Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Of realmes and of the merkes of theyme. Capitulum quinquagesimum primum.

[folio 69a]

The monarchy of the yle of Briteyne stode inconcussede from the firste Brute to Iulius Cesar; whiche yle paiede a tribute to the Romanes from the tyme of Iulius vn to the tyme of Seuerus; the succession of Britones faylenge Romanes reignede in hit. At the laste, the Romanes Page  99, vol.2 levenge to reigne in hit, what for the longitude of trauaile and what for other occupaciones ineuitable, Scottes and Pictes wastede that londe of Briteyne with a grete hoste, tylle that the Saxones beenge victores chasede the Pictes and Scottes in to Wales. And then euery prouince after theire powere made to theyme kynges, diuidenge the grownde of Englonde in to vij. realmes, whiche come alle afterwarde by succession in to oon monarchye in the tyme of kynge Athelstan. The Danes trowblede that londe gretely from the tyme of Athelwulphus, fader to kynge Alurede, vn to the tymes of Seynte Edwarde the thrydde, by a c. lx. and x. yeres, reignenge by xxxti yeres continually in hit. Seynte Edwarde the thrydde regnede after the Danes xxiijti yere and more, and Haralde after hym by ix. monethes. After whom Normannes regnede in hit vn to oure tymes, God knowethe how longe that schalle continue. ℞. Of whiche vij. realmes aforeseide, and of the merkes of theyme, Page  101, vol.2 when thei began, and how longe thei haue indurede, y schalle towche in parte. Alfridus. The firste realme was of men of Cawnturbery, protendede from the sowthe occean vn to the floode of Thamys, in whom Hengiste roignede firste in the yere of oure Lorde God, after Dionysius, cccc. lv. yere, and that realme durede by ccc. lxviij. yere vnder xv. lytelle kynges, vntil, Baldredus*. [Haldredus, Harl. MS.] expulsede, Egbertus kynge of Westesaxones added that realme to his impire. The secunde realme was of Sowthesex, hauenge on the este to hit Kente, of the sowthe the see and the yle of Wiȝhte, at the weste Hampteschire, at the northe Southerey, in whom Elle with his thre childer began to reigne firste in the xxxti yere from the commenge of Englische men, whiche realme wente soone after in to other realmes. The thrydde realme was of Estesex, hauenge on the este to hit the see of Fraunce, on the weste the cite of London, on the sowthe Thamys, on the northe to hit, Southefolke. The [folio 69b] kynges of whiche place from the firste Seberte vn to the tyme of Danes, by x. kynges, were obediente to other kynges, moste specially to the kynges of þe Marches, vn til that Egberte, kynge of Westesaxones, subduede hit to his impyre. Page  103, vol.2 The iiijthe realme was of Este Englische men, comprehend|enge Northefolke and Southefolke, hauenge at the este to hit and on the northe the see, at the weste the dyche of Seynte Edmunde and Hertefordschire, at the sowthe Estesex; and this realme durede vnder xij. kynges, vn tyl Seynte Edmunde sleyne, the Danes vsurpede the realme of Estenglonde, and also of Estesex; whom kynge Ed|warde the senior put to his realme, the Danes other put to fliȝhte other subacte. The vthe realme was of Weste|saxones, moste durable of alle realmes, hauenge on the este to hit Sowthesex, on the northe Thamys, on the sowthe and weste the occean. In whom Cerdicus began to reigne with Kymricus his son, after Dionysius, the yere of oure Lorde God vc. xix. yere, from the commenge of Englische men lxxj. yere. In to whom oþer realmes wente. The sexte realme was of the Marches, more large then other realmes. The merkes of whom were, at the weste, the floode of Dee nye to Chestre, and the floode of Seuerne nye to Shrewesbury vn to Bristowe, at the este the Page  105, vol.2 este*. [weste, Harl. MS.] see, at the sowthe the floode of Thamys vn to London, on the northe the water of Humbre, goenge after the weste vn to the water of Mercie vn to the ende of Wirhalle, where hit descendethe in to the Weste see. Penda, the son of Wibbe, reignede firste in those costes, after Dionysius, in the yere off oure Lorde vjc. xvj., and from the commenge of Englische men a c. yere lxxv., whiche realme contynuede vnder xviij. kynges abowte ijc. yere lx. and iij., vn to the laste Colwulphus; whiche expulsede, the Danes made Burdredus kynge of hit. That realme was diuidede in to thre partes in the firste begynnenge, that is to say, in to the Weste Marches, in to the Myddelle Marches, and in to the Este Marches. The vijthe realme was of Northumbrelonde, the merkes of whom were, on the este and on the weste, the occean; on the sowthe, the water of Humbre; descendenge towarde the weste by the costes of the schires of Notyngham and of Derbye vn to the water Page  107, vol.2 of Mersee; of the northe, the Scottes see, callede by the langage of theyme Forth, in Briteyne langage Werid, in Englische Scothisse. That realme of Northehumbrelonde was diuidede at the firste tyme in to ij. prouinces, in to Deira at the sowthe, and in to Bernicia at the northe; whiche ij. realmes the water of Tyne diuidede in that tyme. For that realme callede Deira was extendede from the floode of Humbre vn to the water of Tyne. That other parte callede Bernicia was extendede from the water of Tyne to the Scottes see when the Pictes dwellede there, as hit is schewede by Bede, libro tertio, capitulo secundo, where he seithe that Ninian the holy man conuertede the sowth|erne Pictes. Hida began to reigne firste in Bernicia, after Dionysius, the yere of grace vc. xlvijti; and kynge Elle began to reigne in Deira, after Dionysius, in the yere of grace vc. xlix.: whiche realmes continuede otherwhile vnder oon kynge, otherwhile vnder tweyne, as vnder xxti kynges as by ccc. yere xxjti. At the laste, Osbrutus and Elle sleyne Page  109, vol.2 by Danes in the ixthe year of theire reigne, Northumbre|londe was vacante of a kynge viijthe yeres. And from that tyme the Danes reignede in hit xxxvjti yeres, vn to the monarchy off kynge Athelstan, whiche obteynede the mo|narchye of all Englonde in the yere of oure Lorde viijc. xxvij., subduenge the kynges of Danes, of Wales, and of Scottes. That the water of Mersee was somme tyme the terme other the merke of the marches of Northumbrelonde, hit may be schewede by ij. maneres; firste by the significacion of the name, for Mersee in Englische sowndethe as a see terminatiue, for hit disterminate oon realme from an other. Also hit is hade in the cronicles of Henricus and Alfride, that kynge Edwarde the senior sette the castelle at Mam|cestre in the londe of Northumbrelonde, whiche cite is from the water of Mersee but by iij. myles.