Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Of the Region of the Iewery. Capitulum quartum decimum.

IUDEA, whiche is callede the Iewery, is a region of Syria, but a parte of Palestine, callede Iudea of Iuda the sonne of Iacobe, whiche was callede afore Cananea of Cham the sonne of Noe, other elles of x. peple of Chananees expulsede and contrite by the Iewes. Petrus. Iudea is taken in [folio 27b] diuerse maneres; hit is taken other while for the londe of promission, and then hit commethe of this worde, Iudeus, and not off this worde, Iuda; and so hit is vnderstonde in that sense that Pompeius Magnus made the Iewery tribu|tary to hym. Other while hit is taken for the realme of Iuda, as Ioseph herenge that "Archelaus reignede in the Page  105, vol.1 Iewery." Gir. Dist. tertia. The londe of promission is in the Iewery, the longitude of whom is vnderstonde after the letter, From Dan to Bersabe; and after Seynte Ierom, in his epistole to Dardanus, hit conteynethe vnnethe clx. myles of that cuntre. The latitude of hit is from Ioppen vn to Bethleem conteynenge vnnethe xlvj. myles of that region and cuntre. And after the boke of Nowmbres the Iewery hathe this circuite; at the meridien the Dedde see, and after that by Sina and Cades Barnee vn to the ryuer of Egipte, whiche flowethe in to the grete see. The londe of promission hathe the grete see to the weste parte of hit, and an hille callede Taurus at the northe, and on the este parte the mownte callede Libanus, and the begyn|nenges of that water callede Tiberiades, and of the water off Iordan, whiche haue their originalle principle at the foote of the mownte callede Libanus. Then that floode of Iordan floenge in to the Dedde see makethe admision*. [Jordanus fluvius.] betwene the Iewery and Araby. This londe of Iuda was promisede to oure faderes, but not utterly possessedde, Page  107, vol.1 thapostle testifienge, that "thei diedde alle, the promissiones not accepte;" by the seyenge of whom hit may be con|cludede an other londe to be the londe of promission in whom hevenly Ierusalem is, and an other in whom terres|trialle Ierusalem is, by whom heuenly Ierusalem is figurede. Also that londe of Iuda is plentuous of cornes, of wynes, of thynges aromaticalle, of cedre trees, cipre trees, bawmes, oliues, pomegranardes, palme tres, figge trees, habundaunt in hony and mylke, whiche hathe the cite off Ierusalem in*. [Jerusalem.] the myddelle parte of hit. Isidorus, libro quinto, capitulo primo. The Iewes afferme and say, Sem the sonne of Noe, other wyse called Melchisedech, to haue made that cite after the floode of Noe, whom the Iebuseis kepede after that tyme, by whom hit hade this name, Iebus; and so these ij. wordes, Iebus and Salem, copulate to gedre, this worde, Ierusalem, resultethe by composicion; whiche was callede afterwarde of Salomon, Ierosolima; callede also Page  109, vol.1 corruptely of poetes Solima; and afterwarde callede Aelya*. [Helius, and Helia, MSS. and Cx.] by Aelius*. [Helius, and Helia, MSS. and Cx.] Adrian themperoure, whom he amplifiede with more circuite of walles, in so moche that he includede the place and sepulcre of oure Lorde, whiche was somme tyme withowte the walles of that cyte. ℞. But truly [folio 28a] Seynte Ierom in his epistole to Eugenius expressethe, seyenge that the cyte callede Salem or Salim, in whom Melchisedech dwellede, to be an other cite from Ierusalem, nye to Scythopolis,*. [Sitopolis, Harl. MS.] whiche is callede Salem vn to this tyme presente, where hit is schewede the palice of Melchisedech, of whom hit is seyde in the ende of Genesis that Iacob wente in to Salem, a cite of Sichen, whiche is in the londe of Chanaan. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. There is noo welle within the cite, where waters be collecte, but in cestrens and veselles ordeynede þerfore. For the site of that cyte, hauenge the mownte of Syon of the northe descendenge towarde the sowthe with a softe dependence, is so disposede that þe reyne reynenge makethe not clay, but as lytelle ryuers, whiche is receyvede in cestrens, or elles Page  111, vol.1 the water descendenge by the ȝates of the cite increasethe the ryuer of Cedron. Therefore þer was a towre in the altitude of the mownte of Syon for worshippe and defence. In the dependence of whiche hille was a temple, as in the mydde part betwene the towre and the cite under hit, wherefore Scripture callethe ofte tymes Ierusalem the doȝhter of Syon; for like as a doȝhter is protecte of the moder, and subiecte to her, soe the cite inferior is subiecte to the temple and to the towre of Syon. The nowble and*. [De cœlesti igne Jeru|salem in vigilia Paschæ.] grete Constantyne made in hit a chirche off Seynte Sepulcre, whiche hathe not suffrede iniury vn to this tyme of enmyes of the feithe, whiche men suppose to be causede for heuenly fyre, whiche dothe illumyne the lampes there of on the vigile of Pasche or Ester, whiche miracle is incerteyne as to the begynnenge off hit. Kynge Salomon compassede that cyte with a threfolde walle not oonly for defence, but for the distinccion of men inhabitenge hit, soe that the temple of Page  113, vol.1 oure Lorde was within the fyrste walle abowte the mownte of Syon, the mansiones also of the ebdomadaries, prestes, and minstres, the kynges palice, with mansiones for his men. Nowble men and prophetes inhabite within the secunde walle, as hit is redde in the boke of Kynges that Olda prophetissa dwellede in Ierusalem in the secunde distinccion. Men of crafte and commune peple dwellede in the thrydde distinc|cion and circuite of the walles. ℞. The Mownte of Oli|uete*. [Mons Oleveti.] is nye to Ierusalem, at the este parte of that temple, callede Oliuete for habundaunce of oliues, whiche is callede by Seynte Austyn on Iohan,*. [Iohñ., Harl. MS. (which else|where writes Iohñes for Johannes.] the hille of creme and of noy[n]tenge, the hille of liȝhte and of fattenes, the hille of refreschenge and of medicyne, in that the frute of oliues is vnctuous, luminose, and delicious. Whiche was callede significatiuely the mownte of liȝhte, for the sonne schynenge hit receyvede liȝhte of hit, and of the temple by nyȝhte. [folio 28b] In whiche mownte Salomon thro þe luffe of women made hie places and chirches in hit, as hit is expressede Re|gum xo. From whiche mownte Criste ascendede to heuyn, Page  115, vol.1 where he schalle iugge also euery man in the day of iugge|mente. In the foote of whiche hille the ryuer of Cedron is spronge, whiche flowethe in to the vale of Iosaphath, betwene the brynke of whom and the mownte was that gardyn in to whom Criste entrede ofte tymes to prey, in whom he was taken, nye to whom was a litelle towne callede Gethesemani, in whiche mownte was also the strete of prestes, whiche was callede Bethfage, and in the side of the mownte was the cite of Martha, of Lazarus, and of Mary, Bethania by name. Hugo. The mownte off Caluarye*. [Mons Calvaria.] is at the northe plage of the mownte of Syon, where Criste was crucifiede, whiche is callede, after the langage of men of Sire, Golgotha, soundenge by interpretacion, Caluaria, in hat the boones of men condempnede and hedede were made bare there. As for other meruayles of the temple haue respecte to the bokes of Kynges. Isidorus, libro quinto|decimo, capitulo primo. The region of Iuda hathe in hit Page  117, vol.1 the Dedde see, beenge from Ierusalem iic. forlonges, whiche do make xxvti. myles, diuidenge the Iewery, Palestine, and Araby. Isidorus, Eth., libro 13o. That place is extendede from the costes of the Iewery, not ferre from Ierico, to Zores of Arabye vijc. forlonges and lxxxti, whiche do make xc. myles and iiij. The latitude of hit is of clti. forlonges vn to nye places of Sodome. That place is callede the place of saltenesse, in that salte is made þer. Also that place is callede the place of pycche, for it is ful þer of; whiche water susteynethe not eny schippe, but if hit be welle pycchede, or enny other mater. Petrus, capitulo quinqua|gesimo. The pycche or glu of whiche place noo thynge may dissolue, but the bloode of a woman suffrenge the monethely infirmite: whiche place noryschethe not fysches or fooles; but whikke thynges caste in to that water lepe Page  119, vol.1 furthe anoon, dedde thynges be deuourede þer anoon; in so moche that a lawnterne y-lyȝhtede putte in to hit swymmethe above, and a lawnterne extincte is drownede in to hit. Iosephus, libro primo. Whiche thynge was experte, in the dayes of Vespasian prince, of ij. men, the whiche were caste in to that water, theire hondes y-bounde behynde theym, whom the water wolde not receyve. Isidorus, libro nono, capitulo tertio. That region was callede Pentapolis, of the v. cites of wickede men drownede there. That londe was somme tyme more then Ierusalem in plentuousenesse; for [folio 29a] saphires and other precious stones were founde amonge the stones of hit, and golde, as Iob testifiethe, capitulo xxiiije. For now the similitude of fire apperethe in the trees. For apples be spronge þer vnder suche a similitude of ripenes, that thei move the appetite of man to eyte of theyme; whiche apples y-taken be redacte vn to esches, as if thei brente, to this tyme. ℞. Also þer is an other region callede Pentapolis in Affrike.