Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Of Grece, and of the prouinces of hit. Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

AUCTORES remembre and reherse that Grece is lady*. [Grecia.] of other londes with his provinces, nutrix of cheuallery, the moder of philosophy, maistresse of artes, callede Grecia of a man named Grecus reignenge there, whiche is callede generally Illyricus, þe peple of whom be callede Greci, Graii, Achei, Achivi, Argivi, Attici, Iones, Ionii, or Hellenes. But when grete Constantyne transferrede the seete of the Roman ympyre to Constantinople, the men of Grewe were callede as newe Romanes, as Rabanus seythe; where fore men of that cuntre vn to this tyme calle not theyme Grekes, but Ramoyses, somme tyme peple moste victorious but subjecte to lawes. Gir. de papa, ca|pitulo Page  177, vol.1 septimo decimo. In whiche londe somme tyme were libraryes, studies, muses, and companyes of cheuallery, where fore the londe stode that tyme in prosperite. But that vertu in theyme was refusede after and wente to the cuntre of men of Latyn, and thei that were somme tyme the nowble welles now be*. [thei be, MS., but thei erased.] as ryueres with owte water and consumede; noo folower of vertu þer, but alle off vices. For thei reteyne to them the figmentes of Sinonis, the fallace of Vlixes, fiȝhtenge by arte and not by armes. That region of Grece, sette nye the grete see, hathe mony prouinces in hit, whiche be Thracia,*. [þat beeþ Thracia] Added from α. and Cx. The MSS. have Tracia, as usual; but Thessalia is correctly written in MS. (not Harl. MS.)] Lacedemonia, Macedonia, Achaia, Arcadia, Thessalia, Helladia, Beotia.*. [Boecia, MSS. of both versions, and Cx.] Thracia, or Egiptus,*. [This is of course for Epirus; but the sentence is otherwise cor|rupt.] somme tyme the londe Epiratores, hauenge on the este to hit the see of Ege, of the weste Macedony, where the Mas|sagetes inhabite somme tyme. Isidorus, libro quinto decimo. There is a welle in that londe qwenchenge brennenge brondes [folio 35a] of fire and liȝhtenge theyme ageyne. The chiefe cite of Page  179, vol.1 that cuntre is Constantinople,*. [Propontides Constantinople, MS., but Propontides erased.] in the este part of hit, betwene the see Pontyke and Propontides, the hede of alle the este, as Rome is of the weste, somme tyme callede Byzantium;*. [Bisancium, MSS.] of whom Willielmus, libro iiijto, de Regibus, spe|kethe: Constantine made that cite egalle to Rome, seyenge hit was not conueniente an Emperoure to kepe residence where thapostles crownede kepede the principate, bryngenge thider innumerable relikes of Seyntes whiche myȝhte schewe socoure to the cite ageyne the sawtes of theire enmyes, thenkenge hit fre to hym to make a cite imperialle where was the pleasure and liberte of grownde, temperaunce of heuyn, nye to the region callede Mysia,*. [Misia, MSS. (of both versions).] plentuous of whete. Whiche is patente on euery syde to men saylenge from Asia and Europa, compassede alle moste with the grete see. The Page  181, vol.1 floode Danubius flowethe in to the cite in condettes vnder the erthe; in dayes ordeynede, a barre take a way, that water clensethe cl. weyes in that cite. In whom grete Con|stantine erecte ij. famose chirches; but Iustinian the Em|peroure, instructe in letters and in armes, addede the chirche in the worschippe of oure Lorde Criste, moste nowble in worke of alle oþer chirches in the worlde. The crosse of oure Lorde was brouȝhte þider by Elene, where Seynte Andrewe, Seynte Iames broþer of oure Lorde, Mathias, Eliseus, Samuel, and Daniel reste. Also Lucas the Euangeliste, and mony other martires. Also Iohn Crisostom, Basilius, Gregory Nazanzene. Also Agatha and Lucia, virgines. Lacedemonia is a prouince of Grece, nye Thracia. The inhabitatores of whom be callede Lacedemones. Men of that Page  183, vol.1 prouince taryenge abowte the sege of a cite callede Messene in Apulia, wexede feynte thro compleyntes of theire wifes, dredenge to lose multiplicacion off childer by diuturnite of batelle, ordeynede that the childer of theyme lefte at home scholde folowe the luste of the flesche to gedre, supposinge the more multiplicacion to encrease; but the women experte the knowlege of diuerse men, the childer of whom were callede Spartani. Whiche childer atteynenge the age of xxxti yere, not knowenge their faders in certitude, takenge to theyme a duke callede Phalax, sonne of Aracus, come to Ytaly, expellenge the olde inhabitatores of hit, made a mansion and a seete to theyme at Tarentum. Macedonia, callede by that name of Macedo, neuewe to Deucalion, some tyme [was] callede Emathia of kynge Emathius, hauenge on the este to hit the see of Egee, on the sowthe Achaia, of the weste Dalmatia, on the northe parte Mesia. The hille [folio 35b] Page  185, vol.1 callede Olimpus is in that prouince whiche diuidethe Thracia from Macedony. Petrus, capitulo tricesimo septimo. That mownte is of suche altitude that the toppe off hit excedethe clowdes, where clowdes be not perceyvede, neither wyndes, neither reynes, in whom letters wryten were founde vnde|filede at the end of the yere, where bryddes may not lyve for rarite of the aier, neiþer philosophres myȝte ascende to hit to knowe the courses of the sterres with owte sponges, whiche, puttenge theyme to theire noose, attracte more thicker aier to theyme. There is also an hille callede Athon, towchenge the clowdes, the schado of whom is protendede to the yle callede Lemnus, which is from that hille lxxvj. [myle]. Dalmatia hathe on the este parte to hit Macedony, of the weste Histria, of the northe Mesia, of the sowthe parte the see Adriatike. Achaia takenge the name of hit of a kynge callede Acheus,*. [Echius, Harl. MS.] is allemoste alle an yle. For on the este parte to hit hit hathe the see Tirene, of the weste the see Cretike, on the sowthe the see Ionius, of the Page  187, vol.1 northe oonly Macedony, ioynede to Attica. The chiefe cite of whom is Corinthus, where kynge Alexander gedrede his hoste, intendenge to expugne alle the worlde, to whom Seynte Paule did wryte. Arcadia, whiche [is] oþerwise callede Sicyonia, was so namede of Arcas,*. [Archas, Cx.; Archades, MSS. of both versions.] son of Iupiter, the bosom of Achaia, betwene the see Ionine and the see of Egee, lyenge lyke to the leef of a tree. In this cuntre is a ston callede Asbeston,*. [Albestes, Harl. MS.] whiche accendede oonys is neuer extincte, and oþer diuerse precious stones. Thessalia, at the sowthe parte of hit, is ioynede to Macedony, somme tyme the cuntre of Achilles, and the originalle of men callede Laphites, whiche made tame firste horses with bridelles, and rydenge on the backes off theyme, whiche were trawede to be of oon body with þe horses on whom thei did ryde of the commune peple, where fore a c. horse men of that Page  189, vol.1 cuntre were callede centauri. Trogus, libro secundo. The hille callede Parnasus is in that prouince, a nowble mownte, and of grete fame after poetes, dependenge*. [portes depengenge, Harl. MS.] by a dowble ston, in the toppe of whom a temple is sette lyke to the temple of Apollo Delphicus; and in the pleyne þer of is a pitte where thei ȝafe to viuificate the myndes of phi|losophres, Isidorus, libro 13o. There be ij. waters in that [folio 36a] prouince, of that oon of whom schepe drynkenge be made blacke, of that other white, and schepe drynkenge of bothe waters be made of diuerse coloures. Also in that londe be places delectable, of whom Ouidius and Theodolus doe wryte. In that londe happede a particuler floode, in the tyme of Deucalion beynge prince there, whiche saluede men commenge to hym in schippes, wherefore poetes feyne hym, with Pyrrha his wife, to haue create men of stones. Helladia Page  191, vol.1 toke the name of hit of Hellen,*. [Ellanda, Harl. MS.] son of Deucalion and of Pyrra, of whome Grekes be callede Elenas. That is the londe callede Attica, of Atthis, doȝhter of Graius, lyenge betwene Macedony and Achaia, as in the myddes, ioynede to Arcadia in the northe: that is vereye Grece, of whom be ij. partes, Beotia*. [Boecia, MSS. (as usual).] and Peloponense, the chiefe cite of whom is Athenas, where study was somme tyme multiplicate, to whiche cite grete multitude of peple made confluence for cause of eru|dicion from diuerse regiones. Augustinus, De civitate Dei, libro octavodecimo. Somme Egypciannes dredenge Egipte to peresche in that grete tempeste, what tyme hit was gre|vede with mony diseases vnder the powere of Moises, wente furthe from hit. Wherefore Cecrops, goen furthe to Grece, made a cite, namenge hit Athen, whiche was callede after Athenas. After Varro, hit was made in this maner, when at that city callede Athen an oliue apperede sodenly, and the water brake vp also sodenly in an other place, Cecrops Page  193, vol.1 takenge cownselle of Apollo Delphicus what scholde be doen in that matere, he ȝafe an ansuere that the oliue signifiede that goddesse Minerua and the water Neptunus, and that cause was after the name of whom of theyme the cite scholde have name. Then the citesynnes of either kynde were gedrede to gedre as the consuetude was in that tyme women to be at cownselles amonge the men. The women ȝafe sentence for Minerua, and men for Neptunus, and for cause the nowmbre was moore in women then in men by oon person, Minerua hade the victory, in so moche that the cite scholde be namede aftere here Athena, for Minerva in Grewe is callede Athena. Then Neptunus beenge wrothe, couerede the growndes of men of Atheynes with waters, whiche thynge is not harde to deuelles to per|forme and to do. The women of whiche cite were afflicte in ij. maneres, that Neptunus myȝhte rather take pleasure, soe that a woman scholde not be at cownesailes afterwarde, Page  195, vol.1 and also that theire childer scholde not take name in eny wyse after theyme. Hellespontus, bosom of the grete see, is subiecte to the prouince of Helladia, takenge the name [folio 35b] of hit of Helle sustyr to Phrixus,*. [Frixus, MSS. of both versions.] whiche fleenge the wacches of here steppe moder, was drownede in that see, by whiche chaunce that londe and see adiecte to hit toke hit name. Nye to whiche place Varro seythe there be men the towche or spatelle of whom is medicinable ageyne serpentes and styngenge of theyme. Trogus, libro secundo. Men of Atheynes began firste the vse of wyne and oyle, techenge to eiere and sawe, and floreschenge fyrste with ciuile discipline, the firste kynge of whom was Cecrops, after whom Graius, other Granaus, Atthis the son of whom ȝafe name to that region. After whom Amphigionides, in whose tyme was a floode in Thessalia. After that the realme descendede successiuely to Ericthonius. Then reignede Egeus. After whom Theseus his sonne. After that the son of Demophon, Page  197, vol.1 whiche schewede helpe to Grekes ageyne the Troianes. Boetia toke name of this worde, bos. When Cadmus, son Agenoris, sekenge Europa his sustyr, by commaundemente of his fader, whiche was rapte by Iupiter,*. [Iubiter, Harl. MS.] whiche not fynd|enge here, dredenge also the wrathe of his fader, chosede to lyve in exile, whiche folowenge the stappes of an ox, namede that place Beotia, where the oxe did lye downe and dye, where he made a cite called Thebas, in whom they did holde somme tymes ciuile batayles, where Apollo and Hercules were borne. In that prouince is a water of whom if a man drynke he schalle be inflamed with woodenesse of lecchery. There be oþer ij. welles also, of whom oon in|ducethe memory, that other obliuion.