Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum septimum decimum.

HIT is to be attendede that Scythia is duplicate, the supe|rior in Asia, the inferior in Europa. The superior Scythia is a grete region moche inhabitable in the northe parte of hit for coldenesse, coplede of the este parte to Ynde, of the northe to the occean, of the sowthe the hille callede Caucasus, somme tyme porrecte in to the begynnenge of Germanye, now hit is made lesse, and copulate to the region of Hircany to the weste parte of hit. In whiche londe be the hilles Yperboreus, huge griphonnes, golde, gemmes, and smaragdis. Trogus, libro secundo. There be noo endes distincte of the Page  137, vol.1 feldes of that peple. Thei haue noo howses, caryenge theire wyfes and children in waynes couerede with the skynnes of wilde bestes and not clothes of wolle, fedde with mylke and hony, ȝiffenge noo attendence to golde and siluyr, whiche ordeyne not eny thynge that thei drede to lose. There is noo trespace to theym more grevous than thefte, whiche beynge victores desire no moore but glory; not subiecte to eny man, causenge Darius kynge of Persa to take fliȝhte, sleenge the kynge callede Cyrus, and Zephirona*. [Sirus and Zephizona, Harl. MS.] the nowble duke of kynge Alexander with his hoste, conquerenge twyes Asia, whiche was tributary to theim by ml. and vc. yeres; the women of whom made the realmes of Amasonnes; hit is incerteyne to theym wheþer kynde be more nowble. In the firste expedicion Azian,*. [So Harl. MS. (z and ȝ are iden|tical in this MS.)] after Vesour the kynge of Egipte Page  139, vol.1 y-putte to fliȝhte, taryenge xv. yere to make Asia to theire pleasure, were callede home ageyne thro the instaunces of theire wifes wyllenge not to suffre the taryenge of theyme. In the secunde expedicion, the men sleyne by treason and gyle, theire wifes toke dewe vengeaunce on theire enmyes. In the thrydde expedicion, the men beenge absent by iiij. [folio 31a] yere, the wifes of theim were maryede to theire seruauntes lefte at home to kepe bestes, whiche ioinede to gedre re|ceyved theire lordes with batelle returnede after þeire victory, whiche fiȝhtenge thro diuerse chaunce were movede at the laste to putte aweye theire armor of cheuallery, vsenge not to conflicte as with theire enmyes but with theire seruaundes, takenge a flayle in theire honde, ferenge theire seruauntes and dryvenge theyme aweye. And somme of the seruauntes Page  141, vol.1 taken with theire wifes in advoutery were hongede and somme sleyne with swerde. After that tyme peace was amonge theyme vn to the tyme of Darius kynge of Persa, whiche ouer commen of theyme in returnenge from theim hade victory of the men of Macedony and did fiȝhte also ageynes men of Atheynes.

Bactria, whom Cham, sonne of Noe, inhabite firste, lyethe*. [Bactria.] from the see Caspy to the floode of Ynde protendede, hauenge of the weste parte to hit the mownte Caucasus, and*. [Mons Caucasus.] of the sowthe men of Parthia. This hille callede moste nowble in fame amonge alle other mowntes of the este*. [The verb (= porrigitur) is omitted.] to the mownte of Taurus from the costes of Ynde, where*. [Mons Taurus.] the hille callede Taurus and Caucasus be reputate oon. But somme men wille that the hille callede Taurus is made of the weste partes of Caucasus towarde Armenye. This hille Caucasus hathe of the northe to hit the see Caspy and Hircany, of the sowthe Parthia, Assyria, and Babylon, whiche hille is callede in diuerse maneres and name for the diuersite of Page  143, vol.1 men inhabitenge hit. For towarde the este, where hit dothe aryse in moste altitude, for the huge whitenesse of men that dwelle there, hit is callede Caucasus, whiche sowndethe whyte. And, after Alberte, hit is of so huge altitude that men lyffenge vnder hit see on hyt the beames of the sonne beenge in the weste by iij. howres with in the nyȝhte, and also in the mornenge iij. howres afore day on the este parte of hit. The region Hircany hathe*. [Hyrcania regio.] on the este parte to hit the see of Caspy, on the northe Albania, on the weste Hiberia, beenge subiecte to Caucasus, callede Hyrcania of a woode so namede, whiche is a region noryschenge wilde bestes, tigres, panteres, a waste region and brode, the peple of whom somme tylle erthe, somme lyve by huntenge, somme of theyme do eyte the flesche of man. There be bryddes in that region hauenge fethers schynenge in the nyȝhte. Hiberia is a region vnder that hille Taurus, whiche is*. [Hiberia.] ioinede to Armenye towarde the este.

Albania hathe on the este parte to hit the see of Caspy,*. [Albania.] descendenge by the regiones of the northe occean to Meotides paludes. That region hathe peple with white [folio 31b] Page  145, vol.1 heire, peyntede cien and ȝelowe, seenge better in the nyȝhte then in the daye. The dogges of whiche region be so greete and feerse that thei depresse bulles and peresche lyones, of whome oon was sende to kynge Alexander, whiche hade the victory with in a forlonge of a bulle, an elephaunte, and of a boore. Gothia is a region of Scythia*. [Gothia.] towarde the weste, to whom the yle of Gotlande is sub|iecte, copious of alle kyndes of marchandise, hauenge on the northe parte to hit Dacia and the northe occean. That londe was callede Gothia of Gog, the sonne of Iapheth, the peple of whom be callede rather Gothos then Gogos, whiche be myȝhty men and terrible, of whom men of Denmarke, in Europe, come, Getuliones or Getules in Affrike, and the Amasonnes in Asia.

Armenia, whiche oþerwise callede Ararthe, toke the name*. [Armenia.] of hit of Armenius, knyȝhte of Iason, whiche Armenius Iason his kynge loste gedrenge a multitude of knyȝhtes, whiche wente abowte as vagabundes, occupiede Armenye and inhabite hit, whiche region is protendede betwene Page  147, vol.1 the hill Taurus and Caucasus, from the see Caspy vn to Cappadocia. This region hathe in longitude xjc. ml of passes, in latitude lxxti ml. There the mownte of Ararth is, where the schippe of Noe remaynede after the floode. Also þer be ij. Armenyes, the moore and lesse, as þer be ij. Pannonyes.