carthada,*. [Cartada, MSS. of both versions, and Cx.] and afterwarde Carthago, whiche cite was edifiede lxxti yere afore the cite of Rome. ℞. Papias seythe the same, sythe after alle wryters histo · ricalle Rome was made in the iiijthe yere of Achaz kynge of the Iewere. If these iiij. yere, and xvi. yere of kynge Ioachim,*. [So the Harl. MS., but Iotham is intended.] and lijti yere of kynge Ozias, whiche precedede kynge Achaz, be annumerate, hit is expressede that lijti yere resulte þat Carthago was made in the iiijthe yere of Achaz kynge of Iewery. Neuerthelesse Isidorus wille, Page  167, vol.1 Ethimolog., libro vo, and the Maister in his story scholas|ticalle, that Carthago was edifiede abowte the xxxiiijti yere of kynge Dauid; wherefore the seyenge of Virgille and of Phrygius Dares in his story of the batelle of Troye, that Eneas see Dido; or elles hit is to ȝiffe a more elder Dido then this. For Eneas dyede more then iiic yere afore the edifienge of Carthago, or elles hit wille folowe that Carthago was made a fore. Where of Seynte Austyn seythe in his booke of confessiones, libro primo, in the ende, that wyse men denye Eneas to have seen Carthago. Therefore after Orosius, libro iiijto, Carthago hade with in the circuite of the walles, xxij. ml. passes. The altitude of the walle was of xlti cubites, the latitude of xxxti foote alle moste compassede abowte with the water of the see. There be*. [Maurita|nia.] tweyne Mauritanyes, that firste is Mauritany Cesariense, whiche hathe at the este of hit Numidia, at the sowthe the gravelles of the occean, at the northe the floode callede Malua, of the weste the chekes of the occean. Mauritania Page  169, vol.1 takethe the name of hit of mauron, that is blacke, as the cuntre of blacke men. In whom is the mownte callede Atlas at the weste, not ferre from the occean, whiche is so eleuate*. [Mons Atlas.] ouer other hilles that is ȝiffen to credence the altitude of hit to towche the cercle of the moone, where claryones and symbales be herde oftetymes in the nyȝhte. Augustinus de Civitate, libro octavo decimo. Atlas was an astronomier [folio 34a] and the broder of Prometheus, whiche was feynede to berre heuyn, of whom this hille callede Atlas toke the name of hit, whom commune peple suppose to berre heuyn for the huge altitude of hit. Also hit is to be attendede that Puni, Peni, Punici, and Punices be callede as welle men of Phenicia of Affrike and of Carthago, for Dido dwellenge in it was of the londe of Phenicia.

Of Europe and of the Provinces of hit. Capitulum 21.

ISIDORUS rehersethe, in his xiiijthe boke, that Europa*. [Europa.] toke name of Europa, doȝhter of Agenoris, kynge of Libya, Page  171, vol.1 whom Iupiter Cretensis raveschede to hym. That Europe, the thrydde parte of the worlde, begynnenge from the floode of Thanay, descendethe by the northe occean vn to the costes of Speyne, compassede abowte with the see at þe yle callede Gades, on the este parte and in the sowthe with the grete see, conteynenge mony prouinces and yles, of whom somme thynges schalle be towchede by ordre.

Hyt is to be attendede that of the northe parte the marras of Meotides and the floode of Thanais diuiden the lesse Asia from Europe. Floode of Thanais was namede firste of Thanus, kynge of Scythia, which floode descendenge entrethe in to the see Mediterrany. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. The inferior Scythia is colde, begyn|nenge*. [Scythia.] from the water of Thanus, betwene Danuby and the northe occean is protendede to Germanye, which is callede Barbarica for the men of Barbre that hit conteynethe.

Alania is a parte of the inferior Scythia declinenge to the*. [Alania.] water of Meotides vn to Denmarke.*. [The medieval use of Dacia and Daci has here misled the translator.] Mesia is schutte of*. [Mesia.] the este parte of it with the durres of Danuby, from the Page  173, vol.1 este of Tracia to the sowthe parte of Macedony; a plen|tuous region, and specially of whete, wherefore olde men namede hit the berne of God of corne. Sclauia is a*. [Sclavia.] parte of Mesia, of whom the nowmbre is duplicate, the more and lesse. The more is callede proprely Sclauonia, con|teynenge a parte of Dalmatia and Sarmatas, hauenge ferse peple and schippemen. The litelle Sclauia is extendede from Wandalinges and men of Boemy vnto the Saxones, the peple of whom is more meke. Also Pannonye is du|plicate,*. [Pannonia.] the more that is in the ferþer Scythia, ouer the waters [folio 34b] of Meotides, from whom Hunes goenge furthe for cause of huntenge by ferre cuntrees folowenge hertes, as Herodotus seythe, at the laste founde the lesse Pannonye, whiche re|turnenge home, gedrenge a multitude of peple, returnede ageyne to hit, the inhabitatores of hit expulsede thei namede that cuntre Hungary. A parte of whom is callede Bul|garia,*. [Hungaria.] hauenge on the este to hit Mesia, of the weste Gallia Page  175, vol.1 Belgica, of the northe Danuby or Almayne. That londe hathe veynes of golde, and hilles in whom marbole is diggede and goode salte.

Of Grece, and of the prouinces of hit. Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

AUCTORES remembre and reherse that Grece is lady*. [Grecia.] of other londes with his provinces, nutrix of cheuallery, the moder of philosophy, maistresse of artes, callede Grecia of a man named Grecus reignenge there, whiche is callede generally Illyricus, þe peple of whom be callede Greci, Graii, Achei, Achivi, Argivi, Attici, Iones, Ionii, or Hellenes. But when grete Constantyne transferrede the seete of the Roman ympyre to Constantinople, the men of Grewe were callede as newe Romanes, as Rabanus seythe; where fore men of that cuntre vn to this tyme calle not theyme Grekes, but Ramoyses, somme tyme peple moste victorious but subjecte to lawes. Gir. de papa, ca|pitulo Page  177, vol.1 septimo decimo. In whiche londe somme tyme were libraryes, studies, muses, and companyes of cheuallery, where fore the londe stode that tyme in prosperite. But that vertu in theyme was refusede after and wente to the cuntre of men of Latyn, and thei that were somme tyme the nowble welles now be*. [thei be, MS., but thei erased.] as ryueres with owte water and consumede; noo folower of vertu þer, but alle off vices. For thei reteyne to them the figmentes of Sinonis, the fallace of Vlixes, fiȝhtenge by arte and not by armes. That region of Grece, sette nye the grete see, hathe mony prouinces in hit, whiche be Thracia,*. [þat beeþ Thracia] Added from α. and Cx. The MSS. have Tracia, as usual; but Thessalia is correctly written in MS. (not Harl. MS.)] Lacedemonia, Macedonia, Achaia, Arcadia, Thessalia, Helladia, Beotia.*. [Boecia, MSS. of both versions, and Cx.] Thracia, or Egiptus,*. [This is of course for Epirus; but the sentence is otherwise cor|rupt.] somme tyme the londe Epiratores, hauenge on the este to hit the see of Ege, of the weste Macedony, where the Mas|sagetes inhabite somme tyme. Isidorus, libro quinto decimo. There is a welle in that londe qwenchenge brennenge brondes [folio 35a] of fire and liȝhtenge theyme ageyne. The chiefe cite of Page  179, vol.1 that cuntre is Constantinople,*. [Propontides Constantinople, MS., but Propontides erased.] in the este part of hit, betwene the see Pontyke and Propontides, the hede of alle the este, as Rome is of the weste, somme tyme callede Byzantium;*. [Bisancium, MSS.] of whom Willielmus, libro iiijto, de Regibus, spe|kethe: Constantine made that cite egalle to Rome, seyenge hit was not conueniente an Emperoure to kepe residence where thapostles crownede kepede the principate, bryngenge thider innumerable relikes of Seyntes whiche myȝhte schewe socoure to the cite ageyne the sawtes of theire enmyes, thenkenge hit fre to hym to make a cite imperialle where was the pleasure and liberte of grownde, temperaunce of heuyn, nye to the region callede Mysia,*. [Misia, MSS. (of both versions).] plentuous of whete. Whiche is patente on euery syde to men saylenge from Asia and Europa, compassede alle moste with the grete see. The Page  181, vol.1 floode Danubius flowethe in to the cite in condettes vnder the erthe; in dayes ordeynede, a barre take a way, that water clensethe cl. weyes in that cite. In whom grete Con|stantine erecte ij. famose chirches; but Iustinian the Em|peroure, instructe in letters and in armes, addede the chirche in the worschippe of oure Lorde Criste, moste nowble in worke of alle oþer chirches in the worlde. The crosse of oure Lorde was brouȝhte þider by Elene, where Seynte Andrewe, Seynte Iames broþer of oure Lorde, Mathias, Eliseus, Samuel, and Daniel reste. Also Lucas the Euangeliste, and mony other martires. Also Iohn Crisostom, Basilius, Gregory Nazanzene. Also Agatha and Lucia, virgines. Lacedemonia is a prouince of Grece, nye Thracia. The inhabitatores of whom be callede Lacedemones. Men of that Page  183, vol.1 prouince taryenge abowte the sege of a cite callede Messene in Apulia, wexede feynte thro compleyntes of theire wifes, dredenge to lose multiplicacion off childer by diuturnite of batelle, ordeynede that the childer of theyme lefte at home scholde folowe the luste of the flesche to gedre, supposinge the more multiplicacion to encrease; but the women experte the knowlege of diuerse men, the childer of whom were callede Spartani. Whiche childer atteynenge the age of xxxti yere, not knowenge their faders in certitude, takenge to theyme a duke callede Phalax, sonne of Aracus, come to Ytaly, expellenge the olde inhabitatores of hit, made a mansion and a seete to theyme at Tarentum. Macedonia, callede by that name of Macedo, neuewe to Deucalion, some tyme [was] callede Emathia of kynge Emathius, hauenge on the este to hit the see of Egee, on the sowthe Achaia, of the weste Dalmatia, on the northe parte Mesia. The hille [folio 35b] Page  185, vol.1 callede Olimpus is in that prouince whiche diuidethe Thracia from Macedony. Petrus, capitulo tricesimo septimo. That mownte is of suche altitude that the toppe off hit excedethe clowdes, where clowdes be not perceyvede, neither wyndes, neither reynes, in whom letters wryten were founde vnde|filede at the end of the yere, where bryddes may not lyve for rarite of the aier, neiþer philosophres myȝte ascende to hit to knowe the courses of the sterres with owte sponges, whiche, puttenge theyme to theire noose, attracte more thicker aier to theyme. There is also an hille callede Athon, towchenge the clowdes, the schado of whom is protendede to the yle callede Lemnus, which is from that hille lxxvj. [myle]. Dalmatia hathe on the este parte to hit Macedony, of the weste Histria, of the northe Mesia, of the sowthe parte the see Adriatike. Achaia takenge the name of hit of a kynge callede Acheus,*. [Echius, Harl. MS.] is allemoste alle an yle. For on the este parte to hit hit hathe the see Tirene, of the weste the see Cretike, on the sowthe the see Ionius, of the Page  187, vol.1 northe oonly Macedony, ioynede to Attica. The chiefe cite of whom is Corinthus, where kynge Alexander gedrede his hoste, intendenge to expugne alle the worlde, to whom Seynte Paule did wryte. Arcadia, whiche [is] oþerwise callede Sicyonia, was so namede of Arcas,*. [Archas, Cx.; Archades, MSS. of both versions.] son of Iupiter, the bosom of Achaia, betwene the see Ionine and the see of Egee, lyenge lyke to the leef of a tree. In this cuntre is a ston callede Asbeston,*. [Albestes, Harl. MS.] whiche accendede oonys is neuer extincte, and oþer diuerse precious stones. Thessalia, at the sowthe parte of hit, is ioynede to Macedony, somme tyme the cuntre of Achilles, and the originalle of men callede Laphites, whiche made tame firste horses with bridelles, and rydenge on the backes off theyme, whiche were trawede to be of oon body with þe horses on whom thei did ryde of the commune peple, where fore a c. horse men of that Page  189, vol.1 cuntre were callede centauri. Trogus, libro secundo. The hille callede Parnasus is in that prouince, a nowble mownte, and of grete fame after poetes, dependenge*. [portes depengenge, Harl. MS.] by a dowble ston, in the toppe of whom a temple is sette lyke to the temple of Apollo Delphicus; and in the pleyne þer of is a pitte where thei ȝafe to viuificate the myndes of phi|losophres, Isidorus, libro 13o. There be ij. waters in that [folio 36a] prouince, of that oon of whom schepe drynkenge be made blacke, of that other white, and schepe drynkenge of bothe waters be made of diuerse coloures. Also in that londe be places delectable, of whom Ouidius and Theodolus doe wryte. In that londe happede a particuler floode, in the tyme of Deucalion beynge prince there, whiche saluede men commenge to hym in schippes, wherefore poetes feyne hym, with Pyrrha his wife, to haue create men of stones. Helladia Page  191, vol.1 toke the name of hit of Hellen,*. [Ellanda, Harl. MS.] son of Deucalion and of Pyrra, of whome Grekes be callede Elenas. That is the londe callede Attica, of Atthis, doȝhter of Graius, lyenge betwene Macedony and Achaia, as in the myddes, ioynede to Arcadia in the northe: that is vereye Grece, of whom be ij. partes, Beotia*. [Boecia, MSS. (as usual).] and Peloponense, the chiefe cite of whom is Athenas, where study was somme tyme multiplicate, to whiche cite grete multitude of peple made confluence for cause of eru|dicion from diuerse regiones. Augustinus, De civitate Dei, libro octavodecimo. Somme Egypciannes dredenge Egipte to peresche in that grete tempeste, what tyme hit was gre|vede with mony diseases vnder the powere of Moises, wente furthe from hit. Wherefore Cecrops, goen furthe to Grece, made a cite, namenge hit Athen, whiche was callede after Athenas. After Varro, hit was made in this maner, when at that city callede Athen an oliue apperede sodenly, and the water brake vp also sodenly in an other place, Cecrops Page  193, vol.1 takenge cownselle of Apollo Delphicus what scholde be doen in that matere, he ȝafe an ansuere that the oliue signifiede that goddesse Minerua and the water Neptunus, and that cause was after the name of whom of theyme the cite scholde have name. Then the citesynnes of either kynde were gedrede to gedre as the consuetude was in that tyme women to be at cownselles amonge the men. The women ȝafe sentence for Minerua, and men for Neptunus, and for cause the nowmbre was moore in women then in men by oon person, Minerua hade the victory, in so moche that the cite scholde be namede aftere here Athena, for Minerva in Grewe is callede Athena. Then Neptunus beenge wrothe, couerede the growndes of men of Atheynes with waters, whiche thynge is not harde to deuelles to per|forme and to do. The women of whiche cite were afflicte in ij. maneres, that Neptunus myȝhte rather take pleasure, soe that a woman scholde not be at cownesailes afterwarde, Page  195, vol.1 and also that theire childer scholde not take name in eny wyse after theyme. Hellespontus, bosom of the grete see, is subiecte to the prouince of Helladia, takenge the name [folio 35b] of hit of Helle sustyr to Phrixus,*. [Frixus, MSS. of both versions.] whiche fleenge the wacches of here steppe moder, was drownede in that see, by whiche chaunce that londe and see adiecte to hit toke hit name. Nye to whiche place Varro seythe there be men the towche or spatelle of whom is medicinable ageyne serpentes and styngenge of theyme. Trogus, libro secundo. Men of Atheynes began firste the vse of wyne and oyle, techenge to eiere and sawe, and floreschenge fyrste with ciuile discipline, the firste kynge of whom was Cecrops, after whom Graius, other Granaus, Atthis the son of whom ȝafe name to that region. After whom Amphigionides, in whose tyme was a floode in Thessalia. After that the realme descendede successiuely to Ericthonius. Then reignede Egeus. After whom Theseus his sonne. After that the son of Demophon, Page  197, vol.1 whiche schewede helpe to Grekes ageyne the Troianes. Boetia toke name of this worde, bos. When Cadmus, son Agenoris, sekenge Europa his sustyr, by commaundemente of his fader, whiche was rapte by Iupiter,*. [Iubiter, Harl. MS.] whiche not fynd|enge here, dredenge also the wrathe of his fader, chosede to lyve in exile, whiche folowenge the stappes of an ox, namede that place Beotia, where the oxe did lye downe and dye, where he made a cite called Thebas, in whom they did holde somme tymes ciuile batayles, where Apollo and Hercules were borne. In that prouince is a water of whom if a man drynke he schalle be inflamed with woodenesse of lecchery. There be oþer ij. welles also, of whom oon in|ducethe memory, that other obliuion.

Page  199, vol.1

Capitulum vicesimum tertium.

HYT is redde in storyes that Ytaly somme tyme occupyede of the Grekes, was callede the grete londe off Grece. Also hit was callede Hespera, after a sterre callede Hespera, whiche directe the Grekes saylenge to hit. After that hit was namede Saturnia of Saturnus inhabitenge hit, afterwarde callede Latium, for the drede of Iouis his son lyenge there priuely; whiche was callede afterwarde Ausonia, of Ausonius son of Vlixes. Afterwarde hit was namede Ytaly of Ytalus kynge of Siculynes, the moste nowble prouince of alle Europe, whiche is schutte on the northe parte to hit with the see Adriatike, on the este with the grete see, of the sowthe with Sicille and with the see Tyrene. From whom iij. nowble and famose floodes of Europe take theire originalle, whiche be callede Renus, Danubius, and Rodanus. Plinius, libro secundo, capitulo centesimo sexto. In this prouince is Page  201, vol.1 the welle of Cithonis healenge the woundes of eien. Isidorus libro tertio decimo. Also there is a welle callede Novacius nye to the hilles of Alpes, whiche floethe ouer with watere abowte the solstice of somer, and is drye in wynter. Paulus, libro secundo. There be mony prouinces of this Ytaly, whiche be Calabria, Apulia, Campaniia, Beneuentana, Tuscia, Emilia, Liguria, Lombardia. Apulia is a coste of the see of Ytaly, sette at the sowthe of hit, departede from Sicille by an arme of the see, byldede and edifiede firste by Grekes. The chiefe cite of whom is callede Brundusium, takenge the name of hit of this worde brunda in Grewe, þat is the hede of an herte, in that hit holdethe in the figuracion of hit the similitude of the hede of an herte. Campania is a moore region betwene the territory of Rome and Apulia. The chiefe cite of whom is callede Capua, namede so of the capacite of sufficiaunce, callede the thrydde Page  203, vol.1 nowble cite to Rome and to Carthago. In whiche londe be cites callede Neapolis and Puteoli, where the bathes of Virgille were hade somme tyme in worschippe. There is also an oþer Campania more litel, the chiefe cite of whom is callede Cretas or the cite Cretense.*. [The similarity of c and t in MSS. has misled the translator, who probably had no notion where the place was.] ℞. That cuntre of Ytaly hathe be possessede of diuerse peple and naciones, as of Grekes, of Iano, [of] Saturno, of Ytalo, and of Enea. After that of Frenche men Senonense vnder Duke Brennus. Also hit was occupiede of Gothis, Hunes, and Wandalynges abowte the yere of our Lorde cccc. and laste occupyede off Longobardes, abowte the year of oure Lorde vclxviij., in the tyme of Iustinian prynce, of the name of whom the forther parte of Ytaly from Alpes alle moste to the cite of Rome is named ȝitte Lumbardy. Of the begynnenge of Longobardes, and of the progresse of theym, Paulus Diacon of Rome rehersethe in his firste boke of the story of Page  205, vol.1 Longobardes, in this maner, Winuli or Longobardes takenge that name of the longe berdes whom thei noryschede, wente furthe from the northe partes of Allemeyne under Ibor and Aione the gouernoures of theyme, with prudente Gambara moder to theyme, from Scandinauia.*. [Scandimauia, Harl. MS. twice.] This Scandinauia*. [Scandimauia, Harl. MS. twice.] is callede an yle not in that hit is in the see, but for cause that is compassede abowte with waters in the pleynes of the brynkes of hit. Winuli goenge furthe entrede a region [folio 37b] namede Scoringa, where the Wandalynges were devicte. Ibor and Aione, the dukes and gouernoures of theym dedde, they made Agelmundus kynge, son of Aio, xxxiij. yere hauenge his gouernaile and reigne ouer theyme. In the tyme of whom a woman hade vij. childer at oon childenge. After whom Lethen reignede xlti yere, after hym Hildegog. After whom Gloffo, after hym Cato. After whom, Waco Page  207, vol.1 destroyede, Walcarius his son reignede on the Longobardes vij. yere. After whom Audoenus reignede, whiche ledde the Longobardes firste in to Pannony.*. [Ytaly Pannony, MS., but Ytaly erased.] After whom Albinus his son reignede, whiche desirede Narses Patricius to inhabite Ytaly, in the tyme of Iustinus themperoure, the yere of oure Lorde vcxlviijthe, after that Longobardes hade taryede in Pannony by xlijti yere. Of the conqueste of Albinus, and of his meruellous goenge furthe, hit schalle be expressede abowte the yere of grace vc and lxxti.

Of the Cite of Rome. Capitulum vicesimum quartum.

AUCTORES expresse that the cite of Rome is sette in Tuscia, whiche is a parte of Ytaly, of þe fundacion and gouernaile of whom auctores wryte diuerse thynges, specially Martinus, of the makenge of hit, but Maister Gregory Page  209, vol.1 towchethe mony thynges worthy to be hade in remem|braunce of the meruayles of that cyte. Martinus. Mony men be redde to haue reignede in the cyte of Rome. For after Estodius, after the towre of confusion made, Noe takenge a schippe with other men come to Ytaly, whiche makenge a cite there endede his lyfe in hit. Ianus with Iano the son of Iapheth made a cite callede Ianiculus ouer the water of Tiber, where a chirche is nowe callede Sti. Iohannis ad Ianiculum. Abowte that tyme Nemproth, oþer wise callede Saturnus, expulsede of Iupiter his son, commenge to the realme of Ianus, made a cite where the chiefe place of the cite is now. In those dayes kynge Ytalus commenge with Siculynes to Ianus and Saturnus made a cite nye the floode callede Albula, whiche was namede afterwarde Tiber. After that Hercules, the son of Italus, made a cite of Galerius vnder the Capitoly. After that kynge Tiberis and Euander commenge from Arcadia made that cite of Rome. After that Romulus redacte alle the cites in to oon causenge the Page  211, vol.1 nowble men of Ytaly to inhabite hyt with theire wyfes. Titus Livius. Whiche cite beenge in pouerte was noo cite moore holy neiþer more ryche in goode exemples, but afterwarde [folio 38a] rychesse enereasede lecchery and auarice. Martinus. Rome was made of ij. breþer, Remus and Romulus, in the mownte*. [Of þe meruayles of Rome.] Palatyne þe xj. kalendes of Maij, in the vijthe Olimpias, the iiijthe yere of the reigne of Achaz kynge of the Iewery begynnenge, in the iiijc yere liiij. after the takenge of the cite of Troye. ℞. But after Solinus cccc. and xxxiiijti yere. Martinus. Whiche cite made nowble in processe with towres, walles, temples, ȝates, and palice, hauenge towres of the walles ccc.lxj. within the circuite of whom be myles xxijti, excepte the edifienge ouer Tiber and the cite Leonine, with whom hit is seyde to conteyne in circuite xlijti myles. In Page  213, vol.1 that cite were xvj. principalle ȝates, x. abowte Tiber, Porta Capuana, Porta Apia, Porta Latina, Porta Asinaria, Porta Metronii, Porta Lauicana, Porta Numentana, Porta Sálaria, Porta Prinopana, Porta Collina. Also there were iij. ȝates ouer Tiber and iij. in the Cite Leonine. Gregorius. Vn to this tyme presente remayne mony signes in hit to be meruayles as edifienges and palice, that the versus of Hilde|berte, bischop Cenomacense may be verifiede of hit whom William Malmesbury puttethe in his boke of kynges seyenge in this wyse: O Rome, þer is noon oþer cite egalle to the nowe beenge in ruyne. Thou may teche nowe in confusion howe nowble thow was a fore. De Palatiis. In that*. [Of þe palices.] cite were nowble palice made in honor of emperoures, and of other nowble men amonge whom oon palice was made in the myddes of the cite in the signe of the monarchy of Page  215, vol.1 the worlde. Also thei made a palice of peace, where in Romulus put an ymage of golde, seyenge, this ymage schalle not falle tylle that a mayde haue a childe, whiche ymage felle down in the natiuite off Criste. The palice of Dioclitian hathe pyllers soe hie as a man may caste with a stonne, and soe grete that vnnethe oon off theyme may be kytte and putte down by a c. men laborenge dayly in hyt by a yere. Also þer was a palice of lx. emperoures the residu of whom alle Rome can not destroye. Of þe temples. Now the chirche of alle Seyntes is in Rome, where the temple of alle goddes was before, namede Panteon, hauenge in latitude the space of ijc. and lx. foote, nye to whom is an arche made of marbole, in whom the gestes of Augustus Cesar be wryten. Also þer is an arche of Scipio whiche ouercome Hanibal. Also there was a temple made of cristalle and golde, where in astronomy was graven with the signes of heuyn and sterres, whom Seynte Sebastian Page  217, vol.1 destroyede. ℞. Hyt is to be aduertisede that in Rome were oonly thre temples whom the byschoppes of ydoles hade in possession callede flamines, as filamines, of threde whom thei bounde in theire hedes when thei myȝhte not were a cappe in holy dayes for hete. The byschop Dialle*. [Dial., Harl. MS.; similarly Martial below.] ministrede in the temple of Iupiter, for he was callede Diespiter, that is to say, fader of þe day. The byschop Martialle was in the temple of Mars. And the byschoppe Quirinalle in the temple of Romulus, for Romulus was callede Quirinus. Of howses. In Rome was an howse consecrate onornede allemoste alle with golde and precious stones, whiche was seyde to be worthe the thrydde parte of the worlde, whiche place apperethe ȝitte as ferefulle and inaccessible, in whiche place the ymages of alle pro|uinces Page  219, vol.1 were putte by wycche crafte, euery ymage hauenge writen in the breste of hit the name of the prouince, and a belle of golde abowte the necke of hit. And if eny peple made insureccion ageyne thempire of Rome, the ymage of that prouince turnede the backe of hit to the ymage of Rome, and ronge his belle; the gentile pristes hauenge kepenge of the ymages schewede those thynges to the princes of thempire. In the hier partes of whiche place was an horse man made of brasse corespondente to the ymage of that prouince, hauenge a spere directe towarde the peple makenge þat insurreccion. Where fore the Romanes hade victory of theier enmyes, takenge theyme as sodenly. In whiche place men affermede fire to haue bene inextin|guible; þe maker of hit requirede how longe hit scholde dure, answerede and seyde, tyl a mayde scholde be delyue|rede of a childe. Wherefore hit was expressede that the man made of brasse felle down with the howse in the natiuite of Criste, and that fyre was extincte. Of CraftesPage  221, vol.1and Edifienges. There is a place made in Heraclea graven so of marbole in that hille, that the mansiones of hit and setes of hit were graven of oon ston, where a man can not speke so secretely with hymselfe or with eny other, but hit schal be herde in alle the circuite. The water of Tiber is Page  223, vol.1 wholsom for horses, but not for men, wherefore the Romanes made labor that fresche waters myȝte comme in to the cite in iiij. partes of hit. In Albisterio was a candellesticke where the emperoures were wonte to be chaungede, where the white stoles of emperoures were made also, whiche was made of a precious ston callede Albestes, whiche accendede and putte furthe in the aiere wylle not be extincte by eny crafte. ℞. In lyke wyse that thynge myȝhte happe that is redde of Pallas, þe gigante abowte the yere of our Lorde God mxlti, in which yere a body was founde of þe stature of a gigante beryede at Rome and incorrupte, the wounde of whom conteynede in longitude iiij. foote and a halfe. The longitude of that body excedede the altitude of the walles of that cite: fyndenge also a lampe brennenge at the feete off hit continually, whiche cowthe not be extincte þro blawenge Page  225, vol.1 or eny other humor, tylle they made a subtile hoole vnder hit with a nelde,*. [So Harl. MS.] where thro the aier commenge thro hyt causede hit to be extincte: whom a knyȝhte callede Turnus did flee, when Eneas did fiȝhte for Lauin[i]a. Of the Ymages at Rome. There was an ymage of Venus made in Rome, in that similitude as sche apperede to Parides, whiche was made so subtily that a man myȝhte see in that ymage as bloode decurrente. Also another off brasse transformede in to the similitude of Iupiter. Also there is the grave of Romulus, where he was beryede, nye to þe chirche of Seynte Petre, whom the commune peple calle the hepe of corne of Seynte Petre, whom Nero takenge aweye was restorede in to the state of hit a fore. Amonge the beryalles of whom Page  227, vol.1 the beryalle of Iulius Cesar dothe excede, conteynenge in altitude cc. and lti foote, in the hiȝhte of whom is a spere of brasse conteynenge the bones of Iulyus Cesar, of whom*. [Of the Collose.] hit is seyde in metre,—If that ston be oon say in what wyse and by what arte hit was elevate; if there be mony stones say where they be contiguate or ioynede to gedre. Mony pilgremes calle that beryalle of Iulius sette on iiij. lyones made of brasse, the nelde of Seynte Petre. Also in Rome be ij. grete horses made off marbole, whiche were made for this cause folowenge. In the tyme of Tiberius themperoure, ij. yonge philosophres, Praxitellus and Fibia, come to Rome. Tiberius inquirenge of theyme why they wente bare, they seyde, For we haue refusede alle thynges, and alle thynges be to vs bare and open that thow seyes Page  229, vol.1 or dose priuely. Themperoure knowenge that to be trewe at the desire of theyme made that memorialle for theyme, that is to say, ij. bare horses of marbole. Also there was an other signe a fore the palice of the pope, whiche is an horse made of brasse, and the sitter on hit as spekenge to the peple by the signe of the ryȝhte honde, and gouernenge the horse as with the lyfte honde, hauenge a brydde callede a cukkowe made betwene the eeres of the horse, and Nanus lyke to dye vnder his feete, whom pilgremes calle Theo|doricus, [folio 39b] the commune peple Constantyne, but clerkes of the cowrte calle hit Marcus or Quintus Curtius. That signe stode somme tyme on iiij. pyllers of brasse a fore the awter of Iupiter in the Capitoly or chiefe place of Rome. But Seynte Gregory put downe the horse man and that horse, and putte the pillars in the chirche Lateranense. The Romanes toke the horse man and the horse, and sette hit before the palyce of the pope. Men callenge hyt Marcus Page  231, vol.1 assigne this cause. A man callede Nanus, erudite in the arte of nigromancy, whiche subduenge to hym mony kynges and realmes wente to the Romanes, takenge a weye from theyme the vertu of smytenge and kyttenge, segede theyme longe schutte with in the cite. This Nanus wente from his felowschippe erly in the mornenge afore the rysenge of the sonne, and put his arte in exercise; whiche thynge percey|vede, the Romanes made promise to Marcus, a nowble knyȝhte, that he scholde haue predominy of the cite, and a per|petualle memory if he cowthe delyuer that cite. Marcus pereschenge the walle of the cite on that parte where Nanus vsede the arte of nigromancye goenge furthe on the nyȝhte taryede for Nanus vntylle the morowe, whom a brydde callede a cuckowe schewede by here voyce; whiche takenge hym brouȝhte hym in to the cite, whiche fallenge down amonge Page  233, vol.1 the feete of the horses supposede to have delyuerede hym by his arte; wherefore Marcus hade that memorialle. Men that calle hit Quintus Curtius*. [Cursius, Harl. MS. (twice.)] assigne this reason, seyenge that there was a place open in the myddes of the cite pereschenge mony men as with a brethe of sulphure, an answere ȝiffen to the peple that hit wolde not be schutte vn tylle that a man felle in to hit voluntarily. Then Quintus Curtius*. [Cursius, Harl. MS. (twice.)] armenge hym felle in to hit to delyuer the cite; that doen a cukko did flye owte from that pytte, and the erthe was closed anoon. An other signe is an ymage of Colossus,*. [Colloseus, MSS. and Cx.] whom they seye to be the ymage of the sonne or elles of the cite of Rome, of whom hit is to be meruaylede how that so hevy a thynge myȝhte be soe erecte, sythe hit is in longitude of c. foote and xxviti; whiche ymage was somme tyme in the yle of Rhodus,*. [Herodius, MSS. and Cx.] whiche was more hie in altitude by xv. foote then eny place of the cite. That ymage hade in the ryȝhte honde of hit a rownde thynge after the similitude of þe worlde, and a swerde in the signe of batelle in the lifte honde, in token that hit is lesse [folio 40a] Page  235, vol.1 vertu to gete then to kepe thynges y-geten. That ymage was made of brasse, but hit was ouer gilte with golde impe|rialle, schynenge contynually in derkenesse, movenge egally with the son in his circumference, hade the face of hit con|trarious alleweyes to the body of the sonne; whom alle Romanes worschippede in a signe of subieccion, whom Seynte Gregory destroyede with fyre; of whiche ymage the hede and ryȝhte honde remaynede, whiche be sette now afore the palice off the pope on ij. pyllers of marbole. Policronicon, libro 2o. The Romanes made an ymage of a woman, to make feire the maieste of the cite, in brasse; whiche performede, mony men seyde the legges of that ymage to be insufficiente to bere suche a burdon. To whom the smythe that made hit Page  237, vol.1 ȝafe answere and seyde, that the ymage scholde stonde tylle that a mayde scholde be delyuerede of a childe, whiche felle down in the natiuite of Criste. Nye to the place and palyce of Vespasian, where a whyte sowe made of ston with xxxti pygges ȝiffe the water to thynges to be waschen, is a table of brasse prohibetenge synne, where the myȝhty preceptes of the lawe bene wryten.

Page  239, vol.1

Of somme institutes and obseruaunces of the Romanes. Isidorus, Etymologiarum libro octavo decimo, capitulo Triumphus, et Hugutio, capitulo Tris. Capitulum vicesimum quintum.

A triplicate honor was ȝiffen to a kynge, duke, consul, or emperoure hauenge victory, in his commenge to the cite of Rome; for the peple wente furthe to mete the victor with variable gladdenesse, the charyette of whom men putte in captiuite folowede, theire hondes bownde behynde the backes of theyme. Also the victor was induede with the coote of Iupiter, syttenge in a charyette whom iiij. white horses didde drawe to þe Capitoly.*. [to þe Capitoly, added in the margin, apparently by the original scribe.] A victor thus hade in honor suffrede an oþer grevaunce, þat he scholde not forgete hym selfe, in the charyette of whom a seruaunte of vile con|dicion Page  241, vol.1 was putte, whiche scholde bobbe besily the victor, and that for two causes. Oon was, That þe victor scholde not be ouer prowde of suche glory; an other was, And also in token that euery man myȝhte comme to the same honor if his manhode extendede labor to that merite. And the ser|uaunte bobbenge hym seyde ofte tymes, "Knowe thy selfe;" as if he scholde saye, "Be not prowde of this victory." In [folio 40b] whiche day hyt was lawefulle to euery man and woman to saye to þe victor after theire pleasure with owte eny peyne. Of somme men hit was saide, "Haile, ballede man;" of somme, "Hayle, kynge." ℞. Beholde in this processe how thei seyde to Iulius Cesar. In vita Iohannis Eleemosynarii. When emperoures were crownede, makers of graves come to theyme inquirenge of what metalle he wolde his berialle to be made, as if he scholde say, "Thow arte corruptible, dispose the empire mekely." Hugutio, capit. Clarus. When the Romanes intendede to ȝiffe batelle to eny cuntre, oon of theyme scholde goe to the costes of theire enmyes and Page  243, vol.1 expresse with a clere voice the causes of batelle, and suche an expression was callede a clarigacion. Then the spere of the messengere defixede in to the erthe schewede a pre|nosticacion and as a begynnenge of fiȝhte. Isidorus, libro nono decimo, capitulo vicesimo secundo. What tyme the consules were reignenge in Rome the knyȝhtes of the Ro|manes [wente]*. [This or some similar word is omitted.] in clothenge of redde in the day a fore they scholde fiȝte, that theire hertes scholde not be in fray or feere to beholde bloode. Wherefore the Romanes were callede Rosati, as clothede in redde. Hugutio, capitulo Fastus. The dayes in whom the Romans hade victory and spedde welle were callede fasti, in so moche that hit was lawefulle to theyme in those daies to exercise theire causes and erneddes. And the dayes in whom hit happede ylle to theyme were callede nefasti, in whom thei worschippede ylle thynges, not for cause of deuocion or of luffe but Page  245, vol.1 for drede of infortuny. Hugutio, capitulo quinto. Of whom quinquatria were namede v. blacke daies, or the feste of those daies in whom the Romanes, besegede of Frenche men and of Hanniball,*. [Hanybal or Hanibal, MSS. and Cx.] susteynede mony thynges, in whiche dayes noo Roman hade audacite to go furthe of that cite. Hu|gutio, capitulo Classis. When Romulus hade institute the commune vtilite he diuidede the peple in to tweyne parties, into the moore nowble men and lesse nowble, callenge either parte of theyme classis of sowndes and signes whom thei hade distincte amonge theyme selfe. Wherefore the nowble men were callede Prima Classis, the firste companye. In the honor of whom he ordeynede the monethe of Maij,*. [Menses Maii et Junii in|stituuntur.] that is, of grete men. The other inferior parte was callede the secunde companye, in the honor of whom he ordeynede the monethe of Iunius, that is to saye, of yonger men. After|warde the Romanes were diuidede in to iiij. partes. In the firste parte of whom were consules and men of grete honor. In the secunde parte were tribunes and men of lesse dignite. In the thrydde parte free men; and in Page  247, vol.1 the iiijthe parte seruauntes. Hugutio, capitulo Calon. The Romanes vsede to have feires in euery monethe whiche began in the firste day of Nones durenge vn to the firste day of the Idus. Idus is nouȝte elles but a diuision; for then men were diuidede from the feires. And for cause men commenge to the feires were ignoraunte ofte tymes of the begynnenge of the monethe, therfore a bydelle, or the crier of the cite ascendede in to a towre in to the markethe, and seyde so mony tymes, "Calo, calo," (that is to seye, "y calle yow to the feires,") as were dayes vn to the begynnenge of hit; as and if the feires scholde begynne in the iiijthe day, he scholde saye iiij. tymes calo. Therefore hit is that somme monethe in the calendary hathe iiij. nones oonly; somme monethe vj., whiche was ordeynede for this cause that thefes ȝiffenge wacches to marchauntes lyenge priuely in woodes scholde not knowe when the feires scholde begynne. Hugutio, capitulo Mereor. Somme tyme knyȝhtes in Rome were not constreynede to exercise the actes of cheuallery after the age of lx. yere; but lyvelode was ȝiffen Page  249, vol.1 to theyme, or somme goodes of thynges commune whereby thei myȝhte lyffe, and then the knyȝhte was callede Emeritus, as putte with owte the merite of cheuallery. ℞. Wherefore a tauerne ouer Tiber was callede Emeritoria, where knyȝhtes put with owte merite of cheuallery spende theire goodes. Hugutio, capitulo Scea. Also a consuetude was amonge Romanes that the citesynnes scholde dispute of the commune profette vn tylle none: and not attende to eny other delecta|cion. Wherefore the harlottes at Rome were callede nona|riæ, for hit was not lawefulle to theyme to passe theire places, leste they scholde lette yonge men from the commune vtilite. Hugutio, capitulo Nepa. Somme tyme children in Rome were not taken to theire faders to lerne or to be noryschede, for hit was presumede that the faders wolde not chastise theire children for the grete luffe that they wolde schewe to theyme; neither thei wyllede not their children to be taken to maistres that were not of theire kynrede, for a Page  251, vol.1 straungeour ȝiffe the litelle attendaunce of an other straun|geour; but thei were of theire kynne, as vncles to theyme, whiche were not ouer nye to theyme neiþer ouer ferre [folio 41b] from theyme. Hugutio, capitulo Proles. There were men in the cite of Rome whiche taryede in the cite for multi|plicacion of childer, and were not coacte to goe furthe to batelles. ℞. Neuerthelesse they were coacte in the tyme of Hannibal for pennury of knyȝhtes. Valerius, libro secundo. From the cite made unto clx. yere folowenge was movede noo diuorce. The firste man inducenge hit was callede Carbilius,*. [Scarbilius, Harl. MS.] a bastarde, whiche departede from his wife be cause that sche hade not childer, whiche hade schame and reprove ynowe for hit, whiche sette before the luffe of childre to the luffe of matrimony. Isidorus, libro sexto. Thauȝhe the Grekes did wryte ffirste in wexes with poyntelles, neuerthelesse the Romanes ordeynede that noo man scholde wryte with an instrument of irne, but made of boon. Poli|cronicon,*. [So written at length in Harl. MS., for Polycraticon; the same confusion occurs in the title of Hig|den's work.]libro secundo. If a man reuolve in his mynde Page  253, vol.1 alle the storye ffrom the begynnenge of Rome, he schal fynde the Romanes and other peple to have laborede in ambicion and auarice, in so moche in that noo prince of þe empire lyvede vnnethe after the naturalle course of his life, but thei were destroyede by fiȝhte. Policronicon, libro septimo, capitulo septuagesimo primo.*. [The reference given thus at length in Harl. MS.] While the men of Italy lyve in peace, thei luffe ryȝhteuousenes and absteyne from periury. But when they falle to fraudes and diuision they fele other the pride off the Romanes or cruelnesse of men of Allemeyne, or somme other peyne or punyschenge of God, tylle thei be contrite by penaunce. For other that peple avoide euery principate, other elles thei make the prynce moore meke.

Page  255, vol.1

Of Allemeyne or Germany and of þe provinces of hit. Capitulum vicesimum sextum. Isidorus, Etymologia|rum libro nono.

ISIDORUS rehersethe that Germany, or Allemeyne properly seyde, hathe on the este to hit the durre of the floode callede Danubius, on the sowthe the floode callede Renus, of the northe and the weste the occean. There be ij. Ger|manyes; the superior whiche extendethe vn to Alpes to the bosom of the grete see that is callede the see Adriatike. And the inferior Germany, towarde the weste, is abowte the floode callede Renus, whiche is callede communely Almayne. There be mony peple in either Germany, and prouinces, as*. [Aleman|nia.] Boemia, Westefalia, Bauarrea, Turingea, Sveuia, Saxonia, Franconia, Lothoringia, Frisia, Selandia. Paulus, libro quinto. For the northerne plage, in as moch as hit is more removede from hete, in so moche hit is more hollesome for childer to be gendrede and to be noryschede. Hyt is in contrary wise of the plage meridian; for in as moche Page  257, vol.1 as hit is more nye to the son, in so moche hit is more nyous to nature. Wherefore alle that region from Thanay unto þe weste, thauȝhe euery place be namede by theire propre names, generally thei be callede Germany, for that londe gendrethe so mony peple that hit may vnnethe suffise to norysche theyme. That causede so mony peple to haue goen from hit, as Hunes, Gothes, Wandalynges, Saxones, Winuli and Longobardes. Boemia is the firste prouince of esturne Germanye, hauenge on the este parte to hit Mesia,*. [Misia, MSS. (as usual.)] of the weste Danuby and Pannony, of the meridien Bauarria and Thuringia, of the northe weste Saxones, allemoste com|passede abowte with hilles and woodes, beynge habundante in yerbes and pastures and mony wilde bestes. Amonge whom is a beste like to an oxe in body and in hornes, whiche is callede in their langage loz, whiche defendethe hym not with his hornes, but gedrethe water in a grete voide place vnder Page  259, vol.1 his chynne, whiche makenge the water hoote, in rennenge castethe*. [castetethe, Harl. MS.] hyt on hunters and on dogges folowenge hit, hurtenge theyme soore with that water. Thuringia hathe on the este to hit Boemia, on the weste Franconia, on the northe Westefalia, on the sowthe Danubyus. Franconia is as the myddelle prouince of Germayne, hauenge on the este to hit Thuringia, at the weste Sweuia, at the northe parte of Westefalia, at the sowthe Bauarria and Danubius. Bauarria hathe on the este to hit Danubius, at the weste Sweuia, at the northe Franconia, at the sowthe parte of Danuby and Rethica. Westefalia hathe on the este to hit Saxones, at the weste Frisia, at the northe the occean, and at the sowthe parte of Franconia and of Sueuia. Sveuia hathe at the este of hit Bauarria, at the weste Renum, at the northe parte of Franconia, at the sowthe Rethica and Alpes. Saxonia hathe on the weste to hit Westfalia, on the northe the occean, on þe sowthe Thuringia. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. The peple of Saxones whiche be moore nowble in vertu and agilite not oonly on londe, but [folio 42b] Page  261, vol.1 also on the see, is moche contrarious to theire enmyes. Wherefore thei be callede Saxones, as importable and harde as a ston. In the hilles or mownteynes of whom allemoste alle kyndes of metalles be founde, tynne excepte. Also Germayne hathe salte welles, of whom white salte is made. Also nye to the hille where copur is geten is a grete hille, the stones of whom smelle lyke violettes. Also feire marbole is founde in the hille nye to the Abbay of Seynte Michael. Beda, libro quarto, capitulo vicesimo quinto. The olde Saxones vsede not a kynge but other men in worschippe; which perceyvenge batelle to be inducede made a gouernoure to theyme after as the chaunce scholde ffalle, whom thei folowede in tyme of batelle. The batelle doen, alle the nowble men were of egalle honor. Plinius, libro quinto. Frisia is a region sette on the brynke of the weste ocean, takenge begynnenge of Page  263, vol.1 the sowthe parte from the floode callede Rhenus, and is endede with the see of Danes. The men of that londe be rowndede in the maner of a cercle, as moche as men be of moore nobilite, in so moche thei be rowndede more hye. That peple is stronge and of semely stature, bolde in herte, vsenge speres for arowes, luffenge moche liberte. Wherefore thei wylle not suffre a knyȝhte to haue pre|dominy in theyme. They be obediente to iugges, whom thei make yerely; luffenge clennesse and chastite; kepenge theire childer with grete diligence, not suffrenge theyme to be maryede tylle they atteyne to xxiiijti yere in age. Wherefore thei gette myȝhty childer. Whiche wontenge woode brenne turfes made of the erthe. Selandia is a litelle londe, and in the costes of the see, compassede abowte as an yle with armes of the see, hauenge at the este to hit Holande, at the northe Frisia, at the weste the occean, at the sowthe Flandres; hauenge grete hepes Page  265, vol.1 in hit in a circuite for cause of the see; in whiche londe be fewe trees, for a tree may not take þer roote for saltenes of the erthe. The peple of hit is of grete stature, stronge off body, meke in mynde. Paulus, libro primo. Also in the sowthe weste of Germayne be peple callede Scribonij, whiche haue plente of snawe in the tyme of somer, and eite rawe flesche of bestes, hauenge clothes of the ruȝhe skynnes of bestes; where the beames of the sonne be seen contynually, somme nyȝhtes abowte the solstice of somer; and also abowte the solstice of wynter, thauȝhe liȝhte appere in the day, the son is not seene. Item, libro primo, capitulo quarto. A denne is seen nye to men of that cuntre vnder an hie hille, where vij. men slepenge haue lyen longe, the clothes and bodies of theym incorrupte, whiche be supposede to be Romanes, as after their habite; whom a man movede thro auaryce willenge to Page  267, vol.1 vnclothe anoon his armes wexede drye. Perauenture God preseruethe theyme incorrupte for that entente, that men of Barbre may be conuertede to the feithe by theyme.

Of Fraunce. Capitulum vicesimum septimum.

℞. Storyes expresse that Gallia or Fraunce hathe denomi|nacion of the whitenesse of peple; for thys worde "galla" in Grewe is seyde "mylke" in Latyne, wherefore Sibille callethe Frenche me,*. [me] So Harl. MS.] white, seyenge, "Then the white neckes schalle be humectate or made weiete with golde." Hugutio, capi|tulo Gala. For the coloures of faces, quantites of bodies, qualites of sawles, haue theire existence in man after the diuer site of heuyn. Þerefore Rome gendrethe hevy men, Grece lyȝhte men, and Fraunce wytty men. ℞. Hit is also to be aduertisede after the seyenge of Seynte Austin, De Civitate Dei, libro tertio, capitulo quinto, that men callede Galli in oon maner were prestes in the temple of a godesse Page  269, vol.1 callede Cybele,*. [Cibeles or Sibeles, MSS. and Cx.] not namede of Gallia, that is Fraunce, but of a floode callede Gallus in Frigia, of whiche water men drykenge were made madde, and were geldede, in to the memory of a childe callede Attis,*. [Athis, MSS. and Cx.] whom that godesse callede Cybele*. [Cibeles or Sibeles, MSS. and Cx.] luffedde. Whiche childe, after Ouide De Fastis, for the fraude that he hade doen to the godesse was turnede to maddenesse, in whiche maddenesse he did gelde hym selfe. Giraldus, Dist. prima, cap. septimo decimo. Therefore Fraunce with his partes hathe on the northe to hyt Germayne, on the este the floode callede Rhenus, on the weste the occean of Britayne, at the sowthe the grete see whiche flowethe to the cuntre of Narbonense. Somme Page  271, vol.1 tyme Fraunce was partede in thre, after Iulius Cesar; but nowe hit is callede Gallia Belgica, or Fraunce pro|prely from that floode callede Renus, vn to Seguana. And from thens to a floode callede Ligeris hit is calledde Fraunce [folio 43b] Lugdunense. And from that water Ligeris vn to the floode callede Garona hit is callede Aquitany or Gyon, which is protendede vn to the esturne floode callede Rodanus, and to the weste occean, the superior parte of whom is callede Celtica, of the altitude of hilles in hit. And hit is callede nowe also Fraunce Narbonense, from that floode callede Garona vn to the grete see, whiche is nowe in parte Gothia in parte Gascuyn. And so alle Fraunce is cincte with thre nowble waters; with the water callede Rhenus at the northe, with the flood calledde Rodanus at the este, and at the weste with the occean of Briteyne. This Fraunce is habundante in white stones whiche is callede white playster, whiche brente in the fyre and temprede with water makethe Page  273, vol.1 cemente as indissoluble. The cite callede Parisius flory|schethe there the nutrix of vertu, the pantry of letters, whiche schynethe now in Europe as Atheynes floryschede somme tyme in Grece. Gir. Dist. prima. The peple of Fraunce, as mony other peple, toke theire begynnenge of the Troianes. For Antenor, after the takenge of Troye, fleenge with his feloweschippe by the floode of Thanay, come to Pannony, in whom he made a cite called Sicambria,*. [Cicambria and Cicambri, Harl. MS.] where|fore he and his folowers were callede Sicambri.*. [Cicambria and Cicambri, Harl. MS.] After the dethe of whom ij. dukes and gouernoures were ordeynede to governe theyme. Which were Trogotus and Francus, off whom Frenche men toke theire name. But as Turpinus seyethe of the gestes of Charls, after that kynge Charls subduenge to hym Spayne hade commen to Parise, wyllenge to worschippe Seynte Iames and Seynte Dionise, he ȝafe manu|mission to all his seruauntes thro Fraunce of what so euer lordeschippe that thei were, whiche scholde offre yerely iiij. d. to the chirche of Seynte Dionise; and so Frenche Page  275, vol.1 men were callede the fre men of Seynte Dionise. And so that londe was namede Fraunce for cause of that liberte. Other men say that Valentinianus themperoure callede theyme Francos, as ferancos. For Sicambri*. [Cicambri, Harl. MS., and so below.] were tributaryes to thempyre of Rome vn to the tyme of Valentinian, whiche tribute was remittede to theyme by x. yere that they scholde make batelle ageyn men of Almayne, whiche were contrarious to thempire of Rome that tyme y-paste; and the men of Allemayne deuicte, they refusede to pay theire tribute to Rome. Wherefore Valentinianus, gedrenge a grete hoste, entrede theire costes and hade victory of theyme; wherefore thei wente afterwarde and destroyede moche of the cuntre of Romanes; and therefore thei were callede Frenche men of Francus theire gouernoure or elles of Page  277, vol.1 cruelleness, makenge kynge amonge theyme Feramundus the son of Marcomirus, makenge subiecte to theym the cuntre from Sicambria vn to that floode callede Renus. Willielmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Whiche Fera|mundus dedde thei made Clodoueus his son kynge. And after Clodoueus, Merouius his nevewe was electe in to the kynge, after whom alle kynges of Fraunce vn to Pipinus were callede Merouingi. In lyke wyse the sonnes of kynges of Englonde toke their names after theire faders. As the son of Edgare was callede Edgarynge, the son of Edmunde, Edmundenge. Gir., Dist. prima. Also after Merouius, Childericus his son reignede, whiche gate Clodoueus whom Remigius baptisede. This Clodoueus at the instaunce and preier of the Romanes expelled from the cuntre of Gyon the Gothes infecte with the heresy of Arrianus. Whiche dedde, Childericus his son occupyede the realme with his thre brether, Theodoricus, Clodomirus, and Clotarius; in whiche Page  279, vol.1 tyme Grete Gregory floryschede. Afther whom Clotarius his brother reignede, whiche toke to his wyfe Seynte Rade|gunde. After whom Childericus his son reignede, with Garibertus, Gundianus, and Sigelbertus, his brether. After Childericus Clotarius his son reignede, which gate Dagoberte and Batildis his sustyr. Vnder this Dagoberte, Pipinus was as the gouernoure of the kynges house, in the tymes of Heraclius themperoure. After Dagoberte, Clodoueus his son reignede, in the tyme of whom the body of Seynte Benedicte was translate from the province Beneuentan vn to Fraunce. After Clodoueus, Clotarius his son reignede. After him his brother Theodoricus, vnder whom Ebronius was the gouernoure of the kynges howse, whiche punyschede Seynte Leodegary. After whom Clodoueus, and after hym Childebertus his yongeste brother reignede, whom Dagoberte his yongeste son succedede, and after hym the stokke of kynges failede. For after hym Daniel a clerke reignede, whiche was his brother; whom Frenche men callede Childe|ricus. Page  281, vol.1 After whom Theodoricus nye of his kynrede; after whom Hildericus his brother succedede, whiche deposede for his slawthe, and made a clerke, lyvede priuately in a monastery. Soe the linealle descense of the prosapy or kynrede of Feramundus faylede by men, but hyt remaynede [folio 44b] in Batildis, sustyr to Dagoberte. The seyde Batildis was maryede to Ansebertus, whiche gate of here a childe callede Arnaldus, whose childe callede Arnulpus was maryede to the doȝhter of Pipinus, duke of the howse of kynge Dago|berte, brother to the seide Batildis. Whiche Arnulphus afterwarde beenge byschop Metense, Ansegesilus his son gate Pipinus, whiche was callede olde Pipinus, or schorte. Willielmus de Regibus, libro primo. Whiche Pipinus gate Charles, or other wise namede Martellus, in so moche that he depressede tirauntes in Fraunce, and Saracenes makenge insurrecciones ageyne the londe of Fraunce. This man Page  283, vol.1 folowenge the steppes of his fader, kepede the kynges of Fraunce in his seruyce, contente with the name of a duke. Gir., Dist. prima. This Charls gate Pipinus the secunde, and Karolomannus afterwarde a monke. This Pipinus the secunde, commenge of the stokke of the seide Batildis, after the deposicion of kynge Hildericus was made kynge of Fraunce thro the desire of alle the cheuallery, and by the auctorite of Pope Steven the successor off Zacharye. Whiche gate Grete Charles. Whiche was erecte to the kyngedome of Fraunce after the dethe of his fader in þe yere of our Lorde Godde DCC. LX. and IX., whom the Romanes electe to be the aduocate of Seynte Petre for the nowble actes that he did; after that thei made hym emperoure and Augustus. From whiche tyme the empire of Constantinople wente from þe Romanes and wente to Frenche men, in that thei helpede not the chirche of Rome ageyne Longobardes, kepenge werre ageyne the Romanes. This Charles gate Lodowicus. This Lodowicus gate Symple Charles, whiche Page  285, vol.1 gate Lodowicus. That Lodowicus gate Lotharius, whiche gate Lodowicus the laste kynge of that kynrede. After the dethe of whom the Romanes ordeynede Hugo duke off Burguyne to theire gouernoure, whiche gate Robert. That Robert gate Henry, whiche gate Philippe. Þat Philippe gate Lodowicus, whiche reignede in the tyme of Henry Clerke, son of the Conquerour. Kynges reignede in Fraunce of the stocke of Grete Charles vn til that Hewe Capet reignede in Fraunce, from whom other descendenge reignede there, as hit schalle be seyde in his propre place, of the stocke of whom somme reignede in Ytaly, somme in Allemayne, vn to the yere of oure lorde ixc. and xii., when kynge Con|radus toke to hym thempyre of Almayne. ℞. Longe after|warde, after the commune fame, a qwene of Fraunce to whom the realme descendede by trewe inheritaunce, whiche seenge a bochor, a semely man of stature, toke hym to here howsebonde; for the detestacion of that dede, the Frenche men made a statute that noo woman after here scholde reioyce the realme of Fraunce. Giraldus. Nowble Page  287, vol.1 men occupyede late Fraunce, whiche allemoste contriuede the Romanes and victores of this worlde with mony batelles. At the laste Fraunce was subacte to Iulius Cesar, and occupyede by Romanes by cccc. yere, vn to the laste tymes of Valentinian themperoure, when straunge peple of diuerse partes of the worlde entrede in to hit. Firste Wandalinges and Hunes, after that men of Sveuia and of Burguyne, after whom Gothi and Sicambri, after theyme men of Nor|guegia and Danes, and toke theire places in hit. In whiche Fraunce be these prouinces, Braban, Flandres, Pikardy, Normandy, Breteyne the lesse, Gyon, Pictauia, Gascuyn, Burguyn, Aluerne, Salina, Prouince the lesse, Campanye. Brabancia is sette at the sowthe este off Flandres, a copious londe, and habundant in marchaundise, and specially in colourenge wolle in diuerse coloures, whiche they receyve from Englonde, and sende the clothes in to diuerse pro|uinces. Thauȝhe Englonde haue the beste wolle, neuer|thelesse hit hathe not suche waters to make colores with as is in Flandres or in Brabayn. At London is a welle, and a determinate place in the ryuer that is abowte Lincolne, thro helpe of whom nowble scarlet is made.

Page  289, vol.1

Of Flandres. Capitulum vicesimum octavum.

FLANDRIA is a prouince of Fraunce callede Francia Bel|gica, sette nye to the side of the occean, hauenge on the northe to hit Friselonde, on the este Almayne, on the sowthe Pikardy, and on the weste parte to hit the occean and the northe parte of Englonde. And thauȝhe Flandres be lytelle in quantite, neuerþelesse hit is replete with mony commodites, as with pastures, bestes, marchandise, waters, hauenes or portes of the see, and nowble in cites. The peple of hit be semely in stature, myȝhty, plentuous, and ryche, kepenge peace to men of theire cuntre, feitheful to straungeors, and excel|lente [folio 46] in worchynge and laborenge in wolle that seruethe allemoste alle Europe. That londe is playne, hauenge fewe woodes, whiche gete turfes of the marras grownde to fulle|fille the stede of woode, whiche be more vile then woode Page  291, vol.1 as vn to esches, and more tedious to the odoure. Picardy is a prouince of Fraunce, hauenge nowble castelles and hie, lyenge betwene Flandres at þe northe and Normandy at the sowthe, hauenge on the weste to hit the see of Fraunce and the sowthe parte of Englonde. There be tweyne Picar|dyes; the hier that is more nye to Fraunce, and the lawer that is contiguate to Flandres and to the costes of Braban. The peple of this Picardy is more wyle and of more grosse langage then other partes of Fraunce. Normannia or Neustria, callede Normandy, toke the name of hit of men of Norway, whiche, saylenge from Denmarke, opteynede and inhabite that grownde, callenge hit Normandy, the chiefe cite of whom is callede Rothomagus, nye to the floode callede Sequana, where hit fallethe in to the occean, hauenge on the sowthe to hit the lesse Breteyne, at the weste the occean of Fraunce, at the sowthe weste to hit the northe parte of Englonde. The lesse Briteyne toke the name of Page  293, vol.1 Briteynes occupienge hit twyes. Firste by Brennius, brother to kynge Belin. In the secunde tyme of Vortigernus, as hit is conteynede more plenerly in the story of Briteynes. That prouince hathe on the este to hit Gascuyn, at the northe Normandy, at the sowthe Gyon, at the weste the occean of Gyon. There is a welle in that Briteyne, the water of whom ydrawen up in the horne of a bugle or of an ox, and caste on the nexte ston to hit, thauȝhe the weder be neuer soe feire, hit schalle reyne anoon. Also in the realme of Fraunce is a welle nye to the castelle Pascence, con|gruente to the vse of men, but not of women. The water of whiche welle can not be made hoote with eny fire. Pic|tauca is a province of Fraunce Narbonense, whom Pictes, Scottes, and Englischemen did inhabite, callenge the name off the cite Picta, and the name of the prouince Pictauea, Page  295, vol.1 as Herodotus seythe. This prouince, proiecte by the longi|tude of the occean, hathe on the este to hit Turonea, whom the floode callede Ligeris flowethe abowte, in the sowthe parte of hit Spayne, on the northe the lesse Briteyne, on the weste to hit the occean. The peple of hit kepe the maneres and consuetudes of Frenche men, to whom thei were immixte, and after the cuntre to whom thei be sub|iecte. For after Isidorus, Ethi., libro nono, that the faces and coloures of men bene chaungede after the diuersite of heuyn. Aquitanny is namede of the oblyke waters of that floode callede Ligeris, in whiche name mony other particuler prouinces be comprehendede, after Plinius, hauenge on the northe and of the este to hit Fraunce Lugdunense, towch|enge on the sowthe the prouince Narbonense. Audegauia is a province of Fraunce Lugdunense, as a meane betwene Page  297, vol.1 the lesse Briteyne and Aquitanye. Vasconia is a province somme tyme conteynede vnder Aquitanny, hauenge on the este to hit the hilles Pirene, at the weste the occean; whiche londe hathe woodes ynowe, and fulle off hilles, plentuous of vynes; whom the floode callede Garona de|partethe hit in parte from Tholosan, entrenge in to the occean nye to Burdewes, the chiefe cite of that prouince. Men of that cuntre be callede Vascones, whom Grete Pom|peius makenge tame gedrede theyme in to oon lytelle cuntre, as Herodotus, the wryter of storyes, rehersethe. But nowe the peple of that cuntre be callede Basclenses, swifte of body, bolde in herte, vsenge dartes and crosse bawes or staffe slynges, prompte to thefte and robbenge, in|duede with fowle clothenge. Burguyn is a parte of Fraunce Cenonense to Alpes Pirene extente allemoste, callede soe of townes and cites whom Astrogothes, wyllenge to waste Page  299, vol.1 Ytaly, made there. That londe towarde Alpes is colde, where the inhabitatores haue swellenges vnder the chynne for the grete habundaunce of waters of snawe beenge there.

Of Speyne. Trogus, libro ultimo, et Isidorus, libro quinto decimo. Capitulum vicesimum nonum.

TROGUS rehersethe that Speyne is iij. cornerde, or hau|enge iij. corners, whom the hilles Pirene conioynethe of the northe parte to Fraunce Narbonense, made on euery other parte as an yle thro the compassenge of the occean and of the see Tirene. Neuerthelesse there be ij. [folio 47] Speynes. The nyer Speyne to theis costes begynnethe from the hilles Pirene, and is endede at Carthago Spartaria. The forther Spayne conteynethe the weste parte to the see Gaditan, where the pillers of Hercules haue prospecte Page  301, vol.1 towarde the mownte Atlantike. That Spayne is a pleyne londe, plentuous of castelles, horses, of hony, and of me|talle; somme tyme callede Hesperia, of the sterre Hesperia directenge the Grekes to hit. After that hit was callede Hiberia, of the floode callede Hiberus. But at the laste hit was callede Hispania, after the floode callede Hispalus. Spayne hathe vj. prouinces, that is to say Terraconense Lucitany, Gallicea, Bethlike, Tingitine, Astury, and Arro|gany. Isidorus, libro quinto decimo, capitulo secundo. This Carthago of Spayne was callede Spartaria vn to the dif|ference of Grete Carthago, whiche is in Affrike, whom Scipio the consul of Rome destroyede, but this Cartago Spartaria was made of men of Affrike under Duke Hanibal, but after that hit was destroyede of the Gothes, whiche hade possession longe in Speyne, and specially in the tymes of Honorius themperoure. The Saracenes brekenge furthe from Affrike after the tymes of Heraclius thempe|roure ouercome the Gothes. Whiche Saracenes were de|victe Page  303, vol.1 of Grete Charles, and losenge the weste partes of Spayne, whiche be callede Gallicia Lucitania, receyuede oonly to theyme the este partes of Speyne.

Of the Yles of the Grete See. Capitulum tricesimum.

THAT yle callede Gades is put firste amonge the yles of the grete see, whiche is sette in the weste ende of Speyne, as in the mowthe of the weste occean, where the grete occean brekenge vp diuidethe Affrike from Europe; whom men of Tire occupyenge callede hit Gades, whiche is in theire langage, compassede abowie, in so moche that hit is compassede abowte with the see, departede from the londe c. and x. passes; where Hercules putte mervellous pyllors as a memorialle in the extremite of the worlde, whiche be callede Gades, after the name of that yle. Hug. capituloPage  305, vol.1Gades. Where of a consuetude was taken, that pyllers sette of myȝhty men in those places whiche myȝhte not be paste were calledde Gades. After these the yles callede Baleares, Maiorica and Minorica, be sette towarde the este. After theyme the yle callede Sardinia, hauenge on the sowthe to hit Affrike, at the northe Sicille; in whiche yle be noo serpentes, neither venom, but an herbe whiche thei calle apium, causenge a man to laȝhe, and in laȝhenge to dye. That region hathe hoote welles and whollesom, the water of whom causethe blyndenesse to theves, after the sacramente recevede, if his eies be towchede with water there of. Corsica is an yle gendrenge nowble pastures, and a ston callede aconites; hauenge on the este to hit the see Tirene, and of the weste the yles callede Baleares, at the sowthe Liguria, a prouince of Italy; hauenge in longitude a c. lx. m. passes, and in latitude xxvi. m. passes. That yle, callede Corsica, toke the name of hit of a woman Page  307, vol.1 callede Corsa, whiche seenge a bulle departenge ofte from other bestes, and to comme ageyne better fedde then other, meruaylede, and, takenge a schippe, folowede the bulle in to that yle. The plentuosenes of hit knowen, sche brouȝhte men from the prouince of Liguria to inhabite hit. Aradia or Aradium is an yle whiche is alle a cite, not ferre from the cite of Tyrus, hauenge schippe men, worthy men in batelle. There be liij. other yles, callede Cyclades, of this word, ciclon, in Grewe, that is, a cercle, in Latyn, sette abowte the yle callede Delon. Somme men wylle they be soe namede for stones beenge in theyme. The firste yle of theyme towarde the este is the yle of Roodes, and thei be finischede in the northe in the brynkes of the lesse Asia, whiche haue from the sowthe in to the northe a m. and lti myles, from the este to the weste ijc. myles. The myddel yle of theyme is callede Delon, whiche sowndethe open, in that hit was illuminate of the son a fore other londes after Page  309, vol.1 Noe floode. That yle was callede other wise Ortygia, for curlewes be there habundante, where Latona childede Apollo Delphicus. Samos or Samias ys an yle, where Pythagoras*. [Pittagoras, MSS.; Pyctagoras, Cx., omitting þe philosophre.] the philosophre and also Sibille the prophetisse were borne. That londe bryngethe furthe white clay and redde, of whom pottes or godardes be made. Cyprus is an yle, whiche*. [Either whiche should be can|celled, or is inserted.] other|wise callede Paphon or Cethim, cincte on the sowthe parte to hit with the see of Phenicia,*. [Fenicea, Harl. MS.] on the weste with the see Pamphilike, conteynenge in longitude c. and lxxx. myles, and in latitude c. xxti and v. myles. There brasse and the use of hit were ffounde fyrste. The wyne of whiche [folio 47b] londe is moste stronge and myȝhty. The yle callede Creta toke the name of hit of a man inhabitenge hit, whose name was Cretus; whiche was callede somme tyme Centa|polis, in that hit hade a c. nowble cites in hit. The londe of Saturne and Iupiter, whiche longede to Grece in Page  311, vol.1 olde tyme, hauenge on the sowthe to hit the see of Libya; in whiche yle be mony schepe and gaytes or gootes, but there be fewe hertes and hyndes; gendrenge not foxes, wulfes, or nyous serpentes. And also bestes replete with venom dye anoon after thei be brouȝhte þider. Neuerthe|lesse that cuntre gendrethe gravelle with venom, whom they calle Spalingeas. Orosius. That yle conteynethe in longi|tude c. lxxx. and vij. m. passes, and in latitude a m. and vj. In that yle is also oon of the iiij. mases, as hit Page  313, vol.1 schalle be expressede afterwarde. That yle Sicilia*. [Pathnium, Harl. MS.] was callede somme tyme Trinacria, of thre hilles schewenge in hit, whiche be namede Pelorum, Pachynum,*. [Pathnium, Harl. MS.] and Lilybeum. After that hit was callede Sicilia,*. [Scicilia, Harl. MS. (twice.)] of Siculus broþer to Italus. Also hit was callede Sicania, of Sicanius kynge, hauenge on the northe to hit Apulia, a parte of Ytaly, now diuidede by an arme of the see. But after Salustius, Scicille was coniuncte somme tyme to Ytaly, but after|warde hit was diuidede auþer thro invndation of water, other thro the movenge of erthes, in so moche that a see diuidethe now Ytaly from Scicille by the space of iij. myles. That Page  315, vol.1 see hathe ij. famous wondres and fulle of fables, that be Scylla and Charybdis. This Scylla, as men dwellenge there expresse, seyen that hit is a ston apperenge in the see lyke to the forme of man with hedes lyke to dogges. Wherefore thei seyne that thynge as to berke for the collision of waters metenge there. Charybdis is callede properly a turnenge water, and perellous for destroyenge of schippes, evometenge waters thryes in the day, and de|vourenge theyme. Isidorus, Eth., libro quarto decimo. That londe occupiede tyllenge of the londe with a plowe firste of alle other londes. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo, capitulo septimo. In this Scicille is the mownte callede Etna,*. [Ethna, MSS. and Cx.] hauenge in hit towarde the sowthe weste pyttes of Page  317, vol.1 sulphur,*. [Perhaps sulphure is the reading of Harl. MS.] whiche receyvenge wynde gendre a fumose fyre. ℞. In whiche place figures do appere and lamentable voices be herde ofte tymes; where fore mony men suppose that þer be places of peynes for sawles, as Seynte Gregory semethe to afferme in his dialogges. Gir. in Top. Also in Scicille is a welle to whom a man commenge in redde clothenge anoon that water movethe vp, not movenge to other coloures. Also in hit be gressehoppers, hauenge streyte veynes vnder the throte; whiche, hauenge theire hedes kytte of, synge more swetely, as hit is seyde, then when thei haue theire hedes, and dedde better then on lyve. Wherefore the schepardes, wyllenge to make theyme to synge swetely, kytte of theire hedes. In hit is a cite callede Palerna, whiche yeldethe more rente yerely to the kynge þer of, more then alle Englonde yeldethe to the kynge of certenty. Isidorus, libro tertio decimo. Also in Scicille be ij. welles, oon of theyme makethe plentuous a bareyne thynge; that other welle makeythe bareyne a Page  319, vol.1 thynge plentuous. Also in Scicille is white salte, contrary to the nature of other salte, whiche, beenge soluble in the fyre, brestethe and brekethe in the water. Also there is an yle nye to Scicille callede Eola, takenge the name of hit of a man callede Eolus, whom poetes feynede to be god of wynde, in so moche that he, beenge gouerner of the seide ix. yles, seyde ofte tymes when wyndes scholde folowe by fumose vapores ascendenge. Where fore indis|crete men supposede hym to haue the wynde in his go|uernaile and powere. These ix. yles be namede and callede Walcane, in that fire brennethe in theyme continually. Also there be other yles in the see Eusyne, whiche is a grete parte of the grete see, amonge whom the yle callede Colchos, where Iason did seche the fleese of golde, as hit schalle be towchede abowte þe batelle of Troye, ys moste of fame; and Patmos,*. [Pathmos, MSS. and Cx.] where Seynte Iohan was in exile.

Page  321, vol.1

Off the Yles of the Occean. Capitulum tricesimum primum. Plinius, et Isidorus libro quinto decimo.*. [Both versions are wrong; the true reference is to lib. xiv. c. 6, § 8.]

THE Yles Fortunate be temperate, putte in the weste occean, supposede of mony men to be paradise for the temperaunce of the aier and fecundite or plentuosenes of the soyle; the hilles of those yles be clothede as by for|tunable enchaunce with herbes and other commodites, for whiche cause men inhabitenge theyme calle theym the [folio 48b] yles fortunate or happy. Where trees be extente in alti|tude by a c. and xlti foote. Where is an yle callede Capraria, namede soe of the multitude of stronge dogges. Dacia, that is callede Denmarke, is an yle contiguate or adnecte to the northe parte of Germayne, the peple of whom was cruelle somme tyme and bellicose, in so moche that thei entrede þe prouinces or costes of Fraunce and of Englonde; callede Daci, as Dagi, for thei come of the kynde of Gothes. The peple of hit is copious, of semely stature, Page  323, vol.1 beatuous of face; thauȝhe that peple be cruelle ageyne theire enmyes, neuerthelesse hit is meke ageynes innocentes. Also oon thynge is attendede specially of the Danes, that thei brouȝte firste in to Englonde the excesse and surfette in drynkenge. Wytlandia is an yle at the weste parte of Denmarke, a bareyn grownde, inhabite with peple of barbre worschippenge ydoles; whiche be wonte to selle wynde to men commenge to theire portes as inclusede vnder knottes of threde, causenge the wynde to be encreasede after theire pleasure thro that threde. Islandia is an yle, hauenge on the sowthe to hit Norweye, on the northe the see conge|lede; hauenge also peple of schorte langage, couerede with the skynnes of wilde bestes, ȝiffenge theire labour to fisch|enge, hauenge to theire kynge whom thei have to theire priste. There be grete fawkunnes and gentylle gossehawkes, white beres brekenge the water congelede to drawe owte fysches. That londe noryschethe not schepe for habundance Page  325, vol.1 of colde, neither cornes, otes excepte. Whiche yle is from Breteyne by the saylenge off iij. daies. Solinus de mira|bilibus mundi. Tyle is the laste yle of the occean after Briteyne, betwene the northe plage and the weste, the knowlege of whiche yle is hade vnnethe of men. Plinius, libro secundo. That yle takethe the name of hit of the son, for from the equinoccialle of Ver on to the equinoc|cialle of herveste the son is allewey presente there, and neuer nyȝhte, and the son is absente also alleweyes from the equinoccialle of herveste to the equinoccial of Ver. Wherefore hit is inhabitable in the somer, for the con|tinualle presence of the son beynge there, and also in wynter, for contynualle coldenes beenge there, and for the absence of the son. Wherefore corne may not growe there. Betwene whom and the yle of Briteyne be oþer yles, callede Scandia, Lingo, and Virgion. That Tyle is from Breteyne by the saylenge of vj. dayes. Giraldus in Top. Seynte Austyn, xxjo. libro, de Civitate Dei, seythe that Tilis is an yle of Ynde, the trees of whom suffre not theire leves Page  327, vol.1 to falle. Therefore, who so euer dothe rede this processe, y wylle he aduertise that there be yles, the oon of theyme is callede Tilis, and that other is callede Tile, leste equi|uocacion of the names deceyve hym. That yle in Ynde is callede Tilis, and that yle in the weste is callede Tile in the nominatiue case, Isidorus wittenesse, Eth., xxo. Nor|guegia, that is callede Norway, is nye to Dacia and Gothia, hauenge on the sowthe to hit Scotlande, of the northe Island; a grete yle, and compassede abowte with the see, a colde londe, a bareyne cuntre, and fulle of hilles. There is litelle corne, mony beeres and brockes. The peple þer of lyve more by fyschenge then by huntenge, eitenge but lytelle brede. In the northe parte of that cuntre the son goethe not down in the solstice of somer by mony daies, and is not seen to aryse ageyn in the solstice of wynter by mony dayes. In whiche tyme hit behouethe men labor|enge to worche by lyȝhte of candeles. In that londe is a welle in whom woodde putte or wolle by a yere be con|gelede in to a ston. The peple of hit, serchenge the Page  329, vol.1 occean, exercise the lyfe of schippemen; þe victory and spede of theim is by fiȝhte in schippes on the see.

Of Irlonde. Capitulum tricesimum secundum.

IRLONDE was somme tyme to Briteyne concorporate by ryȝhte of dominacion, whom Giraldus describenge in his Topographye extollethe hit with mony laudes. The titles here folowenge expresse and schewe the way. Therefore, hit schalle be seyde of the site and place of that londe, of the quantite and qualite of hit, and the defawtes of that londe, of the firste dwellers of hit, and of the maneres of the inhabitatores of hit.

Of the localle site of Irlonde. Irlonde, the laste of all the weste yles, toke the name of hit of Hiberus brother of Hermonius, whiche coniuncte to gedre gate that Page  331, vol.1 londe. Or elles hit was namede of a weste floode of Speyne callede Hiberus. And hit was callede also Sco|tia, of Scottes inhabitenge hit or that thei come to that other Scotlande. Wherefore hit is redde in the marti|logge: "Suche a day at Scotlande Seynte Brigida," whiche was at Irlonde. That londe hathe on the southe este to hit Spayne by the sailenge of thre dayes from hit as colaterally, and on the este to hit the more Briteyne beenge from hit by the saylenge of oon day, and on the weste to hit the occean infinite, of the north Islande from hit by the saylenge of iij. dayes. Solinus. The see that departethe hit from Briteyne is perellous and fulle of water, and inquiete of alle the yere, and vnnethe able to be passede with schippes in eny tyme; extente in latitude cxxti m. passes.

Of the quantite and qualite of hit. The yle of Irlonde, after Briteyne moste extendede in to the northe, conteyn|ethe from Brendan hille to the yle callede Columbina xvixx. myles, and from Dublyn to the hilles of Seynte Patrikke viijxx. myles, whiche londe is more streyte in the myddes then at the endes, but hyt is in contrary Page  333, vol.1 wyse of Briteyne; and lyke as Irlonde is more schorte to the northe then Briteyne, in lyke wise hit is more large at the sowthe. A londe inegalle fulle of hilles and water. Solinus. That londe is so plentuous in pastures to bestes that the fattenes of theyme scholde cause perelle, with oute the bestes were removede from hit oþer while. Giraldus. The flesche of that cuntre inducethe sanite to men of that londe, and causethe strongeours to haue the flux for the moisture of the noryschenge of theyme. The flesche of a kowe is wholsom there; but swyne flesche be nyenge moche: the dwellers of hit be not vexede with the axes excepte the scharpe axes, and that is but selde. Men of that londe thenke that the wholsomnes of that londe and wontenge of venom excelle and compense alle the prides of the este, as in wode, herbes, gemmes, and oþer clothes. The holsomnes of that cuntre semethe Page  335, vol.1 to be causede in that there is but lytelle excesse in coldenesse or in heete.

Of what thynges that londe is suffisiaunte. That londe is more habundaunte in kye then in oxen, in pasture then in corne. Neuerthelesse, hit habundethe in sal|mones, eles, lawmpreis, and in other fysche of the see; in egles, cranes, pokokkes, curlewes, sparrehowke, ffawken, and gentille gossehawke; hauenge wulphes and moste nyous myse, and weselles lytelle in body, but bolde in herte. Also there he bryddes whiche thei calle bernacles, lyke to wylde gese, whom nature producethe ageyne nature from firre trees, whom religious men do eite in fastenge daies, in that thei be not bredde and geten thro the acte off venery. But an obieccion may be made ageyne that cause; for and if a man scholde haue eiten of the flesche of Adam he scholde have eiten flesche with Page  337, vol.1 owte dowte thauȝhe hit come not of flesche; for like as the flesche of Adam was made of the erthe, so those bryddes comme of a tre, as a thynge to be hade in mer|uayle. Also that londe is habundante in mylke, hony, in wynes, but [not] in vynes. And also thauȝhe that grete clerke Bede seye that londe not to be experte of vynes, and Solinus and Isidorus*. [Ysodorus, Harl. MS.] seye hit to wonte bees, neuertheles thei scholde haue writen more circumspectely, if they hade seide that londe to wonte vynes, and to haue be habun|dante in bees. Also Bede seythe that yle to habunde in dere, sythe hit is provede by experience that londe to have wontede suche bestes, and no meruayle, sythe Bede provede not the trawthe of the commodites of that yle by his awne person, but by the relacioun of other men. A ston is gendrede there whiche is callede Iris, whiche putte to the sonne causethe a reynebawe to appere in the aier. Also a ston callede gagates, and a white margarite be founde there.

In what thynges that londe is defectiue. The cornes off whete be scarse there and lytelle. Also that londe Page  339, vol.1 wontethe fisches whiche haue theire originalle naturalle in fresche waters. Also that cuntre hathe not a kynde of hawkes that be callede lauerettes and grete|fawkones, partricche and fesaunte, pyes, nyȝhtegales, bucke and doo, wontes and other bestes of venom. Wherefore somme men feyne fauorably, seyenge Seynte Patrike to haue purgede and made clene that yle thro his preyers from nyous bestes. But hit is more probable to say that yle to haue wontede suche bestes from the begynnenge of hit. Also other bestes fulle of venom brouȝhte from other places to hit dye anoon. Also if poison be brouȝhte to that londe, hit losethe the strenȝhte of hit or that hit comme in þe myddes of the water nye to that londe. Also the erthe of that londe caste abrode in other cuntres or londes dothe expelle venomous bestes, in so moche that parte of that erthe putte to worme auther sleethe hit other elles constreynethe hit to entre in to the erthe. Cokkes in that cuntre begynne to crawe in the begynnenge of the nyȝhte; neuerthelesse day is supposede to drawe nye at the firste crawenge of the cocke.

Page  341, vol.1

Of the firste Inhabitatores of that Londe. Capitulum tri|cesimum tertium.

GIRALDUS rehersethe and seithe that londe was inhabitate*. [ ends.] firste of Casera, son of the douȝhter of Noe, [which] dredenge the grete floode, come to that yle in the yere a fore that floode, with iij. men and lti women. In the secunde tyme hit was inhabite of Bartholarius with iij. childer, of the stocke of Iaphethe son of Noe, in the iijc. yere after that grete floode; which encreasenge vn to the nowmbre of ix. m. alle diede thro the corrupcion of carion of the bodies of giauntes whom thei had oppressede, Ruan excepte, whiche lyvede by m. yere and a halfe, vnto the tymes of Seynte Patrike, tellenge to that holy man the gestes of that peple. In the thrydde time Nimeth or Nimedus, with his iiij. childer, cummenge from Scythia,*. [Nymeth, α. and Cx.] inhabite that londe by ijc. and xvi. yere; and at the laste that stokke and kynnerede de|stroyede by diverse infortuny of batelles and of oþer mor|talite, that londe was vacante from inhabitatores by ijc. yere Page  343, vol.1 foloenge. In the iiijthe tyme v. dukes and breþer german, Gandius, Sanandius, Segandius, Rutheragus, and Sclanius, commenge by succession of the stocke of Nimedus, com|menge from Grece, occupiede þat londe, diuidenge hit in to v. partes. Euery parte in that diuision did conteyne xxxij. tancredes. And a tancrede is a porcion of c. townes, whiche putte a ston in the myddes, as in the navelle, as the begynnenge of v. realmes. After that Sclanius was made the holle lorde of alle that londe. In the vthe tyme, that londe made feble by mony yere, iiij. sonnes of kynge Mil|lesius comme to hit with iijxx. sayles from Speyne, with mony other, of whom Heberus and Hermon were gouernoures, diuidede that realme amonge theyme, but by succession of tyme the bonde of luffe was broken betwene theyme. And so, Heberus sleyne, the holle monarchy succeedede to Her|mon, from the tyme of whom were cxxxjti kynges of that peple to the tyme of the firste Patrikke. And so from the commenge of theyme vn to the dethe of Seynte Patrikke Page  345, vol.1 the firste were ml yere and ccc. Men of Irlonde toke the name of theym of this Heberus, other elles after somme men of a floode of Speyne callede Heberus. Also thei were callede Gaiteles and Scottes after a man callede Gaitelus nevewe to Phenius, whiche, after the confusion of langages at the towre of Nemproth, wyse in diuerse langages did wedde Scota, the douȝhter of kynge Pharas, of whiche dukes men off Irlonde haue descendede. This Gaitelus, as hit is seide, made the langage of that cuntre, whiche is callede Gaitelaf, as a langage collecte of alle langages. At the laste Gurguntius, the sonne of Belyn kynge of Briteyne, turnenge from Denmarke to the yles callede Orcades, founde a certeyne peple of the cuntre of Speyne callede Bas|clenses, whiche desirenge to haue inhabitacion, the kynge sende theyme in to Irlonde to inhabite hit, that tyme voide of inhabitatores. Whiche made a certeyn gouernoure espe|cialle amonge theyme. Wherefore hit semethe that Irlonde longethe or perteynethe to Briteyne by olde lawe and Page  347, vol.1 ryȝhte, where xxxti iij. kynges reigned from the tyme and commenge of the firste Patrikke to the tyme of kynge Fed|linidius in that londe by iiijc. yere. In the tyme of kynge Fedlinidius men of Norway commenge with a duke callede Turgesius occupiede that londe, makenge grete diches, cas|telles symple, dowble and threfolde as in veyne; for the men of Irlonde attende not to castelles, for thei vse woodes for castelles and marras. At the laste this duke Turgesius was perischede and extincte thro the disseyte of maydenes. And for cause the peple off Englonde sayethe and cryethe Gurmunde to haue subiugate Irlonde and to have made those dyches, hauenge not Turgesius in vre or in remem|braunce; but men of Irlonde remembre that duke Tur|gesius, hauenge noo remembraunce of Gurmunde;—there|fore hit it to vnderstonde Gurmunde to haue bene in the realme of Briteyne, whiche he subduede to hym, and to haue sende Turgesius with a multitude of peple to Irlonde Page  349, vol.1 to expugne hit. And for cause that Turgesius was as the gouernoure in that labor, þerfore þe peple of Irlonde namethe hym whom thay*. [So Harl. MS.] see. Gurmunde dedde at the laste in Fraunce, Turgesius luffede moche þe doȝhter of kynge Medense, whiche mayde here fader promisede to sende to Turgesius with xv. other maides, whom Turgesius made promyse to mete at a water callede Lacheryne, with so mony nowble men of his peple. Whiche Turgesius was sleyne by disseyte of those xv. yonge men in the habite and clothenge of women hauenge weppen vnder theire clothes, after that he hade reignede in that yle xxxti yere. After that thre breþer come to that yle from the partes of Norway, as in signe of pease, Aurelanus, Siracus, and Iuorus, with other people, whiche, thro the consente of men of Irlonde, ȝiffen to ydellenes, occupienge the places and [folio 51b] Page  351, vol.1 costes of that cuntre nye to the see, made Dublyn, Water|forde, and Lymyrike, thre cites. Whiche encreasenge in nowmbre, made mony batelles ageyne the inhabitatores of that cuntre. Therefore from the tyme of Turgesius vn to the laste Rotherike, whom kynge Henry the secunde made subiecte to hym in the xlti yere of his age, and in the xvijthe yere off his reigne, in the yere of oure Lorde God m. c. lxxvij., a c. lxxxj. kynges gouernede Yrlonde, not crownede neither anoyntede, neither occupienge hit by ryȝhtefulle inheritaunce, but obteynenge the predominy by strenȝhte and armes.

Of the Disposicion of the Inhabitatours of that Londe. Capitulum tricesimum quartum.

SOLINUS, the grete clerke, rehersethe that the peple of that londe be like to the peple of Barbre, bellicose, accom|ptenge Page  353, vol.1 ryȝhte and wronge as for oon thynge, a peple sym|ple in habite, scarse and litelle in fyndenge, cruelle in herte, scharpe in speche, vsenge frutes for flesche, mylke for drynke, a peple that ȝiffethe more attendaunce to ydelnesse and to disportes then to labour. The peple of that cuntre is norischede hardely after thei comme in to this worlde, whiche vse no sadelles in rydenge, neither spurres, neither bootes. Neuerthelesse thei haue a wonde, other a rodde, clenede in the hier parte of it to cause the horses to move and labour in theire honde; which fiȝhte with oute armoure, neuerthelesse thei vse dartes and speres, and thei fiȝhte also with oon honde and with brode axes, vsenge moche stones in theire fiȝhtenge when thei wonte other weppen. This peple despisethe tyllenge of londe, vsenge pastures, and suf|frenge the hynder partes of theire hedes to groe in to a Page  355, vol.1 grete lengthte: not vsenge theire lyfe in makenge of clothe of wolle, other elles of lyne or flex, neither in eny kynde of marchandise, neither in eny honde crafte; but ȝiffen to ydelnesse, accompte to be with owte labor delites, and a plea|sure to ioye in liberte. Also Scotlande, the doȝhter of hit, as in ydelnesse vsethe an harpe, a tympan, and a crowde. And Wales vsethe trumpettes, an harpe, and a crowde. Ne|uerthelesse men of Irlonde be experte specially in ij. kyndes of musike, that is to say, an harpe, and a tympan stryngede and armede with cordes off brasse. But thauȝhe thei make a swyfte melody ther with and a swete, thei begynne with a softe noyce and tune, and pleyenge priuely vnder a dulle sounde of a more grosse corde returne to the same. The peple of this cuntre is vile of condicion; vn to this tyme presente they pay not theire tythes, thei make not lawe|fulle contractes in matrimony, thay avoide not inceste, but breþer wedde the wyfes of theire brether, vsenge gretely Page  357, vol.1 treason, berenge in theire honde an instrumente callede a sparth as for a staffe with the whiche they perische ofte|tymes men trustenge in theyme. This peple is frowarde and inconstante, diuerse or variable, and wyly, amonge whom batelle is more to be dredde then arte, peace more then armor, hony more then galle, malice more then cheual|lery; the propertes and condicions of whom be, thei be neither stronge in battelle neither tru in pease; whiche ioyne to theyme men whom thei intende to sle by the bonde of compaternite and of consecrate fraternite, by whiche oon of theyme drynkethe the bloode of that other wyllefully. Which luffe theire childer in a maner, and breþer; whiche prosecute their cosynnes; deceyvenge men in lyfe, and tak|enge Page  359, vol.1 vengeaunce for dedde men. Mony men of that cuntre vse to make water and to sende furthe theire vryne syt|tenge, and women stondenge. Also there is moche peple of that londe destitute in theire membres thro the deformite of nature; for lyke as men amonge theyme welle formede by nature be semely men, so men deformede by nature amonge þeim be moste vile and hade in contempte; and by ryȝhte, for hit is not to be hade in meruayle, thauȝhe nature hurte brynge furthe peple as ageyne the lawe of nature, amonge peple vsenge inceste and takenge women ageyne the lawe of God. Also hit is seide amonge commune peple, olde women of that londe, and of Wales, to chaunge theyme in to the forme of an hare and to sowke bestes, and to take aweye the mylke of other men, and to make feynte the grehowndes of grete men thro cowrsenge and rennenge. And somme of theim causenge redde swyne thro wycche|crafte, after thei were made fatte and solde at feires, when Page  361, vol.1 thei come to eny water to returne in to an other kynde, causenge that body soe to endure by wycchecrafte by the space of thre dayes. Amonge whiche thynges hit is to be [folio 50b] aduertede that the extremites of the worlde schyne in newe wondres and meruailes, as if that nature scholde schyne and play more in priuate places and remouede then in open places and also nye.

Of the Wondres and Meruayles of hit. Capitulum tricesimum quintum.

Giraldus. Mony men afferme and say that ther is an yle in the northe parte of Yrlonde whiche is callede the yle of men lyvenge, in whiche yle a man may not dye, but after that thei be detente with longe infirmite thei be brouȝhte to another yle nye to hit. Also there is an other yle, in whom a woman may not be delyuerede; neuerthelesse thei may conceyve in Page  363, vol.1 hit. Also there is an other yle in whom the bodies of dedde men may not be putrefiede. Also there is a place in Vltonia, that is callede Vlster, conteynenge an yle par|tede in tweyne. That oon of theyme is wonte to be vsede with the visitacion of angelles. That other is expownede to the incursion of deuelles, in whiche parte the purgatory of Seynte Patrikke is, whiche he deseruede to obteyne by hys preiers to the confirmacion of his seyenge, when he prechede to reprobable peple of the ioyes of heuyn and of the peynes of helle. For, as hit is seide, if eny man sus|teyne the tormentes of that place by penaunce injoynede to hym, he schalle not suffre the peynes of helle with owte that he were inpenitente finally, as hit schalle be schewede more pleyneley in the ende of this chapitre. Also there is an Page  365, vol.1 yle in that cuntre, whiche was consecrate of Seynte Bren|dan, wontenge myce, where the bodies of men neither rote neither be beriedde, but lye with owte incorrupte. Also there is a welle in Manonia that and if a man wasche alle his body with that water, other elles parte, he schalle be made hoore. Also there is a welle in Vlster, where in a man waschenge hym schalle not wexe hoore afterwarde. Also there is a welle in Manonia whiche towchede of a man schalle cause alle the prouince to habunde in reyn, whiche schalle not sease vntille a preste beenge a virgyn from his natiuite syngenge masse in a chapelle nye to hit, makenge holy water, schalle reconsile that welle after the ryte of men of Barbre, castenge holy water abowte that welle with the mylke of a kowe that is of oon coloure. Also at a water callede Glynde, nye to the chyrche of Seynte Kexwyne, welo|trees bere apples more hollesom then thei appere to the savoure, whom that seynte causede to be brouȝhte furthe thro his preiers for the sawle healethe of his childe. Also Page  367, vol.1 there is a water in Vlster ful of fisches, hauenge xxxti m. passes in longitude and xv. m. in latitude, from whom the water, callede Banne, goethe furthe vn to the northe occean, to whiche place and water a meruellous chaunce happede, as hit is seide. For that abhominable vice of send|enge furthe of sede was vsede amonge men of that cuntre with brute bestes, where a welle vsede to be couerede for olde reuerence, laste at a tyme vncouerede that welle so habundaunte in water drownede alle that prouince. Where of hit happede a woman to haue goen to that welle for cause to drawe water, and leuenge hit vncouerede, makenge haste to here childe cryenge, the water was so habundante that hit pereschede þe woman with here childe, and makenge alle the prouince a water: an argumente and a probacion of this thynge dothe appere in that the fischer, vsenge to fische in that water, may see in the bryȝhte daies of somer vnder the waters hye towres and rownde of chirches, after the vse of that cuntre. Also at the sowthe parte of Irlonde, in Page  369, vol.1 the region off Ossirience, a man and a woman be constreynede to indue an other forme in the ende of vii. yere from that costes,*. [So Harl. MS., but the sen|tence is more or less corrupt.] thro the preier of an holy abbotte, whiche induede with the forme of a wulfe the space of vij. yere complete, if they be in lyve thei returne in to theire propre nature, other tweyne subrogate in to the places of theyme in lyke wyse. Also there is a water in that cuntre, in to whom if a staffe or a thynge of a tree be put by a certeyne tyme, the parte of that tre beenge in the erthe is yrne, that parte in the water is as the substaunce of a ston, that parte above the*. [that, MS.] water dothe remayne in that forme as when it was putte ynne. Also there is a lake in that cuntre, in to whom if thou putte a rodde of an haselle tre hit is turnede in to an asche, and in contrary wyse. Also there be in Yrlonde iij. weres, whiche be in latitude of the hiȝhte of a spere, ageyne a hille ouer whom salmones wylle passe þro a sprentenge. Also there is a water in Legennia, where [be] the bryddes of Seynte Page  371, vol.1 Colomanne, whiche be callede cercelle, wonte to the hondes of men: if iniury be doen to those bryddes, they comme not ageyne; and also the waters þer wexe bytter and make an ylle savour; and the doer of the iniury schalle not escape vengeaunce, vn tille that he have doen dewe satisfaccion. Also hit is to be attendede abowte the purgatory of Seynte Patrik, that Seynte Patrik the secunde, whiche was an abbot and not a byschoppe, when he prechede in Yrlonde, studiede to calle ageyne and brynge to the weye of sawle healethe the sawles of the bestialle peple in that cuntre from the peyne of helle, and to confirme the myndes of theyme in goodenesse thro the promission of the ioyes of paradise. The men of that cuntre seide they wolde not be conuertede, but if somme of theym myȝhte haue ex|perience in this lyfe in a parte of the ioyes of paradise and of the peynes of helle: wherefore Seynte Patrike makenge his preyers for that cause, oure Lorde Iesus Criste apperede to hym, ȝiffenge to hym a texte of the gospelle Page  373, vol.1 and a staffe, whiche remayne ȝitte in the cuntre with the archibischoppe. After that oure Lorde ledde furthe Seynte Patrike in to a deserte place, where he schewede to hym a lytulle rownde dyche, obscure and derke with ynne, seyenge*. [Of þe pur|gatory of Seynte Patryk.] that if a man, beenge truly penitente, abyde in hit by a day and a nyȝhte, he schalle see the tormentes of ylle men and also the ioies of blessede men. Then Criste euaneschede*. [Seynte Patrik was a chanon.] awey, and Seynte Patrike made a chirche there, ordeynenge in hit chanones reguler, compassenge abowte that dyche with a walle, whiche is now in the chirche yerde at the este parte of the chirche, and kepenge hit with grete diligence vnder a locke, leste eny man scholde entre in to hit in foly, withowte licence of the byschoppe and of the prior of that place. Mony men entrede in to þat place in the tyme of Seynte Patrik, whiche commenge ageyne tellede of the peynes and of the ioyes that thei hade seen; þro whiche thynge mony men were conuertede to the feithe of Criste: and mony men entrenge in to that place come neuer ageyne. But in the daies of Steven kynge of Englonde, Page  375, vol.1 a knyȝhte, Owyne by name, entrede in to hit, whiche returnenge ageyne was made a monke of the ordre Cister|ciens, in the monastery of Ludense, whiche taryede þer after alle the tyme of his lyfe, tellenge thynges that he hade seene: that place is callede the purgatory of Seynte Patrikke. Truly eny man is not movede to entre in to that place, but he hathe cownselle in the begynnenge that he scholde not entre in to hit. But and if a man wille entre into hit, in eny wyse he schalle goe firste to the bischoppe of that place, whiche ȝiffethe cownselle to hym that he scholde not entre in to hit; but and if he remayne in that purpose, he takethe to hym a letter to goe to the prior of that place, whiche cownsellethe hym also that he schalle not entre in to hit, movenge hym to take other penaunce. And if the man be perseuerante in his purpose, and wylle to entre in to that place, the prior bryngethe hym in to the chirche that he may applye hym selfe in fastenges and preiers by xv. daies. After that the prior, causenge the man to receyve the blessede sacramente, bryngethe hym furthe with procession, the conuente syngenge the letany, vn to the durre of the purgatory, where the prior of that Page  377, vol.1 place movethe hym ageyne that he scholde not entere in to hit. But and if the man be perseuerante in that purpose, he openethe the durre with a benediccion, makenge the durre sure after hym, goethe ageyne in to the place, vn tylle the morowe followenge, whiche commenge to that place with the conuente, and fyndenge the man commen ageyne, bryngethe hym in to the chyrche with procession, where he taryethe afterwarde by xv. dayes in fastenges and preiers.

Of the Preconyes of Holy Men and Seyntes of that Londe. Capitulum tricesimum sextum.

Giraldus rehersethe and seythe that like as men of that nacion be more impaciente afore other folke in this lyfe, and prompte to take vengeaunce, soe in like wise the seyntes of that cuntre be knowen to be of a moore vengeaunce then seyntes of other regiones. The clergy of that londe schynethe in chastite, ȝiffenge attendaunce to preier and to abstinence by the day artificialle, spendenge the nyȝhtes in surfettes and in ryette. Soe that hit may Page  379, vol.1 be seide as a myracle lecchery not to reigne in those places where wynes be moche vsede. And lyke as ylle men amonge theyme be moste wickede, soe in lyke wyse [folio 54b] goode men amonge theyme be moste holy, thawȝhe þer be but fewe goode men. The prelates of places in that cuntre be slawthefulle to do correccion for excesses, ȝiffenge attendaunce to ydlenesse, and not to predicaciones. Where of hit is causede that alle the seyntes of that cuntre be con|fessores, and noo martir. But meruayle defendethe lytelle þer of; for allemoste alle men exaltede in to grete dignites there be taken from monasteryes, whiche fullefille raþer the office of a clerke then the office of a prelate. Where|fore an obieccion was made in a tyme to the bischoppe Cassielense, how so mony seyntes myȝhte be in that londe, and alle confessores and noo martir, sythe the subiectes of that londe be so cruelle, and prelates there be soe slawe in correccion. That byschoppe answerede and seide, "Trawthe is that the peple of that cuntre be cruelle amonge theyme selfe, but not to the seruauntes of God, sythe thei Page  381, vol.1 worschippe and luffe theyme moste: but now the peple of Englonde is comen in to oure cuntre, whiche haue hade knowlege and exercise to make martires." ℞. That byschoppe seyde in that wyse, for kynge Henry the secunde was commen that tyme in to the costes of Yrlonde newely after the martirizacion of Seynte Thomas of Canterbery. Giraldus. Belles and crokede staves, and suche other thynges, be hade in that londe in grete veneracion, as thei vse in Wales and in Scotlande, in so moche that thei drede more to swere by theym then to swere on the masse booke. Amonge whom the staffe of Ihesus is as a thynge principalle, beenge at Dublynne, by whom thei say Seynte Paterike the firste to haue expellede serpentes and wormes owte from that londe with that staffe. Aug. de Civ., libro 16, ca o. 7. And if hit be inquirede how diuerse kyndes of bestes whiche be procreate of commixtion myȝhte be in yles after the grete floode of Noe, hit is to be ȝiffen to credence that auther thei come thider by swymmenge, Page  383, vol.1 other thei were brouȝhte thyder for cause of disporte by men saylenge in schippes, other by the precepte of Alle|myȝhty God, other elles by the helpe of angelles, or elles thei come of the erthe after the firste originalle, when God seyde commandenge the erthe to brynge furthe euery thynge hauenge the spirite of lyfe.

Of that Londe callede Scottelande. Capitulum tricesimum septimum.

Hit is made commune that the londe whiche is callede nowe Scotlande is the northe parte of the moore Briteyne, departede from hit by armes of the see towarde the sowthe, in other partes compassede with the see. That londe was callede somme tyme Albania, of Albanactus, the son of Brute, the kynge inhabitenge hit firste; other elles of Albannia, whiche is a parte of a londe callede Scythia, nye to þe Amazones. Wherefore Scoti, that be callede Scottes, be seide to take theire begynnenge of Page  385, vol.1 Scythia. That londe was callede afterwarde Pictauia, of Pictes reignenge there by the space of a m. lx. and x. yere, and after somme men a m. iijc. yere and iijxx., whiche was clepede Hibernia, and Yrlonde afterwarde. Gir. in top. Whiche thynge is schewede amonge theyme as welle in armes as in maneres, and also by theire langage, and what for the affinite contracte betwene men of Yrlonde and theyme, of whom the Scottes toke theire wyfes, and also for the inhabitacion of men of Yrlonde dwellenge in hit. Beda, libro primo. Whiche men of Yrlonde goenge furthe with Reuda the gouernoure of theyme, from partes nye to Scotlande, takenge to theyme a place nye to the Pictes, taryede in the northe partes to theyme. Giraldus. That londe is callede now Scotlande, of Scottes commenge from Yrlonde, reignenge in hit by iijc. and xv. yere vn to the reigne of William Rufus,*. [Ruphus, Harl. MS.] brother to Macolmus. ℞. That theke*. [So Harl. MS.] Scotlande be spoken of ofte tymes in the name of Yrlonde, hit is schewede by Bede in his secunde boke, the xthe chapitre, when he seithe that the arche|bischoppe Page  387, vol.1 Dorobernense ȝafe cure pastoralle to the peple of Scottes, inhabitenge an yle nye to Briteyne, callede Yrlonde. Also in the thrydde booke, the secunde chapitre, the peple of Scottes, whiche inhabite and dwelle in the sowthe partes of Yrlonde. Also hit is seide in the vthe booke, the xvthe chapitre, that a grete parte of Scottes was in Irlonde, callenge in the same chapitre Yrlonde proprely that yle in the weste whiche is separate from alle Bryteyne by the see by a c. myles, and Scottelande, that parte whiche is callede now Scottelande, where he seithe that Amna an abbotte of that yle sailede to Yrlonde that he myȝhte teche men of that cuntre to knowe the lawefulle tyme of Ester, after that returnenge at the [folio 55b] laste to Scottelande. Herodotus. Scottes be liȝhte in sawle, cruelle and wylde; but now thei be amendede thro Page  389, vol.1 the admixtion of Englische men. Thei be cruelle ageyne theire enmyes, hatenge gretely seruitute, accomptenge a slawe man that wolde dye in bedde, thenkenge hit a glory to dye in batelle. Skarse peple in meite and drynke, suffrenge hungre a longe tyme. Thei eite selde vn til after the goenge downe of the son; fedde more with flesche, fisches, white meite, and with frutes, then with brede. And sythe thei be semely in person, thai be deformede ynowe in theire propre habite, commendenge the consuetudes of that cuntre, and of theire predecessores, despisenge the rytes of other peple. That londe is plentuous ynowe in pastures, in gardynes, and in feldes. Giraldus, dist. prima,*. [De p., MS.; de p., Cx.; Harl. MS.]capitulo octavodecimo. The princes of Scottes be not vsede to be anoynted, lyke to the kynges of Speyne. In that londe the memory of Seynte Andrewe thapostole is haloede gretely, and hade in veneracion; for blessede Andrew thapostole, whiche was sende by chaunce to preche to the men of the northe partes of the worlde, as to men of Scythia and to Pictes, diede at a cite callede Patras in the londe of Grece, where his boones restede vn Page  391, vol.1 to the tyme of Grete Constantine, by the space of ijc. lx. and vii. yere. The boones of the apostle Seynte Andrew were translate that tyme vn to the cite off Constantinople, restenge there vn to the tyme of Theodosius emperoure by the space of a c. and x. yere. Then Vnguste, the kynge of Pictes in Scottelande, wastenge a grete parte of Briteyne, was compassede abowte with a innumerable hoste of Briteynes at a felde callede Merc. Herenge also a voice seyenge to hym, "Vngus, Vngus, here me thapostole of Criste promisenge helpe to the; for thou schalle haue the victory ageyne thyne enmyes by my helpe, if thou wille ȝiffe the thrydde parte of thy lyvelode to God in to almes and in the worschippe of blessede Andrewe his apostole." And in the thrydde day folowenge, Vngus, the kynge of the Pictes, hade victory of the Briteynes, enmyes to hym, the signe of the crosse goenge before his hoste. This kynge Vngus returnenge to his cuntre after that victory, diuidede his lyvelode in to thre partes, beynge not in certitude to what cite he scholde assigne that lyvelode in to the worschippe of Seynte Andrewe thapostle. Wherefore Vngus, that kynge, with alle his peple, faste by the space of thre daies, Page  393, vol.1 preyenge to the holy apostole of Godde that thei myȝhte be certifiede in that thynge. And anoon oon of the kepers of the blessede body of Seynte Andrewe was moneschede in his slepe that he scholde goe furthe from that londe vn to the place wheder an angelle scholde lede hym, whiche come thro the ledenge of an angelle in to Scotlonde, vn to the toppe of an hille callede Ragmunde with his vij. felawes. And in that howre a heuynly lyȝhte compassede abowte Vngus, the kynge of Pictes, commenge with an hoste to that place whiche is callede Carcenan, where mony seke men were healede anoon. And Regulus, a monke off Constantinople, mette that kynge þer with the relikkes of Seynte Andrewe, in to the worschippe of whom a chirche was edifiede, whiche is the principalle chirche of alle the chirches in the londe of the Pictes. Whiche place pil|gremes of alle londes visitte. In whiche place Regulus the monke of Constantinople was made the firste abbotte, whiche gedrede monkes there, distributenge thro the monastery the holle tythe and grownde whom the kynge Page  395, vol.1 hade ȝiffen in to the worschippe of God and of Seynte Andrewe.

Of Wales, and of the Maneres and Consuetudes of hit. Capitulum tricesimum octavum.

THE auctor of this presente Cronicle towchethe in his progresse other processe rather Wales then Englonde, makenge haste to Wales to the kynrede of Priamus, to the bloode of grete Iupiter, and to the kynrede of Dar|danus. Begynne the state of that londe vnder these iiij. titles. Fyrste of the cause of the name; in the seconde of the preconyes; in the thridde of the rites of the peple in hit; and in the iiijthe of the mervayles of hit. Of the reason of the name of hit. That londe whiche is callede Page  397, vol.1 now Wallia, other Wales in Englische, was callede somme tyme Cambria, of Camber the son of Brute, whiche was lorde of hyt. Afterwarde hit was callede Wales, other wise Wallia, of Gwaleas the qwene, the doȝhter of Kynge Ebrancus wedede vn to those costes. Other elles hit was callede Wallia of Gualo a gentilman. Thauȝhe the cir|cumference of hit be lesse then the grownde of Englonde, neuerthelesse hit is egalle to hit in fertilite what in the moder and in the doȝhter. Of the preconyes of that cuntre. That londe is plentuous in frutes, flesche, fische, horses, oxen, and schepe bothe wylde and tame. That londe is apte also to alle seedes, gresse, cornes, medoes, feldes, and Page  399, vol.1 woodes, with herbes and floures, floodes and welles, vales and hilles. The vales in hit brynge furthe foode, and the hilles metalles. And the matere and substaunce amonge theyme is hony, mylke, and whitemeite. Methe and bragotte be there, as ale habundantely in that cuntre; whiche londe bryngethe furthe plentuousely what so euer thynge that is necessary to the lyfe. Entendenge to conclude mony thynges of those dowerys in fewe wordes, that yle stondethe in an angle of the worlde as God dothe from hit, ȝiffenge that londe as a promptuary of alle hollesomme thynges. That londe is diuidede by a water whiche is callede Tywy, whiche Page  401, vol.1 diuidethe northe Wales from the southe parte of hit by certeyne merkes. The sowthe parte of Wales is callede Demecia. That other parte is callede Venedocia. Men of Demecia use bawes to schote, and men of Venedocia use speres. In whiche procincte were wonte to be thre courtes. The firste was at Caermerthyn, the secunde was in Anglesey, the thrydde was in Powiselonde at Pengwerne, whiche is now callede Schrewisbery. Somme tyme þer were vij. bischopes in hit, and now þer be iiij., whiche were obediente somme tyme to the princes of that cuntre, but now thei be obediente to the Saxones. Of the rytes of the inhabitatores of hit. The vse of that cuntre differrethe from the rite of Englonde in clothenge, in fyndenge, and in mony other thynges. A mantelle and a schurte be the nowble thynges of vesture amonge theyme, whiche vse to bere fewe clothes in wynter, Page  403, vol.1 thauȝhe wynde blawe ryȝhte coldely; whiche sytte, stonde, and slepe despisenge schetes; with owte huddes, cootes, or tabardes, bare on the legges; whiche vse vnnethe to go eny other way, thauȝhe thei scholde mete a kynge; fiȝhtenge with shorte speres in conflictes, amonge whom the men in foote be more stronge then the horse men. Woodes be to theym as for towres, and marras for places of defence; whiche take fleenge as fiȝhte, when they thenke tyme and opor|tunite. Gildas rehersethe Wallche men to be frayle, not stable in pease. And if the cause be inquirede, hit is not Page  405, vol.1 to be hade in meruayle if a peple expulsede be abowte to expelle the expulsores of hit. But now in this tyme, the woodes kytte, mony castelles be made after the costes in the see. The peple of that cuntre wille suffre hungre longe, luffenge the commune foode, inquirenge not the artificialle operacion of cookes at the dyners of theyme, eitenge brede made of otes and of barly, brode, rownde, and thynne, as hit besemethe suche bloode. That peple dothe eite selde whete that is baken in an oue; the meites of whom be buttyr, mylke, and chese; which prouoke a man to drynke methe and ale, whiche thei do vse daily. Thei accompte that wyne moste principalle whiche is moste redde, whiche peple vsenge to drynke seasethe not from Page  407, vol.1 communicacion and talkenge of ydelele thynges. Salt and lekes be to theyme solace at meyte, and after; acomptenge that a grete solace to ȝiffe a caldron with potages to men syttenge abowte and to diuide to euery man his porcion, kepenge to hym the remanente. But the infortuny of flesche nyouthe theim moche eitenge salmon hoote ageyne the precepte of phisike. Whiche inhabite howses, whom thei make of litelle roddes; not nye to gedre, as thei vse to make edificacions in cites. This peple vsethe to deuoure the goodes of other men after that thei haue de|uourede theire awne goodes, eitenge that thei fynde, re|turnenge after that to theire awne places, spendenge theire Page  409, vol.1 life in ydelnesse and in slawthe. The consuetude is of Walche men to ȝiffe water to theire gestes to drynke. And if thei wasche theire feete, thei thenke that thei be welle commen. That peple lyvethe in suche ease that vnnethe thei bere a purse, for thei vse to honge theire moneye at the hippes of theyme, mervaylenge moche, sythe that thei abhorre moche the sownde of the partes posterialle, that thei make seges of filthe afore the durres of theym. Men of that cuntre vse in theire festes a crowde, an harpe, and trumpes. But at the dethe of a man thei crye lyke to wylde bestes in exaltenge the bloode of Troy, of whom thei toke begynnenge. That peple thenkethe men nye to theyme by bloode whom a c. degrees do separate. Neuer|thelesse [folio 57b] thei be obediente to pristes, worschippenge theyme Page  411, vol.1 as the angelles of God. The prophecy of Merlyne and wycche crafte was wonte to begile theyme and to move theim to batelles. But nowe thei chaunge theire maneres gretely in to better exercise thro the communicacion of Saxones. Thei tylle feldes and gardynes, and applye theim to inhabite townes, usenge haburiones, and goenge with schoes, refreschenge theim in meites after curtesy, slepenge in beddes after the consuetude of Englische rather then after the maner of theim vsede afore tyme. And if the cause be inquirede why thei lyve so now rather then in tymes afore, hyt may be ansuerede and seide that rychesse be the cause þer of, but now the drede of theire goode with|drawethe theim from the exercise of conflictes. For a man Page  413, vol.1 that hathe noȝhte to loose dredethe but lytelle; þerfore Satiricus seithe that a man hauenge but lytelle goode syngethe, and goethe in more suerte afore a thefe then a ryche man. Of the meruayles of Wales. At Brehenoc is a water habundante in fisches of diuerse coloures, where a man may see in clere tymes meruellous edifienges, where a meruellous noyce and sownde be herde. And if the prince of that londe come, the bryddes synge and make grete melody to him, schewenge not pleasure and comforte to eny other man. Also there is a grete broken hille nye to the walles of Kaerlyon, schynenge moche ageyne the beames of the sonne, whom peple calle Goldecliffe, in that hit schynethe like to golde. Whiche floure apperethe not there with owte frute, if the interialle partes of that hille Page  415, vol.1 were souȝhte; for mony benefites of nature be priveye in hit, whiche be vnknowen yitte for the ignoraunce of men, but thei schalle be knowen by the study and labores of men to comme afterwarde. Also in Sowthe Wales is an yle at Kaerdif, nye to the water of Seuerne, callede in olde tyme Barri, in a nye parte to whom is a place, and if thou putte thyne eiere to hit thou schalle here a mar|uellous sownde and noyce, otherwhile like to the blawenge Page  417, vol.1 of belose, and in an other season lyke to þe sownde of metalles, and otherwhile like the rubbenge of a qwettenge|ston, and otherwhile lyke to the noyce of a flame of [folio 58a] fire. But hit is noo meruayle these thynges to happe of the floenges off water causenge that sownde vnder the erthe. Also there is a region at Penbroke*. [So the MS., in extenso.] whiche is vexede moche by the illusion of deuelles, whiche can not be made clene thro eny crafte other preiers, whiche, movenge that londe, dothe prenosticate a grete falle of the peple of that cuntre. Also there is a maruellous berielle at Curcinaur in Weste Wales, whiche is conformede to euery man com|menge to hit; if holle armor be lafte þer at nyȝhte, þou schalle fynde theim broken in the mornenge. Also in a place in Northe Wales callede Neuyn is an yle whiche is callede Pardesey, inhabite of monkes, where thei lyve soe Page  419, vol.1 that the elder man diethe euer a fore the yonger man. Where Merlyn callede Silvestris is beryede, as hit is seide. Therefore there were ij. Merlynes; oon of them callede Ambrosius, geten of a spratte at Kaermerthyn in Sowthe Wales, whiche*. [in the whiche, MS., originally.] profeciede in Snawdonia in the tyme of Vortigernus. Also there was an other Merlyn in Albania, Page  421, vol.1 callede now Scottelande, whiche hade ij. names; oon name was Siluestris, that other was Calidonius, of a woode callede Calidonia, where he propheciede; callede Silvestris in that he beenge in batelle see in the aiere a meruellous thynge thro the whiche siȝhte he began to be distracte. Whiche goenge to a woode began to prophecy in the tyme of Page  423, vol.1 Kynge Arthure. There be hilles in Snawdonia of a grete altitude, in so moche that a man may vnnethe goe from the foote of hit to the hiȝhte of hit in a day. Whiche hilles men of that cuntre calle Eriri, that sowndethe in Englishe the hilles of snawe, whiche be sufficiaunte in pastures to alle the bestes in Wales; in the altitude of whom be ij. waters, oon of whom concludethe an yle movede to and fro with the wynde, in so moche that drovers of bestes meruaile theyme to be caryede from oon place to an other sodenly. That other water ȝiffethe fisches of di|uerse kyndes hauenge but oon eie, whiche thynge is founde also in the Mulwelle of Albania. Also there is a lytelle welle in the costes of Ruthlande, Tetengil by name, whiche Page  425, vol.1 dothe not floo and refloo in the maner of a see, but other|while water habundethe there, and otherwhile hit wontethe water. Also there is a ston in Mononia in Northe Wales, [folio 58b] whiche is callede Angleseye, as y haue lernede, accordenge to the hippe of man; whiche ston brouȝhte from that place by a certeyne space of eny man is returnede to his propre place ageyne in the nyȝhte, as hit hathe bene provede mony tymes. Hugo, therle of Schrewesbury, provenge the seide thynge in the tyme of kynge Henry the firste, bonde that ston to an other with grete cheynes of yrne, and caste hit in to the water, whiche ston was founde in the mornynge in his olde place. Whiche ston a churle bonde in a tyme to his theȝhe, and hit rotede anoon, and the ston wente to Page  427, vol.1 his propre place. And if the synne of lechery be fulle|fillede with in the caste of ston to hit, that ston wille sende from hit as sweetenge, and also thei schalle not gette a childe. Also there is an hille of men herenge, callede so by name contrarious, that and if thou make a sownde, other elles blawe with an horne, the sownde is not perceyvede in that parte. Also there is an other yle contiguate to that place, conteynenge heremites; and if there be discorde amonge theyme, myce gedre anoon and devoure the meites of theyme, whiche greuaunce dothe not cease tille that peace be reconsilede amonge theim. Also that peple of that cuntre be replete with the melancholy lyke to the peple of Yrlonde, so seyntes of that cuntre be prompte vn to vengeaunce; where belles and crokede staves be hade in grete veneration, as men vse in Yrlonde and in Scotte|lande, Page  429, vol.1 whiche peple drede more to swere by theym then on a masse booke. Also at Basyngwere spryngethe an holy welle, whiche is of so grete feruence that hit castethe owte thynges caste in to hit, whiche bredethe so grete a water that myȝhte suffice to alle Wales; whiche water ȝiffethe grete helpe to seke peple; where thou schalle fynde stones hauenge in theym as dropes of blood, in the signe of the holy bloode whiche floede owte from the throte of Seynte Wenefride. For whiche offence the doers of hit and alle theire childer and successores berke in the maner of dogges, Page  431, vol.1 vn til thei aske the suffrage and helpe of Seynte Wene|fride at that welle, other elles at the cite of Schrewisbury, where sche restethe now, hade there in grete veneracion.

Page  [3], vol.2

Of Briteyne, otherwise callede Englonde. Capitulum tri|cesimum nonum.

AFTER the yles of the occean hit pleasethe vs to describe [folio 59a] Briteyne, for cause of whom this presente story and cronicle was compilede. Where hit schalle be seide firste of the diuersite of names of that yle. In the secunde of the site of hit and dimencion. In the thrydde of the prerogatiues of hit to be extollede. In the iiijthe of meruayles in hit to be hade in wondre. In the vthe of the principalle partes in hit. In the vjthe of yles colateralle to hit. In the vijthe of the kynges hye weyes. In the viijthe of famose floodes. In the ixthe of olde cites. In the xthe of prouinces and of schires. In the xjthe of lawes and of the hard wordes of hit. In the xijthe of the realmes and of the merkes of theyme. Page  5, vol.2 In the xiijthe chapitre of byschopryches, and of the setes of þeim. In the xiiijthe of how mony, what peple, and when that londe was inhabite. In the xvthe of the lan|gage of the inhabitatores of hit, and of the maneres of theyme. Of diuersite of names of the yle of Briteyne.*. [This is marked cap. xl. in Harl. MS.; but the capitulation is here and elsewhere brought into agree|ment with the Latin text.] That yle was callede firste Albion, of white hylles ap|perenge a ferre abowte the brynkes of the see. And at the laste hit was callede Briteyne by Brute gettenge hit. After that hit was callede Englonde of the Saxones other Englishe men conquirenge hit. Other elles hit was callede Anglia, of Angela qwene and doȝhter of the nowble duke of Saxones, whiche hade that londe in possession by mony yeres. Other elles, after Ysoder, Ethi., xvo lio, Anglia, whiche is callede Englonde, toke the name of hit of an angle of the worlde: other elles, after Bede in his firste booke, blessede Gregory seenge childer of Englonde to be sette furthe to be solde at Rome seide: Now truly thei may be callede Englishe men (Angells or Angellysmen),*. [The words in a parenthesis are inserted in a later hand.] for the Page  7, vol.2 chere of theyme dothe ȝiffe grete resplendence lyke to an angelle; for the nobilite of the londe schewethe in the siȝhte of the childre. That londe of Englonde is callede as that other worlde, whom Grete Charles the kynge [folio 59b] callede his chambre for þe habundaunce of plente of alle goode thynges. Solinus. For the costes of Fraunce scholde be as an ende of the worlde, but that Briteyne deseruethe allemoste the name of an other worlde. Alfr. That londe of Englonde is callede an yle, in that hit is trowblede ofte with waters and with þe incurses of enmyes.

Of the site and dimencion of hit. Capitulum quadragesimum.

Plinius, libro secundo, capitulo septuagesimo septimo. That londe of Briteyne lyethe from the costes of Ger|many, of Fraunce, and of Speyne, betwene the northe and weste, departede from theyme by the see. That londe is Page  9, vol.2 from the peple of Gesserike and from the brynkes in that cuntre in the nyeste place by lti myles. Beda, libro primo. And for cause that londe lyethe in the northe partes of the worlde, hit hathe liȝhte nyȝhtes in the somer, in so moche that a question is made oftetymes abowte the myddes of the nyȝhte wheþer hit be day or nay for cause of suche liȝhte; for the sonne is not ferre vnder the erthe from that cuntre, wherefore that cuntre hathe daies in the somer of a grete lenghthe, and longe nyȝhtes in the wyntere; that is to say, the daies be of xviij. howres in somer, and the nyȝhtes in wyntere of xviij. howres, and the day of vj. howres. Sythe in Armeny, Macedony, Ytaly, and other regiones of the same costes, the longeste day other nyȝhte is but oonly of xv. houres equinoccialle, and þe moste schorte day other nyȝhte dothe complete oonly but ix. howres. Plinius. In an yle callede Meroris, whiche is as the hede of men of Ethioppe, where hit is that the longeste day is but of xij. howres equinoccialle, and at Alexandria in Egipte Page  11, vol.2 of xiij. howres, and in Ytaly of xv. howres, in Briteyne other Englonde of xviij. howres; and the day in somere is*. [is of vj. houres continually, MS. originally; but the cancel is apparently by the first hand.] continually by vj. monethes in an yle callede Tile, and nyȝhte continually by vj. other monethes. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Briteyne is putte betwene the ocean, as with owte the worlde, sette as vn to the prospecte of Speyne. Giraldus. That londe of Englonde is longe, more large in the myddes of hit then in the extremites. Orosius. That londe of Briteyne is extendede by lenghthe from the [folio 60a] sowthe in to the northe, hauenge on the este to hit Fraunce, on the sowthe Speyne, on the northe Norway, on the weste Yrlonde, nye to the brynkes of whom a cite dothe appere to men sailenge in the see, whiche is callede Rutipi portus. Beda, libro primo. Whiche cite is callede now of the peple of Englonde Reptachestre. Solinus. Briteyne conteynethe in longitude lxxxti ml passes, what man that wylle take the measure of hit from Toteneise vn to the angle of Cali|donia. Alfr. That is from a place that is callede Pen|withstrete, by xv. leukes behynde Mochillestowe in Corne|waile, vn to Catenesse: hauenge in latitude moo then ij. c. ml. Page  13, vol.2 passes from Meneuia, whiche is calle*. [So Harl. MS.] Seynte Dauid, whiche place is in the extremite of Wales, vn to Gernemowthe*. [Yarmouth is written above the word in a later hand.] whiche is in Norfolke: the circuite of whom conteynethe, after diuerse auctores, xlti tymes viijthe and lxxti ml of passes.

Of the prerogatifes of that yle to be enhauncede. Capi|tulum quadragesimum primum.

LYKE as Fraunce excellethe Briteyne, so in lyke wyse Briteyne excedethe Yrlonde in beaute, but not in wholle|somnesse. Beda, libro primo. For that londe is moste plentuous in cornes and trees to be norischede, whiche is apte to bestes; plentuous of bryddes bothe in the see and londe of diuerse kyndes; habundante in waters fulle of fische, specially of pyke and ele. Willelmus de Pont. libro tertio. Where fisches be so habundante that churles fede theire swyne with fische. Beda, libro primo. Fysches whiche be callede dolphynes be taken there oftetymes, and porpas, Page  15, vol.2 and other grete fisches, excepte diuerse kyndes of schelle fisches, as muscles, in whom margarites be founde of euery coloure, as redde of a purpulle coloure, and of the coloure of a iacinte, but moste specially white margarites. Also there be schelle fisches habundantely with whom a nowble redde coloure is made and diede. The beautuous reddenesse of whom may not appaire in eny tyme thro the heete of the sonne, neither thro the iniury of reyne, but euer the more hit is werede, and in age, hit is the moore feire in coloure. Also in that londe be welles of salte and hoote waters, and bathes conueniente to euery kynde by distincte places, for [folio 60b] after the grete clerke Basilius water receyvethe a feruente qualite when hit rennethe by diuerse metalles. Also that londe is plentuous in mony veynes of metalles, as of brasse, of yrne, of lede, of tynne, and of syluyr. Plinius, libro sexto decimo, capitulo sexto. Also there is founde in that yle vnder the erthe a kynde of erthe, whom men calle marle, whiche caste in to the feldes causethe grete plen|tuousenes of corne. Also there is founde an other kynde of chalke, whiche dispersede in feldes makethe theym plen|tuous vn to the lxxx. yere folowenge. Solinus. That yle Page  17, vol.2 gendrethe a ston that is callede iette. If thou inquire the beawte off hit, hit is blacke; if thow inquire the nature, hit brennethe in water, and is extincte with oyle; if thou inquire the vertu of hit, that ston made hoote with rubbenge dothe attracte chaffe to hit. If thow inquire the benefite, hit helpethe moche men hauenge the dropecy, drynkenge hit. Beda. That ston made in powdre, and caste in to the fire, expellethe serpentes. Isidorus, libro quinto de|cimo. There be schepe plentuous in wolle, and moche dere of diuerse kyndes, fewe wulphes, þerfore schepe be lefte in more suerte in theire places. ℞. In that londe be mony feire cites, grete waters and fulle of fische, and plentuous in wodes, where be also mynes of stones diuerse in colour, redde and white, softe and harde, and white chalke. Also there is white cleye and redde, where of thei make pottes Page  19, vol.2 and tylestones. The wolle off whiche londe men of Flaundres luffe gretely; and Normandy, the leder of hit and skynnes; Vasconia yrne and lede. Whiche Briteyne is a londe habun|dante in metalles, and in pleasure that is necessary to the lyfe of man, in to the lawde of whom a metricion seithe: Englonde is a plentuous londe, and an angle of the worlde. That londe is fulle of disportes, whiche peple is worthy to make disportes, the tonge of whom is goode, and the honde more liberalle. Item Henricus sic. The londe of Briteyne is the worschippe and floure of regiones of the costes of the see, whiche londe is contente with the propre fertilite of hit selfe, refreschenge other straunge peple hauenge nede Page  21, vol.2 to þe helpe of that londe, when hungre reignethe in theire cuntres. That londe is of plentuousenes to be hade in mer|uayle, whiche londe dothe encrease gretely in tyme of pease [folio 61a] and of prosperite. That londe hathe also mony schippes, whiche do helpe mony places, for in that be men of grete nobilite. Item Alfridus sic. This yle of Englonde is plen|tuous, and to be enhauncede with a lawde celicalle, whiche is so habundante in hit selfe that hit hathe not necessite to eny other yle other place of the worlde. Whiche londe is a towre of refute to alle other regiones, the delites of whom Salomon desirethe, and Octauian the rychesse.

Page  23, vol.2

Of meruailes in hit to be hade in wondre. Capitulum quadragesimum secundum.

Solinus. Sythe the yle of Briteyne conteynethe in hit mony thynges to be hade in meruayle, neuertheles iiij. thynges ar to be hade in meruayle in hit specially afore other thynges. The firste is at Pectun, where the wynde goethe furthe so faste that hit castethe owte clothes caste in to hit. The secunde is at Stanhenges, nye to Salisbury, where stones of a grete magnitude be exaltede in to the maner of ȝates, that thei seme as ȝates putte on ȝates, where hit can not be clerely perceyvede how and wherefore the stones were sette there. The thrydde is at Sherdehoole, where a holo place is vnder the erthe in to whom mony men haue entrede, seenge waters in hit, cowthe not come to thende of hit in eny wise. The iiijthe is, that reyne is seene to be eleuate from hilles, and to be diffudede anoon thro the Page  25, vol.2 feldes and cuntre nye to theyme. Also there is a water conteynenge lx. yles inhabitable, whiche is compassede abowte with lx. hilles, in eueryche of whom an egle makethe a neste, and lx. waters floo in to hit, of whom there goethe noon to the see but oon. Also there is a water compassede with a walle of ston of tyles, where men be waschen ofte|tymes, whiche is to euery man after his pleasure either hoote other colde. Also there be welles of salte in hit, ferre from the see, the waters of whom be salte by alle the weke vn to the howre of none in Seturday, and then the waters be fresche; of whiche water white salte is made and subtile. Also there is a grete damme in hit, the water of whom makethe moiste the clothes of men hauenge theire siȝhte directe to hit, and drawenge theym towarde hit, [folio 61b] thauȝhe hit were a grete hoste, the water is of suche efficacite; and if the faces of men be turnede from hit, that water schalle not greve theyme. Also there is a welle in whom a ryuer is not, neither a ryuer floethe from hit, in Page  27, vol.2 whom iiij. kyndes of fisches be taken; whiche welle hathe oonly xxti foote in longitude, and xxti foote in brodenes, whiche is not deipe but to the knees of a man, hauenge hye brynkes to hit on euery side. Also in the cuntre callede Wenta is a diche, from whom the wynde blawethe incessantely, in so moche that a man may not stonde afore hit. Also there is a water in that cuntre that turnethe a tre in to a ston if hit tary in þat water, where trees or woode be formede in to whettestones. Also there is a beryalle in the toppe of an hille, where euery man com|mynge schalle fynde his measure and quantite; and if a pilgreme, other elles a wery man, boo his knees þer to hit, he schalle not fele eny disease. Giraldus in Topographia. Also there is a woode fulle of frute nye to the monastery of Wynneburne, not ferre from Bathe; the wodde of hit putte in to a water nye to that place by a yere be turnede in to a ston. Giraldus in Itinerario. Also there rennethe a water vnder the cite of Chestre namede Dee, whiche di|uidethe Page  29, vol.2 Englonde from Wales, whiche is wonte, as hit is seide, to chaunge his furdes in euery monethe; and wheþer hit do drawe more nye to the partes of Englonde other elles of Wales, the peple do prenosticate a falle to the peple to whom hit is more nye. Also this water callede Dee hathe his begynnenge of a water callede Pimbelmere, and this floode of Dee is habundante in salmones, and vn to this tyme presente a samon was not founde in that water from whom the water of Dee commethe. Willelmus de Regi|bus, libro secundo. Hit is to be considerate how that diuine powere hathe lyȝhtede the peple of Englonde sythe that thei toke the feithe of Criste, where so mony seyntes be not founde in eny other prouince as in that; as of Seynte Edwarde, Seynte Edmunde the kynge, Elphegus, Cuthberte, and Seynte Thomas of Cawnterbery, with mony other seyntes; whiche y suppose to be causede by the inspiracion of Godde, that a nacion as putte with owte the worlde thro þe con|sideracion Page  31, vol.2 of that corruptele scholde be more bolde in feithe to the hope of the resurreccion.

Of the principalle partes of Briteyne. Capitulum quadragesimum tertium. [folio 62a]

THE yle of Briteyne began to haue iij. principalle partes in hit after the firste tymes of Brute, that is to say, Loegria, whiche is callede now Englonde, takenge the name of hit of Locrinus the firste son of Brute, and Wales, and Albania that is now Scottelande. The merkes of whom were firste the see of Fraunce at the este and at the weste. Beda, libro primo, capitulo duodecimo. Also in the northe partes of that cuntre be ij. floodes brekenge vp eiche from other by a grete space, thauȝhe thei towche not to gedre, the este parte of whom begynnethe allemoste by the space of ij. myles from a monastery callede Eburcuring, at the weste of a cite callede Penulton, whiche hathe in hit a cite calledde Tweda. The oþer parte of the weste see begynnethe at Page  33, vol.2 the ryȝhte parte of Alcluid, a cite whiche is putte nye to Cluid, a floode of that name. ℞. Some men wille Loegria, now callede Englonde, to haue an ende at the floode off Humbre, and not to be extended forther towarde the northe. The secunde principalle parte of Englonde was callede Albania, other Scottelande, takenge the name of hit off Albanactus the son of Brute, which extendethe hit from the seide ij. waters to the see of Norway towarde the northe. Neuerthelesse, the sowthe parte of Scotlande, whiche is from the water of Twide vn to the Scottes see, was inhabite somme tyme of the Pictes, whiche perteynede somme tyme to þe cuntre of Northumbrelonde in the firste tymes of kynges of Englonde, vn tylle that Kinadius, kynge of Scottes, son to Alpinus, destroyede the Pictes, and annecte that parte to the realme of Scottelande. The thrydde parte of Bri|teyne is callede Wales, callede Cambria of Camber the son of Brute, whom the water of Seuerne departede somme tyme from Englonde, where now the floode of Dee departethe hit in the northe at Chestre, and the water other floode callede Page  35, vol.2 Vaga departethe Wales from Englonde in the sowthe at the castelle Strigulense. Also kynge Offa causede a longe diche to be made vn to a perpetualle distinccion of the realmes of Englonde and of Wales, whiche extendethe hit [folio 62b] from the sowthe nye to Bristolle, vnder the hilles of Wales, in to the northe; whiche diuidethe as the begynnenges of the waters of Seuerne and of Dee, and protendethe hit vn to the durre of the floode of Dee behynde Chestre nye to the castelle of Flynte, betwene Coolehille and the monastery of Basingwerc. As ȝitte the stappes of that famose dyche remayne, whiche diche to passe was a grete peyne to Walche men, beenge in armes in the tyme of kynge Edwarde, that erle Haraldus procurenge that, as hit schalle be expressede afterwarde, but now Walche men bene permixte with Englische men ouer either diche, and specially in the prouinces of Chestre, of Schroppeschyre, and of Hereforde.

Page  37, vol.2

Of yles adiacente and nye to Briteyne. Capitulum quadragesimum quartum.

AND the yles excepte whom Claudius Cesar causede to perteyne to Briteyne, that londe hathe iij. yles nye to hit as corespondente to thre principalle partes of Briteyne: for the yle of Wyȝhte lyethe nye to the sowthe parte of Englonde. And at the northe parte of Wales is an yle whiche is callede Monia other Anglesey, and also the yle of Man at the weste parte of Scotlande, whiche be allemoste of oon quantite, of whom hit schalle be seide by ordre. Beda, libro primo, capitulo tertio. That yle of Wiȝhte, whom Vespasian sende*. [So Harl. MS.] from Claudius did subiugate, is pro|tended from the este in to the weste by xxxti myles, beenge from the sowthe in to the northe by xij. myles, and from the side of the sowthe see of Briteyne by vj. myles in the este parte of hit, and by thre myles in the weste. Beda, libro quarto capitulo quinto decimo. The measure of that Page  39, vol.2 yle after the estimacion of peple of Englonde is of mlcc. townes*. [places, MS. (first hand).] other howseholdes. Giraldus in Itinerario. The yle of Monia, whiche otherwise callede Anglesey, is de|partede from Northe Wales by ij. myles, as by a lytelle arme of the see, whiche conteynethe ccc. lx. and iij. townes, and [folio 63a] hit is acomptede as for thre cantredes, hauenge as xxxti myles in longitude and xij. myles in latitude; and a cantrede is callede as welle in the langage of Englonde, as in the langage of Irlonde, a porcion of erthe other grownde con|teynenge an c. townes. In to the lawde of whom hit is wonte to be seide prouerbially in Walesche, Monia mam*. [man, Harl. MS.]Kymry, whiche sowndethe in Englische, Anglesey is the moder of Wales; for other londes wontenge vitelles that cuntre is habundante, in so moche that Angleseye in corne and Snawdon hilles in pasture scholde suffice as by esti|macion alle the peple of Wales and alle the bestes of that Page  41, vol.2 cuntre to theire pasture. Also there is a swalo in that arme of the see whiche dothe departe Northe Wales from that yle, drawenge schippes to hit, with owte that schippemen passe hit subtily at the fulle see. ℞. The reder of this processe may fynde of other mervayles of that cuntre in the chapitre of Wales. Giraldus, in Itinerario. That other yle whiche is callede Euvonia, other elles the yle of Man, is seide to be as in the mydde see betwene Vlster in Yrlonde, and the Scottes of Galaweye. Beda, libro primo, capitulo nono. Of whiche yle a contencion was made wheþer hit scholde perteyne to Englonde, other elles to Yrlonde, and men brouȝhte wormes and vermyn to hit, and for cause that londe suffrede the wormes to lyve, thei seide that grownde to longe to Englonde and not to Yrlonde. Page  43, vol.2 ℞. In whiche yle wycchecrafte ys exercisede moche, for. women þer be wonte to selle wynde to the schippemen commenge to that cuntre, as includede vnder thre knottes of threde, so that thei wylle vnloose the knottes lyke as thei wylle haue the wynde to blawe. Beda, libro secundo. That yle was inhabite firste of the Scottes. Also there is an yle nye to Kente callede Thanatos, namede so of the dethe of serpentes, the erthe of whiche yle brouȝhte in to other cuntres sleethe serpentes; whiche yle is plentuous; and mony men say that yle to haue bene blessede by Seynte Austyn, the firste doctor of Englonde londenge there firste.

Of the kynges hie weyes. Capitulum quadragesimum quintum.

Gaufridus: Molimicius, the xxiiijti kynge of Briteyne, and the firste maker of lawe of theyme, ordeinede that the ploes of [folio 63b] tillers, the temples of goddes, and the weies ledenge to cites Page  45, vol.2 scholde ioye the immunite of confute, so that noo man giltty fleenge to eny of these thre scholde not be borowede of eny man for his defence. And within a litelle space folowenge there was movede a grete dissencion of the weies, in that there was noo certitude in theyme. Wherefore Belinus kynge, and son to Molimicius, causede iiij. hie weyes to be made thro Englonde, defendede and storede with grete priui|lege to remove alle dubitacion. The firste of whom, and the moste, begynnethe in an angle in Cornewaile at Totte|nesse, and is extendede in to the northe, and terminate in the ende of Scottelonde at Katenesse. ℞. Neuerthelesse that weye begynnethe more truly, after somme men, in Corne|wayle, goenge by Deueschire and Somerseete, nye Tewkes|bery on Cotteswolde, and from that coste to Couentre, and soe vn to Leirecestre, and so furthe thro a grete pleyne, is terminate at Lyncolne. The secunde principalle weye is callede Watlingestreete, goenge ouerthwarde the firste weye, Page  47, vol.2 that is to say, from the sowthe este in to the northeweste; begynnenge at Dover, and goenge thro the myddes of Kente vn to Temmyse, nye to London at the weste of West|mynster; goenge from thens to Seynte Albanes at the weste, by Dunstaple, thro Stratforde, Toucestre, Wedunam, at the sowthe of Lilleburne, thro Atheriston, to the hille of Gilberte, that is callede now Wrekene; and from that hit kyttethe ouer Seuerne nye to Worcestre, and so Stratton, and from thens thro the myddes of Wales, and is endede at Cardigan in the see of Yrlonde. The thridde principalle way is callede Emyngestrete, whiche begynnethe at Seynte Dauides in Westewales, goenge to Sowthe Hampton. The iiijthe principalle wey is callede Rikenilde*. [Bikenilde, Harl. MS.] Strete, goenge from Seynte Davides þro Worcestre, thro Birmicham, Liche|felde, Derby, Chesterfelde, Yorke, and to the floode of Tyne that is callede Tynnemowthe.

Page  49, vol.2

Of the famose floodes in hit. Capitulum quadragesimum sextum.

Alfridus. Thre famose floodes floo thro Briteyne, to whom and thro whom marchandise commethe allemoste from alle naciones and regiones by schippe, whiche be Thamys, Seuerne, and Humbre, whiche waters departe three princi|palle prouinces as thre realmes, that is to say, Englonde, Wales, and Northumbrelonde. ℞. Thamisia, whiche is callede Temmys, semethe to be compownde of ij. waters, whiche be callede Thamia and Isa. That streme callede Tame rennenge by Dorchestre fallethe in to Ise, þerfore alle that water rennenge soe togedre is called Tammyse. Page  51, vol.2Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. The water of Tham|myse takenge the originalle of hit nye to Tewkesbury of a lytelle welle, floethe by Oxforde, London, vn to the haven of Sandewiche, goenge þer in to the este see, reteynenge the name of hit paste London by xlti myles, whiche was somme tyme as a cause terminative of men of Kente, of Este Saxones, West Saxones, and of men of the Marches. Seuerne, a floode of Briteyne, is callede Habren, of Habren doȝhter of Estrilde, whom a qwene callede Guendolena drownede in hit, but now hit is callede Sabrina, by the corrupcion of the langage of Latyn. That water of Seuerne begynnethe in the myddes of Wales, and goethe firste towarde the este vn to Schrewisbury, after that hit turnethe in to the sowthe to Brugges, Worchestre, and to Glocestre, fallenge in to the see at Bristowe, whiche was somme tyme a terme of Englonde and of Wales. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro quarto. Seuerne is a perellous streme fulle of fische, in whom is such a movenge that hit turnethe vp the grauelle from the bothom of the water, and makethe theyme in a grete hepe Page  53, vol.2 oftetymes goenge ouer the brynkes of hit. Also that water callede Humbre toke the name of Humber kynge of Hunes drownede in hit. Whiche rennethe*. [Probably rennenge is the true reading.] firste in the maner of a bawe from the sowthe parte of Yorke to the prouince Lindescience, whiche longede somme tyme to the Marches, dothe diuide Northumbrelonde from that other plage; whom the floodes of Trente and of Ouse fallenge in to hit*. [cause hit MS. (first hand.)] cause to be encreasede gretely thro them.

Of the olde Cites in hit. Capitulum quadragesimum septimum.

Beda, libro primo, capitulo primo. The region of Briteyne was made nowble somme tyme with xxiijti nowble cites, ex|cepte castelles innumerable, whiche were made with sure walles, towres, ȝates, and lokkes. Alfridus. These were the names of the cites:—Caerlud, London; Caerbranc, Yorke; Caerkente, Caunterbery; Caergorangon, Worcestre; Caerlirion, Leircestre; Page  55, vol.2 Caerclaw, Gloucestre; Caercolden, Colchestre; Caerrece, Chi|chestre, whiche was callede somme tyme by the Saxones Cis|sanchestre; Caerceri, Cirencestre, called now Ciciter, shortely; Caerwente, Wynchestre; Caergraunte, Cambrige; Ligubalia, Caerliel; Caerperis, Portechestre; Caerdrom, Dorchestre; Caerludcoil, Lyncolne; Caermerthyn, the cite of Merlyne; Caersegen, Silchestre, whiche [is] on Thamys nye to Radynge; Caerthleon, other Caerlegion, that is the cite of legiones, whiche was callede Legecestre, now callede Chestre; Caer|badon, Bathe, whiche was callede somme tyme the city of Achamannus; Caerpaladin, whiche, callede somme tyme Septon, is callede now Shaftesbury. ℞. Also there be other names of cites founde in cronicles obscure to the intellecte, of whom we schalle say somme thynge by ordre. Willelmus de Ponti|ficibus, libro secundo. London is a nowble cite sette on Thamys, hauenge in it nowble marchauntes, wherefore when derthe off vitayles is in Englonde, there thei be moste dere; Page  57, vol.2 and the cause is perauenture other thro the compendiousenes of sellers, other elles thro the dispendy of byers. Gaufridus. Brute, the firste kynge of Briteyne, made that cite of London as the firste and principalle cite of Briteyne in to the memorye of Troye y-loste, callenge hit Trinouantum, that is to saye Newe Troye. After that kynge Lud callede hit after his name, Kaerlud, wherefore the Britones hade indignacion, as Gildas rehersethe, and at the laste Englische men callede hit London. Kynge Ruthudibras, the son of kynge Leille, edifiede Cawnterbury, the princi|palle cite in Kente, whom he callede Caerkente, whiche was callede afterwarde of Englische men Dorobernia; for there is an other towne in that cuntre that is callede Dovernia, [folio 65a] other elles Douoria, whiche is Dover, sette on the brynke of the see of Fraunce; whiche be a sundre by xij. myles of Englische accomptenge, and Dorobernia was callede at the laste Cawnterbury. Kynge Ruthudibras aforeseide made the cite of Wynchestre, whom he callede Caerwente, whiche was callede afterwarde Wenta by Englische men, Page  59, vol.2 or Wynchestre, after an Englische man callede Wyne beenge bischoppe there, to whom alle the weste plage of Saxones was subiecte. Also the same kynge made that cite callede Paladur, and nowe Shaftesbury, where men of Briteyne say an egle to have propheciede somme tyme. Bladud, a nigromancier, and the ixthe kynge of Briteyne, son of kynge Leille, made the cite of Bathe, whom he callede after his propre name Caerbadun, and afterwarde of Englische men Achamannia, and at laste Bathonia, other elles in Englische Bathe. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. In that cite be bathes, of whom Iulius Cesar was seide to be auctor. ℞. But Gaufridus Mone|metensis seithe in his boke of Briteyne that kynge Bladud was the firste auctor of theyme; and perauenture William, that see not the boke of Briteyne, seide so by the rehersenge of other men, other elles of his propre con|iecture, lyke as he did wryte mony other thinges. Never|thelesse, thauȝhe kynge Bladud made that cite of Bathe, the bathes scholde seme to be cause*. [causede, Harl. MS.] that the water ren|nenge Page  61, vol.2 there thro the veynes of sulphur is made hoote natu|rally by that whiche causethe those bathes to be hoote, where scabbes and corrupcion be healede oftetymes. Claudius Cesar made that cite callede Gloucestre, other Claudiocestre, in the tyme of weddenge of his doȝhter, whom he mariede to Aruiragus kynge of Britones. That cite was callede firste of Britones Caerclau, by Claudius afterwarde callede Gloucestre, of Glora duke of that region, whiche is sette ouer the water of Seuerne in costes of Engelonde and of Wales. Shrewsbury is a cite sette in the toppe of an hille on Seuerne, in the costes of Englonde and of Wales, callede somme tyme Schrobbesbury, of busches and trees with frute groenge in that hille somme tyme, whiche is [folio 65b] callede also Pengwern, whiche sowndethe as the hedde of a firre tre, whiche was also somme tyme the principalle place of Powiselonde, extendenge hit ouerthwarde the myddes of Wales vn to the see of Yrlonde. Notyngham Page  63, vol.2 is sette on the water of Trente, callede somme tyme Snotyngham, that sowndethe the mansion of dennes, whom the Danes made there of ston as hit is seide. Lincolne is the chiefe place of the province of Lyndesey, callede firste Caerludcoite, after that Lincolne; the edifi|cacion of whiche cite is not to be hade in certitude withowte that kynge Ludde made hit, as the interpretacion of the name semethe to sownde, for caer, after the langage of Britones, sowndethe a cite, and coyte, a woode, where|fore Caerludcoit is seide as the cite fulle of wood of Ludd. Leir, the xthe kynge of Britones, son to kynge Bladud, made the cite of Leircestre as in the mydelle place of Englonde on the water of Sore, and on the hieweye and diche of the kynge.

Capitulum quadragesimum octavum.

Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro tertio. The cite of Yorke is large, and edifiede on either side of Owse, as after the cite of Rome, vn tylle that William Conquerour deformede hit thro Page  65, vol.2 brennenge; and if a man scholde see hit now, considrenge what that cite was a fore tyme, hit scholde move hym to be soory. Gaufridus. Ebrancus, the vthe kynge of Briteyne, made that cite of Yorke, whom he namede Caerbranc. Also that same kynge made ij. other nowble cites; oone was in Scottelande, whiche is callede Edengborouȝh, that other cite was in the costes of Englonde, towarde Scottelonde, whiche was callede Alcluid. ℞. Edengborouȝh is a cite in the londe of Pictes, betweene the water of Twide and the Scottes see, whiche was callede somme tyme the Castelle of Maidenes, after that it was callede Edyngborough, of Edan kynge of Pictes, whiche reignede there in the tyme of Egfride kynge of Northumbrelonde. Alcluid was somme tyme a nowble cite, now beenge vnknowen allemoste of alle Englische men, whiche was a nowble cite in the tyme of Britones, of Pictes, vn to the commenge of Danes in to this londe of Englonde; and at the laste, abowte the yere of [folio 66a] grace ixc. lxxti yere, the Danes, destroyenge the costes of Northumbrelonde, destroyed that cite of Alcluid. Of Page  67, vol.2 whiche cite be diuerse opiniones, after diuerse auctores, in what parte of Briteyne that cite was edifiede. For Bede seithe, libro primo, capitulo xijo, that cite to be edifiede at the weste parte of an arme of the see, whiche departede somme tyme the Pictes from Britones, where the famose walle was terminate at the weste; and so hit semethe after Bede that hit was not ferre from Caerliel, for hit is putte also at the ende of that walle. Also other writers of stories reherse and wille that the cite of Alcluid be that towne whiche is callede now Aldelburghe, whiche sownedethe an olde towne, whiche is sette nye to the floode of Ouse, not ferre from Burbrugge, whiche is from Yorke by xv. myles at the weste of hit. And this position semethe to be probable of the dictes of Gaufride in his boke of the gestes of Britones, whiche affermethe þat*. [This word is interlineated in red.] Elidurus, kynge of Britones, taryenge at Alcluid for solace to hunte, founde his broder Archgallo errante in a woode callede Calaterium, whiche woode is callede in Englische Caltrees, Page  69, vol.2 nye to Yorke, and is extendede also nye to Aldel|burgh, in longitude by the space of xxti myles, of whiche woode a grete parte is kytte downe to brenne, and for other thynges necessary. Other men wille that Al|cluid be that cite whiche is callede now Burgham, in the northe partes of Westemerlonde, nye to Cumbir|londe, sette on the floode of Eden, of whom mervellous stappes appere ȝitte. Wherefore y cownselle that a prudente lector iuge what weye is to be holden of that cite off Alcluid. Caerliel is a cite in the northe partes of Englonde, towarde the northeweste, whiche was callede otherwise Ligubalia, whom Leil the vijthe kynge of Britones did make. ℞. That cite hathe parte of that famose walle Page  71, vol.2 whiche diuidethe Northumbrelonde. Willelmus de Ponti|ficibus, libro tertio. In whiche cite a threfolde chambre remaynethe ȝitte, that can not be defilede with fire, other elles with eny other tempeste, in whom a wrytenge is con|teynede of the victory of Marius. ℞. Whiche semethe to be probably that theke mencion is made there of Marius kynge of Britones, son to Aruiragus, whiche overcome Roderike the kynge of Pictes in those costes, as Gaufride rehersethe in his boke of Briteyne, whom William Malmesbury hathe not seen. The chirche of Haugustaldens [folio 66b] is a place beenge from Yorke by lxxx. myles, at the northe weste of hit, whiche place longede somme tyme to the bisshope of Yorke, where ryalle edifienges were some tyme, after the edifienge of Rome, whiche edifienges haue not be seen of eny man a this side Alpes, but in that place, whiche is callede nowe Estoldesham. Beda, libroPage  73, vol.2tertio, capitulo primo. And that place is nye to the fa|mose walle at the northe parte. Also there is difference betwene the prouince of Lindesey and the chirche Lindis|farnens. For the prouince of Lyndesey liethe at the este of Lincolne, whiche is chiefe cite to that prouince, of whom Beda spekethe, libro iiijto, capitulo xio, where Sex|wulphus was firste bischoppe. But the chirche Lindifar|nence, after Bede, libro iiijto capitulo [x]xiijo, is an yle whiche is callede the Holylonde, in the water of Twide, nye to Berewike: wherefore hit may be collecte of the seyenge of Bede, that there be iij. yles in that famose arme of the see in whom the water of Twide floethe, whiche departethe now of the este parte Englische men from Scottes. The firste yle, somme tyme callede Maylros, is callede now Meuros. Then from that towarde the weste is the chirche of Lindisfarnence in Halielonde. Also there is an yle whiche is callede Farnelonde. Also there a cite longenge somme tyme to the kynge, sette on the brynke off Twide, within the space of ij. myles, callede somme tyme Bembanburgh, that is to say the cite of Bebbe, callede now Banburghe, hauenge a stronge castelle in hit. Page  75, vol.2Giraldus, in Itinerario. There be ij. cites of legiones, oon was callede Caerlegion or Caerlyon, oon is in Sowthe Wales, whiche is callede Caerhuth, whiche beenge at the water callede Usca, is so namede, fallenge into the water of Seuerne nye to Glomorgan, edifiede somme tyme of Belinus, kynge of Englonde, whiche was the chiefe cite off Sowthe Wales. After that hit was callede the Cite off Legiones, when legiones of the Romanes were sende to Yrlonde at the instance of a qwene, callede Genuissa,*. [Gemissa, Harl. MS.] a concorde made betwene Ves|pacian and Aruiragus. That was a nowble cite, and wallede welle, where nowble stappes appere ȝitte, grete palice, a gigantes towre, and mony edifienges vnder the erthe as welle withowte the walles as within. In whiche cite were thre ryalle chirches, oon was of Iulius the [folio 67a] Page  77, vol.2 Martir, made feire with a company of virgynes. An other was of blessede Aaron, made nowble with the clere ordre of canons. The thridde chirche was made nowble with the seete of the metropolitan of alle Wales, whiche was translate afterwarde to Meneuia, whiche is callede nowe Seynte Dauid. ℞. Also there is an other Cite of Legiones, Page  79, vol.2 callede Chestre, where this cronicle presente was laborede, in the coste of Wales betwene ij. armes of the see whiche be callede Dye and Meresie, whiche was the chiefe cite of Northe Wales in the tyme of Britones, the firste founder of whom is not knowen. For hit scholde seme to a man beholdenge the fundacion of hit that werke to be rather of the labor of gigantes, other Romanes, then of Britones. That cite was callede somme tyme in the langage of Britones, Caerelyon, in Latyn Legecestria, and hit is callede now Chestre, other the Cite of Legiones, in that the legiones of knyȝhtes tariede þer in wynter, whom Iulius Cesar sende to Yrlonde to subdue hit to hym. This cite habundethe in euery kynde of vitelles, thauȝhe William Malmesbury dreamede in other wise, as in corne, flesche, fische, and specially in salmones, whiche cite receyvethe and sendethe from it diuerse marchandise, whiche hathe nye to hit waters of salte and metalles. That cite, somme tyme destroyede by men of Northumbre|londe, but reedificate by Elfleda, lady of the marches, hathe vnder the erthe voltes to be meruailede thro the Page  81, vol.2 werke of ston, and other grete stones conteynenge the names and pryntes of Iulius Cesar, and of other nowble men. That is the cite whom kynge Elfride contriuede, sleenge in hit allemoste ijm. monkes of the famose monas|tery of Bangor. That is the cite also to whom kynge Edgare come somme tyme with other vij. litelle kynges; in to the lawde of whom a metricion seythe in this wise. That cite of Chestre toke the name of hit of a castelle callede Cestria, as Castria, the firste founder of whom is not hade in certitude; callede somme tyme Legecestria, other elles the cite of legiones; whiche is now a nowble cite, bothe to Englische men and to Walsche men; in the walles of whiche cite stones honge lyke to the actes [folio 67b] of Hercules; where dowble voltes be vnder the erthe; and Page  83, vol.2 also kynge Henry the iiijthe, Godescallus somme tyme Cesar, and kynge Haralde were beryede. There Mars, Mercurius, Venus, Proteus,*. [Possibly we should read La|uerne; but even so, the metre limps.] and Pluto have gouernaile. Page  85, vol.2 The peple of whom folowe moche men of Babilon in condicion of maneres, whiche is moste cruelle where that hit may do moste.

Of the schires other prouinces of Englonde. Capitulum quadragesimum nonum.

HIT is to be attended that Englonde conteynethe xxxxijti schires other provinces, Cornewaile excepte and other yles. Alfridus. These be the names of the schires, Kente, Southesex, Sutherey, Hampteschire, Barrokeschire, takenge that name of hit of a bare oke in the foreste of Wyndeshore, where men of that province were wonte to mete for a tretys to be made betwene partes; also Wildeschire, that was callede somme tyme the province of Seuerne, So|mersete, Dorsete, Deuenschire. These ix. sowthe pro|uinces aforeseide, thauȝhe Thamys departethe theyme, thei were iuggede somme tyme by the lawe of the Weste Saxones, whiche is callede Westesaxenelaga. But Estesex, Page  87, vol.2 Middelsex, Sowthefolke, Northefolke, Hertefordeschire, Hunt|yngdonschire, Northehamptonschire, Cambriggeschire, Bed|fordeschire, Bukkynghamschire, Leicestreschire, Derbyschire, Notynghamschire, Lincolneschire, Yorkeschire, Diremsehire, Northumbrelande, Caerlielschire, Cumbirlande, Appelbischire, with Westmerlande, Lancastreschire, whiche conteinethe in hit v. other schires. These xv. schires afore seide of the este and of the northe were iuggede somme tyme by a lawe whiche was callede Danelaga. But Oxforde|schire, Warwickeschire, Gloucestreschire, Wircestreschire, Herdefordeschire, Shropschire, Stafordeschire, and Chestre|schire,—these viij. mydelleschires and weste were iuggede somme tyme by the lawe of marches, whiche was callede in Englische Merchenelaga. Also hit is to be attendede that the prouince of Yorke extendethe hit oonly now from the arche of the floode of Humbre vn to the floode of Teyse; neuerthelesse there be in hit xxijti hundredes, whiche be callede wapentakes, for a hundrede in Latyn [folio 68a] , other clles a tancrede in Walesche other Yrische, con|teynethe a c. townes. A wapentake in Englische is seide to take wepens; for tenauntes were wonte to yelde Page  89, vol.2 theire wepens for an homage in the firste commenge of newe lordes. Duremschire extendethe hit from the floode of Teyse to the floode of Tyne. Northumbrelonde pro|prely extendethe hit from the floode of Tyne to the floode of Twide, whiche is the begynnenge of Scotlonde. And if the plage of Northumbrelonde, which was somme tyme from Humbre vn to Twide, be accomptede as for oon pro|uince other schire, as hit was wonte, then there be in En|glonde oonly xxxijti schires. And if that plage of North|umbrelonde be diuidede into vj. provinces, whiche be Euerwikschire, Duremschire, Northumbrelonde, Carliel|schire, Appelbeschire, Lancastreschire, then there be in Englonde xxxvjti schires, except yles perteynenge to that londe, and also Cornewaile. Whiche alle William Conque|rour, Page  91, vol.2 kynge of Englonde, causede to be describede, and the hides and carucates of londes to be measurede; in which londe xxxvjti schires were founde and dimid., lijti m. and lxxx. townes, and xlti and v. m. peresche chirches and tweyne, lx. m. fees of knyȝhtes and xv., of whom religious men have xxviijti m. and xv. fees; but now, woodes kytte downe and made arable londe, there be mony moo townes and hides of londe then were in that tyme.

Of lawes and the wordes of lawes. Capitulum quinquagesimum.

Dunwallo Molimicius ordeynede firste lawes in Briteyne, the lawes of whom were callede Molimitine, obseruede and Page  93, vol.2 kepede welle vn to the tyme of William Conquerour. Amonge whom he made a statute that cites, temples of goddes, weies ledenge to theyme, and the ploes of tillers of londe, scholde ioy imunite of confute. After that Marcia, qwene of Britones, wife to kynge Gvitelyne, of whom the prouince of the marches be trawede to have taken theire name, made a law full of ryȝhtenousenes and of descrecion, whiche was callede the lawe of the Marches. Gildas, the writer of storyes, did translate those ij. lawes from the langage of Britones in to Latyne. And kynge Alurede [folio 68b] did translate hit from Latyn in to the speche of Saxones, whiche lawe was callede Merchenelaga. Also kynge Alurede caste to that lawe writen in Englische whiche was callede Weste Saxon lawe. Then after that, the Danes reignenge in that londe, the thridde lawe began, whiche was callede Danelaga. Kynge Edwarde the thridde made oon commune lawe of those three lawes, whiche be callede vn to this tyme presente the lawes of Seynte Ed|warde, Page  95, vol.2 mony wordes of whiche lawe nede an exposicion, as Mundebriche, hurte of maieste, in Frenche, Blesmur de honour; Burbriche, a hurte of liberte, in Frenche, Blesmur de court, ou de clos; Grithbriche, a brekenge of peace; Muskenning, diuersite other chaungenge of speche in courte; Scheauwynge, sette furthe of marchandise, in Frenche, displevir de marchandise; Hamsokne or Hamfare, þat is, a fray made in an howse; Forstallynge, constreynenge made in the kynges strete. Frith sokne, suerte in a iurisdiccion, in Frenche, surte en defence. Infanthef pelfynde inwarde, that is to say, to take a gilty man within his lordeschippe, in Frenche, dedeins le soen atachemente de laron. Saca, a iurisdiccion, in Frenche, court iustice. Soka, a sute of the courte, where of Sokne is seyde. But Sokne is seide other while an interpellacion of a moore grete audience. Werk|elthef, that is to say, solte de laron eschamp. Thean, that is, to lawde the auctor, in Frenche, reuouche graunte; whiche is callede otherwhile a sequele of natife men. Blodewitte, a merciamente for effusion of bloode. Hittewite, amendes Page  97, vol.2 commenge for stryvenge. Leirwite, that is to say, amendes commenge for the corrupcion of a woman natife. Gulte|wite, an amendes for a transgression. Scot, that is the pay|mente of a certeyne money to the vtilite of the lorde. Hidage other talage, that is to say, tallage of the hides of the londe. Danegelde, a tallage ȝiffen to the Danes of iijd. Wapentake and hundrede be the same as the precincte of an c. townes, whiche were wonte to yelde there weppens in the firste commenge of theire lorde. Lestage, that is a thynge required in feires. Stallage, an exaccion for stond|enge in the hie weies in tyme of feires.

Of realmes and of the merkes of theyme. Capitulum quinquagesimum primum.

[folio 69a]

The monarchy of the yle of Briteyne stode inconcussede from the firste Brute to Iulius Cesar; whiche yle paiede a tribute to the Romanes from the tyme of Iulius vn to the tyme of Seuerus; the succession of Britones faylenge Romanes reignede in hit. At the laste, the Romanes Page  99, vol.2 levenge to reigne in hit, what for the longitude of trauaile and what for other occupaciones ineuitable, Scottes and Pictes wastede that londe of Briteyne with a grete hoste, tylle that the Saxones beenge victores chasede the Pictes and Scottes in to Wales. And then euery prouince after theire powere made to theyme kynges, diuidenge the grownde of Englonde in to vij. realmes, whiche come alle afterwarde by succession in to oon monarchye in the tyme of kynge Athelstan. The Danes trowblede that londe gretely from the tyme of Athelwulphus, fader to kynge Alurede, vn to the tymes of Seynte Edwarde the thrydde, by a c. lx. and x. yeres, reignenge by xxxti yeres continually in hit. Seynte Edwarde the thrydde regnede after the Danes xxiijti yere and more, and Haralde after hym by ix. monethes. After whom Normannes regnede in hit vn to oure tymes, God knowethe how longe that schalle continue. ℞. Of whiche vij. realmes aforeseide, and of the merkes of theyme, Page  101, vol.2 when thei began, and how longe thei haue indurede, y schalle towche in parte. Alfridus. The firste realme was of men of Cawnturbery, protendede from the sowthe occean vn to the floode of Thamys, in whom Hengiste roignede firste in the yere of oure Lorde God, after Dionysius, cccc. lv. yere, and that realme durede by ccc. lxviij. yere vnder xv. lytelle kynges, vntil, Baldredus*. [Haldredus, Harl. MS.] expulsede, Egbertus kynge of Westesaxones added that realme to his impire. The secunde realme was of Sowthesex, hauenge on the este to hit Kente, of the sowthe the see and the yle of Wiȝhte, at the weste Hampteschire, at the northe Southerey, in whom Elle with his thre childer began to reigne firste in the xxxti yere from the commenge of Englische men, whiche realme wente soone after in to other realmes. The thrydde realme was of Estesex, hauenge on the este to hit the see of Fraunce, on the weste the cite of London, on the sowthe Thamys, on the northe to hit, Southefolke. The [folio 69b] kynges of whiche place from the firste Seberte vn to the tyme of Danes, by x. kynges, were obediente to other kynges, moste specially to the kynges of þe Marches, vn til that Egberte, kynge of Westesaxones, subduede hit to his impyre. Page  103, vol.2 The iiijthe realme was of Este Englische men, comprehend|enge Northefolke and Southefolke, hauenge at the este to hit and on the northe the see, at the weste the dyche of Seynte Edmunde and Hertefordschire, at the sowthe Estesex; and this realme durede vnder xij. kynges, vn tyl Seynte Edmunde sleyne, the Danes vsurpede the realme of Estenglonde, and also of Estesex; whom kynge Ed|warde the senior put to his realme, the Danes other put to fliȝhte other subacte. The vthe realme was of Weste|saxones, moste durable of alle realmes, hauenge on the este to hit Sowthesex, on the northe Thamys, on the sowthe and weste the occean. In whom Cerdicus began to reigne with Kymricus his son, after Dionysius, the yere of oure Lorde God vc. xix. yere, from the commenge of Englische men lxxj. yere. In to whom oþer realmes wente. The sexte realme was of the Marches, more large then other realmes. The merkes of whom were, at the weste, the floode of Dee nye to Chestre, and the floode of Seuerne nye to Shrewesbury vn to Bristowe, at the este the Page  105, vol.2 este*. [weste, Harl. MS.] see, at the sowthe the floode of Thamys vn to London, on the northe the water of Humbre, goenge after the weste vn to the water of Mercie vn to the ende of Wirhalle, where hit descendethe in to the Weste see. Penda, the son of Wibbe, reignede firste in those costes, after Dionysius, in the yere off oure Lorde vjc. xvj., and from the commenge of Englische men a c. yere lxxv., whiche realme contynuede vnder xviij. kynges abowte ijc. yere lx. and iij., vn to the laste Colwulphus; whiche expulsede, the Danes made Burdredus kynge of hit. That realme was diuidede in to thre partes in the firste begynnenge, that is to say, in to the Weste Marches, in to the Myddelle Marches, and in to the Este Marches. The vijthe realme was of Northumbrelonde, the merkes of whom were, on the este and on the weste, the occean; on the sowthe, the water of Humbre; descendenge towarde the weste by the costes of the schires of Notyngham and of Derbye vn to the water Page  107, vol.2 of Mersee; of the northe, the Scottes see, callede by the langage of theyme Forth, in Briteyne langage Werid, in Englische Scothisse. That realme of Northehumbrelonde was diuidede at the firste tyme in to ij. prouinces, in to Deira at the sowthe, and in to Bernicia at the northe; whiche ij. realmes the water of Tyne diuidede in that tyme. For that realme callede Deira was extendede from the floode of Humbre vn to the water of Tyne. That other parte callede Bernicia was extendede from the water of Tyne to the Scottes see when the Pictes dwellede there, as hit is schewede by Bede, libro tertio, capitulo secundo, where he seithe that Ninian the holy man conuertede the sowth|erne Pictes. Hida began to reigne firste in Bernicia, after Dionysius, the yere of grace vc. xlvijti; and kynge Elle began to reigne in Deira, after Dionysius, in the yere of grace vc. xlix.: whiche realmes continuede otherwhile vnder oon kynge, otherwhile vnder tweyne, as vnder xxti kynges as by ccc. yere xxjti. At the laste, Osbrutus and Elle sleyne Page  109, vol.2 by Danes in the ixthe year of theire reigne, Northumbre|londe was vacante of a kynge viijthe yeres. And from that tyme the Danes reignede in hit xxxvjti yeres, vn to the monarchy off kynge Athelstan, whiche obteynede the mo|narchye of all Englonde in the yere of oure Lorde viijc. xxvij., subduenge the kynges of Danes, of Wales, and of Scottes. That the water of Mersee was somme tyme the terme other the merke of the marches of Northumbrelonde, hit may be schewede by ij. maneres; firste by the significacion of the name, for Mersee in Englische sowndethe as a see terminatiue, for hit disterminate oon realme from an other. Also hit is hade in the cronicles of Henricus and Alfride, that kynge Edwarde the senior sette the castelle at Mam|cestre in the londe of Northumbrelonde, whiche cite is from the water of Mersee but by iij. myles.

Page  111, vol.2

Of the byschoperyches and seetes. Capitulum quinqua|gesimum secundum.

Alfridus. There were thre seetes of archebyschoppes in Englonde in the tyme of Lucius, kynge of Briteyne, firste kynge y-baptizede, that is to say, at London, at Yorke, and [folio 70b] at Caerhurrt,*. [Doubtless an error for Caerhusc.] the Cite of Legiones in Glomorgan; to whom xxviijti bischoppes were subiecte, callede flamines. And to the metropolitan of London alle the cuntre of Corne|waile and alle Englonde was subiecte vn to the floode of Humbre. Alle Northumbrelonde, from the water of Hum|bre, with alle Scottelande, was subiecte to tharchebischop of Yorke; and alle Wales was subiecte to the byschoppe of the Cite of Legiones, where that tyme were vij. bischoppes, and now Wales is made nowble with iiij. suffraganes, whom the floode of Seuerne dividede that tyme from Englonde. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. But thawȝhe blessede Gregory grawntede thro his priuilege the seete of tharchebisschoppe to be at London; neuertheles Seynte Austyn, sende from hym in to Englond, after the dethe of Blessede Gregory caused tharchebischoppe seete to be removede from London to Canterbery, thro helpe of Page  113, vol.2 kynge Ethelberte and of the citesynnes of Canterbury, where hit remanethe to this tyme presente. But that a certeyn season folowenge, kynge Offa, contrarius to men of Canterbury, removede the honor of the primate from theym, thro the priuilege graunted by Adrian the pope, vn to the chirche of Lichefelde, as for his tyme; whiche honor was restorede ageyne in the tyme of kynge Ken|ulphus. The honor of the chirche off Yorke hathe con|tynuede there from the begynnenge of hit vn to this tyme presente; thauȝhe Scottelonde withdrawede hit from the subieccion of hit in processe of tyme. Giraldus in Itinerario, libro secundo. The seete of the metropolitan was translate from the Cite of Legiones vn to Meneuia, at the weste of Sowthe Wales, sette on the see of Yrlonde, in the tyme of Seynte Dauid, vnder kynge Arthure; from the tyme of whom vn to the tyme of Sampson the bischop xiijti archebischoppes were þer. At the laste an infirmitie reignenge in Wales, whiche was callede the iawndres, Sampson the bischoppe, takenge with hym the palle, wente Page  115, vol.2 to Briteyne Armorike, from whiche tyme vn to the daies of kynge Henry the first, kynge of Englonde of that name, xxjti bischoppes kepede residence at Meneuia, wontenge a [folio 71a] palle, other for slawethe, other for pouerte. Neuertheles vn to that tyme the byschopes of Wales were wonte to be consecrate of the bischop of Meneuia, whiche is callede Seynte David, and that bischop of other suffraganes of Wales, noo profession other subieccion made to eny other chirche. But other bischoppes succedenge receyvede con|secracion of the bischop of Canterbery, thro the com|maundemente of the kynge. In the inuestiture of whom, in a signe of subieccion, Bonefacius, archebischop of Can|terbery, in the tyme of kynge Henrye secunde, firste of alle byschoppes of Caunterbery songe masse solenly in euery cathedralle chirche of Wales. ℞. But now in this tyme there be only ij. primates in Englonde, whiche be of Caunterbery and of Yorke. Caunterbery hathe xiij. bi|schopes in Englonde subiecte to hit, and iiij. bischoppes in Wales. And Yorke hathe but ij. suffraganes subiecte to Page  117, vol.2 it oonly, whiche be suffraganes of Carduliense and of Durem, of the successiue institucions of whom somme thynges ar to be seide here by ordre. Where fore hit is to be aduer|tede that bischoppes, in the primitiue chirche of Englonde, were wonte to haue theire seetes in meke places, apte to contemplacion and deuocion, but hit was commaundede by a decrete of canon, in the tyme of William Conquerour, that the seetes of bischoppes scholde be translate from townes to cites. Where hit was hade that the sete of Dor|chestre was chaungede to Lyncoln, and of Lichefelde to Chestre, of Tedforde to Norwiche, of Shirburne to Excestre, of Seliense to Chichestre. Of the bischoppes of the Sowthe.*. [This is wrongly numbered Cap. 52 in Harl. MS.; the division of the chapter having been already made conformably to the Latin text.] The bischoppe of Rochestre, whiche hathe noo peresche, but [is] chapelayn of tharchebischop of Caunterbury, from the begynenge of the institucion made by Seynte Austyn bishop of Canterbery, chaungede not the seete of hit vn to oure daies. The bischop of Chicestre, whiche hathe goue|naile [folio 71b] oonly of the Sowthe Saxones and the yle of Wiȝhte, Page  119, vol.2 kepede somme tyme residence at Selesey, in the tyme of Theodorus tharchebischop, where hit contynuede vnder xxti bischoppes from the firste, Wilfridus, vn to the laste, Stigandus, by ccc.xxxiijti yere. At the laste Stigandus, thro the commaundement of William Conqueroure, did trans|late that seete of Selesey to Chichestre.

Of the bischoppes of the weste. Capitulum quinquagesimum tertium.

HIT is to be hade in memory that alle the prouince of Weste Saxones had oon bischop from þe begynnenge vn to the tyme of Theodorus. Birinus, the firste bischop in that prouince, sette the seete at Dorchestre, a meke place, thro the graunte of Kyngelfus, kynge of Weste Saxones; whiche seete was at the sowthe of Oxforde, nye to Walyngeforde, betwene the metenge of ij. floodes, Tham and Yce. That byschop Byryne dedde, Kewacus kynge ordeynede that seete to be at Wynchestre, lyke as his fader proposede to have doen somme tyme, where Agilbertus, borne in Fraunce, hadde gouernaile firste on alle the province of Weste Saxones. From whiche tyme the cite and seete of Dor|chestre Page  121, vol.2 pertenede to the prouince of the Marches, in so moche that cite was sette within Thamys, whiche floode de|partede the Marches from the Weste Saxones. And after Agilberte expulsede from Wynchestre, Wyne, a Englysche man, was byschop þer, of whom somme men trawe that cite to have taken name, for Wynechestre sowndethe as the cite of Wyne. Whiche expulsed at the laste, Leuthe|rius, nevewe to the forseide Agilberte, succedede þer, after whom Hedea succedede. Whiche dedde, Theodorus arche|bischop ordeynede to that prouince of Weste Saxones ij. byschoppes, ordeynenge Daniel, byschop at Wynchestre, to whom ij. cuntrees were subiecte, Sowtherey and Sowthe|hampteschire. And Aldelme at the seete of Schirbourn, to whom vj. cuntrees were subiecte, Barokschire, Wilton|schire, Somerset, Dorsete, Deuenschire, and Cornewaile. Vn to whiche ij. seetes other iij. seetes were addede in [folio 72a] the tyme [of] Edwarde the senior, kynge of Englonde, Page  123, vol.2 thro the precepte of Formosus the pope, that is to say, at Welles, to whom Somersete was subiecte; of Cridense, to whom Deuenschire was subiecte; and of Cornubience, at Seynte Patroclus other Germanus, to whom alle Cornewaile was subiecte. And within a shorte space folowenge the vithe seete was at Ramisbury, to whom Willeschire was subiecte. At the laste alle these seetes were remouede from townes to cites, thro commaundemente of William Conqueroure, the seete of Wynchestre excepte. For the seetes of Shirborne and of Ramisbery were chaungede to Salisbery, to whom Barokshire, Willeschire, and the pro|uinces of Dorsette be subiecte. And the seete of Welles was chaungede vn to Bathe, to whom Somerset is subiecte. The seetes of Cridence and of Cornubiense were remouede to Excestre, to whom Deuenschire and Cornewaile be subiecte.

Capitulum quinquagesimum quartum.

HIT is to be attended that the Este Saxones were obe|diente from the begynnenge vn to this tyme presente to the bishop of London. But a byschop, Felix by name, Page  125, vol.2 borne in Burguyn, was firste bischop ad Dommic, a cite of the prouince of Este Englische men by xvij. yere; after whom Thomas was v. yere, after hym Bonefacius xvij. yere; after whom Besy, institute by Theodorus, gouernede that prouince allon while he was in heale. After whom ij. by|schopes reignede c.xliij yere, gouernenge the prouince vn to the tymes of Egberte, kynge of Weste Saxones, oon of theym at Dommic, that other at Elyngham, vn to the vthe yere of William Conquerour, when Herfastus, the xxiijti bischop of the este, did translate the seete of Hely to Ted|forde. And Herebertus Losinga, his successor, remouede that seete from Tedforde to Norwiche, thro licence of Wil|liam Rufus. Kynge Henry the firste ordeynede that seete of Hely the ixthe yere of his reigne, subduede to hit the prouince of Cantebrigge, whiche pertenede a fore that tyme to the byschopryche of Lincolne; in a recompensacion þer of he ȝafe to the bischop of Lincolne the towne of Spal|denge.

Page  127, vol.2

Of the bischoppes of the Marches. Willelmus.

HIT is to be attendede, that like as the impire of the Marches was moste large, so hit was diuided in to moste [folio 72b] bischopes. And specially in the tyme of kynge Offa,*. [of Offa, Harl. MS., by a cleri|cal error, it is to be hoped.] whiche reignenge in the Marches by xl. yere, transferrede the honor from Caunterbery to the chirche of Lyncolne, Adrian the pope grawntenge that priuilege. Where there was oon bischop oonly, at Lichefelde, to the prouince of Marches and of Lyndesfarne,*. [Lindeseye, MS. (first hand.)] in the firste yeres of Cris|tianite, in the tyme of kynge Wulfarius; Duina was firste, Celat the secunde, bothe Scottes, Trunhere the thrydde, Iarumannus the iiijthe, Cedda the vthe. But Theo|dorus archebischop, after the deathe of Seynte Chadde, ordeynede Wynfrede, dekyn of Seynte Chadde, in the tyme of Ethelrede, brother of Wulferus, whiche was deposede for cause of a certeyne inobediency, makenge Sexwulphus byschop þer, abbot of Medehamstede, whiche is callede now Petrusborough. But after the iiijthe yere of Sexwulphus, Theodorus, tharchebischop, ordeinede v. byschoppes to Page  129, vol.2 the prouince of the Marches, that is to say, Bosel at Wir|cestre, Cudwyne at Lichefelde, Sexwulphus at Chestre, Ethelwyne at Lindesey, at a cite callede Sedeneia. Takenge also Eata, monke of the monastery of Seynte Hilda at Whitby, made hym byschop at Dorchestre, nye to Oxforde, whiche was callede that tyme Dorkynga. And so the seete of Dorchestre, whiche pertenede to the Weste Saxones in the tyme of Seynte Biryne, longede to the Marches from the tyme of Theodorus tharchebischop. Sexvulphus dedde, Hedda succeded at Lychefelde; and Wilfride, chasede from Northumbrelonde, succedede at Legecestre, now namede Chestre; neuerthelesse Alfride, the kynge of Northumbre|londe, dedde within the space of ij. yere foloenge, Wilfride returnede to his propre seete Haugustaldense; and so Hedda was bischop bothe of Lichefelde and of Chestre. After whom Albinus other Wor. After whom thre succeded, that Page  131, vol.2 is to say, Torta at Chestre, Witta at Lichefelde, Eata re|maynenge at Dorchestre; the seete of whom bischoppes of Lindeseye occupiede by ccc.liiijti yere, vn tylle that Remi|gius [folio 73a] transferrede that seete to Lincolne, in the tyme of kynge William the firste. But Leofwinus byschop, con|ioinede bothe the chirches of Chestre and Lindesey to gedre in the tyme of kynge Edgare, while he lyvede.

Of the Bischopes of Northumberlonde. Capitulum quinquagesimum sextum.

Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro quarto, capitulo secundo. Oon seete was firste at Yorke, for alle the prouince off Northumbrelonde, whom Paulinus occupiede firste by the space of vij. yere. After that Edwinus, kynge of Northum|brelonde, sleyne, Paulinus toke schippe and saylede to Kente, from whens he come, takenge the palle with hym. Willelmus, libro tertio. And so the bischopperiche of Page  133, vol.2 Yorke seasede xxxti yere, and the vse of the palle seasede there by a c. xxvti yere vn tyl þat bischoppe Egberte, brother to the kynge of that londe, recurede the palle thro auctorite of the pope. ℞. After that, Seynte Oswalde reignenge, Aidanus, a Scotte, hade gouernaile in Bernicia, after whom Finanus,*. [Sinanus, Harl. MS.] and after hym Colmannus. Willelmus ubi supra. Whiche goenge in to Scotlonde, as for indigna|cion, in that he was reprovede by Wilfride of vnlawefulle kepenge of Estur, Wilfride was restorede to the seete of Yorke after the departenge of Paulinus, in the xxxti yere. Beda, libro quarto. But Wilfride taryenge in Fraunce abowte his consecracion, Seynte Chadde was taken and made bischoppe þer, thro helpe of kynge Oswy; whiche, re|mouede with in the space of thre yere by Theodorus tharche|bischop, was made bischop of the Marches, and Wilfride was restorede to hit ageyne. Whiche Wilfride was expul|sede with in the space of x. yere foloenge, Theodorus tharche|bischoppe cooperante and corrupte, for cause of conten|cion Page  135, vol.2 movede betwene hym and kynge Egfride; and then Theodorus ordeinede, at the instance of the kynge, Bosa at Yorke, Tunbertus*. [So Harl. MS.] at the chirche Haugustaldense, Eata at the chirche Lindisfarn, whiche is in the Holielonde, in the floode of Twide; whiche sete Aidanus the bischop foundede firste, sendenge Trumwyne to the londe of Pictes, in the costes of Englonde nye to Scotlonde, in to a place whiche is callede Witerne, where Seynte Ninian otherwise callede of commune peple Seynt Ronyon, was firste founder and doc|tor; but alle these seetes, Yorke excepte, faylede by succes|sion. For the seete of Witerne, whiche longede þat tyme [folio 73b] to Englische men [indurede] by certeyne yeres, vnder x. bischoppes, vn tille that [by] the depopulacion of the Pictes [hit] failede vtterly from the lordeschippe of Englische men; and the seetes of Haugustaldens and Lindisfarne, whiche beenge otherwhile oon indurede allemoste xc. yere, vnder ix. bischoppes, vnder the commenge of Danes. But in the tyme of Hinguar and Hubba, Ardulphus the bischop was vagante longe with þe body of Seynte Cuthberte, vn to the tyme of Aluredus, kynge of Weste Saxones, when the seete of Page  137, vol.2 Lindisfarne was sette at Cungestre or Kunnengesburghe, whiche place is callede now Hubeforde on Twede. And at the laste that sete was removede to Durem, in the xvj. yere of Egelrede kynge, son of kynge Edgare; and the body of Seynte Cuthberte the bischop was buriede there by Edmunde the bischop. From whiche tyme the seetes of the chirches of Haugustaldense failede vtterly; and kynge Henry the firste, in the ixthe yere of his reigne, ordeynede a newe seete, Caerlielle.

Capitulum quinquagesimum septimum.

THE metropolitan of Caunterbury hathe vnder hym xiij. bischoppes in Englond, and iiij. in Wales, that is to say:— the bischop of Rochestre, whiche hathe gouernayle oonly in Kente. Also of London whiche hathe rewle in Estesex, Midelsex, and of the halfe of Hertefordeschire. Also the bischop of Chichestre whiche is presidente oonly of Southe|sex and of the yle of Wyȝhte. The bischop of Wyn|chestre, whiche is presidente in Hampteschire and Surry. And of Salisbury þat is presidente of Dorset, Barrokschire, Page  139, vol.2 and Wilteschire. Of Excestre, that is presidente of Deuon|schire and of Cornewaile. And of Bathe, þat is presidente in Somerseteschire. Of Wirchestre, whiche is presidente in Glouchestreschire and Wirchestre, and in the halfe of Warwikeschire. And of Herdeforde, whiche is presidente in that schire, and in parte of Shropschire. The bishop of Chestre of Couentre and of Lichefelde, whiche is presidente in Staffordeschire, in Derby, and in the halfe of Warwike|schire, and in parte of Shroppeschire, and in parte of [folio 74a] Lancastreschire that is from the water of Mersee vn to the floode of Rippelle. And of Lyncolne, whiche is presidente of the prouinces whiche be betwene Thamys and Humbre, as Lincolne, Leircestre, Northampton, Huntyngdon, Beddeforde, Bukkyngham, Oxon, and halfe of Hertefordeschire. And of Hely, that is presidente in Cantebriggeschire, Merlonde excepte. Of Norwiche, that is presidente in Merlonde, Northefolke, and Sowthefolke. Also the metropolitan of Caunterbery hathe iiij. suffraganes in Wales; that is to say, of Landauense, of Bangor, of Meneuia, and Assaph. The archebischop of Yorke hathe ij. bischoppes vnder hym oonly, of Durem and Caerliel. Then sithe þer be ij. Page  141, vol.2 primates in Englonde, oon of Caunterbury, that is callede the primate of alle Englonde, that other of Yorke, whiche is callede the primate of Englonde, in what thynges oon of theym awe to be subiecte to that other, hit schalle be expressede in this processe folowenge, abowte the yere of oure Lorde God a m. lx. and xij. yere, more plenerly. Wherefore a cause was ventilate and movede thro the commaundemente of the pope, afore William firste kinge of Englonde, and diuerse other bischoppes of that londe; where hit was decrete that tharchebischop of Yorke scholde be subiecte to þe primate of Caunterbury in those thynges whiche perteyne to the honor of God; in so moche that tharchebischop of Yorke with his suffraganes scholde be at the cownselle where hit pleasede the primate of Caunterbury to assigne hit, and to obey the decretes of canon. And the archebischop of Caunterbury dedde, the archebischop of Yorke schalle come to Caunterbury, and consecrate the man electe in to the primate. And if the archebischop of Yorke dee, his successor shalle comme to Caunterbury to receyve his ordinacion, makenge an othe Page  143, vol.2 with profession off obedience canonicalle. But in this pro|cesse foloenge, abowte the yere of God ml c. xcv.,*. [ml. c. 95, Harl. MS. The Roman and Arabic numerals are used pro|miscuously elsewhere.] vnder the tyme of kynge Richarde the firste, reasones were allegate for either parte of bothe primates: and also from the tyme of the Conqueste vn to the tymes of the laste Henry kynge, in the daies of Thurstyn, Thomas, and of [folio 74b] other bischoppes of Yorke, what that oon primate did to that other, and how oon of theyme fledde the powere of that other, for to reherse the reasones of theyme and allegacion, hit were onerable to vs in this tyme.

Of what Peple, how mony, and when, this Yle of Briteyne was inhabite.—Capitulum quinquagesimum octavum.

THIS yle callede Englonde now hade Britones the firste inhabitatores of hit, in þe xviijthe yere of Hely preste, in the tyme of Siluius Posthumus kynge of Latines, þe xliijti yere after the destruccion of Troye, by cccc. yere and xxxijti afore the cite of Rome was edifiede. Beda, libro primo. Whiche commenge from Armorike occupiede a longe season the sowthe partes of the yle of Briteyne. Hyt Page  145, vol.2 happede afterwarde in the tyme of Vespasian duke of Rome, the peple of Pictes to haue commen from Scythia,*. [Scicia or Scitia, MSS., as usual; and so below.] and to haue intrede the occean, the wynde helpenge theyme, and so to haue intrede the northe costes of Yrlonde; whiche fyndenge þer Scottes desirede a place in that londe whom thei myȝhte inhabite, but thei kouthe not obteyne that desire. For the Scottes seide Yrlonde wolde not suffice bothe peple. Wherefore thei sende the Pictes to the northe partes of Briteyne, promysenge helpe to theyme, if that the Britones made eny insurreccion ageyne theym; ȝiffenge to theyme theire doȝhters to be mariede, in that condicion, that if there were any dowte thei scholde elect in to theire kynge oon of the female kynde rather then of the male kynde and bloode. Gaufridus. In the tyme of Vespasian emperoure, Marius son of Aruiragus reignenge at Britones, Rodricus a kynge of Pictes, commenge from Scythia,*. [Scicia or Scitia, MSS., as usual; and so below.] began to waste Albania, whom Marius did slee, ȝiffenge to the peple deuicte whiche come with Rodricus the northe parte of Albania to inhabite, whiche is called Cateneyse. Whiche wontenge wifes, and the Britones not Page  147, vol.2 willenge to mary with theyme, saylede in to Yrlonde in maryenge to theyme the doȝhters of men of Yrlonde, in this condicion, that the bloode female scholde be preferrede in succession. Giraldus De Papa, capitulo septimo. Neuerthelesse Seruius on Virgille callethe the Pictes Agathyrsi,*. [Agatirsi, Harl. MS.] and to haue hade theire habitaciones somme tyme abowte the marras of Scythia whiche were callede Pictes, [folio 72a] for the habundance of fleume in theyme. These peple be callede also Gothi, for when Maximus the tyrante wente from Englonde in to Fraunce with a grete multitude of armede men to occupy the empyre, Gratian and Valentinian, breder and felowes of thempire, toke to theyme the peple callede Gothi, nowble and stronge in batelle, thro rewarde and feire speche, from the costes of Scythia in to the northe partes of Briteyne, with a grete multitude of peple, to vexe the Britones; and so that peple, of robbers made inhabitatores, occupiede the northe partes of Briteyne thro presumpcion. Gaufridus.Page  149, vol.2 Carausius the tyraunte did sle Bassian thro the decepcion of the Pictes, whiche come to haue schewede helpe to þe seide Bassian, whiche ȝafe to the Pictes a place to inhabite in Albania, where thei did abyde afterwarde by continuacion permixte with Britones. ℞. And when the Pictes hade occupiede afore tyme the northe partes of Albania, hit semethe that the place of inhabitacion whom Carausius grauntede to theym was the sowthe parte of Albania, pro|tendede from the famose walle of Roman werke ouertwarde*. [So Harl. MS.] to the Scottissee, in whom Galoway is conteynede; of whom Beda spekethe, libro iijo, capitulo 2o, seyenge, Seynte Ronyon conuertede þe sowthe Pictes. And at the laste the Saxones causede that coste to perteyne to the prouince of Northumbrelonde, vn til Kinadius the son of Alpinus, kynge of Scottes, destroyenge the Pictes, made that territory whiche is betwene Twede and the Scottissee to longe to his realme. Beda, libro primo, capitulo primo. And in processe of tyme the Scottes, takenge to theyme Reuda of Yrlonde to theire gouernoure, whiche londe is nye to the Scottes, wente furthe and toke to theyme seetes, what thro marte other fauor, nye to the Pictes, at the northe parte of an arme of the see, Page  151, vol.2 whiche, brekenge vp in to the londe from the weste in a grete space, departede in olde tymes the Britones from the Pictes: of whiche duke, Reuda by name, the Scottes were callede Dalreudini; for dal in the langage of theyme signifiethe parte. Gaufridus,*. [The true reference is to Girald. De Inst. Princ. lib. l. c. 6.]distinctione prima. The Pictes, hauenge not licence to marye with the doȝhters of Britones, mariede with the Scottes of Yrlonde, movenge theym to inhabite that londe with theyme, [and] grauntede to theyme the londe in the costes nye to the see, where the see is not brode and large, callede now Galaway. Marianus. The Scottes londed, [folio 76b] otherwise callede men of Yrlonde, at a place callede Argail, whiche sowndethe in Englische, the brynke of Scottes, in that the Scottes did londe þer to do harme to the Britones, other elles for cause that place was most nye to men of Yrlonde to londe at. Beda. And so the Scottes brouȝhte to Englonde the thridde peple, after Britones and Pictes. ℞. And at the laste the Saxones desirede to inhabite that londe of the Britones ageyne the Scottes and Pictes, the Britones expulsede in to Wales, occupiede that londe to the Page  153, vol.2 Scottisse costes and see, so they brouȝhte in to that londe the iiijthe nacion. Beda, libro quinto, capitulo nono. And for cause Englische men other Saxones toke theire originalle of Germanye, ȝitte thei be callede schortely Germanni of the nye peple of Britones. ℞. And abowte the viijc. yere of grace Egbertus kynge of Weste Saxones commaundede alle the inhabitatores of that londe to be callede Englische men. Alfridus. After the tymes of Egberte by ijc. yere foloenge allemoste, the Danes entrenge in to that yle brouȝhte the vthe peple in to hit vn to the tymes of Seynte Edwarde, but thei failede afterwarde. After that the Normannes with William Conqueroure subduenge Englische men to theyme, hauenge that londe in possession vn to this tyme, brouȝhte the vjthe peple to that yle. But after that men of Flaundres toke to theyme an inhabitacion at Mailros, the este plage of Englonde, with a grete multitude, in the tyme of kynge Henry the firste, and brouȝhte the vijthe peple in to Englonde as for a season and tyme. But after that thei were removede Page  155, vol.2 to Hauerforde, at the weste parte of Wales, thro commaunde|mente of þe the same kynge. ℞. And so by succession of tymes, the Danes failenge in Englonde, and Pictes, now Albania is inhabite with Scottes, Wales with Britones, and men of Flaundres in Weste Wales, Normannes and Englische men mixte in alle the yle of Briteyne. As in the sub|traccion of Danes as vn to the maner and chaunce þer of croniclers make noo mencion, but hit schal be determinate consequentely how the Pictes failede. Giraldus, distinctione prima. Briteyne occupiede some tyme with the Saxones, and a stable fidelite made with the Pictes, the Scottes whiche [folio 76a] were ioynede to the Pictes seenge the Pictes thauȝhe fewe in nowmbre, neuertheles thei were myȝhty men of armes and bolde of herte, desirede the capiteynes of the Pictes and mony other to the feste, whiche vsenge a cautele made the seetes in theire festes to be movable with pynnes of woode; and when the Pictes ȝafe attendaunce to surfette and ryette, the Scottes toke aweye the nailes other pynnes, and so the Pictes felle bakwarde, the legges of theyme beenge vpwarde, in to holoo places vnder the seetes, and so thei were alle sleyne. And so of ij. bolde peple, the more bolde Page  157, vol.2 peple was vtterly destroyede. That other peple of Scottes hauenge a grete avayle by the dethe of theyme, haue that londe in possession whom thei calle Scotlande vn to this tyme. And also Kinadius, the son of Alpinus, entrede in to the cuntre of the Pictes in the tyme of kynge Edgare, and destroyede theyme, [and] fiȝhtenge soore vj. tymes ageyne the Saxones, presumede alle the grownde from the Scottisse vn to the water of Twide departenge now Englonde from Scottelonde.

Of the langage of the inhabitatores of Englonde. Capitulum quinquagesimum nonum.

HIT may be schewede clerely to the wytte that there were so mony diuersites of langages in that londe as were diuersites of nacions. But Scottes and men of Wales kepe theire propre langage, as men inpermixte with other naciones; but perauenture Scottes haue taken somme parte Page  159, vol.2 in theire communicacion of the langage of Pictes, with whom thei dwellede somme tyme, and were confederate with theyme. Men of Flaundres that inhabite the weste partes of Wales levenge the speche of barbre speke after the Saxones. And thauȝhe men of Englonde hade in the begynnenge a langage tripartite, as of the sowthe parte of Englond, of the myddelle parte of Englonde, and of the northe parte of Englonde, procedenge as of thre peple of Germanye, borowe moche in theire speche now, as of*. [So Harl. MS., but perhaps as of should be cancelled.] thro the commixtion [folio 79b] with the Danes and after that with the Normannes. The corrupcion of that natife langage is causede moche of ij. thynges, that is to say, childer sette to schole after the commenge of Normannes in to Englonde were compellede to constru in Frenche ageyne the consuetude of oþer naciones. In so moche that the childer of nowble men, after that thei were taken from the cradelle, were sette to lerne the speche of Frenche men. Wherefore churles seenge that, willenge to be like to theyme, laborede to speke Frenche with alle theire myȝhte. Where hit is to be hade Page  161, vol.2 in meruayle that the propur langage of Englische men scholde be made so diuerse in oon lytelle yle in pronuncia|cion, sythe the langage of Normannes is oon and vniuocate allemoste amonge theyme alle. But as of the tripartite langage of Saxones, whiche remaynethe now but amonge fewe men, the*. [the the, Harl. MS.] weste men of Englonde sownde and acorde more with the men of the este of that londe as vnder the same clyme of heuyn, then the men of the northe with men of the sowthe. Wherefore hit is that Englische men of þe Marches of the mydelle partes of Englonde, takenge as by Page  163, vol.2 participacion the nature of bothe extremities, vnderstonde the langages collateralle arthike and anthartike better then the extremites vnderstonde theyme selfe to geder. Willel|mus de Pontificibus, libro tertio. Alle the langage of men of Northumbrelonde, and specially in Yorke, sowndethe so that men of the sowthe cuntre may vnnethe vnderstonde the langage of theyme, whiche thynge may be causede for the nye langage of men of barbre to theyme, and also for the grete distaunce of kynges of Englonde from hyt, whiche vse moste the southe partes of that londe, returnenge not in to the costes of the northe but with a grete multi|tude. Also an other cause may be assignede, for the sowthe partes be more habundante in fertilite then the northe partes, moo peple in nowmbre, hauenge also more plesaunte portes.

Page  165, vol.2

Of the maneres of the peple of hit. Capitulum sexagesimum.

A DECLARACION hade in processe precedenge as of þe maneres of men of Wales and of Scottes, we schalle deter|minate of the rites of the permixte peple of Englonde. Giraldus in Itinerario. And that peple of Flaundres [folio 77a] whiche inhabite the weste partes of Wales is made now in disposicion like to the peple of Englonde, beenge myȝhty and stronge in conflictes and in batelle, contrarious to Walsche men, vsenge moche wolle and marchaundise, prompte to take on theim perelle of the see either of the londe for lucre, nowe applienge theyme to labour, as for the place and tyme, and soone to batelle. ℞. That other peple of Englische men inhabitenge Loegria, as of yles permixte, Page  167, vol.2 be liȝhtely declynede thro theire awne mocion vn to thynges contrarious, whiche be soe impaciente, as Willelmus de Ponti|ficibus, libro tertio, rehersethe, that when that peple hathe depressede theire enmyes then thei fiȝhte amonge theyme selfe, and laboure ageyne nature in the maner of a voide stomake. ℞. Neuerthelesse, the peple of the sowthe is meke and quiete, the peple of þe northe is more moveable and cruelle, the peple of the myddelle partes be in maner as a participulle. Also the peple of Englonde is ȝiffen more to glotony and to surfettes a fore other peple, takenge grete coste in meite and clothes, whiche is seide to haue bene taken in the tyme of Hardeknutus kynge, a Dane,*. [So Harl. MS., but the sentence seems a little corrupt.] whiche vse mony diversities of meites at a meite. That peple is apte to alle kyndes of armes, bothe on foote and on horse, wonte to haue a crowne off a lauref*. [So Harl. MS.] tre for the Page  169, vol.2 victory in batelles, if treason reigne not amonge theyme. That peple is curious ynowe that hit may knowe, and telle meruellous thynges goenge to oþer regiones, vnnethe ryche and fortunate in theire awne londe, but fortunate specially in ferre costes. For hit can purchase better then kepe the propur inheritaunce of theyme, wherefore the peple of that londe is dispersede a brode thro alle the worlde, trawenge alle the worlde to be a cuntre to theyme; a peple apte moche to wylenes and decepcion, but importune a fore the dede, levenge liȝhtly a thynge y-begunne. Policronicon,*. [So Harl. MS. at length.]libro vj to. Wherefore hit is that Eugenius the pope seide the peple of Englonde apte to euery thynge, and to be preferrede a fore peple of other naciones but for inconstance of theyme; and like as Hannibal denyede the Romanes to be ouercome but in theire propre cuntre, soe in lyke wise the [folio 77b] peple of Englonde is invincible in other cuntres, and soone deuicte in theire awne cuntre. ℞. The peple of Englonde is fulle curious to knowe straunge thynges by experience, depra|uenge theire awne thynges [thei] commende other straunge, Page  171, vol.2 vnnethe other neuer contente of the state of theire degre, transfigurenge to theyme that is congruente to an other man. Wherefore hit is seen oftetymes þat a yoman dothe represente as the state of a es[q]wier, an esqwier of a knyȝhte, a knyȝhte of a lorde, a lorde of a duke, a duke off a kynge. There fore mony men goenge abowte euery degre be founde in noo degre, attemptenge euery ordre be not of eny ordre; for thei be as ioculers in behauor, glotones in meite, tauerners in expense, myȝhty men or frauncleones in apparelle, Argi in lucre, like to Tantalus in Page  173, vol.2 laboure, and as Dedalus in cure, lyke to Sardanapallus in beddes, similacres in temples, thundres in courtes, know|leggenge theym to be clerkes thro oonly priuileges and benefices other prebendes. But now in these daies suche diuersites of vesture and apparelle be vsede alle moste amonge alle men of Englonde, that thei seme to be as of noo gendre or kynde; of whom an holy heremite did pro|phecy in the tyme of knyge Egelredus in thys maner. Henricus, libro sexto. For cause that Englische men be ȝiffen to treason, drunkenesse, and to the negligence of þe howse of God, thei schalle be punyschede sore, firste by Danes, in the secunde tyme by Normannes, in the thrydde tyme by the Scottes, whom thei acompte as a peple moste Page  175, vol.2 vile, in so moche that the worlde schalle be then so vari|able, that the diuersite of myndes schalle be designate in the mony folde diuersite of vesture and of apparelle. Ex|plicit Liber Primus.