Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Of what Peple, how mony, and when, this Yle of Briteyne was inhabite.—Capitulum quinquagesimum octavum.

THIS yle callede Englonde now hade Britones the firste inhabitatores of hit, in þe xviijthe yere of Hely preste, in the tyme of Siluius Posthumus kynge of Latines, þe xliijti yere after the destruccion of Troye, by cccc. yere and xxxijti afore the cite of Rome was edifiede. Beda, libro primo. Whiche commenge from Armorike occupiede a longe season the sowthe partes of the yle of Briteyne. Hyt Page  145, vol.2 happede afterwarde in the tyme of Vespasian duke of Rome, the peple of Pictes to haue commen from Scythia,*. [Scicia or Scitia, MSS., as usual; and so below.] and to haue intrede the occean, the wynde helpenge theyme, and so to haue intrede the northe costes of Yrlonde; whiche fyndenge þer Scottes desirede a place in that londe whom thei myȝhte inhabite, but thei kouthe not obteyne that desire. For the Scottes seide Yrlonde wolde not suffice bothe peple. Wherefore thei sende the Pictes to the northe partes of Briteyne, promysenge helpe to theyme, if that the Britones made eny insurreccion ageyne theym; ȝiffenge to theyme theire doȝhters to be mariede, in that condicion, that if there were any dowte thei scholde elect in to theire kynge oon of the female kynde rather then of the male kynde and bloode. Gaufridus. In the tyme of Vespasian emperoure, Marius son of Aruiragus reignenge at Britones, Rodricus a kynge of Pictes, commenge from Scythia,*. [Scicia or Scitia, MSS., as usual; and so below.] began to waste Albania, whom Marius did slee, ȝiffenge to the peple deuicte whiche come with Rodricus the northe parte of Albania to inhabite, whiche is called Cateneyse. Whiche wontenge wifes, and the Britones not Page  147, vol.2 willenge to mary with theyme, saylede in to Yrlonde in maryenge to theyme the doȝhters of men of Yrlonde, in this condicion, that the bloode female scholde be preferrede in succession. Giraldus De Papa, capitulo septimo. Neuerthelesse Seruius on Virgille callethe the Pictes Agathyrsi,*. [Agatirsi, Harl. MS.] and to haue hade theire habitaciones somme tyme abowte the marras of Scythia whiche were callede Pictes, [folio 72a] for the habundance of fleume in theyme. These peple be callede also Gothi, for when Maximus the tyrante wente from Englonde in to Fraunce with a grete multitude of armede men to occupy the empyre, Gratian and Valentinian, breder and felowes of thempire, toke to theyme the peple callede Gothi, nowble and stronge in batelle, thro rewarde and feire speche, from the costes of Scythia in to the northe partes of Briteyne, with a grete multitude of peple, to vexe the Britones; and so that peple, of robbers made inhabitatores, occupiede the northe partes of Briteyne thro presumpcion. Gaufridus.Page  149, vol.2 Carausius the tyraunte did sle Bassian thro the decepcion of the Pictes, whiche come to haue schewede helpe to þe seide Bassian, whiche ȝafe to the Pictes a place to inhabite in Albania, where thei did abyde afterwarde by continuacion permixte with Britones. ℞. And when the Pictes hade occupiede afore tyme the northe partes of Albania, hit semethe that the place of inhabitacion whom Carausius grauntede to theym was the sowthe parte of Albania, pro|tendede from the famose walle of Roman werke ouertwarde*. [So Harl. MS.] to the Scottissee, in whom Galoway is conteynede; of whom Beda spekethe, libro iijo, capitulo 2o, seyenge, Seynte Ronyon conuertede þe sowthe Pictes. And at the laste the Saxones causede that coste to perteyne to the prouince of Northumbrelonde, vn til Kinadius the son of Alpinus, kynge of Scottes, destroyenge the Pictes, made that territory whiche is betwene Twede and the Scottissee to longe to his realme. Beda, libro primo, capitulo primo. And in processe of tyme the Scottes, takenge to theyme Reuda of Yrlonde to theire gouernoure, whiche londe is nye to the Scottes, wente furthe and toke to theyme seetes, what thro marte other fauor, nye to the Pictes, at the northe parte of an arme of the see, Page  151, vol.2 whiche, brekenge vp in to the londe from the weste in a grete space, departede in olde tymes the Britones from the Pictes: of whiche duke, Reuda by name, the Scottes were callede Dalreudini; for dal in the langage of theyme signifiethe parte. Gaufridus,*. [The true reference is to Girald. De Inst. Princ. lib. l. c. 6.]distinctione prima. The Pictes, hauenge not licence to marye with the doȝhters of Britones, mariede with the Scottes of Yrlonde, movenge theym to inhabite that londe with theyme, [and] grauntede to theyme the londe in the costes nye to the see, where the see is not brode and large, callede now Galaway. Marianus. The Scottes londed, [folio 76b] otherwise callede men of Yrlonde, at a place callede Argail, whiche sowndethe in Englische, the brynke of Scottes, in that the Scottes did londe þer to do harme to the Britones, other elles for cause that place was most nye to men of Yrlonde to londe at. Beda. And so the Scottes brouȝhte to Englonde the thridde peple, after Britones and Pictes. ℞. And at the laste the Saxones desirede to inhabite that londe of the Britones ageyne the Scottes and Pictes, the Britones expulsede in to Wales, occupiede that londe to the Page  153, vol.2 Scottisse costes and see, so they brouȝhte in to that londe the iiijthe nacion. Beda, libro quinto, capitulo nono. And for cause Englische men other Saxones toke theire originalle of Germanye, ȝitte thei be callede schortely Germanni of the nye peple of Britones. ℞. And abowte the viijc. yere of grace Egbertus kynge of Weste Saxones commaundede alle the inhabitatores of that londe to be callede Englische men. Alfridus. After the tymes of Egberte by ijc. yere foloenge allemoste, the Danes entrenge in to that yle brouȝhte the vthe peple in to hit vn to the tymes of Seynte Edwarde, but thei failede afterwarde. After that the Normannes with William Conqueroure subduenge Englische men to theyme, hauenge that londe in possession vn to this tyme, brouȝhte the vjthe peple to that yle. But after that men of Flaundres toke to theyme an inhabitacion at Mailros, the este plage of Englonde, with a grete multitude, in the tyme of kynge Henry the firste, and brouȝhte the vijthe peple in to Englonde as for a season and tyme. But after that thei were removede Page  155, vol.2 to Hauerforde, at the weste parte of Wales, thro commaunde|mente of þe the same kynge. ℞. And so by succession of tymes, the Danes failenge in Englonde, and Pictes, now Albania is inhabite with Scottes, Wales with Britones, and men of Flaundres in Weste Wales, Normannes and Englische men mixte in alle the yle of Briteyne. As in the sub|traccion of Danes as vn to the maner and chaunce þer of croniclers make noo mencion, but hit schal be determinate consequentely how the Pictes failede. Giraldus, distinctione prima. Briteyne occupiede some tyme with the Saxones, and a stable fidelite made with the Pictes, the Scottes whiche [folio 76a] were ioynede to the Pictes seenge the Pictes thauȝhe fewe in nowmbre, neuertheles thei were myȝhty men of armes and bolde of herte, desirede the capiteynes of the Pictes and mony other to the feste, whiche vsenge a cautele made the seetes in theire festes to be movable with pynnes of woode; and when the Pictes ȝafe attendaunce to surfette and ryette, the Scottes toke aweye the nailes other pynnes, and so the Pictes felle bakwarde, the legges of theyme beenge vpwarde, in to holoo places vnder the seetes, and so thei were alle sleyne. And so of ij. bolde peple, the more bolde Page  157, vol.2 peple was vtterly destroyede. That other peple of Scottes hauenge a grete avayle by the dethe of theyme, haue that londe in possession whom thei calle Scotlande vn to this tyme. And also Kinadius, the son of Alpinus, entrede in to the cuntre of the Pictes in the tyme of kynge Edgare, and destroyede theyme, [and] fiȝhtenge soore vj. tymes ageyne the Saxones, presumede alle the grownde from the Scottisse vn to the water of Twide departenge now Englonde from Scottelonde.