An English chronicle of the reigns of Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI written before the year 1471; with an appendix, containing the 18th and 19th years of Richard II and the Parliament at Bury St. Edmund's, 25th Henry VI and supplementary additions from the Cotton. ms. chronicle called "Eulogium." Edited by John Silvester Davies.
Davies, John Silvester, ed. 1829 or 30-1909,
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A CHRONICLE OF THE REIGNS OF RICHARD II., HENRY IV., HENRY V., AND HENRY VI.

RICHARD II. Of Kyng Richard the secunde aftir the Conquest, the sone of Prince*. [Capitulum cxlij.]Edwarde; and of the risyng tyme; and of meny othir notable [folio 145b] thyngis.

A.D. 1377.

AFTIR King Edward the iijde, that was bore at Wyndesore, regned Richard the secunde, the sone of prince Edwarde, that*. [[Reign began June 22nd.]] was bore at Burdeux, and crouned at Westmynstre in the xj. yeer of his age.

Anno ij. A.D. 1378-9.

And the ijde yeer of his regne began a debaat betuene the lord Latymer and ser Raaff fferers knyghte, and Johan Hawle and Richard Shakele squyers, for the erl of Dene, that was take prisoner in the bataille of Spayne,*. [The battle of Navaretta, fought between Najarra and Navaretta, in which Peter the Cruel, aided by the Black Prince, obtained a victory over his brother Henry and the French, and regained the Crown of Castile, A.D. 1367. The Earl of Denia, in Valen|cia, was among the prisoners.] be the said squiers; the whiche prisoner the lord Latymer and the said ser Raaf wolde haue had. And thay of Spayne sente to the king for delyueraunce of the said erl; but the Page  2 ij. squiers dredyng*. [See note at the end of the volume.] that thay sholde lese the raunsoun of thair prisoner, and wolde not brynge him forth atte kyngis commaunde|ment. Wherfore the kyng was wroth, and saide that thay hadde maad a prison in thair owen house withynne his reme ayens his wille and commaundement: and therfore he sente thaym to the tour of Londoun; and thay brak out therof and fledde to Westmynstre. And the constable of the tour and the said lord Latymer and ser Raaff fferrers wente to Westmynstre, and wolde haue brought thaym agayne, but thay made defens, and Hawle was slayn in the chirche atte gospel of the high masse, and anon the monkeȝ cesid of diuine seruiȝe; and meny sundaieȝ aftirward, the said personeȝ [fragment Aa] were denounced acursid, as brekers and defoulers of thair privilegis; and wolde not halow ne reconsile agayn thair chirche. The king sente meny tymeȝ be his writtes to the Abbot of Westmynstre, forto appere befor him, and forto cece of his cursyng, and that he sholde halowe agayn his chirche, and serve God therynne aftir the fundacion therof, and alle the mater sholde be broȝt to a good ende. But the abbot wolde not appere, ne cece of the castyng of the cen|suris of the chirche, for he saide that the chirche of Westmynstre was halowed be saint Petir be myrakille, and therfore it nedid not to be halowed of non othir manne, and shewde and broughte forth the cro|nicle how saint Petir halowed it, as folowethe . . . . .

endowed with meny possessiouns and privilegis. And whanne the [fragment Ab] tyme was come that the chirche sholde be halowed, and alle thyng was redy that was necessary to the solennite therof, Mellit, Bisshop of Londoun, lay in his tentis the nyȝt before the dedicacioun, and there was greet concours and multitude of peple, not onli for deuo|cion but also forto se the newe and unkid solennite. And the same nyghte, on the ferthir side of the Thamyse, saint Petir, in liknesse and in the habit of a pilgryme apperid to a fissher, and behighte Page  3 him for his trauail, to sette him ouer the watir; and whanne he was come ouer, he wente into the chirche, and anon sodenli the chirche was ful of heuenli lighte that made the nyghte as light and as cleer as the day. And with saint Petir . . . . .

Reme, and paide for hir xxij. ml marc. Ther was offrid vnto him [folio 146a] the erlis douȝter of fflaundris, with whom he sholde haue had alle fflaundris, but he refusid hir, and aftirward the duke of Burgoyne weddid hir, and be hir he was erl of fflaundris.

Anno vijo. A.D. 1378-9.

The vij. yeer of king Richard, the ffrenshemen and the Scottis were confederid to gedir, and ordeyned iij, grete ostis forto haue come in to Engelond, and the Scottis sholde haue come yn in the north, and the other ij. ostis in the est and west partieȝ. The king heryng this, be avise of his counsel, gadrid an huge ost and wente in to Scotland; but the Scottis durste not fiȝte with him, his power was so greet: the othir ij. ostis of the Frenshemenne cam not, for thay lay longe tyme in the hauene of Scluys, abidyng wynd and wedir, but the wynde wolde nevir serue thaym but alwey was ayens thayme. Thanne the king brende the toun of Edinburgh, and cam in to Eng|lond ayenne.

And this same tyme, king Richard made the erlle of Oxen|forde and ser Michael de la Pole, and othir flaterers, chief of his counsel; and be thaym was gouerned.

Anno viij. A.D. 1378-9.

The viij. yeer of King Richard, ser Edmund of Langley, erl of Cambrigge, the kingis uncle, wente in to Portugale, with a faire com|panie of menne of armeȝ and archiers, to helpe and strengthe the king of Portugale ayens the king of Spayne; and there the king of Portugale hadde the victory, thorough help of Englishmenne; and [folio 146b] aftir this journey the erl cam hoom agayne.

This same yeer king Richarde held his Cristemasse at Eltham; and thider cam to him the king of Ermonie,*. [Leo, King of Armenia.—See note.] that was drive out of Page  4 his lond be the Turkis, to axe of him help and socour: and the kinge yaf him grete yiftis, and so he retourned hoom ayeene.

Anno ixo. A.D. 1384-5.

The ix. yeer of king Richard, he held a parlement at West|mynstre, and there he made ij. dukis, a markeys, and v. erlis. Ffirst, he made ser Edmund of Langley, erl of Cambrige, his vncle, duke of York; and his othir vncle, ser Thomas of Wodestoke, that was erl of Bukynghame, he made duke of Gloucestre; and the erlle of Oxenforde he made markeys of Dyuelyn, and commaunded that he sholde be callid duke of Yrlonde; ser Harri of Bolyngbroke, the dukeȝ sone of Lancastre, he made erl of Derby; ser Edward, the dukis sone of York, he made erl of Roteland; ser John Holond, the erlis brothir of Kent, he made erl of Huntyngdoun; ser Thomas Mowbray, erl of Notyngham, he made erl marchal of Engelond; and ser Michael de la Pole, knyghte, he made erl of Suffolk and Chaun|celler of Engelonde.

And at this same parlement, the erl of March, in the playn parlement among alle the lordis and comuneȝ, was proclamed heir parent, and next to the croune aftir king Richard: the which erl sone aftir was slayn in Yrlond with the wilde Yrishmenne . . . . .

[Anno xjo.] A.D. 1384-5.

be counsel of a Burgeis of Londoun, cam to Westmynstre, wenyng [fragment Ba] to haue discomfited thaym with helpe of men of Londoun. The Archebisshop of Canterbury besoughte the king that he wolde admitte thaym to his presence pesibly, withoute eny greuaunce, for to trete of peeȝ, and the kyng it graunted vnder his feith, and so the archebis|shoppe wente and broughte thaym befor the king, sitting in West|mynstre halle, and thair ost abood withoute. Thanne saide the kyng, "Who made you so hardy forto arise and arme you ayens the pees of me, and of my reme?" The duke of Glovcestre . . . . .

A.D. 1387-8.

same place forto refourme peeȝ betuene thaym, and the kyng it Page  5 [fragment Bb] grauntid. But in the morow, he chaunged his purpos, and wente to the tour of Londoun; and the lordis cam with thair power in to saint Johannes feld, and sente for the mair of Londoun, and he ladde thaym in to Guyldehalle, and alle the Cite was vnto thaym frendly and wellwillid. Thanne sente the kyng for the lordis to come and speke with him in the tour, and thay saide the place was not sure, but out of the tour thay were redy to speke withe him. Tho comaunded the kyng the mair of Londoun, forto reise and arme the [folio 147a] Cite agayns thayme. "Sire," saide the mair, "God it forbede! thay bith your trew lige men, and frendis to the reme." The kyng was wrothe, and sente the duke of Yrlond with his lettris patentiȝ, and with his baner displaid, in to Chestreshire, forto brynge a power of Chesshiremen and othir. And the v. lordis beforsaide mette with him beside Oxenforde, with the kyngiȝ baner displaid; and anon as the duke wiste what thay were, he fledde, and rood ouer the Thamyse in to the yle of Shepeye, and fro thenneȝ he wente ouer se in to Almayne, and nevir cam agayne. And the lordis beheddid the chief knyght that was with the duke, and took fro thayme the kyngeȝ baner, and folde it gedir, and bettyn the Chesshiremen, and droof thaym hoom agayne, and seue . . . . .

maister Alisaunder Nevile, Archebisshoppe of York, fledde also ouer se, as befor ys saide, and cam neuer agayne.

Thanne thise v. lordis ordeyned a parlement at Westmynstre; and there, ser Robert Tresilian, a justice; Nicholl Brembre, knyghte and citeȝeyn of Londoun; ser Johan Salisbury, a knyghte of the kyngeȝ hous; and ser Simon of Beverley, a worthi knyghte of the garter, for whom the quene knelid befor the v. lordis to haue saued his lif, but she myght not be herd; ser John Beauchampe, knyȝt, stiward of the kyngis hous; ser Jameȝ Berners, and othir, were [folio 147b] iugid to be drawe and hanged: and ser Simon of Beuerley was be|heddid atte Tour hill. And this parlement endurid fro Candelmasse to midsomer.

And tho v. lordis were quyt before the justiceȝ of alle thyng that Page  6 was put ayens thaym, and made a lawe and an ordenaunce, that yf the parlement appelid or enpechid eny man of eny cryme, he sholde be dampned withoute ansuer, for with the parlement he myȝte not fiȝte; and made the parlement appele meny men of meny thyngis that thay were not gilti of, and exilid for euermore the forsaid duke of Yrlond, ser Michael de la Pole, and maister Alisaunder Nevile, archbishop of York, and dyvers othir. And thay made alle men of the parlement swere to obserue and kepe alle the ordenaunceȝ and statutis that were ymaad in the saide parlement; and made also the kyng swere agayne forto kepe his laweȝ, and that he shold folowe the counsel of his trewe lordeȝ, and not of suche flaterers as were aboute him; and that he sholde nevir hurte ne enpeche eny of thaym for that thay hadde do in the said parlement; and of this the kyng, though he baar it hevili, graunted unto thaym a chartre of pardoun.

And this yeer deide maister John Wiclif, and was buried at [fragment Ca] Lutterworthe, where he was parsoun; but aftirward, be sentence of the chirche, his bones were take vp and brent.

Anno xijo. A.D. 1387-8.

The xij. yeer of king Richard, duryng this same parlement, he leet crie and ordeyne general justis at Londoun, in Smythfeld, for alle maner straungers, and othir that thider wolde come: and thay of the kyngis side were alle in on sute, thair cotearmuriȝ, sheldis, hors-trappuris, and alle, was white hertis, with cronneȝ aboute thair neckis, and cheynes of gold hangyng ther upon, and the cronne hangyng lowe befor the hertis bodye, the whiche hert was the kyngis liverey, that he gaf to knyghtis and squiers and othir.

And atte firste comyng to thair justis, xxiiij. ladieȝ ladde xxiiij. knyȝtis of the gartir, with cheyneȝ of gold, and alle in the same sute her (sic) of hertis as before is said, fro the tour of Londoun, on horsbak, thorouȝ the cite of Londoun in to Smythfeld . . . . .

[Anno xivo.] A.D 1387-8.

thorough alle Spayne, that the duke hadde sente in to Engelond for [fragment Cb] a grettir ost; and the kyng of Spayne wenyng it hadde be trewe, Page  7 and began to trete with the duke, and so thay were acordid in this manere: that the king of Spayne sholde wedde the eldir doughtir of the duke of Lancastre, that was righte heir to Spayne, and sholde yeue unto the duke an huge summe of money in hand, and euery yeer aftir, duryng the livis of the duke and of the duchesse his wif, x ml marc. of gold, the whiche gold thay of Spayne, atte thair owen auenture and cost, sholde brynge yeerli vnto Baione, to the dukeȝ assigneeȝ: and herof the king of Spayne made to the duke good surete.

[Anno xivo.] A.D. 1390-1.

And the same tyme the duke maried anothir of his douȝtris to the kyng of Portugale. And in that viage me . . . . .

also relece the remenaunt of kyng Johannes raunsoun that was unpaied; and the duke said, forto bere the armes of Ffraunce it was [fragment Da] non availle ne profit, and Caleis greued more Engelond and dede more hurt therto than profit, for the grete expensis aboute the keping therof; but the duke of Gloucestre and the erlis of Warwic and of Arundelle gaynsaide it, and wolde not assente therto.

In this parlement, the duke of Lancastre axed and desirid that his sone shold be the parlement haue be declarid and demyd as next heir to the crovne; but the erl of March withsaide it, and saide, he was come of ser Leonel the secunde sone of king Edward: and the duke saide, that kyng Harri the iijde. hadde ij. soneȝ, Edmund and Edward, the whiche Edmund hadde a crokid bak and was a mys|shape and an vnlik . . . . .

thaym to silence.

Anno xvo. A.D. 1390-1.

The xv. yeer of king Richard, he held his Cristemasse in the [fragment Db] maner of Wodestoke; and there the erlle of Penbroke, a yong lord and tendir of age, wolde haue lerned to juste with a knyghte callid ser John Saint Johan, and thay riden togedir in the park of Wodestoke, and there the erl of Penbroke was slayn with that Page  8 othir knyghtis speer, as he cast it from him whanne thay hadde coupid.

Anno xvjo. A.D. 1391-2.

The xvj. yeer of king Richard, Johan Hende, beyng that tyme mair of Londoun, and John Walworth and Harri Vanner shirevis of Londoun that same year, a bakeris man of Londoun baar a basket ful of horsbred in to ffleetstrete toward an ostrie hous, and there cam a yoman of the bisshoppis of Salesbury, callid Romayn, and took an horsloof out of the basket; and the baker axed him whi he dede so, and this . . . . .

[Anno xxo.] A.D. 1391-2.

The Archebisshop abood there vnto nyghte, wenyng to haue had [fragment Ea] delyueraunce agayn of his brothir, and whanne he saw it wolde not be, he wente hoom vnto Lambhithe fule of sorou. And on the morow the king deliuerid the said erlle of Arundelle to on that was his enemy, and he put him in prison in the yle of Wyghte, and anon alle the erlis godis were eschetid in to the kyngis hand.

The king also arested the erlle of Warwic in his owen court, and sente him to the tour of Londoun.

And anon aftir the king rood with an huge company in to Essex, to Plasshe, where the duke of Gloucestre lay; and to him he saide, "Thou wilt not come to me, and therfor I come to the, and I areste the." The duke answerde to the king, and saide, "Sire, I truste your grace and that . . . . .*. [Dux Glouces|triæ captus est.]

ffrensshemenne forto helpe him, and thay cam ridyng thorouȝ the reme with thair speirs bore uprighte. And thanne the king sente [fragment Eb] to eueri bisshope, abbotis, gentilmen, and marchauntis, and vnder colour of borowyng he hadde of thaym an huge summe of money neuer to be paid agayne; so that a symple gentilman paide xl. li.

A.D. 1396-7.

Thanne the erl of Rutland, the erl of Huntingdoun, the erl of Salisbury, the erl of Notynghame, and othir, appelid the duke of Page  9 Gloucestre, the erl of Arundell, and the erlle of Warwic of treson doon ayens the king the x. and xj. yeer of his regne, and the kyng sente a justice to the said duke of Gloucestre, forto axe and enquire of him, how he wolde excuse him of such thyngis and appelis as were put and laid ayens him; and the duke wroot . . . . .

Anno xxjo. A.D. 1397-8.

In the xxj. yeer of king Richard, he ordeyned and held a parle|ment at Westmynstre, that was callid the grete parlement, and this*. [Cam. clxv.] parlement was maad onli forto sle the erlle of Arundelle and othir, as thaym likid at that tyme. And for thair jugement, the kyng leet [fragment Fa] make a long and large hous of tymber in the paleis at Westmynstre, that was callid an Hale; couered with tileȝ, and open on bothe sideȝ and atte endis, that alle men myghte se thorough; and the king commaundid eueri lord, knyghte, and squier, forto bryng with thaym thair retenueȝ, and come to the parlement as strong as thay myghte. And the king him self sente in to Chestreshire for a gret multitude of yomenn and archiers, and thaym he held in his hous, and thaym most loued and cherisshed aboue alle othir, the whiche . . . . .

so evir procurid, and orlabourid (sic), to the graunt of eny suche com|missioun, he sholde be holde for a traitour. Also he reuoked alle [fragment Fb] the statutis that were maad in the parlement holden the x. and xj. yeer of his regne, and also alle the chartris of pardoun, and nameli the pardoun that he grauntid frely to the erlle of Arundelle; for, as he saide, that was grauntid in preiudice of him and of his croune. Also atte supplicacion of the parlement, he pardoned to the erlle of Derby and the erlle of Notynghame the ridyng that thay rood with the duke of Gloucestre ayens the duke of Yrlond; and thay put thaym in the kingis grace: and also he pardoned thaym that were put in the commission before rehersid, and executid it not. And Page  10 on the Monday the xvij. day of September this parlement was begenne at Westmynstre . . . . .

I haue do eny thing amys, I haue therof the kingis pardon." "That [folio 148a] pardon," saide the duke, "is reuoked be the parlement, for it was grauntid whanne thou were kyng." The erl saide, "Yf that pardon may not serve, I have anothir pardoun that the king grauntid me frely v. yeer gone of his owen mocioun." "And that pardoun," saide the duke, "is also reuoked be ordenaunce of the parlement." "fforsoth," saide the erl, "the king may be his prerogatif graunte his chartre of pardoun to whom it likith him, for alle maner of trespas; and yf ye haue ordeyned that he may not or shal not do so, ye haue do more ayens his prerogatif thanne evir dede I; and yf thou, John duke of Lancastre, were wel examned, thou hast do more ayens the kyng than I." Thanne the erlle was counselid to put him in the kyngis grace, and he saide, "I put me in the grace of the high kyng of heuene, and for the laweȝ and comune profit of Englond I am redy to dye." And anon the duke yaf on him iugement and saide, "The kyng pardoneth the thy drawyng and hankyng, but thyn hed shalle be smyte of atte tourhille, in the same place where ser*. [Judicium comi|tis Arundellie.] Simon of Beuerley was beheddid, and thi childryn shall be dis|heritid, and excludid fro the parlement and the kyngis counsel for evirmore."

Thanne on Saint Mattheweȝ day, apostel and euangelist, the erl was lad fro the place of his jugement, and his handis bounde behynde him, thorough the cite of Londoun unto the Tourhille, and there his [folio 148b] hed was smyte of. And vj. of the lordis that sat on his iugement, riden with him with greete strengthe of men of armes and archiers to se thexecucion done aftir thair jugement, for thay dradde that the erl sholde haue be rescued be thaym of Londoun: and thus deide the gode erl and is buried atte ffrere Austynes, in Londoun.

And on the morow ser Richard erl of Warwic was broughte in Page  11 to the parlement, in to the saide hale, and hadde the same iugement as the erl of Arundel hadde, and, as his counsel bad him, he con|fessid and saide, that alle that he hadde do, he dede be the counsel and stiryng of the duke of Gloucestre and of the erl of Arundelle, trustyng also in the holynes and wisdoum of the Abbot of Saint Alboneȝ, and of the Recluse of Westmynstre, that saide it was law|fulle that he dede, "notwithstondyng," he saide, "if I haue do amys, I put me in the kyngis grace;" and so be instaunce of lordis, because he was of gret age his deth was relesid, and was dampned to perpetuel prison in the Yle of Mann.

Thanne the king made thaym of the parlement forto acuse maister Thomas Arundelle, archebisshoppe of Cauntirbury, because he procurid and labourid forto be in the forsaid commissioun, and it excutid and selid whanne he was chauncellere; and the speker of the parlement began to purpose ayens him, and the king bad him holde [folio 149a] his peeȝ and say no more ayens his cosin, and bad the Archebisshope go his way safli. And whanne he was go the kyng sente to him a messager and commaunded him come no more in the parlement,*. [Nota duplici|tatem Regis Ricardi.] and thanne he was exilid for euer, and that he sholde be privid of alle his godis.

And the Monday next aftir, the lord Cobhame of Kent, and ser Johan Cheyne, knyȝtis, were brought in to the parlement in to the same hale, and there thay were iugid to be drawe and hangid, but thoroughe praier and instaunce of the lordis, thair iugement was foryeue thaym and relesid to perpetuel prisoun.

Thanne said the Archebisshoppe Arundelle, "I wille not go out of this lond, here I was bore, and here I wille die." The king and the duke of Lancastre wente to him, and the king saide unto him in this wise, "Fader, be not sory for to go out of this lond, for I ensure you be my trouthe, that ye shal come agayn withynne short tyme, and ther shal be non othir Archebisshoppe of Cauntirbury whileȝ ye and I live." Thanne the Archebisshoppe took his leve, and on Mighelmasse eve at Douor he wente ouer se to Rome. Page  12

And whanne he was go, the king made ser Rogere Walden, a clerck of his owen, archebisshoppe of Cauntirbury. And he made also at this parlement v. dukeȝ, a markeis, and iiij. erlis. First, he made the erl of Derby, sir Henri of Bolyngbroke, duke of Hereforde; the erlle of Rutland he made duke of Avmarle; the erlle of Kent he made duke of Surreie; the erl of Huntyngdoun he made duke [folio 149b] of Excestre; the erl of Notyngham he made duke of Norfolk; the erl of Somerset he made markeis of Dorset; the lord Spenser he made erlle of Glovcestre; the lord Nevile of Raby he made erl of Westmerland; ser Thomas Percy he made erlle of Worcestre; and ser William Scroope he made erl of Wilshire and Tresourer of Eng|lond. fferthirmore the kyng made alle the men of this parlement coumpromitte in to xij. diuers personeȝ, continuyng the said parle|ment, that where and whanne it likid thayme thay myghte make statutis aftir thair owen ordenaunce; and made alle the lordis swere vpon saint Edwardis shryne, forto kepe with al thair myghte the statutis of the same parlement; and atte request of the parle|ment, alle the Bisshoppis acursid at Poulis cros alle tho that dede ayens the said statutis and ordenaunces. And whanne this was ydo, the kyng wente in to the west cuntre.

Aftir this, the kyng in solenne daieȝ and grete festis, in the whiche he wered his croune and wente in his rial aray, he leet or|deyne and make in his chambir, a trone, wherynne he was wont to sitte fro aftir mete vnto euensong tyme, spekynge to no man, but ouerlokyng alle menn; and yf he loked on eny mann, what astat or degre that evir he were of, he moste knele.

Aftirward, at Notyngham, the kyng callid his counsel togedir, [folio 150a] and saide, that he myghte not ride sureli in his Reme, for drede of*. [Nota auariciam Regis Ricardi.] men of Londoun, and of xvij. shiris lyying aboute; and therfore he wolde gadre a greet ost forto destroie thaym, lasse than thay wolde fynde him surete. Wherfore thay ordeyned, that Londoun and euerich of tho shiris sholde gadre a gret summe of moneye, and in token of peeȝ yeue it to the kyng; and so thay dede.

Page  13

Anno xxjo. A.D. 1398.

And this same yeer fille a greet debaat and dissension, betuene the duke of Hereford and the duke of Norfolk, in this wise. The duke of Norfolk tolde priueli, as it hadde be vnder confessioun, and in gret counsel, to the duke of Hereforde, that the kyng hadde or|*. [Quod vis habere consilium nemi|ni dicas.]deyned to sle thaym bothe, because thay rood and aroos vith the duke of Gloucestre. The duke of Hereforde saide, "The king hath therof grauntid vs his pardoun." Thenne saide the duke of Norfolk, "The kyng is not trewe, as it hath wel apperid be the duke of Gloucestre and the erl of Arundel." The duke of Here|forde aftirward tolde this to his fader, the duke of Lancastre, and he tolde it to the king. And whanne the kyng examned the duke of Norfolk therof, he denyed it and forsook it; and the duke of Here|ford avowed it befor him, and him appelid of treson and of the deth of the duke of Gloucestre. Wherfore thay cast thair glovis and wagid bataille, and the day of thair bataille was assigned at Couentre; at whiche day the kyng withe his lordis was there present; and [folio 150b] whanne bothe dukis were redy in the place to do thair bataille, the kyng toke thair quarelle in to his handis, and exilid the duke of Hereforde for terme of x. yeer, and the duke of Norfolk for euer|more: the whiche duke of Norfolk deide aftirward at Veniȝe. And the kyng grauntid to the duke of Hereforde forto haue and receyue yeerli a certayne pension of money out of Englond; but he forbad him and made him swere, that he sholde not speke with maister Thomas Arundelle; for the king dradde alwey his counsel and his wisdoum; wherfore, as yt was said, the kyng so stirid and prouoked ayens him the peple of the cuntre that he sholde passe be, that unnethe he scapid with his lif.

Ferthirmore the king and his counsel ordeyned blanc chartris, and made lordis spirituel and temporel and othir worthi men sette to thaym thair selis; and therto thay were most constreyned be the*. [Nota of the blanc chartris, etc.] Bisshoppis, as it was said; wherynne the king purposid aftirward, as men saide, to haue writen thise wordis—"Because that we befor Page  14 this tyme haue greuously offendid your mageste, we yeue unto you us and alle our godis, at your wille."

Anno xxijo. A.D. 1398-9.

The xxij. yeer of king Richard, he callid his counsel and saide he wolde go in to Yrlond; but first he desirid to visite Saint Thomas of Cauntirbury, but he trust not welle in men of Londoun and of [folio 151a] Kent; and the archebisshoppe of Cauntirbury assurid him that he myghte go saafly, and so he wente to Cauntirbury with a gret mayne of Chesshire menne, and thay wacchid aboute him day and nyghte, and ech of thaym hadde vj d. a-day; and whanne he cam to Caun|tirbury, tharchebisshoppe fedde him and his men rialli; and aftir broughte him to Londoun agayne.

Thanne wente the king in to the tour of Londoun, and baar out therof alle the precious iewelx that his predecessours hadde put there to be kept; and among othir thyngis, he fond there an egle of gold,*. [Nota de aquila aurea.] and withynne the egle a violle of stoone closid, with a writyng aboute; the whiche writyng saide that our lady delyuerid that egle and the violle to Saint Thomas of Cauntirbury whileȝ he was exilid, and saide to him that with the oille that was in the violle, the gode kyngis of Englond that sholde come aftirward sholde be ennoynted; and on of tho kyngis sholde gete agayn alle the lond that his aunces|tris hadde lost, withoute strengthe; and he sholde be grettist of alle kyngis, and he sholde bilde meny chirchis in the holi lond, and sholde driue alle the paynemes out of Babiloun, and there he shal make meny chirchis, and as ofte as he berith the said egle on his brest he shal haue the victory of his enemieȝ, and his kyngdom shall evir encrece; and this oynement shalle be founde in couenable [folio 151b] tyme: and this egle baar king Richard alwey aboute his necke.

Thanne made the kyng his testament fulle greuous and preiudi|ciall to the reme, as thay saide that saw it; and made ser Edmund of Langley, duke of York, lieutenaunt of Englond; and thanne wente he forth in to Yrlond.*. [[May 31st.]]*. [He sailed from Milford Haven on the 29th of May, and landed at Waterford on the last of the month.]

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[Anno xxiijo.] A.D. 1399.

And whanne he hadde be there a litill tyme, ser Henri of Bolyng|broke, erl of Derby and duke of Hereforde, whom kyng Richard*. [Hoc anno obiit dux Lancas|triæ.] hadde exilid, heryng that his fader ser John of Gaunt, duke of Lan|castre, was ded, cam doun out of ffraunce vnto Caleys. And there mette with him maister Thomas Arundelle that was archebisshoppe of Cauntirbury, and the sone and heir of the erl of Arundelle, that was broke out of prison of the castelle of Reygate; and thay shippid at Caleys, and cam in to Englond, and landid at Rauenesporne in the*. [[July 4th.]] north cuntre. And there mette with thaym the erlle of Northum|birlond withe a gret power to helpe and socoure the said duke, that cam for non othir entent, as he saide, thanne forto chalange the duchie of Lancastre his enheritaunce.

The duke of York that was lieutenaunt of Engelond wolde haue gon ayens thayme, but noman wolde folowe him; and ser William Scroope, tresorer of Englond, offrid men wonder large wageȝ, but he coude noman haue, for no money.

Thanne wroot the said duke of Hereforde to the citeȝeyns of Lon| [folio 152a] doun, and callid himself duke of Lancastre and stiward of Englond, and saide that he wolde refourme and amende that was amys; and anon Londoun him fauerid and supportid, and alle the kyngis castellis were delyuerid to the duke. Ser William Scrooppe, tresorer of Engelonde, Busshe, Bagot, and Grene, knyghtis, that were the kyngis chief counselours, fledde in to the castel of Bristowe, and wolde haue gon in to Yrlond, but thay were take, and thair heddis smyte of: but Bagot ascapid in to Yrlonde and was take aftirwarde.

Whanne kyng Richarde herde telle alle this, he cam in haste out*. [[August 13th.]] of Yrlond in to Walis, and abood in the castell of fflynt to take counsel what was best to do; but no counsel cam to him, and alle his ost landid in diuers partieȝ and wolde not folowe him. Thanne ser Thomas Percy, stiward of the kyngis hous, brak the rod of his office Page  16 in the halle befor alle men and saide, "The king wille no lenger holde householde," and anon alle the kyngis mayne forsook him, and lefte him alone. Tho cursid the kyng the vntrouthe of Englond, and saide, "Allas! what trust is in this fals worlde!"

Thanne wrot the duke to the stiward of the Archebisshoppe of Cauntirbury, ser Roger Waldenne, commaundyng him on peyne of his hed to kepe alle the godis of the forsaid ser Roger to the vse of maister Thomas Arundelle, and anon the said Roger remeued alle his [folio 152b] iewelx out of the paleis of Cauntirbury, and thay were take at Rouchestre and put in to the castelle there to be kept safly.

Whanne this was ydo, the duke and maister Thomas Arundel*. [[August 19th.]] wente to the kyng to the castel of Flynt, and aftir a fewe wordis thay tolde him shortly he sholde no lenger regne; and thanne maister Thomas Arundelle saide vnto him in this wise: "Thou art a fair man, but thou art falsest of alle menne. Thou promisist and assurid me, sweryng on Goddis Body, that thou woldes, do my brothir non harm; and whanne I hadde brouȝt him to thi presence, I myȝte nevir se him aftir. Thou also promisest me to calle me agayn in haste fro myn exile, and that ther sholde nevir be othir archebisshoppe of Caunterbury but I, whileȝ I livid; and now thou hast maad anothir archebisshop, and also procurid my dethe. Thou hast not rewlid thi reme and thi peple, but hast spoilid thaym be fals raisyngis of taxeȝ and talageȝ not to the profit of the reme, but forto fulfille and satisfie thi cursid couetise and pride. Thou hast alwey be rewlid be fals flaterers, folowyng thair counsel and thaym avaunsyng befor alle othir trew men, refusyng the counsel of thi trew lordis; and because thay wolde haue withstonde thi cursid malice as reson wolde, thow hast thaym slayne unrightfulli, and disheritid thair heiris [folio 153a] for evirmore, aftyr thyn ordenaunceȝ and statutis; but thay shalle not longe stonde, be Goddis grace. Thou hast also livid incontinentli and lecherousli, and with thi foulle and cursid ensample thou hast Page  17 enfectid thi court and thi reme." Thanne saide the duke, "No more, ye haue said ynoughe." The kyng wist not what he sholde say, but yeld him vnto the duke and saide he wolde resigne and renounce his righte; and thanne he was lad to the tour of Londoun, and there*. [[Sept. 1st.]] ykept in strong hold.

And aftirward in the vigili of saint Mighelle, were sent vnto him*. [[Sept. 28th.]] bishoppis, erlis, barons, knyȝtis, and notarieȝ, forto enquire and wite of him, if he wolde resigne as he hadde promised. First he said Nay, and thanne thay saide unto him that he moste nedis resigne withoute eny condicioun, and delyuerid him a cedule conteynyng the fourme of his resignacioun; and he redde it in presence of the forsaid duke and of meny othir lordis and a gret multitude of peple; wherof the tenour was this: "I, Richard kyng of Englond, re|nounce*. [Nota resigna|cionem Regis Ricardi.] and resigne alle the right that I haue in the croune of Eng|lond with thappurtenaunceȝ; that is to say, in the remeȝ of Englond and ffraunce, Yrlond and Scotland, and in the duchieȝ of Guyenne and of Normandie, and in the counte of Pountif, and in Walis, Caleis, and alle othir castellis and fortaliceȝ, that I haue now or may [folio 153b] haue aftirward be righte, beyonde the se and in this side, or in eny parti of thayme, for me and myne heyris for euermore." And wit|nessiȝ there present requirid notaries to make instrumentis vpon that resignacioun. And thanne kyng Richard confessid how he hadde gretly trespast ayens God and the reame, and that he was not worthi forto regne, for he wiste welle, he saide, that he loued nevir the peple, ne the peple him.

After this, the duke wente to Westmynstre, and there he was re|*. [[Sept. 29th.]]ceyued with procession solemly of bishoppis and monkis, and there was said a solenne masse of the Holi Gost; and aftir masse, he wente in to the halle and the kyngis swerd was bore befor him, and there he sat doun in his fader sete, and othir lordis sat there also, and moche peple standyng aboute; and there was red openli the forsaid resignacioun of king Richard, and was acceptid of alle peple. And thanne were there red and declared Page  18 meny notable and grete defautis that king Richard hadde do ayens his oth, and the laweȝ of the reme, and how he hadde exilid and slayn his lordis that were pieris of the reme, and meny othirt hyngis: wherfore he was deposid, and, in the name of alle men of Englond, proctours there assigned yeld up to hym thair homageȝ; and mais|ter Thomas Arundelle, be comune assent of alle that were there, [folio 154a] dampned the said king Richard to perpetuelle prisoun.

Thanne aros the said duke of Lancastre and of Hereforde, and blis|sid him, and redde in a bille how he descendid and cam doun lynealli of kyng Harri the sone of king Johan, and was the nexte heir male of his blod, and for that cause he chalanged the croune; and alle the lordis and comuneȝ assentid therto.

Thanne arooȝ the Archebishoppis of Cauntirbury and of York and kiste his handis, and ladde him to the kynggis sete that was for him rialli araid; and the Archebisshoppe of Cauntirbury, Arundelle, made there a colacion, and his theme was this: "Vir fortis dominabitur populo:" that is to say, A strong man shalle be lord ovir the peple. And aftir the colacioun, the Chaunceller of Englond theliverid the seel unto the kyng Harri, and othir officers delyuerid vp also vnto him thair selis and officeȝ, and the kyng forthwith put thaym yn agayn. And thanne tharchebisshoppe Arundelle notified vnto the peple, that the king wolde be crovned at Westmynstre on saint Ed|wardis day, commaundyng alle menn to be atte parlement on the Monday next comyng, &c.

Page  19

HENRY IV. Of kyng Harri of Bolyngbroke, duke of Lancastre and of Hereforde and erl of Derby; that was the iiij the Harri aftir the Conquest. [folio 154b] *. [Cam. cxlvj.]

A.D. 1399.

Whanne kyng Richard was deposid and putt out of his kyng|doum, the lordeȝ and the comuneȝ chosen ser Harri of Bolyng|broke,*. [[Reign began Sept. 30th.]] duke of Lancastre and of Hereforde and erlle of Derby, sone and heir to Johan of Gaunt duke of Lancastre, to be kyng of Engelonde; and he was crouned at Westmynstre on saint Edwardes day, of maister Thomas Arundelle, archebisshoppe of Cauntirbury,*. [[Monday, Oct. 13th.]] and was anoynted with the oyl of the egle before rehersid: and he was the firste that was anoynted therwith, as it was said.

Thanne continued he the parlement that king Richarde hadde be|gonne, and therynne adnullid and hadde for noughte alle the orde|naunceȝ and statutis that there were maad be king Richarde; and restorid the erlis sone of Arundelle to his landis, and made him erlle off Arundelle; and delyuerid the erlle of Warwic and the lord Cobham and othir out of prisoun; and brende openli at Londoun alle the blanc chartris that kyng Richard and his counselle hadde compellid men to sele; and disgradid alle the dukis that kyng Richarde hadde maad in his laste parlement, and restored ayenne maister Thomas Arundelle to his Archebisshopperiche of Cauntir|bury; and made ser Roger Waldenne, whom kyng Richard hadde [folio 155a] maad Archebisshoppe, bisshop of Londoun, that tyme beyng void; and made the said ser Roger forto restore alle that he hadde take of tharchebisshopriche of Cauntirbury vnto Arundelle: ffor the pope Boneface dampned and adnullid the iugement that king Richard Page  20 hadde yeue ayens the said Arundel be a bulle, and declarid be the same that the chirche of Cauntirbury was not void.

This kyng Harri made Harri his eldest sone and heir Prince of Walis, duke of Cornewaille, and erl of Chestre.

Anno primo. A.D. 1399-1400.

And this same yeer king Harri held his Cristemasse at Wynde|sore, and on xijthe evyn cam thider vnto him the duke of Aumarle, and tolde him how that he, and the duke of Surrey, the duke of Excestre, the erlle of Salisbury, the erl of Gloucestre, and othir mo of thair assent, were acordid to make a mommyng to the kyng on xijthe day at nyghte, and in that mommyng they purposid to sle him. The kyng was also warned therof in anothir maner. The Arche|bisshooppe of Cauntirbury, Arundelle, aftir new yeris day, re|meued fro Cauntirbury toward Wyndesore forto haue be withe the kyng on xij. day. And in the mene tyme a man of the kyngis hous lay alle nyghte with a comyne wommanne in Londoun, and in the morou she saide to him, "Farwelle frende," saide she, "for I shalle nevir se the more." "Whi so?" saide he. "Forsoth," saide she, "for the erlle of Huntyngdoun, the erl of Salesbury, the duke of [folio 155b] Surrey, and meny othir, lyen in waite aboute Kyngestoun, forto sle the kyng and the Archebisshoppe as thay come fro Wyndesore, pur|posing to restore king Richard ayenne to his kyngdoum." "How knowest thou this?" said he. "Forsoth," saide she, "on of thair men lay with me the lattir nyght, and told me this." And he anon in haste rood to the kyng, and tolde him as the wommanne hadde said; and the kyng warned tharchebisshoppe herof be a messager, and he retourned ayen in to the castelle of Reigate.

Whanne the kyng was thus warned of this tresoun, he rood in haste the same xij. nyght to Londoun, to gete him strengthe.

And on of tharchebisshoppis men rood bi Kyngestoun, and the erl of Kent loked out at a wyndow and saw him, and commaundid to brynge him befor him; and axed of him and saide: "Where is thi maister?" and he said, "In the castelle of Reygate." "And where is the kyng?" saide the erlle; and he saide, "At Londoun." "Yf I had met with thi maister," saide the erl, "I wolde hauee shave Page  21 his croune;" and commaundid to spoile the said man of his hors and of his money.

But as sone as the said lordeȝ wiste that thair counselle was dis|couerid and wraid, thay fledde euery man his way, and the duke of Surrey and the erl of Salisbury with thair mayne fledde vnto the toun of Circestre, and saide be the way that kyng Richard rood there, [folio 156a] and cam late in the euenyng to thair ynneȝ. The comuneȝ of the toune wolde haue arestid thaym, and thay made gret defens, but atte laste thay were discomfitid and take be the said comuneȝ, and thay smoot of the lordis heddis; and [they] were set on London brigge, and thair quartris were sent to dyuers touneȝ of Englond: and meny of thair men were there ytake, and put in to prisoun, because some of thayme put brondis of fire in to the rovis of diuers menneȝ houseȝ, wherfore aftirward meny of thaym were drawe and hanged.

At Oxenforde were take ser John Blount and ser Benet Sely, knyȝtis, and Thomas Wyntereshille squyer, and were beheddid and quartrid.

And the same yeer at Pritwelle in Essex, in a mille, ser John Holond duke of Excestre was take be the comuneȝ of the cuntre, and led vnto Plasshe where as king Richard arestid ser Thomas of Wodestoke, duke of Gloucestre; and there thay smoot of his hed, and yt was set on London brigge.

The same yeer at Bristowe was take the lord Spenser that was erlle of Gloucestre, and the comuneȝ of the toune smot of his hed in the market place, and it was set on London brigge.

Whanne kyng Richard herde alle this, he was utterli in despeire, and confessid that this was do be his counsel, and for sorou and*. [Rex Ricardus moritur.] hunger he deide in the castle of Pountfret.

And whanne that king Harri wiste verili that he was ded, he leet [folio 156b] close and sere him in lynne clothe alle saue the visage, and that was left openne that men myghte se and knowe his persone from alle othir, and so he was broughte to Londoun to Poulis, and there he had his Dirige and masse; and the same wise at Westmynstre, and thanne he was buried at Langley. Page  22

And aftirward this same yeer ser Bernard Brokas, ser Johan Shelleye, knyghtis, and ser Johan Maudeleyn, a parson of king Richardis chapelle, were beheddid, and thair heddis set on Londoun brigge: and meny othir were acused of tresoun, and broughte befor the justiceȝ, of whom none ascapid, saue onli ser Roger Waldenne.

And this same yeer, quene Ysabelle the secunde wiff of kyng Richard was put fro her dower and sente in to ffraunce with meny grete yiftis, and anon as she was come in to ffraunce, the Frenshe|menne breek the treweȝ maad betuene king Richard and thaym.

Anno ijo. A.D. 1400-1.

The secunde yeer of his regne, he wente in to Scotland, but the Scottis wolde not mete with him; and there the erl of Dunbar becam his manne, and the kyng yaf him the Counte of Richemunde.

This same yeer was holden a parlement at Westmynstre, and thider cam Oweyn off Glendore, a Walshman, that was sumtyme a squier of the erlis of Arundel; complaynyng how that the lord Gray [folio 157a] Ruthynne hadde take from him wrongfulli a part of his land; but he myȝte haue no remedy. And the Bisshoppe of Saint Assaphe of Walis counselid the lordis of the parlement that thay sholde not mystrete the said Oweyne, lest he made the Walshmen arise; and thay ansuerde and saide thay set nouȝt be him.

This same yeer cam the emperour of Constantinople in to Englonde, to axe helpe and socour of the kyng ayens the Turkis, and broughte with him a pardon fro the Pope, be the whiche he gadrid moche money, and was longe in this lond on the kyngis cost, and thanne the kyng yaf him iiij m l. li.; and so he wente hoom ayen.

This same yeer the Walshmenne began to rebelle ayens king*. [Insurreccio Walliæ.] Harri, and also a greet debaat began betuene the lord Gray Ruthyn and the forsaid Oweyne of Glendore: and the Walshmen destroide the kingeȝ touneȝ and lordshippis in Walis, and robbid and slow the kyngis peple bothe English and Walshe; and this enduris xij. yeer.

And the king wente in to Walis with a gret power, but he myȝte not take Oweyn that was chief capteyn of the Walshmenne, ne spede that he cam for; and retourned hoom ayenne. And the lord Gray Page  23 undertook forto kepe the cuntre, and sone aftir the said Oweyne took the said lord Gray prisoner; and he was raunsond for prisoners of [folio 157b] the Marche. And atte laste Oweyn made the said lord Gray wedde on of his doughtris, and kepte him there with his wiff, and sone aftir he deide.

This same yeer was so gret derthe of corn, and so gret scarcite, that a quarter of whete was sold for xvj. s.

And this same yeer ser Roger of Claryngdoun knyȝt, the Priour of Launde, and viij. frere menours, wherof some were maistris of diuinite, and other to the noumbre of xij. personeȝ, were drawe and hanged for treson at Tybourne.

Also a womman acusid a grey frere of Cambrigge, an old man, of certayn wordes that he sholde haue said ayens the kyng, and his iugement was that he sholde fiȝte with the womman, and his on hand bounde behynde him: but the Archebisshop of Cauntirbury was the freris frend and cesid the mater.

Anno iijo. A.D. 1401-2.

The iij. yeer of kyng Harri, anon aftir Cristemasse, was seen and apperid a sterre in the west, whooȝ flameȝ ascendid upward, that was callid "the blasyng sterre," and be clerckis it was callid, "stella*. [Stella comata.] comata."

And aboute this tyme the peple of this land began to grucche ayens kyng Harri, and beer him hevy, because he took thair good and paide not therfore; and desirid to haue ayeen king Richarde. Also lettriȝ cam to certayn frendis of kyng Richard, as thay hadde be sent from hymself, and saide that he was alive; wherof moche peple was glad and desirid to haue him kynge ayeen. [folio 158a]

And a frere menour of the couent of Aylesbury cam to the kyng, and acusid a frere of the same hous, a prest, and saide that he was glad of kyng Richardeȝ lif; and he was brouȝt to the king, and he saide to him:—"Thou hast herd that king Richard is alive, and art glad therof." The frere ansuerde and saide, "I am glad as a man is glad of the liff of his frende, for I am holden to him, and alle my kyn, for he was our furtherar and promoter." The king saide, Page  24 "Thou hast noised and told openli that he livithe, and so thou hast excitid and stirid the peple ayens me." The frere saide, "Nay." Than saide the king to him, "Telle me trouthe as it is in thi herte;—yf thou sawest king Richard and me in the feld fighting togedir, with whom woldest thou holde?" "Forsoth," saide the frere, "with him, for I am more beholde to him." Thanne saide the king, "thou woldest that I and alle the lordis of my reme were ded?" The frere saide, "Nay." "What woldest thou do with me," saide the king, "yf thou haddist the victory ouyr me?" The frere saide, "I wolde make you duke of Lancastre." "Thou art not my frend," saide the kyng, "and therfor thou shalt lese thin hed." And thanne he was dampned befor the justice, and drawe and hanged and beheddid.

Aftir this cam anothir frere menour to the kyng, that owde no good wille to a brothir of his, axyng mercy and grace, and saide that vc men of seculers and religious were acorded to mete togedir [folio 158b] vpon the playn of Oxenforde on Midsomer eve, and go fro thennes to seche king Richard, "and Y and x. of my feloweȝ of the couent of Leycestre araide vs for to go with thaym: and ther is in that couent a maister of diuinite, an old manne, that spekith eville of you, and saith that king Richard shalle fiȝte ayens you, and so it is pro|phecied, as he saith." The viij freris and the maister of diuinite were brought bounde vnto Londoun, and the othir ij. that were acusid myȝt not be founde.

And the forsaid frere acusid meny othir freris of diuers couentis, but thay fledde away.

The king callid the archebisshop and othir lordis, and the freris were brouȝt befor thaym; and some of thaym were yong, and some olde and sympilly lettrid: and thair acuser stood by and stedfastly acusid thayme, and thay ansuerde vnwarly. Thanne saide the king to the maister, "Thise bith lewde men, and not vnderstondyng; thou sholdist be a wise man, saist thou that king Richard livith?" The maister ansuerde, "I say not that he Page  25 livith, but I say yf he live, he is veray king of Engelonde." The king saide, "He resigned." The maister ansuerde, "He resigned ayens his wil in prison, the whiche is nought in the lawe." The kyng ansuerde, "He resigned with his good wille." "He wolde not haue resigned," saide the maister, "yf he hadde be at his fredoum; [folio 159a] and a resignacion maad in prison is not fre." Thanne saide the kyng, "He was deposid." The maister ansuerde, "Whanne he was kyng he was take be force, and put into prisoun, and spoyled of his reme, and ye haue vsurpid the croune." The kyng saide, "I haue not vsurpid the croune, but I was chosen therto be eleccioun." The maister ansuerde, "The eleccion is noughte, livyng the trewe and lawful possessour; and yf he be ded, he is ded be you, and yf he be ded be you, ye haue loste alle the righte and title that ye myȝte haue to the croune." Thanne saide the kyng to him, "Be myn hed thou shalt lese thyne hed." The maister saide to the king, "Ye loued nevir the chirche, but alwey desclaundrid it er ye were kyng, and now ye shall destroie it." "Thou liest," saide the king; and bad him voide, and he and his feloweȝ were lad ayen vnto the tour.

Thanne axed the kyng counsel, what he sholde do with thaym; and a knyȝt that loued nevir the chirche saide, "We shal nevir cece this clamour of kyng Richard til thise freris be destroid."

The minister of the freris wente to the kyng, and saide that he hadde commaunded alle his bretheryne that thay sholde no thing saw, say ne speke, in preiudice and offens of his persone, and axed grace for thayme. The kyng saide to him, "Thay wille not be chastiȝid be the, and therfor thay shalle be chastizid be me." [folio 159b]

Thanne were thay brouȝt to Westmynstre befor the justiceȝ, and the justice saide unto thaym, "Ye bith enditid that ye in ipocrisie and flateryng and fals lif, haue prechid fals sermons; wherynne ye saide falsli that king Richard livith, and haue excited the peple to seche him in Scotland—Also, ye in your ypocrisie and fals lif, haue herd fals confessions, wherynne ye haue enioyned to the peple in Page  26 wey of penaunce, to seche king Richard in Walis—Also, ye with your fals flateryng and ypocrisie, haue gadrid a gret summe of money with begging, and sent it to Oweyne of Glendore, a traitour, that he sholde come and destroy Englond—Also, ye haue sent in to Scotland for vc. men to be redy upon the playn of Oxenford on midsomer eve to seche kyng Richard. How wille ye excuse you? I counsel you to put you in the kyngis grace." The freris ansuerde, "We put vs vpon the cuntre."

And neither men of London ne of Holborne wolde dampne thaym; and thanne thay hadde an enquest of Yseldon, and thay saide "Gilti."

Thanne the justice yaf jugement and saide, "Ye shul be drawe fro the tour of Londoun vnto Tiburne, and there ye shalle be hanged, and hange an hool day, and aftirward be take doun, and your heddis smyte of and set on London brigge." And so it was don.

And the maister at Tiburne made a deuout sermon with this theme, "In manus Tuas Domine;" and swoor be his soule that he [folio 160a] trespast not ayens king Harri, and forgaf thaym that were cause of his deth.

And another frere whanne he sholde die saide, "Yt was not our entent, as our enemieȝ say, to sle the king and his soneȝ, but forto make him duke of Lancastre, as he sholde be."

On the morou aboute evesong tyme, on cam to the wardeyn of the freris, and saide he myȝte fette away the bodieȝ and burye thaym; and whanne thay came thay founden thaym caste in to dichis and heggis, and the heddis smyten of, and thay baar thaym hoom to thair couent with gret lamentacioun.

And aftirward, men of thenquest that dampned thayme, cam to the freris prayying thayme of foryifnesse, and saide, "but yf thay hadde said that the freris were gilti thay sholde haue be slayne."

And this same yeer, Oweyn of Glendore took ser Edmund Mortymer in Walis, and because he myȝte not paie his raunson he wolde nevir be vnder kyng Harri, but wedded on of Oweyneȝ douȝtris.

In the birthe of this Edmund fille meny wonder tokeneȝ; for out Page  27 of the floor of his fader stable cam out blood, and wellid vp so hie that it couerid the hors feet; and alle the shethis of swerdis and of*. [Nota mirabilia portenta.] the daggaris in the hous were ful of blood, and all the axes with reed of blood; And whanne the said Edmund lay in his cradille he myȝt not slepe, ne cece of cryynge, til he saw a swerd: and whanne he sat in his norsis lappe he wolde not be stille til he hadde sum [folio 160b] instrument of warre to pleie with.

[Anno iiijto] A.D. 1403.

And this same yeer was the bataille of Shrewesbury on Mari Maudeleyn eve, betuene king Harri and ser Henri Percy, the erlis*. [[July 21st]] sone of Northumbirlond: of the whiche bataille the cause and occa|sioun was this.

The erl of Northumbirlond praide the kyng to paie him his*. [Nota causam belli Salopiæ] moneie due vnto him for keping of the marchis of Scotland, and saide, "My sone and I haue spendid our good in keping of the said marchis." The king ansuerde, "I haue no moneie, ne non thou shalt haue." The erle saide, "Whanne ye cam in to this land ye made promys forto be rewlid be our counsel, and ye take yeerli moche good of the reme and paie nouȝt, and so ye wrathe your comuneȝ: good [God?] sende you good counsel."

Thanne cam the erlis sone ser Harri Percy, that hadde weddid the forsaid Edmundeȝ sustir that was prisoner in Walis, prayyng the kyng that he wolde suffre that the said Edmundeȝ raunsoun myȝte be paid of his owene. The kyng saide, that with the money of his reme he would not fortifie his enemieȝ ayens himme. Ser Henri Perci saide, "Shalle a man spende his good, and put him self in perille for you and your reme, and ye wil not helpe him in his*. [Nota ista verba inter Regem et Henr. Percy.] nede?" The king was wroth and saide to him, "Thou art a traitour! wilt thou that I sholde socoure myn enemieȝ, and enemieȝ of the [folio 161a] reme?" Sir Henri Percy saide, "Traitor am I none, but a trew man, and as a trew man I speke." The king drow to him his daggar: and ser Henri Perci saide to the kyng, "Not here, but in the feld." And so he wente his way.

And he and his vncle ser Thomas Percy, whom king Richard Page  28 hadde maad erlle of Worcestre, gadrid a greet ost in the north|cuntre, and saide thay moste fiȝte ayens the Scottis; and wente in to Chestreshire, and took with thaym meny Chesshire men, and sente to Oweyn of Glendore forto come and help him, but Oweyne was aferd of treson and cam not; but meny of the Walshmen cam to thaym: and so they cam to Lichfeld. And the said ser Henri Percy and alle his men wered and were araid in the liverey of the hertis, the whiche was king Richardis liverey.

And there the said ser Henri leet crie openli, and saide that he was on of the chief causers that king Richard was deposid, and most helper to brynge yn kyng Harri, wenyng that he wolde have amendid the rewle of the reame; and now kyng Harri rewlith and gouerned worse the land than dede king Richard; wherfor, he saide, he wolde amende it yf he myȝte.

The kyng also gadrid anothir ost and mette with him beside Shrowesbury, and axed of him the cause of his comyng; to whom Percy ansuerde and saide:—"We brouȝte the yn ayens king Richard, and now thou rewlist worse than dede he. Thou spoilist [folio 161b] yeerly the reme with taxes and talageȝ, thou paest no man, thou holdist no hous, thou art not heir of the reme; and therfore, as I haue hurt the reme be bryngyng yn of the, I wille helpe to refourme it." The king ansuerde and saide, "I take talageȝ for nedis of the reme, and I am chosen kyng be comune assent of the reme, wherfor I counsel the to put the in my grace." Percy ansuerde and saide, "I trust not thi grace." "Now I pray God," saide the kyng, "that thou most ansuer for alle the blood that here shalle be shed this day and not I." And thanne saide the kyng, "Avant baner."

Thenne was there a strong and an hard bataille, and meny were*. [Belium Salopie.] slayn on bothe sideȝ: and whanne ser Henri Percy saw his men faste slayn he pressid in to the bataille with xxx men, and made a lane in the myddille of the ost til he cam to the kyngis baner, and there he slow the erl of Stafforde and ser Thomas Blount and othir; and atte laste he was beset aboute and slayne, and anon his ost was dis|parblid Page  29 and fledde. And ser Henri Percieȝ hed was smyte of and set vp at York, lest his men wolde haue saide that he hadde be alive. And ser Thomas Percy his vncle was take and beheddid at Shrowesbury, and his hed set on London brigge.

And in this bataille the prince, kyng Harrieȝ sone, was hurt in the face with an arow.

And this bataille was do in the yeer of our Lord Ml. CCCC. ij.*. [The battle of Shrewsbury was fought in 1403, on Saturday, St. Mary Magd. eve (Hardyng. Ed. Ellis, p. 361), July 21st. See note.] [folio 162a]

After this bataille was ydo, the knyghtis and squiers of the north cuntre that had be with ser Henri Percy, wente hoom ayen in to Northumbirlond, and kepte thaymself in strong holdis and castellis and wolde not truste in the kyngis grace.

And aftirward the king sente for the erlle of Northumbirlond that was ser Henri Percieȝ fader; and he saide yf the kyng wolde swere that he sholde come and go saaf til he hadde excusid him in the Par|lement, he wolde gladli come; and so he cam to the parlement, and excusid him that he was not gilty of the bataille of Shrewesbury, and swoor vpon the cros of Cauntirbury befor the parlement, that he sholde evir be trew to king Harri.

To this parlement cam lettris as they hadde be sent from king Richard, semyng so euident and so trewe, that the king and all the parlement were therof astoned, and hadde gret marvaille; and callid him that was his keper, and axid of hym how he wolde ansuer to tho lettris; and he ansuerde and saide he wolde fiȝte with eny man that wolde say that he was alive.

Anno iiijto A.D. 1403.

The iiij yeer of king Harri, cam dame Johane the duchesse of Britayne into England and landed at Falemouth in Cornewail, and was weddid to king Harri in the abbey of saint Swithuneȝ of Wyn|*. [[February 7th]]chestre; and some aftir she was crouned at Westmynstre.*. [[February 26th]]

And this same yeer, dame Blaunche kyng Harrieȝ elder douȝtir [folio 162b] was sent vnto Coloyne with the erl of Somerset hir vncle, and maister Richard Clifford thanne bisshop of Londoun, and othir notable Page  30 personeȝ, and thenne she was weddid to the dukeȝ sone of Beyre; and aftir the solennite of the mariage our lordis cam in to Englond agayne.

Anno vo, A.D. 1404.

The v yeer of king Harri, the lord Thomas, his sone, wente to the se, and the erlle of Kent with him, and thay brende certain touneȝ in the yle of Cagent, and took ij grete carrakeȝ of Jene ladenne with*. [[April.]] diuers marchaundise, because thay wold not strike their saileȝ in the kyngiȝ name of Engelond, and brouȝte thaym in to the Camer beside Wynchilse, and there the godis were canted; and on of the carrakeȝ was sodenli brent; and so the lordis wente no ferthir at that tyme.

And this same yeer, Johan Serle, sumtyme yoman of kyng Richardeȝ robes, that was on of the principalle slears of the duke of Gloucestre, cam out of Scotland in to Englond, and saide to diuers personeȝ that king Richard was alive in Scotlande; wherfore he brouȝte moche peple in gret errour and grucchyng ayens king Harri, for the peple wende feithfulli it hadde be so. But atte laste he was take in the north cuntre, and was drawe thoroughe eueri cite and burghe toun in Englond, and thanne he was brought to Londoun, and there at Guyldehalle he was iuged to be drawe fro the tour [folio 163a] of Londoun thorouȝ Londoun vnto Tiburne; and there he was hanged and beheddid and quartrid, and his hed set on London brigge, and his quarters were sent to the iiij gode tovneȝ of Englond.*. [October 20th.]

This Serle confessid that whanne king Richard was take in Walis, he staalle his signet and fledde in to Scotland, and therwith he selid meny lettris, and sente thaym to such men as were kyng Richardeȝ frendis, and saide he was alive; and so he was cause of meny menneȝ dethe: and he saide also that there was a man in Scotland moche lik to king Richard, but it was not he.

Anno vjo A.D. 1405.

The vj yeer of king Harri, the erl of Marre of Scotland vnder saaf conduct cam in to Englond, forto chalange ser Edmund the erlle of Kent of certain cours of warre on horsbak, and his chalange*. [[January.]]Page  31 was acceptid and grauntid, and the place take in Smythfeld; and there they riden togedir with sharp speris dyuers cours, but the erl of Kent hadde the feld with moche worshippe.

And this same year, maister Richard Scroop archebishoppe of*. [Insurreccio Ri|cardi Scroope Archiepiscopi Ebor.] York, and the lord Mowbray that was erl marchalle of Englond, and a knyght callid ser William Plymptoun, gadrid a strong*. [[May.]] power in the north contre ayens the king; and the kyng sente thider his power and took thayme, and thay were beheddid at York: and sone aftirward Almyȝty God shewde for the said archebisshoppe [folio 163b] meny grete miracleȝ.

And the cause of the said risyng was this:—The erlis sone of Notyngham and his heir the lord Moubray compleyned to the archebisshoppe of York, and saide that his auncestris were evir wont of righte to be marchallis of Englond, and be that thay held thair lond; and notwithstonding that, the king hadde yeue the said lond with the office to the erl of Westmerlond. Tharchebisshoppe comynd of this with wise men of counsel, and aftirward he made a sermon in the chirche of York, and exhortid and stirid the peple to be assistent and helpyng to to the correccioun and amendement of the myschiefs and mysgouernaunceȝ of the reme, hauyng in consi|deracioun the grete pouerte of the marchauntis in whom was wont to be the substaunce of the richeȝ of alle the land: and also the grete reisynges of taxeȝ, tallages and custumeȝ vnder colour of borowyng: and also, that due paiement be maad for the kingeȝ vitailleȝ: and that the clergie and the comune peple were not vexid ne charged with importable chargis of taxis and talagis as thay hadde longe tyme be: and that the heiris of noble men and of lordis of the lond myȝte be restorid to their enheritaunce hoolli, euery man aftir his degre and birthe: and also that suche covetous men as were of the kyngis counsel, that took away and turned to thair owen vse suche godis as were ordeyned to the comune help of the lond, and make [folio 164a] thaym self riche withalle, be remeued and put away fro the king.

Thise articles and meney othir the archebisshoppe made be writen Page  32 in English, and were set on the yatis of the cite, and sent to curatis of the tovneȝ aboute, forto be prechid openli.

And the said archebishoppe and the lord Mowbray gadrid a greet ost, and wente toward the erlle of Westmerland; and the erlle cam agayns thaym with anothir ost sent fro the kyng to take thaym; and whanne they were nyghe togedir, the erl praide tharchebishoppe and the lord Mowbray, that thay myȝte speke togedir and trete of peeȝ; and thay wente to the erlle, and the erl hadde there botellis with wyne, and made thaym drynke; and whileȝ the said erlle fayned himself to trete, a knyȝt of his rood to the archbisshoppis ost, and saide that the lordis were acordid, and in token thereof they drank togedir, "and therfore tharchebishoppe comaundeth every man forto go hoom agayne, for he shall this nyȝt sowpe with the erlle."

The archbisshoppis men were aferd, for ther was a litille hill betuene tharchebisshop and thaym, so that thay myȝte nowthir se him ne the erl; notheleȝ, thay wende it hadde be trewe that the knyȝt saide, and wente tharr way and were disparblid; and the knyȝt retourned agayn to his companie: and anon the erl and he,*. [Archiepiscopus capitur.] with thair ost, fille vpon tharchebisshoppe and lord Mowbray, and [folio 164b] took thaym, and ladde thaym to the kyng to Pountfret.

Aftir this the king cam to York, and the citiȝeynes of the cite cam out barefoot and ungirt, with haltris aboute thair neckis, and fil doun before the kyng axyng mercy and grace, because they arooȝ with tharchebisshoppe.

The archebisshoppe of Cauntirbury, Arundelle, heryng alle this, cam in haste to the kyng and to him saide, "Sire, I am your gostly fader and the secunde persone of the reme, and ye sholde accept no manneȝ counsel souner than myn, yf it be good: I counsel you that if tharchebisshoppe of Yorke haue trespast so moche ayens you as it is said, reserue him to the popis iugement, and he will so ordeyne that ye shal be plesid; and if ye wille not so, I counsel let him be reserued to the iugement of the parlement, and kepe your handis vndefoulid from his blood." The king saide, "I may Page  33 not for rumour of the peple." And tharchebisshoppe requirid a notari to make an instrument of the kyngis ansuer, that yf nede were it myghte be presentid vnto the pope.

Thanne were the archebisshoppe of York and the lord Mowbray dampned vnto deth, and ser William Plympton with thaym, and were beheddid withoute the cite of York.*. [[June 8th]]

And whenne the archebisshoppe sholde die, he saide, "Lo! I shalle die for the laweȝ and good rewle of Engelond." And thanne he [folio 165a] saide vnto thayme that sholde die with him, "Lat vs suffre deth mekely, for we shul this nyghte, be Goddis grace, be in paradis." Thanne saide tharchebisshoppe to him that sholde smyte of his hed, "For His loue that suffrid v woundes for alle mankynde, yeue*. [Nota ista verba Archepiscopi.] me v strokis, and I foryeve the my dethe." And so he dede: and thus thay deide.

And anon aftir, as it was said, the king was smyte withe a lepir: for the whiche archebisshoppe, Almyghti God sone aftirwarde wroughte meny grete miracles.

Whanne the Pope herde of the deth of the archebisshoppe of York, he cursid alle tho that slow him, and alle that were assentyng to his dethe or therto yaf counselle, and commaundid tharchebisshoppe of Cauntirbury that he sholde denounce alle thaym acursid: but tharchebisshoppe wolde not do it alone.

Thanne sente the king to the Pope, and saide that the sedicion of the people wolde not suffre him live, and sente also vnto him the habergeon that tharchebisshoppe was armed ynne with thise wordis: "Pater, vide si tunica hec sit filij tui an non." And the pope ansuerde agayn in this wise, as it was said: "Sive hec sit tunica Page  34 filij mei an non, scio quia fera pessima devoravit filium meum:"— and so be prive meneȝ of money the mater was cesid.

Anno vij. A.D. 1406.

The vij yeer of king Harri, dame Luce the dukis sustir of Melane, cam in to Englond and was weddid to ser Edmund erl of Kent, in [folio 165b] the priorie of saint Marieȝ in Suthwerc.*. [[January 24th]]

And this same yeer deide that worthi knyȝt ser Robert Knollis,*. [Ricardus Knol|lis moritur.] and is buried atte White Freris in Fletstrete in Londoun.*. [[August.]]

And this yeer ser Thomas Rempstoun, knyghte, lieutenaunt of the*. [Thomas Remp|ston submergi|tur.] tour of Londoun, was dround in the Thamise at Londoun brigge as he cam fro Westmynstre.

And this same yeer, dame Philippe the yonger douȝtir of king*. [[May]] Harri was lad into Denmarc be ser Richard the dukes brothir of York and maister Edmund Courteneye bisshoppe of Norwich, and othir worthi men; aud there she was weddid to the king of Den|marc in a tovne callid Londoun; and aftir that our lordis cam hoom agayne.

Anno viij. A.D. 1406.

The viij yeer of king Harri ther was a manne callid the Walssh clerc, and he appelid a knyghte of treson that was callid ser Perci|*. [[November.]]valle Sowdan, and thay faughte togedir in Smythfeld, and the knyghte ouercam the clerk and made him yelde him gilty: and thanne he was spoilid of his armure and hanggid at Tiburne.

[Anno ix.] A.D. 1408.

And this same yeer, ser Henri erlle of Northumbirlond, and the lord Bardolf, that fledde in to Scotland for drede of king Harri, cam agayn in to Englond forto have destroid king Harri; and the Shireve of Yorkshire reisid peple and took thayme and smoot of thair heddis; and the hed of the erlle and a quarter of the lord were*. [[February 18.]] set on London briggee.

Anno ixo. [x.] A.D. 1408-9.

The ix yeer of king Harri, ser Edmund Holond, erl of Kent, was [folio 166a] maad Admiral of the se: and as he laide sege to the castell of Briac, in Britaigne, he was smyte in to the hed with a quarel, and so he deide.

And this same yeer, was a gret frost in Englond that endurid xv wekeȝ. Page  35

And this same yeer, maister Robert Halome bisshop of Salisbury, and othir, were sent to the general counsel to Constaunce.*. [To the Council of Pisa, not Constance, held in 1409—see note.]*. [Consilium Con|stanciense [Pi|sanum] ordina|tum est.]

Anno xo. A.D. 1409.

The x yeer of king Harry, the erl of Dunbar that was swore English, and whom king Harri hadde maad erl of Richemund, as befor is said, fledde ayen in to Scotland; and saide that he fayned himself an Englishmanne, forto help slee and destroie the erl of Northumbirlond and othir that were enemieȝ vnto Scotland.

And this yeer was seen blood boile out of wellis in diuers partieȝ*. [Sanguis emana|vit de fontibus, etc.] of Englond; and anon aftir, meny men deide on the blody mensoun &c.

And this same yeer the Seneschalle of Henaude, with othir worthi menne, cam in to Englond to gete worshippe in dedis of armes; and he chalanged the erl of Somerset, and he delyuerid him manfulli in alle his chalangeȝ, and put him to the worse, and hadde the feld in alle poyntis. The secunde day, cam in to the feld a man of the Sene|schallis part, and ayens him cam ser Richard of Arundelle, knyȝt; and the Henavder hadde the bettir of him in on poynt, for he brouȝte him on his kne. The iij day, cam yn anothir Henauder, and ayens [folio 166b] him cam ser Johan Cornewaille, knyghte, and manli quyt him, and hadde the bettir of his aduersarieȝ in alle poyntes. The iiij day, cam yn anothir Henauder, and ayens him cam ser Johan Cheyneȝ sone, and cast the Henauder in the feld, hors and manne; wherfore the king made him knyȝt. The v day, cam yn anothir Henauder, and to him cam John Stiward, squier, and hadde the bettir. The vj day, cam ynne anothir Henauder, and to him cam William Porter, squier, and hadde the bettir in the feld, and the king made him knyghte. The vij day, cam ynne anothir Henauder, and to him came Johan Standishe, squier, and hadde the bettir in the feld, wherfore the king made him knyghte. And that same day cam yn anothir Henauder, and to him cam a squier of Gascoigne, and hadde the bettir, and the king made him knyghte. The viij day, cam in ij men of armeȝ of Henaude, and to thaym cam ij Page  36 soudiers of Caleis that were bretherynne ycallid the Burghes, and quyt thaym wel and manli in the feld, and hadde the bettir, and thus endid the chalangeȝ in Smythfeld, with moche worshippe.

Anno xjo. A.D. 1409-10.

The xj yeer of kyng Harri, was a bataille do in Smythfeld betuene ij squiers, that on me [men] callid Gloucestre, that was appellaunt, and Artur, that was defendaunt; and they faught manli togedir longe tyme, and for thair manhood the king took thair quarel in to his [folio 167a] handis, and made thaym go out of the feld both at onys, and yaf thaym grace.

Anno xijo. A.D. 1410-1.

The xij yeer of kyng Harri, a squier of Walis called Ris ap Die, that was supporter of Oweyn of Glendore, that dede moche destruc|*. [[December 9th.]] cioun to the kingis peple in Walis, was take and brought to Londoun, and drawe and hanged and quartrid.

And this same yeer, anon aftir Michelmasse, the Thamise at Londoun flowed and ebbid iij tymeȝ in a day naturelle; and ther were take therynne meny grete and straunge fissheȝ of dyuers naturis, that betokened fallyng of newe thyngis.

Anno xiij. A.D. 1411-2.

And this same yeer, the duke of Orliaunce assemblid vnto him the duke of Barry, the duke of Burbon, the duke of Britaigne, the erl of Armynak, and othir grete men of south Fraunce; and with a gret power pursude the duke of Burgoyne, to be vengid on him for his fader dethe whom he slow traitourly in Paris.*. [[Nov.23,1407.]]

And the duke of Burgoyne with assistence and help of the king of Fraunce and of his sone, gadrid a gret ost of Fraunce, of Flaundris, of Almayne, of Scotland, and sente ambassiatouris to the Prince, king Harrieȝ sone, for help and socour of men of armeȝ and archiers, ayens the duke off Orliaunce. And the prince sente vnto himme the erlle of Arundelle, ser Gilbert Vmfrevile erlle of Kyme, ser Johan Oldcastelle lord Cobhame, and meny othir; and thay [folio 167b] mette with the duke of Orliaunce at Senclowe beside Paris; and*. [[November, A.D. 1411.]] there our men him discomfited, and slow meny of his menne, and the duke fledde; and thus our men hadde the victory, and cam hoom agayn with grete yiftis. Page  37

And anon folowynge, the duke of Orliaunce sente ambassiatours to king Harri, beseching him of helpe and socour ayens his dedly*. [[May.]] enemy the duke of Burgoyne; and thanne the king made Thomas, his sone, duke of Clarence; and his other sone John, duke of Bedforde; and ser Thomas Beaufort he made erl of Dorset; and the duke of Awmarle he made duke of York; and sente his sone Thomas, and the said erl of Dorset, and ser Johan Cornewaille, and meny othir notable men, in to Fraunce; and they landed at Hoggis in Normandie. And there mette with thayme at thair landyng, the lorde Hambe, with vij Ml. men of armeȝ of Frensshe|menne, and all were put to fliȝt, and vij C of thaym were take, and iiij C hors, withoute tho that were slayne in the feld; and so our lordis riden forth to Burdeux thorouȝ Fraunce, for the lordis were acordid er thay cam, and token meny prisoners be the weye; and aftirward thay cam in to Englond agayn with the vyntage.*. [Sir John Bew|ford.]

This same yeer, deide ser Johan Beaufort before said erl of Dorset, and capteyn of Caleys, and ys buried in the Abbeye of the tour hille. [folio 168a]

And this same yeer, pope Johan the xxiij sent a frere menour in to this land, the generalle of the ordre, desiryng of the king, that he sholde sende his sone Thomas vnto Rome, forto be the popis Cap|teyne and rewler of his ost, ayens the king of Naplis and the Antipope*. [Nota hic erat scisma.] Gregore. And the same tyme the pope dispensid with the said lord Thomas duke of Clarence, forto wedde the countesse of Somerset, his vncleȝ wiff.

Anno xiiijo. A.D. 1412-3.

The xiiij of his regne he leet make galeyeȝ of warre purposing forto haue gone to Jerusalem, and there have endid his lif.

And this same yeer it was acorded betuene the Prince, king Harrieȝ sone, and Harri bisshoppe of Wynchestre, and many othir lordis of this lond, that certayn of thaym sholde speke to the king, and entrete him to resigne the croune to the said Prince Harri, his sone, because he was so gretli vexid and smyte with the seeknesse of lepre; but he wolde in no wise. Page  38

And sone aftir he deide in the Abbeie of Westmynstre in a chambir callid Jerusaleme, aboute the feste of saint Cutbert,*. [Rex Henricus moritur.] whanne he hadde regned xiij yeer and a half; and is yburied in*. [[Monday, March 20th.] A.D. 1413.] Crichirche of Cauntirbury.

Page  [unnumbered]

HENRY V. Of Kyng Harri the V, the sone of Kyng Harri the iiij aftir the Conquest. [folio 169a] *. [Cam. cxlvij.]

Anno primo. A.D.1413.

AFTIR the deth of king Harri the iiijthe, regned his sone king Harri the V, that was ybore at Monemouth in Walis, and*. [[Reign began March 21st.]] crouned at Westmynstre on Passion Sunday.*. [[April 9th].]

And anon, the firste yeer of his regne, for the grete and tendre loue that he hadde to king Richard, he translatid his body fro Langley vnto Westmynstre, and buried him beside quene Anne his firste wiff, as his desire was.

And this same yeer were ytake certayn Lollardes and hereticks,*. [Insurreccio Lol|lardorum.] that hadde purposid thorough their fals tresoun to haue slayn the*. [[January, A.D.1414.]] kyng and the lordis spirituel and temporel, and destroid al the clergie of the reme: but the king, as God wolde, was warned of their fals purpos and ordenaunce, and took the feld that is callid Fikettis feld, and with him maister Thomas Arundel Archebisshoppe of Cauntirbury, and leet keep the weieȝ aboute Londoun. And meny of thaym were take, and drawe and hanged and brent on the galoweȝ in saint Gileȝ feld. And a knyȝt callid ser Roger of*. [[February 10th.]] Acton was take for Lollardrie and for treson, and drawe and hanged and brent in saint Gileȝ feld.

Anno ijo. A.D.1414.

The secunde yeer of regne, he held a parlement at Westmynstre, of alle the lordis of the reme, where it was tretid and spoke of his title that he hadde to Normandie, Gascoigne, and Guyenne, that [folio 169b] were his enheritaunce; the whiche the king of Fraunce witheld wrongfulli and vnrightfulli. And so be avise of his counsel, he Page  40 sente ambassiatours to the king of Fraunce and his counsel, requiryng thayme to yelde vp vnto him his said enheritaunce, or ellis he*. [In isto parlia|mento, Rex fecit Johannem, fra|trem suum, ducem Bed|fordiæ; et Humfridum, alium fratrem suum, ducem Gloucestriæ.] wolde it gete be the swerd with helpe of Jhesu. The dolfyn of Fraunce ansuerde to our ambassiatours, and saide that our kyng was ouer yong and to tendre of age to be a good warriour, and not lik to make such a conquest vpon thayme. Oure ambassiatours heryng this scornful ansuer, retourned in to Englond ayen, notifying vnto the kyng and his counsel the ansuer of the dolfyn and of the counsel of Fraunce.

Anno iijo. A.D. 1415.

Thanne made the kyng redy his ordenaunce necessary forto the warre, commaundyng alle menne that sholde go with him to be redy att Suthamptoun, at Lammesse thanne next folowyng, the iij yeer of his regne. At whiche day, whan the king was redy to take his passage, it was there publisshid and openli knowe that iij lordis, that is to say, ser Richard erlle of Cambrigge brothir to the duke of York, the lord Scroope tresorer of Englond, and ser Thomas Grey, knyghte, hadde receyued an huge summe of money, that is to say, a milion of gold, forto betraie the king and his bretheryn to the Frenshemen; wherfore thair heddis were smyte of, withoute the [folio 170a] northgate at Suthamptoun.

Whanne this was don, the king sailled forth in to Normandie with xvC shippis, and landid at Kitcaux, in the vigily of Assumpcion of our Lady, and fro thenneȝ he wente to Harflieu, and it besegid be*. [[August 14th.]] lond and be watir, and commaundyng him forto delyuer the toun, and he saide he wolde not. Wherfore the king commaundid his gon|ners to bete doun the wallis on euery side, and anon thay of the toune sente out to the king prayyng him of viij daieȝ respit in hope of rescu, and yf non wolde come, thay wolde delyver the toun: and so thay dede. And thanne the kyng made his vncle, the erl of Dorset, capteyn therof, and commaundid him to put out alle the Frensshe peple, man womman and child, and stuffe the toun with English peple.

Whanne this was don, the king wente toward Caleis be londe Page  41 forto have come in to Englond, but the Frensshemenne hadde broke alle the briggis when he sholde passe ouer, wherfore him moste nedis seche his way fer aboue, and so he wente ouer the watir of Swerdis, and cam doun in to Picardie to a place ycallid Agyncourt, where alle the power of Fraunce was redy gadrid to stoppe his way, and yeue him bataile.

The king seyng the grete multitude and noumbre of peple of his enemieȝ, praide Almyȝti God of helpe and socour, and confortid his peple, and praide euery man forto make him redy to bataille; and [folio 170b] with such peple as he hadde, not fulli viij Ml., he enbataillid him, and grauntid to the duke of York the vauntwarde, as his desir was. And thanne the duke commaundid every man to ordeyne him a stake of tre sharpid at bothe endis, that the stake myȝte be pighte in the erthe asloope before thaym, that the Frensshemen sholde not ouerride ham; for that was fulli thair purpoȝ. And alle nyȝt befor the bataille, the Frensshemenne made moche revelle and moche cryyng, and plaide atte dys for oure men, an archer for a blanc, as it was said.

On the morow, whanne alle was redy, the king axed what tyme it was of the day, and thay saide, "Prime." Thanne saide the kyng, "Now is good tyme, for alle Engelond praieth for vs, and therfore beth of good chiere, and lat vs go to our iourney." And anon euery Englishe manne knelid doun, and put a litille porcion of erthe in his mouth. And thanne saide the king with an highe vois, "In the name of Almyȝti God, and of Saint George, Avaunt baner! and Saint George this day thyn helpe!" Thanne the ij batailleȝ mette togedir and fouȝten sore and longe tyme, but Almyȝti God and saint George fouȝten that day for vs, and grauntid our kyng the victory: and this was on the Friday on saint Crispyne and*. [[October 25th.]] Crispinianeȝ day, in the yeer of our Lord Ml.cccc.xv. in a feld callid Agyncourt in Picardi. And there were slayn that day of the [folio 171a] Frensshemen in the feld of Agyncourt xj. Ml. and mo: and there were noumbrid of thaym in the feld C.xx.Ml. Page  42

Thanne cam tidyngis to our kyng, that there was anothir ost of Frensshemenne ordeyned redy to fiȝte ayen with him; and anon he commaunded euery man to sle his prisoner, and whanne thay saw that, thay withdrow and wente thair way.

And ther were slayne in the feld on the Frensshe part, the duke of Barri, the duke of Launson, the duke of Brabanne, the erl of Narbonne, the chief constable of Fraunce, viij othir erlis, the arche|bisshoppe of Saunȝ, C barons and mo, and of othir worthi knyȝtis and cote armuris Ml. vC. And of Englishmen were ded that day, the duke of York, the erlle of Suffolk, and of othir not passing xxvj.

And there were take prisoners of the Frensshe part, the duke of Orliaunce, the duke of Burbonne, the erl of Vandom, the erlle of Ew, the erl of Richemund, ser Bursigaund marchalle of Fraunce, and othir worthi menne.

And aftir this, the king cam to Caleis, and so in to Englond,*. [[November 16th.]] with alle his prisoners, and was receyued with moche ioie and worshippe.

[Anno iiijto.] A.D. 1416-7.

This same yeer cam Sigismund, the emperour of Almayn, in to Englond forto speke with king Harri, to trete of certayn thyngiȝ touching the pees of Englond and of Fraunce: and also for the wel|*. [Sigismundus, imperator, venit Angliam.] fare and vnite of alle holi chirche. And the king and his lordis*. [[April.]] mette with him at saint Thomas wateryng, withoute Suthwerk, and [folio 171b] him receyued withe greet reuerence and worshippe, and brouȝte him in to Londoun, and fro thenneȝ to Westmynstre, and there he was loggid in the paleis atte kyngis cost: and that same tyme the king yaf him the liverey of the garter.*. [Walsingham (p. 441) says that Sigismund was installed Knight of the Garter on the Feast of St. George, having told us that he arrived in London on May 7th. This may seem strange, as St. George's day was on April 23rd. Fabyan perhaps explains this apparent contradiction, by saying that the celebration of the feast had been deferred on account of the Emperor.]Page  43

And sone aftir, cam the duke of Holond in to Englond, to speke with the emperour and with the kyng;*. ["Ante festum Ascensionis." (Wals.) Ascension day this year, 1416, was May 28th.] and he was loggid in the bisshoppis yn of Ely, at kyngis cost.

And whilis this was in doyng in Englond, the Frenshemenne thouȝte to be vengid, and with a greet arme besegid the toun of Harfliew bothe be watir and be lond; and hadde goten and heerd*. [[June.]] grete carrakeȝ of Jene, and othir smale vessellis, to ly and kepe the movthe of the river of Sayne, that no vitaille ne othir helpe sholde come vppe unto the toune; of the whiche arme the erl of Armenak was chiefteyne.

Thanne the erl of Dorset, capteyn of Harfliew, sente messagers to the kyng notyfying vnto him alle this doynge, and what scarcite and penury of vitaille was withyn the toun: and anon the king sente his brothir Johan duke of Bedforde*. [He sailed after 25th of July. See Rymer, vol. ix. p. 372. His commission is dated, Southampton, July 22nd, 1416. Id. p. 371.] forto breke the sege be watir: and he cam with a notable power and faughte with the for|said grete carrakeȝ, and took iiij of thaym, and meny othir Frensshe*. [Nota capcionem carracarum.] vessellis. And on of the grettist carrakeȝ of alle scapid and fledde away; but she was so rent and bored in the sideȝ in the said [folio 172a] bataille, that sone aftir it was dround. And the noble erl of Dorset rescued the said toun be londe, and discomfitid and slow meny of the Frenshemenne, and hadde of thaym a gracious victory.

Whanne this was don, the said duke with his priseȝ and prisoners retourned into Engelond agayne: and forasmoche as this was don in the Vigilie of Assumpcioun of our Lady, the kyng commaunded*. [[August 14th.]] that his chapeleyneȝ sholde say euery day whileȝ he livid, an anteem with the versicle and collect in remembraunce of our lady.

And whanne the emperour hadde be in this lond as longe as it*. [[August.]] likid him on the kyngis cost, he took his leve of the king; and the Page  44 king brouȝte him to Caleis, and taried there to haue ansuer fro the Frensshe party, of suche thyngis as the emperour and the king hadde sent to thaym for; and atte laste it cam, and plesid thaym right nouȝt; and thanne the emperour past forth his way, and the king cam in to Englond agayn.*. [[October.]]

And anon aftir, the king sente ambassiatours to the generalle counselle of Constaunce for the vnion and pees of alle holi chirche, and forto redresse and cece the scisme and strif that was thatt tyme in the chirche of Rome betuene iij popis.

And that same tyme, be assent of alle nacions it was ordeyned*. [Anglia fit nacio.] in this counsel, that Englond sholde be callid an nacion, and be counted on of the v nacions that owen obedience to the pope of [folio 172b] Rome, the whiche befor that tyme was vnder the nacion of Duche|land.

And this same yeer, the erl Douglas of Scotland cam in to*. [A.D. 1417.] Englond*, and was swore to the king for to be his trew manne; but aftirward he brak his oth, and was slayn of Englishmenne atte bataille of Vernulle.*. [A.D. 1424.]

† Stowe places this in the 5th Henry V.

How kyng Harri wente the secunde tyme in to Normandie, and of the*. [Cam. cxlviij.]getyng of Cane, and of the sege of Roon.

[Anno vo.] A.D. 1417.

THE v yeer of his regne, he made redy his ordenaunce and his retenu forto saille in to Normandie agayne, and commanded alle menne that sholde go with him to be redy at Hamptoun, in the Wit|sunwike next folowyng. And thanne he made John his brothir, the duke of Bedforde, lieutenaunt of Englonde; and thanne he saillid Page  45 in to Normandie with a notable power and gret ordenaunce, and landid at Towk on Lammesse day; and there he made xlviij knyȝtis,*. [[August 1st.]] at his landyng.

Thanne cam tidyngis to the king that ther was a gret naueie vpon the se of enemieȝ, that is to say, ix grete carrakis, hulkeȝ, galeieȝ and othir shippis forto destroie his naueie: and anon, he sente the erl of March with a suffisaunt power forto kepe the se, and he took meny of the said naueie, and put the remenaunt to fliȝt; and some were dround with tempest. And on of tho carrakis droof befor Hamptoun, and his mast was throw ouer the toun wallis: and this was on saint Bartilmeweȝ day. [folio 173a]

Tho sente the kyng to the capteyne off Towk commaundyng him to delyuer the toun, and so he dede. And the kyng made ser*. [[August 9th.]] Johan Kighley capteyne thereof, and commaunded him to put out alle the Frensshe peple.

And thanne was Louers yoldenne to the erl marchal, and the kyng made him capteyn therof.

And thanne the kyng held forthe his way vnto Cane, and it*. [[August 18th.]] besegid on euery side, and sente to the capteyn forto delyuer it, but he wolde not, wherfore thay assauted the toun; and the duke of Clarence bet doun the wallis with gonneȝ on his side, and first entrid in to the tounne, and cride, "a Clarence! a Clarence! a saint George!" and so was the toun gote. And the kyng entrid and*. [[September.]] commaunded the capteyn of the castelle to delyuer it vnto him; and he praide him of xiiij daieȝ respit in hope of rescu, and yf non cam, to delyuer him the castel. And vnder this composicion was the tounne and the castel of Baions with othir touneȝ, fortaliȝ, and villageȝ, to the nombre of xiiij. And atte xiiij daieȝ ende cam no rescu, wherfor the castel of Cane with the othir xiiij touneȝ were delyuerid vnto the king; and he made the duke of Clarence capteyn of the toun of Cane and of Baions and of the othir touneȝ Page  46 also: and there the kyng helde saint Georgeȝ feste, and made xv knyghtis of the Bathe.

Thanne the kyng gat Valeys Newelyn.

And this same tyme cam the duke of Britaigne vnto kyng*. [Dux Britannie venit ad Regem.] Harri and becam his manne. [folio 173b]

And the kyng sente Humfrey his brothir duke of Gloucestre to Chierburghe, and Richard erl of Warwic to Dounfrount; the whiche sone aftirward were yolden vnto thayme.

In the mene tyme, the erlle of Marche, whom the kyng hadde sent to kepe the se, aftir meny stormeȝ and grete tempestis landid at Hoggis in Normandy, and so wente forth vnto the king.

Thanne gat the kyng Argenton, Cessy, Launson, Belham, Ver|nul in Perche, and alle the touneȝ and castellis and strengthis vnto Pountlarge, and fro thenneȝ vnto the cite of Roon.

And this same yeer, ser Johan Oldcastelle knyghte, lord Cobham, was arestid for lollardrie, and put in to the tour of Londoun; and anon aftir he brak out therof, and fledde into Walis and there kepte him longe tyme, and atte laste the lord Powis took him, but he made gret defens and was sore wounded er he myghte be take; and thanne he was brought in a horsliter to Westmynstre, and ther he*. [Cobham sus|pensus est, et combustus. [December.]] was iuged to be drawe vnto saint Gilis feld, and there he was hanged and brent on the galoweȝ for his fals oppinions.

Anno vj. A.D. 1418-9.

The vj yeer of king Harri, he sente his vncle ser Thomas Beau|fort to the yates of Roon, and there he displaide the kyngis baner, and sente heroudis to the toun and bad thaym yelde it to the kyng of Englond, and thay saide shortli, thay wolde not. And thanne the said Beaufort took good auisement of the ground al aboute, [folio 174a] and retourned to the king to Pountlarge: and anone aftir, thay of Roon cast down thair subbarbis that stood about the cite, that the kyng sholde there haue no socour.

And the Sunday befor Lammesse day thanne next folowyng, the*. [[July 31st.]] king with his ost besegid the cite of Roon round aboute; and dede*. [Rothomagus obsessa est.] make ouer the watir of Sayne, at Pountlarge, a strong and a myȝti Page  47 cheyne of yrenne, and put it thorough grete piles of tre faste ypight in the grounde, and that wente ouer the watir of Sayne that no vessel myȝte passe that way; and aboue that cheyne the king leet make a brigge ouer the river of Sayne that man and hors and alle othir cariage myȝte passe to and fro, whan nede were.

Thanne cam the erl of Warwic fro Dounfrount, and the king sente him to Caudebeek, and thay of the toun cam out and tretid with the erl to be vnder composicion and to do as Ron dede; and it was grauntid on this condicioun, that the kyngis naueie with his ordenaunce myȝte passe vpward saafli without eny let or desturbaunce; and to this composicion thay sette thair selis. And thanne cam vp C shippis and caste there thair ancriȝ, and thanne was Roon besegid both be watir and be land; and whanne this was ydo, the erl of Warwic wente ayen to the king to the sege of Roon; and the duke of Gloucestre cam thider also fro the getyng of Chierburghe.

Thanne cam tidyngis that the king of Fraunce, the dolfyne, the [folio 174b] duke of Burgoyne, and al the power off Fraunce wolde come doun forto rescue the cite of Roon, and breke the sege; but they came not.

And atte firste comyng of the kyng vnto Roon, ther were y noumbrid in the cite be heroudis, of men, wommenne, and childrynne, ccc.Ml; and this sege endurid xx wikis; and evir thay of the toune hopid to haue be rescued, but it wolde not be: and meny hundreddis deide for hunger, for thay hadde etyn alle thair cattis, hors, houndis, rattis, myse, and alle that myȝte be etynne: and ofte tymeȝ the men of armeȝ drivenne out the poer peple atte yatis of the cite for spendyng of vitaille, and anonne our menne drof thaym yn agayne; and yonge childrynne lay ded in the stretis, hangyng on the ded modris pappis, that pite was to se. And whanne the capteyn of the toune saw this grete myschief and hunger, he sente to the kyng, beseching him of his merci and grace, and brouȝte the keyeȝ, and delyuered him the toune, and alle the soudiers voided the toune with thair hors and harneys, and the comuneȝ of the toun abood stille Page  48 in the toun payyng yeerli to the king for alle maner custumeȝ, fefermeȝ, and quatrymeȝ, XX Ml. marc. Whanne the king hadde*. [Rothomagus dedita est.] entrid the toune, and restid him in the castel til the toun were set*. [[January 19th.]] in rewle and gouernaunce, thanne Cawdebeek and othir garisons there nyghe were yolden vndir the same appoyntement.

Thanne the dolfyneeȝ ambassiatours, as it was before acordid, [folio 175a] with ful power to do all thyng as he were there himself, cam to the king to Roon; and aftir meny treteeȝ had, thus it was*. [[February.]] appoynted, that at a certayn day set, the dolfyne sholde come to the toun of Dreux, and king Harri to Aueraunsshis; and there to cheȝe a mene place, be thair bothe assent, where thay myȝte pesibli trete of the peeȝ; to the whiche appoyntement trewli to be kept, the king and the said ambassiatours sette thair selis. Atte whiche day appoynted the king cam, but the dolfyn cam not; wherfore the peeȝ was broke at that tyme.

In the mene tyme Johan duke of Burgoyne, that hadde the rewle and gouernaunce of the kyng of Fraunce because of his seeknesse, be lettriȝ and ambassiatours souȝte king Harrieȝ grace. And the king sente ambassiatours ayen to king Charlis of Fraunce and to the said duke of Burgoyne to Prouynce, of the whiche ambas|siatours Richard erl of Warwic was chief; and in the way as he*. [[March.]] sholde go, lay a greet busshement of Frensshemenne to take him and lette his purpooȝ; but he slowȝ and took the more part of thaym, and went forth to Provynce, and purposid his ambassiat and message.

And there it was thus accorded and appoynted, that king Harri*. [[April.]] of Englond, and Charlis of Fraunce with the quene his wif and the duke off Burgoyne, sholde come to a mene place to trete of pees: and forto do this message the erl of saint Poulle and the sone and [folio 175b] heir of the duke of Burgoyne cam to our kyng as ambassiatours.

[Anno vijo.] A.D. 1419-20.

Thanne kyng Harri knowyng alle the ground of the mater be relacion of ambassiatours of bothe parthieȝ, appointed with his enemieȝ in this wyse: that at a certayn day he wolde come to Page  49 Maunt, and Charlis of Fraunce and the duke of Burgoyne to Pount|toyse, to chese there a mene place forto trete of pees; the whiche mene place for this trete sholde be Melane vp on Sayne; to the whiche place novthir party sholde come with mo thanne Ml. Ml. v. C. men, and in the mene tyme treweȝ sholde be on bothe partieȝ. The whiche mene place was aftirward araid betuene ij villageȝ, and*. [[May.]] lymytid and markid betuene ij grete dicheȝ, wherynne no man sholde come but only suche as sholde trete of the peeȝ; and there the kyngis tentis were rially pighte and arerid, and the kyngis tentis of Fraunce also. And king Harri leet arere ij tentis betuene ij dicheȝ, wherynne bothe kyngis myȝte trete apart with thair secret counsel, and thastat of bothe kyngis obserued and kept; and a stake was pighte in the middil of a fair playne, to the whiche, and no ferthir, ech kyng sholde come to othir.

Atte day appoynted kyng Harri cam to Maunt, and kyng Charlis because of his accustumed seeknesse cam not, but the quene his wiff and the duke of Burgoyne withe othir noble princis of thair alliaunce [folio 176a] and withe Ml. Ml. v. C. men cam to Pountoyse, and aftirward to the*. [[May 29th.]] mene place. Thanne kyng Harri first kiste the quene of Franuce, and thanne dame Kateryne hir doughtere, for that tyme he saw hir first; and thanne kyng Harri, the quene of Fraunce and hir douȝtir, the duke of Burgoyne, and othir, wente into a tente, to trete of the peeȝ, where thay were almost iij daieȝ; but it tok non ende at that tyme.

In the mene while, the dolfyn withe lettriȝ and ambassiatours stirid the duke of Burgoyne, that he ne non of his sholde assente to the peeȝ. And atte v. nonas of August, whanne the said kyngis sholde haue assemblid, the kyng of Fraunce, the quene, the duke of Bur|goyne, ne non of thaym cam; wherfore it was openli knowen that the Frensshe parte was cause that the peeȝ was not endid at that tyme.

Thanne wente the kyng to Pountoyse, and gat it; and sente his brothir the duke of Clarence with a notable power vnto Paris, and he gat it, and retourned ayen to the kyng; and thanne gat the kyng Bokende Villers.

Page  50

A.D. 1419-20.

And whileȝ this was in doyng the duke of Burgoyne, that first hadde sought kyng Harrieȝ grace, wente vnder saaf conduct to the dolfyn to Motreaux; and there be the said dolfyn he was traitorly*. [Dux Burgundie proditorie inter|ficitur.] and vnmanli slayn, and cast in to a pit: and as sone as Philip his*. [[Sept. 10th.]] sone and his heir wiste of this, he becam kyng Harrieȝ manne.

The same tyme cam certayne ambassiatours of kyng Charlis, of [folio 176b] the duke of Burgoyne and of the citeȝeyneȝ of Paris, to kyng Harri to Maunt, forto trete of peeȝ, but because kyng Harri was bisili occupied in his warris and also he supposid that the Frensshemen were not fulli enclyned to the peeȝ as thanne, this trete took non ende at that tyme, but aftirward at Roon it was fulli endid.

[Anno viijo.] A.D. 1420-1.

And aftirward whileȝ kyng Harri held his Cristemasse in Roon, the ambassiatours of kyng Charlis and of the dukes of Burgoyne cam thider vnto him, to whom king Harri sente agayn Richard erl of Warwic, with othir wise men and a notable power of men of armeȝ, with fulle power and commaundement to conclude the peeȝ. And aftir meny wise treteeȝ on bothe partieȝ peeȝ was concludid bi thaffinite and wedlok of king Harri and dame Katerine king Charlis*. [[January.]] douȝtir. But because certayne thyngis were necessary for the whiche the presence of bothe kyngis moste nedis be had, what for settyng to of thair selis, what for the mariage sewyng, and alsoo Charlis was so feblid with age and ofte tymeȝ vexid with his cus|tumable seeknesse; it was betuene thayme thus appoyntid, that king*. [[April.]] Harri sholde come at a day lymytid vnder treweȝ with such puys|saunce as him likid to Nogent vpon Sayne, to parfourme finally al thyng that to the peeȝ was nedefulle, and yf he cam not alle thyng sholde be had as for noughte. Aftir this appoyntement thus ymaad [folio 177a] the erl retourned to the kyng notifyng vnto him in writyng alle theffect of his ambassiat.

The king fro thenneȝ went to Nogent; and there mette with him the duke of Burgoyne with a gret companie of men of armeȝ. And aftir meny and dyvers treteeȝ, the xij kalendis of Juyne, the xl yere of*. [[May 21st.]] king Charlis regne, in the cathedralle chirche of Nogent, kyng Harri Page  51 withe the duke of Clarence his brothir and othir princeȝ and noblis, and Ysabelle quene of Fraunce with the duke of Burgoyne, beyng there for kyng Charlis, thanne labouryng in his seeknesse forsaid, and in thair owen nameȝ also, and the iij statis of Fraunce, peeȝ be|tuene the ij remes of Englond and of Fraunce was maad, and with certayn condicions approued. And kyng Charlis charged alle his liegemenne on peyne of forfaiture of thair ligeaunceȝ to kepe the said peeȝ; and therto thay made thair othe, and plight thair troutheȝ in the handeȝ of kyng Harri. And anon quene Ysabelle of Fraunce, and Philippe duke of Burgoyne, in the name of kyng Charlis, swoor vpon the holy gospellis to kepe the said peeȝ so concludid for thaym and for thair heiris and successours withoute fraude and male engyne for euermore; and this same oth made quene Ysabel, and the duke of Burgoyne, and the iij statis of Fraunce to kyng Harri, to his heiris and successours. And atte ix kalendis of Juyne, befor quene*. [[May 24th.]] Ysabel and kyng Charlis counsel, befor the parlement and the iij [folio 177b] statis of Fraunce, and othir English princeȝ and lordis, contract of matrimony be present wordis betuene kynge Harri and dame Kate|rine, kyng Charlis doughtir of Fraunce, was there maad and so|lemnyȝid.

And as sone as alle this was enactid in writyng as it was acordid, kyng Harri, kyng Charlis, the ij quenys Ysabelle and Kateryne, and the duke of Burgoyne wente vnto Senlis and gat it; and fro thenneȝ vnto Melon and besegid it, and that sege endurid fro Juylle vnto Nouembir in moche duresse; and atte laste for defaute of vitail, the toun was yoldenne. Thanne the ij kyngis, the ij quenys, and the duke of Burgoyne with thair ostis wente to Paris, and the citeȝeyneȝ*. [[December.]] of Paris mette with thaym in ful noble aray.

Anno viij. A.D. 1421.

And at January next kyng Harri and dame Kateryne wente in to Englond, and lefte at Paris Thomas duke of Excestre, gouernour, and Thomas his brothir duke of Clarence, regent of Normandie; the whiche duke of Clarence was slayn there with the Scottis on Estis evyn, whileȝ the kyng was in Englonde. And on the Sunday the Page  52 xiiij*. [So Stowe (Annals). The true date is 3rd Sunday in Lent, eve of St. Matthias' day, Feb. 23rd. See Rymer, vol. x. p. 63.] day of Feuerer, the viij yeer of kyng Harri, dame Kateryne was crouned at Westmynstre.

[Anno ixo.] A.D. 1421.

At midsomer next aftir, the kyng lefte the quene in Englond, and wente ayen in to Fraunce, and took certayn garisons that were yit rebel; and besegid the toun of Meux, atte whiche sege tidyngis cam [folio 178a] to the kyng that the quene was delyuerid; and aftir her purifica|cioun she wente ayen in to Fraunce.

[Anno xo.] A.D. 1422.

Whanne Meux was yoldenne, kyng Harri wente to Paris, makyng*. [[May.]] ordenaunce forto besege the tovn of Cone; and thanne a sore and a feruent maladie him assaillid, and fro day to day him greuousli vexid; til he deide in the castelle of Boys Vincent, the laste day of*. [Rex Henricus obit, decus olim, nunc dolor orbis!] August, whanne he hadde regned ix yeer v monethis, iij wikis, and iij daieȝ, and is buried at Westmynstre: on whoȝ soule Almyghti God haue mercy. Amen.

Page  [unnumbered]

HENRY VI. Of kyng Harry the vj te aftir the conqueste, sone of kyng Harri the v the , and of the bataille of Vernulle, &c. [folio 178b] *. [Capm. cxlix.]

A.D. 1422.

AFTIR the noble and victorious prince kyng Harri the V, regned*. [[Reign began September 1st.]] his sone kyng Harri the vjte, that was bore at Wyndesore, in the feste of saynt Nicholas the confessour, and began forto regne in*. [[December 6th. 1421.]] the age of ix monethis and xv daieȝ.

Anno iij [ij]. A.D. 1424.

And the iijde yeer of his regne*. [The 2nd of Henry VI. The battle was on August 16th, 1424.], was a gret batille don at Vernul in Perch, betuene Johan duke of Bedforde, thanne regent of Fraunce, and the Scottis and the Frenshemenne; in the whiche bataille was take the duke of Alaunsonne, and there were slayne the bastard of Alaunsonne, the erl of Narbonne, and the erl of Marrebonne. And on the Scottis part were slayne the erl Douglas, the erl Boghan, the erlle of Marre, the erl of Murreye, and meny othir to the noumbre of vij Ml. and more. And aftir the said bataille was done, ther were y founde in the dicheȝ of the toun more than iiij Ml. ydround. And thus hadde Englisshemen the victory, thanked be Almyghti God.

Anno iiijto. A.D. 1425-6.

The iiij yeer of his regne, on the morow aftir the feste of Simon and Jude, aroos a gret debaat betuene Humfrey duke of Gloucestre*. [[October 29th.]] and master Harri Beaufort his vncle bisshoppe of Wynchestre, being that tyme Chaunceller of Englond; so that alle the cite of Londoun was mevid ayens the bisshoppe, and wolde haue destroid him Page  54 in his yn in Suthwerk; but the yatis of Londoun brigge were so sureli kept that no man myȝte passe out, and the Thamise was also kept [folio 179a] that no man myȝt passe ouer. And the said bisshoppe hadde a gret company of men of armeȝ and archiers withynne his place, to haue maad defens if nede hadde be. But atte laste be mene of lordis and specialli of the prince of Portyngale, that was the same tyme in Londoun, this troubille was cesid: and aftirward the same yeer atte parlement holden at Leycestre thay were fulli accordid, but yit ther was prive wrath betuene thaym long tyme aftir.

Anno v. A.D. 1427.

The v yeer of this kyng Harri, the forsaid maister Harri Beaufort, bisshoppe of Wynchestre, was maad a Cardinal of Rome be pope*. [[March.]] Martyn the V, of the title of saint Euseby; and sente his hat to Caleys, and thider he wente, and there receyued it.

nno viij. A.D. 1429.

The viij yere of his regne, he was crouned at Westmynstre on*. [[November 6th.]] the Sunday in the feste of saint Leonard.

Anno [i]x. A.D. 1430-1.

And sone aftir he wente into Fraunce, and was crouned at Paris*. [[April 24th.]] the ix day of December, the x yeer*. [The 9th year of his reign. 1430.] of his regne, thorough special help and supportacioun of the said cardinalle there beyng present; and cam the same yeer in to Englond agayn.

And this same yeer, whilis the kyng was in Fraunce, and Humfrey duke of Gloucestre his vncle beyng protectour and gouernour of this lond, aroos a man that named himself Jacke Sharpe, purposyng with his fals feleshippe to haue destroid the chirche and the lordis [folio 179b] spirituel and temporel: but he was take and dampned to the deth befor the said duke at Oxenforde, and drawe and hanged and quartrid; and his hed and his quarters were set vp in dyuers placeȝ of Englond.

And this same yeer, on saint Katerineȝ eve, the lord Fitz Watier wolde haue come fro Normandie in to Englond, and ayens the wille and counsel of the shipmenne wente heddily to ship at Dope; and whanne he was in the se, ther fil on him a greet tempest, and drounde him with moche othir peple.

Page  55

A.D. 1433.

The xj yeer of this kyng Harri, was the grete and general clip of the sunne on saynt Botulfis day; wherof moche peple was sore aferd.*. [Anno xjo. fuit generalis eclip|sis solis, &c.]

Anno xijo. A.D. 1433-4.

And the next yeer aftir, the xij yeer of kyng Harri, was the grete frost that nevir eny such was seen before; and it endurid fro saint Kateryneȝ day vnto Sheoftide; and the Thamise and othir grete rivers were so hard frosen that hors and cariage myȝte passe ovir.

Anno xiijo. A.D. 1434-5.

And the nexte yeer aftir began the grete derthe of corn in this land, the whiche endurid ij yeer, so that a busshelle of whete was sold*. [Caristia bladi.] for xl. d., and the poer peple in dyuers partieȝ of the Northcuntre eet breed maad of farn rotes.

Anno xiii[j]. A.D. 1435-6.

The xiij yeer of king Harri deide that noble prince Johan duke of Bed|forde,*. [The duke of Bedford died September 16th, 1435; consequently in the 14th of Henry VI.] the kyngis vncle, and regent of Fraunce, and is buried at Roon.

Anno xiiij. A.D. 1435-6.

The xiiij yeer of king Harri, Philip duke of Burgoyne, as a fals forsworn man, besegid the toun of Caleys with gret ordenaunce,*. [[July.]] [folio 180a] and an huge noumbre of peple, that is to say CL.Ml., as it was said. And forto breke the said sege Humfrey duke of Gloucestre with a gret retenu was sent to Caleys. But befor his goyng the erl of Morteyne and the lord Camoys were sent to Caleys with v C men for to kepe the toune, til more strengthe myȝte come. And sone aftir, be counselle and manhood of ser Johan Radclyffe, that tyme lieutenaunt of Caleys, the said sege was broke; for whanne the duke of Burgoyne herde of the comyng of the duke of Gloucestre with so gret a power, he lefte the sege and wente his way, levyng behynde him some of his gonneȝ and bombardeȝ hid vnder the sandeȝ.

Thanne wente the said duke of Gloucestre vnto Caleys, and fro*. [[August.]] thennys into Flaundris, destroyyng the cuntre and the corn stondyng vpon the grounde, and brende the toun of Poperyng and othir smale villageȝ, and thanne cam in to Englond agayne aboute the feste of saint Bartilmew.

And this same yeer withynne a moneth aftir that the said duke of Burgoyne was fled from Caleis, Jameȝ kyng of Scottis besegid Page  56 the castel of Rokesburgh in Northumbirlond with CXL.Ml. men as it was said: but thay withynne the castel kept it with iiijxx menne of armeȝ ayens the king of Scottis, and and all his ost. And whanne the said kynge herde telle that certayn lordis of the Northcuntre*. [[August.]] wolde come and breke the sege, he fledde in Scotland ayenne. [folio 180b]

[Anno xvo.] A.D. 1437.

And aftirward aboute the moneth of Marche be excitacion and stiryng of the erl of Atholle and othir, the said kyng of Scottis, as he was goyng toward his bed, hauyng no more vn him but onli his*. [Rex Scotorum interficitur.] shirte, cruelli and vnmanli was slayne; and as it was said he hadde on him xxx woundis, wherof vij were dedly.

Anno xix [xviij.*. [Correction by the hand of Stowe.]] A.D. 1440.

The xix yeer of kyng Harri, the Friday before midsomer, a prest callid ser Richard Wyche, that was a vicary in Estsexe, was brend on the Tourhille for heresie, for whooȝ deth was gret murmur and troubil among the peple, for some said he was a good man and an holy, and put to deth be malice; and some saiden the contrary; and so dyuers men hadde of him dyuers oppinions. And so fer forth the comune peple was brought in such errour, that meny menne and wommen wente be nyghte to the place where he was brend, and offrid there money and ymageȝ of wax, and made thair praiers knel|yng as thay wolde haue don to a saynt, and kiste the ground and baar away with thaym the asshis of his body as for reliqueȝ; and this endurid viij daieȝ, til the mair and aldermenne ordeyned men of armeȝ forto restreyne and lette the lewd peple fro that fals ydolatrie, and meny were therfore take and lad to prisoun.

And among othir was take the vicary of Berkyngchirche beside [folio 181a] the tour of Londoun, in whoȝ parishe alle this was done, that receyued the offeryng of the symple peple. And for to excite and stire thaym to offre the more feruently, and to fulfille and satisfie his fals couetise, he took asshis and medlid thaym with powder of spiceȝ and strowed thaym in the place where the said heretic was brend; and so the symple peple was deceyued, wenyng that the swete flauour hadde comme of the asshis of the ded Page  57 heretic: for this the said vicari of Berkyngchirche confessid aftir|ward in prisoun. And the said heretic cesid nevir vnto the laste breth forto blaspheme and desclaundre the iiij ordris of freris, the whiche was no token of perfeccion ne of charite.

[Anno] xix.*. [Correction by Stowe.] A.D. 1441.

And this same yeer in the moneth of Juylle, maister Roger Bol|tyngbroke that was a gret and a konnyng man in astronomye, and*. [Hoc anno magister Jo|hannes Kemp, archiepiscopus Ebor. factus fuit cardinalis; Feb. 1440.] maister Thomas Suthwelle a chanon of saint Steveneȝ chapel wythynne Westmynstre, were take as conspiratours of the kyngis deth; for it was said that the said maister Roger sholde laboure to consume the kyngis persone be wey of nygromancie, and that the said maister Thomas sholde say massis in forboden and inconuenient placeȝ, that is to say, in the logghe of Harnesey Park beside London, vpon certayn instrumentis with the whiche the said maister Roger sholde and (sic) vse his said craft of nygromancie ayens the feith and good beleue, and was assentyng to the said Roger in alle his workis. And the Sunday the xxv day of the same moneth, the forsaid maister Roger with all his instrumentis of nygromancie—that [folio 181b] is to say a chaier ypeynted, wherynne he was wont to sitte whanne he wroughte his craft, and on the iiij corners of the chaier stood iiij swerdis, and vpon euery swerd hanggyng an ymage of copir—and with meny othir instrumentis accordyng to his said craft, stood in a high stage aboue alle menneȝ heddis in Powlis chircheyerd befor the cros whileȝ the sermon endurid, holdyng a suerd in his right hand and a septre in his lift hand, araid in a marvaillous aray whereynne he was wont to sitte whanne he wrouȝte his nygro|mancie. And aftir the sermon was don, he abiurid alle maner articleȝ longyng in eny wise to the said craft of nigromancie, or mys sownyng to the Cristen feith.

And the Tywisday next folowyng dame Alienore Cobham,*. [Hic incipit pro|cessus contra Alienoram Cob|ham.] duchesse of Gloucestre, fledde be nyȝte in to the sayntewary at Westmynstre; wherfore she was holde suspect of certayn articleȝ of tresoun. Page  58

In the mene tyme, the forsaid maister Roger was examned before the kyngis counsel; where he confessid and saide that he wroughte the said nygromancie atte stiryng of the forsaid dame Alienore, to knowe what sholde falle of hir and to what astat she sholde come. Wherfore she was citid to appere befor certayn bisshoppis of the kyngis; that is to say, befor maister Harri Chicheli, archebisshop of Cauntirbury, maister Harry Beaufort bisshoppe of Wynchestre and cardinalle, maister Johan Kemp archebisshoppe of York and [folio 182a] cardinalle, maister William Ayscoughe bisshoppe of Salisbury, and othir, on the Monday the xxij day off Juylle next folowyng, in saint Stepheneȝ chapelle of Westmynstre, forto ansuere to certayn articleȝ of nygromancie, of wicchecraft or sorcery, of heresy and of tresoun. Atte whiche day she apperid; and the forsaid Roger was brouȝt forth forto witnesse ayens hir, and saide that she was cause and first stirid himme to laboure in the said nygromancie; and thanne be commaundement of the said bisshoppis she was com|mittid to the warde of sir Johan Stiward knyghte, and of Johan Stanley squier, and othir of the kyngis hous, forto be lad to the castelle of Ledis, there to be safli kept vnto iij wikis aftir Mighel|masse next thanne comyng. But the said dame Alienore was lothe to go out of the sayntwary and fayned her seek, and wolde haue stole away priveli be watir, but she was let of her purpos and lad forth to the castel beforsaid.

[Anno xxo.] A.D. 1441.

Anonne aftir, a commission was direct to the erl of Huntyngdoun, to the erl of Stafforde, to the erl of Suffolk, and to certayn juges of bothe benchis, to enquire of al maner tresons, sorcery, and alle othir thyngiȝ that myȝte in eny wise towche or concerne harmfulli the kyngis persone; befor whom the said maister Roger and maister Thomas as principalle, and the said dame Alienore as accessory, were enditid of treson, yn the Guyldehalle of Londoun.

And this same tyme was take a womman callid the wicche of Eye, [folio 182b] whooȝ sorcerie and wicchecraft the said dame Alienore hadde longe*. [Nota de sorti|legâ de Eye.] tyme vsid; and be suche medicineȝ and drynkis as the said wicche Page  59 made, the said Alienore enforced the forsaid duke of Gloucestre to loue her and to wedde her. Wherfore, and also for cause of relaps, the same wicche was brend in Smythfeld, in the vigily of Saint Simon and Jude.

Ferthirmore on the Satirday the xxj day of Octobir, in the chapel beforsaid, befor the bisshoppis of Londoun, maister Robert Gilbert, and of Lincoln maister William Alnewik, and of Norwich maister Thomas Brouns, to whom the said archebisshoppe of Cauntirbury, maister Henri Chichele, hadde committid his power be his commis|sioun because of his seeknesse to fynyshe and ende this mater, the said Alienore apperid. And maister Adam Moleyns, thanne clerc of the kyngis counsel, redde certayn articleȝ obiectid ayens hir of sorcerie and nygromancie, wherof some she denyed and some she grauntid.

Thanne was this processe proroged vnto the Monday the xxiij day of Octobir thanne next folowyng, at whiche day the said Alienore apperid and witnesseȝ were broughte forth and examned, and she was convict of the said articleȝ. Thanne it was axed of hir, yf she wolde eny say ayens the witnesseȝ, and she said Nay, but submitted hir onli to the correccioun of the bisshoppis; and on the Friday next, the said Alienore abiurid before the bisshoppis the articleȝ abouesaid. And thanne she was enioyned forto appere before the [folio 183a] said archebisshoppe of Cauntirbury or his forsaid commissioners, the Thursday the ix day of Nouembir next folowyng, forto receyue her penaunce. And in the mene tyme the forsaid maister Thomas Suthwelle deide in the tour of Londoun.

The Thursday abouesaid the said dame Alienore apperid befor tharchebisshoppe and othir in the forsaid chapelle, and receyued her penaunce vnder this fourme; that she sholde go the same day fro Templebarre with a meke and a demure countenaunce vnto Poulis*. [Nota peniten|ciam Alienoræ Cobham, sibi iniunctam.] beryng in her hond a tapir of a pound, and offre it there atte highe auter. And the Wedenesday next she sholde go fro the Swan in Thamyse strete beryng a tapir of the same weighte vnto Crichirche Page  60 in Londoun, and there offre it vp. And the Friday next she shold go in lik wise fro Quenehide berying a tapir of the same weighte vnto saint Migheleȝ in Cornhulle, and there offre it vp. The whiche penaunce she fulfillid and dede righte mekely, so that the more part of the peple hadde on hir gret compassioun.

And aftir this she was committid ayen to the warde of ser Thomas Stanley, wherynne she was al her lif aftir, hauyng yeerli C marc., assigned to hir for hir fyndyng and costis; whooȝ pride, fals couetise and lecherie were cause of her confusioun. Othir thyngis myghte [folio 183b] be writen of this dame Alienore, the whiche atte reuerence of nature and of wommanhood shul not be reherced.

And the Satirday the xviij day of Nouembir next sewyng, maister Roger Boltyngbroke at Guyldehalle at Londoun befor the said lordis and justiceȝ was arreymed of the forsaid articleȝ of tresoun ayens the kyngis persone, and therof be xij men of Londoun he was founde gilty. Wherfore be the iugement of ser Johan Hody that tyme chief justice of the kyngis bench, he was drawe fro the tour of Londoun vnto Tyburne; and there he was hanged and leet doun half alive, and his bowellis take out and brent, and his hed smyte of and set on London brigge, and his body quartrid and sent to certayn tounes of Englond, that is to saye, Oxenford, Cambrigge, York and Hereforde. And whanne the said maister Roger sholde die, he confessid that he was nevir gilty of eny treson ayens the kyngis persone; but he pre|sumed to fer in his konnyng, as he sayde, wherof he cride God mercy; and the justice that yaf on him iugement livid not longe aftir.

Anno xxjo A.D. 1443.

The xxj yeer of king Harri, saint Georges feste was holde at Westmynstre, and there ser Johan Beaufort erl of Somerset was maad duke of Somerset.

Anno xxij. A.D. 1444.

The xxij yeer of kynge Harri, Johan erlle of Huntyngdoun at Wyndesore was made duke of Excestre.

And this same yeer deide the forsaid Johan Beaufort duke of Somerset, the vj kalendes of May, at Wymborne mynstre in the counte of Dorset, and there he is buried.

Page  61

Anno xxiij. [ij.] A.D. 1444.

The xxiij [xxij] yere of kyng Harri, aboute the beginnyng of Lente, were sente ambassiatours in to Fraunce; that is to say, the erl of [folio 184a] Suffolk, maister Adam Moleyns dean of Salisbury and keper of the kyngis pryve seal, and ser Robert Roos, and other, to trete of the mariage betuene kyng Harri and dame Margarete the kyngis douȝtir of Cecile. And the Sunday next befor Witsuntide the xxiiij day of May, in saint Martyneȝ chirche in the toun of Touris in Tureyne, assuraunce of mariage was maad betuene the said erlle, as in name of the kyngis persone, and the said dame Marga|rete, before the popis legat Petrus de Monte, that tyme beyng there. And thanne were grauntid treweȝ and abstinence of warre betuene Englond and Fraunce for terme of xviij monetheȝ,—but what treson grew vnder tho treweȝ, it was sone know aftirward be alienacion of Anges and Mayne, and wilful lesyng of al Normandy; and aftir this, our ambassiatours cam hoom agayne.

[Anno xxiijo] A.D. 1444.

The xxiiij [xxiij] yeer of kyng Harri in the moneth of Nouembir, the said erl of Suffolk with othir wente ayenne in to Fraunce, forto brynge and condue the said dame Margarete into Engelond: the whiche erl was made befor his goyng markeys of Suffolk; and sone aftir he was maad duke.

And this same yeer, at Witsuntid, Humfrey erl of Stafford was maad duke of Bukynghame.

And this same yeer, on the Thursday the xxv. day of Feuerer was a parlement begonne att Westmynstre, in the whiche Gye [Henry]*. [This is Stowe's correction, the word "Gye" is struck out from the text and "Henry" written in the margin.] the yong erl of Warwic was maad duke of Warwic; and the lord Beaumond was maad vicount Beaumond. [folio 184b]

A.D. 1445.

And duryng this parlement, the forsaid dame Margarete landid at Porchestre and wente fro thenneȝ to Hamptoun be water, and restid her there in the Goddeshous; and thanne she wente in to the abbey of Tychfeld, and there she was weddid to king Harri on the Thursday the xxij. day of Aprille, and maister William Ascoghe, Page  62 bisshoppe of Salisbury, dede the solennite of the marriage and weddid thaym, and on the Sunday the xxx. day of May next folowyng she was crouned at Westmynstre.

This same yeer in the moneth of Juylle deide the forsaid Gye [Henry]*. [Stowe's correction.] duke of Warwic withoute heir male; and so in him cessid and failid the noble lyne of the erlis of Warwic, as to heir male, and remayned in his douȝtir.

[Anno xxvo.] A.D. 1446.

The xxv. yeer of kyng Harri, yn the monethis of Nouembir and Decembir fille grete thundryng and lightnyng, with huge and grete wyndis.

A.D. 1447.

And in the moneth of Feuerer next aftir, the x. day thereof, began*. [Nota de parlia|mento de Bury.] the parlement at saint Edmundis Bury in Suffolk; the whiche parle|ment was maad only for to sle the noble duke of Gloucestre, whoȝ deth the fals duke of Suffolk William de la Pole, and ser Jameȝ Fyneȝ lord Say, and othir of thair assent, hadde longe tyme con|spired and ymagyned. And they seyng that thay myȝt not sle him be no trewe meneȝ of iustiȝe ne of lawe, and enfourmed falsli the king, and sayde that he wolde reise the Walshmenne forto distresse him and destroie him; and ordeyned that euery lord sholde come to [folio 185a] the said parlement in thair best aray and withe strengthe. And alle the weyeȝ aboute the said toun off Bury, be commaundement of the said duke of Suffolk, were kept with gret multitude of peple of the cuntre, wakyng day and nyghte; vnknowyng the said peple wherfore it was: and the wedir was so cold that some of the poer peple that there wakid, deide for cold.

And ayens the ende of the parlement, the said duke of Gloucestre was sent for, for to come and ansuer to suche poynteȝ of tresoun as sholde be laid ayens him; and er he cam fully into the toun of Bury, ther were sent vnto him messagers commaundyng him on the kyngis behalfs, that he sholde go streighte to his yn, and come not nyghe the kyng til he hadde othirwise in commaundement. And the secunde day aftir, whileȝ he sat at mete in his yn, cam a sergeaunt Page  63 of armeȝ and arestid certayn knyȝtis and squyers and othir special seruauntis of his, and ladde thaym to dyuers prisons.

And the iij. day aftir, the lord Beaumount with othir, that is to say, the duke of Bukynghame, the duke of Somerset, and othir, cam to the said duke of Gloucestre and arestid him: and thanne were certayn of the kyngis hous commaunded to waite on him. And the iij. day aftir, he deide for sorou, as some men saide, because he*. [[Feb. 28th.]] myghte not come to his ansuer and excuse him of suche thyngis as were falsli put on him; for the said duke of Suffolk and lord Say, [folio 185b] and othir of thair assent, so stirid and excitid the kyng ayens the said duke of Gloucestre that he myghte nevir come to his excuse; for thay hadde cast among thaym a prive conclusioun, the whiche as yit is not come to the knowlage of the commune peple, and thay wiste welle that thay sholde nevir brynge it aboute til he were ded; but the certaynte of his deth is not yit openly knowe, but ther is no thyng so prive, as the gospell saith, but atte laste it shal be openne.

And this same yeer, on the Tiwisday in the Estirwike deide*. [[April 11th.]] maister Harri Beaufort, bisshoppe of Wynchestre and prest cardi|nalle of Rome.

And this yeer in the moneth of August, deide ser Johan Holond, duke of Excestre and erlle of Huntyngdoun.

Anno xxvjo. A.D. 1448.

The xxvj. yeer of king Harri was lepe yeer, and our ladieȝ evyn in Lente fille on Estirday.

Anno xxviij. A.D. 1449.

The xxviij. yeer of king Harri, on Simon day and Jude, and other daieȝ before and aftir, the sonne in his risyng and goyng doune apperid as reed as blood, as meny a man saw; wherof the peple hadde gret marvaille, and demed that it sholde betokened sum harm sone aftirward.

And this same yeer, in the feste of saint Mighelle in Monte Tumba,*. [[October 16th.]] Roon was lost and yolden to the Frensshemenne;*. [Rouen was evacuated, according to treaty, November 4, 1449 (Monstrelet).] beyng therynne that tyme the duke of Somerset and the erl of Shrowesbury.

And the next yeer aftir, alle Normandy was lost.

Page  64

A.D. 1450.

And this yeer, the Friday the ix. day of Januarye, maister Adam Moleyns, bisshoppe of Chichestre and keper of the kyngis prive seel, [folio 186a] whom the kyng sente to Portesmouth, forto make paiement of money to certayne soudiers and shipmenne for thair wageȝ; and so it happid (sic) that with boisteȝ langage, and also for abriggyng of thair wageȝ, he fil in variaunce with thaym, and thay fil on him,*. [Episcopus Cicestre inter|ficitur.] and cruelli there kilde him.

And this same yer, in the feste of Saint Petir and Paule aftir*. [[June 29th.]] Midsomer, that is to say, the Monday, the laste day of Juyn saue one, maister William Ascoghe bisshop of Salisbury was slayn of his owen parisshens and peple at Edyngdoun aftir that he hadde said masse, and was drawe fro the auter and lad vp to an hille ther beside, in his awbe, and his stole aboute his necke; and there thay slow him horribly, thair fader and thair bisshoppe, and spoillid him*. [Episcopus Sarum occi|ditur.] vnto the nakid skyn, and rente his blody shirte in to pecis and baar thaym away with thaym, and made bost of thair wickidnesse: and the day befor his deth his chariot was robbed be men of the same cuntre of an huge god and tresour, to the value of x. Ml. marc., as thay saide that knewe it. Thise ij. bisshoppis were wonder couetous men, and evil beloued among the comune peple, and holde suspect of meny defautes, and were assentyng and willyng to the deth of the duke of Gloucestre, as it was said.

And this same yeer, in the moneth of May, aroos thay of Kent*. [Nota de Johanne Cade, capitaneo Kanciæ.] and made thaym a capteyne, a ribaude, an Yrissheman, callid Johan Cade; the whiche atte begynning took on him the name of a [folio 186b] gentilmanne, and callid himself Mortymer forto haue the more*. [[May 30th.]] fauour of the peple; and he callid himself also John Amende-alle; for forasmuche as thanne and longe before the reme of Englond hadde be rewlid be untrew counselle, wherfore the comune profit was sore hurt and decresid; so that alle the comune peple, what for Page  65 taxeȝ and tallageȝ and other oppressions myght not live be thair handwork and husbondrie, wherfore thay grucchid sore ayens thaym that hadde the gouernaunce of the land.

Thanne cam the said capteyn and the Kentisshmen vnto the Blakeheth, and there kepte the feld a moneth and more, pilyng alle the cuntre aboute; to whom the cite of Londoun, at that tyme, was fulle fauorable and frendly; but it last not longe aftir. In the mene tyme the king sente notable menne to the said capteyn and his feleshippe, to knowe thair purpose and the cause of thair insur|reccioun.*. [[June.]] The capteyn was a sotill man, and saide that he and his feleship were assemblid and gadrid there, forto redresse and refourme the wrongis that were don in the reme, and to withstonde the malice of thayme that were destroiers of the comune profit; and forto correcte and amende the defautis of thaym that were the kyngis chief counselours; and shewde vnto thaym the articles of his peticions concernyng and touchyng the myschiefs and mysgouern|aunceȝ [folio 187a] of the reme, wherynne was nothyng conteyned but that that was rightful and resonable, wherof a copie was sent to the parlement holden that tyme at Westmynstre; wherfore the said capteyne desirid that suche grevaunceȝ sholde be amendid and re|fourmed be the parlement, and to haue ansuer therof agayne, but he hadde none.

Sone aftir the kyng remeued fro Westmynstre vnto Grenewich; and while he was there he wolde haue sent certayn lordis with a power forto haue distressid the Kentisshmenne, but thair men that sholde haue gon with thaym ansuerde to thair lordis and saide, that thay wolde not fiȝte ayens thaym that labourid forto amende and refourme the comune profit; and whanne the lordis herde this, thay lefte thair purpoȝ.

Thanne cride the Kentisshmenne and othir ayens the lord Say, the kyngis chamberlayne, that was on of the kyngis fals counselours and holden suspect of tresoun, and the king dredyng the malice of the peple, committid him to the tour of Londoun. Page  66

Thanne wente the kyng ayen to Londoun, and withynne ij. daieȝ aftir he wente ayens the Kentisshmenne with xv Ml. men wel araid vnto the Blakeheth, but the said Kentisshmen heryng how the king wolde come, and fledde the nyȝt befor his comyns, in to the wode cuntre to Seuenok.

The kyng thanne retourned to Londoun, and sente out a squier [folio 187b] callid William Stafford, and ser Humfrey Stafford, knyȝt, his cosyne, forto aspie where the Kentisshmen were; and whanne they knew that thay were at Seuenok, thay rood thider hastily with a few menne, wenyng to haue gotenne a singuler worshippe and laude; but thay were withyn the daunger of thaym er thay wiste it, and were there bothe yslayne, with the more part of thair men that*. [[June 28th?]] abood with thaym.

Whanne this was don the king dissolued the parlement, and re|meued*. [[June 30th?]] vnto Kyllyngworth. And whanne the Kentishmen herde that the kyng was gon fro Londoun, thay cam ayen in to Suthwerk,*. [[July 1st.]] and thair capteyn was loggid atte Hert. And the Thursday*. [Friday, not Thursday, July 3rd. "Die Veneris, tertio die Julii." Wm. Worcest.] aftir*. [[July 3rd, Friday.]] be fauour of some of the men of Londoun he cam in to the cite, but sone aftir thay repentid, for thay were diuidid among thaymself; but the keieȝ of the cite were delyuerid vnto the said capteyn, and he kepte thaym ij. daieȝ and ij. nyghtes. And whanne he hadde entrid the cite anon he and his men fille to roborie, and robbid certayn worthi men of the cite, and put some of thaym in to prison til thay hadde paid notable summeȝ of money to saue thair livis. And the said capteyn rood aboute the cite beryng a nakid swerd in his hand, armed in a peire of brigaundyneȝ, weryng a peire of gilt sporis, and a gilt salat, and a gowne of blew veluet, as he hadde be a lord or a knyȝt,—and yit was he but a knaue,—and hadde his swerd born befor him. [folio 188a]

And the Satirday next the said capteyn commaundid that the*. [[July 5th, Sunday.]] lord Say sholde be brouȝt out of the tour vnto Guyldehalle in Page  67 Londoun, where that certayn justiceȝ sat that tyme; and whanne he was ycome, the Kentisshmen wolde not suffre him forto abide the lawe, but ladde him vnto the Standard in Chepe, and there his hed was smyte of, and his body was drawe naked at a hors taille vpon the pament so that the flesshe clivid to the stoneȝ fro Chepe in to Suthwerk, the said capteyneȝ ynne. Also a squier callid Crowmer that was the shireue of Kent, that hadde weddid the said lord Saieȝ douȝtir, be commaundement of the capteyne was broughte out of Flete, that was committid thider for certayn extorsioneȝ that he hadde do in his office, and lad to Mile Ende, withoute Londoun, and there withoute eny othir iugement his hed was smyte of, and the lord Saieȝ hed and his also were bore vpon ij. long shaftis vnto Londoun brigge, and there set vppe, and the lord Saieȝ body was quartrid.

On the Sunday next, men of London seyng the tiranny and robory*. [[July 6th, Monday.]] of the said cursid capteyne and of his men; and whanne it was nyghte thay laide hand on thayme that were disparblid aboute in the cite, and bet thaym and droof thaym out of the cite, and shit the yatis. And whanne the capteyn that was in his yn in Suthwerk saw this, anon he with his men made assaut to Londoun brigge, and [folio 188b] wolde haue come yn, and spoylid the cite; and the lord Scaleȝ with*. [[July 7th.]] his menne and menne of the cite faughte with thayme fro ix. of the clocke in the euyn, vnto x. of the clocke in the morow; and meny*. [[July 8th.]] men were slayn on bothe partieȝ, and sore wounded; and there were slayne, Mathew Goghe a squyer of Walis, and Johan Sutton an alderman of Londoun. And this skyrmysh endurid til the brigge of tre was set on fire, betuene thaym of Kent and of Londoun; and thanne thay of Kent withdrow thaym litille and litille. And thair capteyn put alle his pilage and the godis that he hadde robbid in to a barge, and sente it to Rouchestre be watir, and he wente be lande*. [[July 9th.]] and wolde haue go in to the castel of Queneburghe with a fewe men that were left with himme, but he was let of his purpoȝ. And anon he fledde in to the wode cuntre beside Leweȝ, and the shireue of Page  68 Kent him pursude, and there he was wounded vnto the dethe, and take and caried in a carte toward Londoun, and be the wey he deide.*. [A proclamation, promising a thousand markes for the head of Cade, was issued 10th of July. See Stowe's Annals, 646; Holinshed, iii. 635. And on the 15th of the same month an order was given to the Treasurer of the Exchequer to pay the amount to Alex|ander Iden, sheriff of Kent (Rymer, xi. 275). This would fix his death between the 10th and 15th July. The Rolls of Parliament seem to prove that it must have taken place after the 11th Rot. Parl. v. 224.] And thanne his hed was smyte of and set on Londoun brigge, and his body quartrid and sent to dyuers touneȝ of Englond; whooȝ tirannye endurid fro Trinite Sunday vnto Saint Thomas eve*. [Eve of translation of Thomas of Canterbury, July 6th.]*. [[May 31st.]] of Caunterbury: and thus endid this capteyn of myschief.

And this same yeer, the communeȝ arooȝ in dyuers partieȝ of Englond, as in Sussex, Salisburye, Wilshire, and othir placeȝ, and [folio 189a] dede moche harm to meny personeȝ.

And this same yeer, was the yeer of grace at Rome, and began on Neweyeris day, and lastid vnto the same day the nexte yeer folowyng.

Anno xxix. [xxviij.] A.D. 1450.

The xxix*. [The Chronicler is still in the 28th of Henry VI.] yere of king Harri, Normandie was lost be the vntrouthe and fals couetiȝe of Edmund duke of Somerset, beyng that tyme lieutenaunt of Normandie; for he menuȝid and abatid the noumbre of the soudiers that were in the garisonȝ, and sente thaym in to Englond vnpaid of thair wageȝ, wherby the strengthe of Normandie was lost.

Also the comune vois and fame was that tyme, that the duke of Suffolk William de la Pole, and the said duke of Somerset, with othir of thair assent, hadde maad delyueraunce of Aunge and Mayn withoute assent of this lond vnto the kyng of Cicile the queneȝ fader; and hadde also aliened and sold the duchie of Normandie to the king of Fraunce; wherfore alle the peple of this lond and specialli the communeȝ cride ayens the said duke of Suffolk, and said he was a traitour; and atte instaunce and peticioun of the said communeȝ Page  69 of the parlement holden that tyme at Westmynstre, he was arestid*. [[January 28th.]] and put in to the tour.

This duke of Suffolk hadde axed befor this tyme of on that was an astronomer, what sholde falle of him, and how he sholde ende his lif; and whanne the said astronomer hadde labourid therfore in his said craft, he ansuerde to the duke and said that he sholde die a [folio 189b] shameful deth, and counselid him alwey to be war of the tour; wherfor be instaunce of lordis that were his frendis, he was sone delyuerid out of the said tour of Londoun.

Thanne the kyng seyng that alle this lond hatid the said duke dedly, and that he myȝt not bere ne abide the malice of the peple,*. [[March 17,]] and exilid him for terme of v. yeer. And the Friday the iij. day of May,*. [He was to leave the kingdom before the 1st of May (Rot. Parl. v. 183.)] he took his shippe at Episwich and sailed forth in to the high see, where anothir shippe callid the Nicholas of the Tour lay in waite for him, and took him. And thay that were wythynne grauntid him space of a day and a nyghte to shryue him, and make him redy to God. And thanne a knaue of Yrlond smot of his hed, vpon the side of the boot of the said Nicholas of the Tour, notwithstondyng his saaf conduct; and the body with the hed was cast to the lond at Douor.

And this yeer, on Newyeris day, began the yeer of grace at Saint Jameȝ.

[Anno xxixo.] A.D. 1451.

And this same yeer*. [The 29th Henry VI. must be here intended, although Easter day in that year was April 25, and the fixed feast mentioned in the text (St. George's) was April 23. But the second calculation is accurate, for Corpus Christi day, 1451, fell on the 24th of June.] saint Georgeȝ day fille on Estirday, and Corpus Christi day fille on Midsomer day, that is to say, the viij. kalendes of Juylle.

[Anno xxx.] A.D. 1452.

The xxx. yeere of kyng Harry, aboute Shroftyde, the duke of Yorke, the erle of Deuenshire, and the lord Cobham, gadered a grete peple in destruccioun of theire enemyes that were aboute the kyng;*. [[February.]] and sente by an herowde to London, prayng that they myghte Page  70 passe wyth theyre peple thorough the cyte, but they cowde gete no graunte therof for asmoche as the kyng had commaunded the con|trary. [folio 190a] Wherfore thay passed ouer the Temes by Kyngstone brige, and wente forthe to the toune of Derteforde in Kent; and there, besyde the toune, ordeyned and pyghte theyre felde. And thenne the kyng with many lordes wyth the nombre of xv. Ml. men, came towarde the seyde duke of Yorke, for to dystresse hym and his peple. And when the duke sawe that the peple of Kent and of other places came nat to hym as they had promysed, and that they were nat stronge ynoughe for the kyngys parte, by entrete of diuerse bysshops they yelde theym vnto the kynges grace, and so retorned to London. And there the matier was put in a rewle betwene the kyng and the seyde duke, as for that tyme.

Anno xxxj. A.D. 1453.

The xxxj. yere of kyng Harry, in the moneth of May, the erle of Shrouesbury was slayne besyde Burdeux, and sir Edward Hulle,*. [[July.]] knyghte, and the lorde Lyle sone of the sayde erle; and the lorde Molyns take prysoner, and after delyuered for a grete raunsom.

Anno xxxijo. A.D. 1453-4.

The xxxij. yere of kyng Harry, and the yere of oure Lorde Ml.iiijc.liiij.*. [Prince Edward was born Saturday 13th October, feast of translation of Edw. Conf. 1453.] on the Saturday the xiiij. day of Octobre, in the feste of seynt Edwarde the Confessoure, was bore at Westmynstre Edward the furst sone of kyng Harry; whoos godfadres were master Johan Kempe, archebysshoppe of Caunterbury and bysshoppe cardinal of Rome, and Edmunde duke of Somerset, his godmother was the [folio 190b] duchesse of Buckynghame: and master William Wayneflete, bysshop of Wynchestre, hym baptized.

And this same yeer, deyed the same mastre Johan Kempe arche|*. [A.D. 1454]bysshop of Caunterbury on the Friday the xxij. day of Marche. After whom succeded in to the seyde archebysshopryche mastre Thomas Bouchier bisshoppe of Ely, and into the office of the chaun|celer, ser Richard Nevyle erle of Salysbury.

Anno xxxiij. A.D. 1454-5.

The xxxiij. yere of kyng Harry, the erle Douglas of Scotlonde Page  71 fled oute of Scotlande and came into Engelond, because that the kyng of Scottis hadde vnmanly and traytourly slayne the sayde erle hys brother vnder sauf conduct. And he became kyng Harryeȝ liege man, and was swore to him and dede to him homage, and had a place assigned to him in the parlement.

This same yere, in the moneth of Juyne [May*. [Correction in the text by the hand of Stowe.]], the kyng wolde*. [A.D. 1455] haue ryde to Leycestre for to haue holde a counseylle there; and*. [[May.]] rode by the toune of Watforde, abiding there alle nyghte, and came on the morow to Saynt Albonys aboute ix. of the clocke.

Thenne was there a mortalle debate and a variaunce bitwene Richard duke of Yorke, Richard erle of Salesbury, Richard erle of Warrewyke, and Edmund duke of Somerset, be whom at that tyme the kyng was principally gided and gouerned, as he had be beforne by the duk of Suthfolk. And this saide duke Edmond euer kept hym nygh the kyng, and durste nat departe fer from his presence, [folio 191a] dreding alwey the power of the seyde duk of York and of the for|seyde erles, and euer excited and stered the kyng ageyns thaym; notwithstandyng that the comones of this lande hated this duk Edmond and loued the duk of York, because he loued the communes and preserued the commune profyte of the londe.

The seyde duke Richard and the erle abouesayde, seyng that they myghte nat preuayle ne withstond the malice of the forseyde duk Edmond; the whiche dayly entended and prouoked the kyng to*. [First battayle ofSeintAlbons.] theyre fynal destruccioun; and gadered priuyly a power of peple*. [[May 22nd.]] and kept thaym couertly in villages aboute the toune of Seynt Albons; and whan the kyng was there, they beseged the toune aboute, and sente to the kyng besechyng hym that he wolde sende oute vnto theym theyre mortal enemy, Edmond duke of Somerset, and enemy to alle the reame; yef he wolde nat so, they wolde haue hym by streynghte and violence. The kyng by advyse of his counseylle answered and seyde he wolde nat delyuer him. Page  72

Whanne the duk of York and the erles herde this aunswere, thoughe the toune were strongly barred and arrayed for defence, they and theyr peple brake doune vyolently howses and pales on the este syde of the toune, and entred in to seynt Petres strete sleyng alle tho that wythestoode theym. Thanne came the kyng oute of the abbey wyth his baner dysplayed in to the same strete, and duke Edmond wythe hym, and the duk of Bokyngham, the erle of Northumbrelonde, and the lorde Clyfforde, and the lorde Sudeley beryng the kynges baner; and there was a sore fyghte, as for the [folio 191b] tyme, and there at laste was slayne the seyde duke Edmond, the erle of Northumbrelond, and the lorde Clyfforde; the kyng that stoode vndre his baner was hurte in the necke wythe an arowe. And when the seyde duke Edmonde and the lordes were slayne, the batayle was ceased. And thus was done the Thurseday the xxij. day of May.

Thys sayde Edmond duke of Somerset had herde a fantastyk prophecy that he shuld dy vndre a castelle; wherefore in as meche as in him was, he lete the kyng that he sholde nat come in the castelle of Wyndsore, dredyng the seyde prophecy; but at Seynt Albonys ther was an hostry hauyng the sygne of a castelle, and before that hostry he was slayne.

When this was done, the forseyde duke of York and the erles re|torned to Londoun, and had the kyng with theym.

And at this bataylle were slayne lx. persones of gentilmen and of other.

[Anno xxxiv.] A.D. 1456.

And this same yeer, in the moneth of Juyne was seen stella comata, betwene the northe and the est, extendyng her bemes towardes the sowthe. The whiche sterre was seyenne also in the court of Rome, as they reported that came fro thens.

Anno xxxv. A.D. 1456-7.

The xxxv. yere of kyng Harry, and the yere of oure lorde Ml.CCCC.lvij.*. [Michaelmas, 1457, was in the 36th Henry VI. Holinshed places the second prodigy here mentioned under November 1456.] a pylgryme that alle his dayes had be a shipmanne, Page  73 came fro seynt James in Spayne into Englond aboute Mighelmas, and was loged in the toune of Weymouthe, in Dorsetshyre, with a brewer, a Duchemanne, the whiche had be with hym in his seyde pylgremage. And as the sayde pylgryme laye in his bedde waking, he sawe one come in to the chambre clothed alle in whyte hauing a whyte heede, and sate doune on a fourme nat fer fro hys bed; and alle the [folio 192a] chambre was as lyghte of hym as it had be clere day. The pylgryme was agaste and durst not speke, and anone the seyde spirite vanysshed awey. The secund nyghte the same spyryte came ayene in lykewyse, and wythonte eny tareyng vanysshed awey. In the morow the pyl|grym tolde alle this to his oste, and seyde he was sore afeerde, and wolde no more lye in that chambre. Hys oste counseled hym to telle this to the parysshe preeste, and shryue hym of all his synnes, demyng that he hadde be acombred with some grete dedely synne. The pyl|grym sayde, "I was late shryue at seynt James, and rescued there my Lord God, and sethe that tyme, as fer as I canne remembre, I haue nat offended my conscience." Natheles he was shryuenne, and tolde alle this to the preest; and the preest seyde, "Sen thow knowest thy selfe clere in conscience, haue a goode herte and be nat agast, and yef the sayde spirite come ayene, coniure hym in the name of the Fader, and of the Sone, and of the Holy Goste, to telle the what he ys." The iijde nyghte the spyryte came ayene in to the chambre as he had do before, wyth a grete lyghte; and the pylgrym, as the preest had counseled him, coniured the spyryte, and bade hym telle what he was. The spyryte answered and seyde, "I am thyne eme, thy faderes brother." The pylgrym seyde, "How longe ys it ago sen thow deyde?" The spiryte seyde, "ix. yere." "Where ys my fader?" seyde the pylgrime. "At home in his owne hous," seyde the spiryte, "and hath another wyfe." "And where ys my moder?" "In heuene," seyde the spiryte. Thenne seyde the spiryte to the pylgryme, "Thou haste be at seynt James; trowest thou that thow hast welle done thy pylgremage?" [folio 192b] "So I hoope," saide the pylgryme. Thanne sayde the spiryte, Page  74 "Thow hast do to be sayde there iij. masses, one for thy fader, another for thy moder, and the iijde for thy selue; and yef thou haddest lete say a masse for me, I had be delieured of the peyne that I suffre. But thow most go ayene to seynt James, and do say a masse for me, and yeue iijd. to iij. pore men." "O," sayde the pylgrime, "howe shulde I go ayene to seynt James? I haue no money for myne expenses, for I was robbed in the shyppe of v. nobles." "I know welle thys," sayde the spirite, "for thow shalt fynde thy purce hanging at the ende of the shyp and a stoone therynne; but thow most go ageyne to seynt James, and begge, and lyue of almesse." And when the spyryte had thus seyde, the pyl|gryme saw a deuelle drawe the same spyryte by the sleue, for to haue hym thennys. Thenne saide the spyryte to the pylgryme, "I haue folewed the this ix. yere, and myghte neuer speke with the vnto now; but blessed be the hous where a spyryte may speke, and farewell, for I may no lenger abyde with the, and therfore I am sory:" and so he vanysshed awey. The pylgryme went into Portyngale, and so forthe to seynt James, as the spyryte had hym commaunded; wherefore I counseylle euery man to worship seynt James.

Also this yere, in the moneth of Novembre, in the yle of Portlond, nat fer from the forseyde toune of Weymouthe was sey a cocke commyng oute of the see, hauyng a greete creeste vppon his hede and a greete rede beerde and legges of half a yerde long, and stood in the water and crew iij. tymes; and euery tyme that he crew he turned hym rounde aboute, and bekened wyth his hede towarde [folio 193a] the north, the southe, and the weste, and he was of the coloure of a fesaunt; and when he had crowe iij. tymes he vanysshed awey.

And this same yere, the xxviij. day of August, on the Sunday in*. [A.D. 1457.] the morow, the Frensshemen robbed and spoyled the toune of*. [[August 28th.]] Sandewyche in Kent, abydyng thereynne an hoole day, and at the laste a kynghte of the contre called ser Thomas Kyryel drofe theym to the see, and kylde many of theym.

Page  75

[Anno xxvj.] A.D. 1457-8.

The xxxvj. yere of kyng Harry, in the moneth of January, dyed the erle of Deuynshire in the abbey of Abyndoun poysened, as men*. [trew with the record.] sayde, and beyng there at that tyme with quene Margarete.

And this same yere, and the yere of oure Lorde Ml.iiijc.lvij.*. [The 4 of Decembar.] master Reynold Pocock bysshop of Chichestre a seculer doctour of dyuynyte, that had labored meny yeres for to translate Holy Scrip|ture into Englysshe; passing the bondes of diuinite and of Crysten beleue, was accused of certayne articles of heresy, of the whyche he was conuyct before the archebysshoppe of Caunterbury and other bysshopys and clerkys; and vtterly abiured, reuoked, and re|nounced the sayde articles opynly at Powles Crosse in his moder tunge as folowethe hereafter. "In the name of the Holy Trynyte,*. [The abiuracoun of master Reynold Pocok, bysshoppe of Chichestre.] Fader, Sone, and Holy Gost, I Reynold Pocok bysshop of Chichestre vnworthy, of myne owne power and wylle withoute eny maner cohercioun or drede, confesse and knowlege that I herebefore this tyme presumyng of myne natural wytte, and preferryng my iuge|ment and naturalle resoun before the Newe and the Olde Testament, [folio 193b] and the auctoryte and determinacoun of oure moder hooly churche, haue holde, wrytenne and taughte otherwys thanne the hooly Romane and uniuersalle churche techythe, prechethe, or obseruethe; and ouer thys, ayenst the trew catholyc and aposteles feythe, I haue made, wryten, taughte and publysshed meny and diuerse perylous doc|trynes, bookes, werkes and wrytyng, conteynyng heresyes and errours contrary to the feythe catholyk and determinacoun of holy churche; and specially these heresyes and errours folowyng, that ys to say:

"In primis, quod non est de necessitate fidei credere quod Dominus noster Ihesus Christus post mortem descendit ad inferos.

"Item, quod non est de necessitate salutis, credere in sanctorum communione. Page  76

"Item, quod ecclesia vniuersalis potest errare in hiis que sunt fidei.

"Item, quod non est de necessitate salutis credere et tenere illud quod consilium generale et vniuersalis ecclesia statuit, approbat, seu determinat in fauorem fidei et ad salutem animarum, est ab vniuersis Christi fidelibus approbandum, credendum et tenendum.

"Wherefore I, myserable synner, whiche here before long tyme haue walked in derkenesse, and now by the mercy and infynyte goodnes of God reduced in to the ryghte wey and lyghte of trouthe, and consideryng myself greuously haue synned and wyckedly haue enformed and enfect the peple of God, retorne and come ayene to the vnyte of our moder holy churche; and alle heresyes and errours wryten and conteyned in my seyde bookes, workes and wrytyng, here solemply and openly reuoke and renounce, whiche heresyes and errours, and alle other spices of heresyes, I haue before thys tyme before the moste reuerend fader in God and my good lord of [folio 194a] Caunterbury, in dyuers and lawfulle forme iudicially abiured; sub|myttyng myself, beyng thanne and also nowe at this tyme verrey contryte and penytent synner, to the correccioun of the churche and of my sayde lorde of Caunterbury,

"And ouer thys, exhortyng and requiring in the name and vertew of Almyghtye God, in the saluacioun of youre soules and of myne, that no man hereafter yeue feythe and credence to my seyde perny|cyous doctrynes, heresyes and errours, neyther my sayde bookes kepe, holde or rede in any wyse; but that they alle suche bokes, workes and wrytyng, suspect of heresyes, delyuer in alle goodly haste vnto my saide lorde of Caunterbury or to his commyssioners and deputees, in eschewyng of meny inconuenientys and grete peryles of soules, the whiche elles myghte be cause of the contrary. And ouer this declaracoun of my conuersion and repentaunce I here openly assent, that my seyde bookes, werkes and wrytyng, for declaracioun and cause aboue rehersed be deput vn to the fyre, and openly brende in ensample and terrour of alle other," &c. Page  77

"Wythe wondrethe that reson nat telle can,
Howe a mayde ys a moder, and God ys manne,
Fle reasoune, and folow the woundre,
For beleue hathe the maystry and reasone ys vnder."

Thys made the sayde Pocock, as it was seyde.

And after thys he was pryued of his bysshopryche, hauyng a certeyne pensione assigned vn to hym for to lyue on in an abbey, and sone after he dyed.*. [[A.D. 1460.?]]

Afterwarde this same yere, was holde a counseylle at West|*. [A.D. 1458.]mynstre aboute Shroftyde, to the whiche came the yong lordes*. [[February.]] whoos fadres were sleyne at Seynt Albonys; that ys to sey, the [folio 194b] duke of Somerset, the erle of Northumberlond, and his brother lord Egremount, and the lorde Clyfforde, with a grete power, and were loged withoute the walles of Londoun aboute Templebarre and Westmynstre. The cyte wolde nat receyue theym, because they came ageyns the pease. The duk of York and the erle of Sales|bury came but onely with theyre householde men in pesyble manner, thynkyng none harme, and were loged wythynne the cytee; for they abouesayde came forto dystroy vtterly the sayde duk of York and the erle of Salesbury, and of Warrewyk; and the cyte was euery day armed forto withstonde the malice of tho yong lordes yef nede had be. And sone after came the erle of Warrewyk fro Caleys, wherof he was capteyne, and lay wythynne the cyte.

Thanne the byshoppys and other lordes tretyd betwyxt theym of the pease and accorde, and after long trete bothe partyes submytted theym to the laude and arbytrement of the kyng and his counselle. The whiche after good deliberacione and avysement yaf this awarde and arbitrement; that xlv.li. of yerely rente shulde be amorteysed and founded in for euermore by the sayde duk of York and the erles, in the abbey of Seynt Albons, where the forseyde lordes so slayne were buryed, for to pray for theyre soules and for the soules of alle tho that were slayne there. And ouer this the sayde duk of York and the erles shulde pay to the duke of Somerset and to hys Page  78 moder, to the erle of Northumbrelond, to the lorde Egremont and to the lorde Clyfford, a notable summe of money, for recompens of theyre fadres dethe, and for wronges done vnto theym.

Where uppon was made wrytyng and suerte; and so was the [folio 195a] trowble ceased, and pease and accorde made betwene theym; but hit endured nat long.

One of the causes of this trouble betwene the duk of York and the duk of Somerset was thys—Duryng the kynges sykenesse the duk of York was made protector of Englond, whereof the duk of*. [[April 3, 1454.]] Somerset had grete indignacioun and alwey malygned ayenst hym and stered the kyng ageyne hym; natheles meny of the lordes of the counceyl fauored more the duk of York thanne hym. Where|fore for certeyne causes and articles that were leyde ayenst the seyde duk of Somerset, he was commytted by the kynges counselle*. [[Nov. 1453.]] to the toure of London: but be instaunce and mediacione of his frendes he was sone delyuered, vnder this condicione, that he shulde neuer after entremete, ne have a do with the gouernaunce of the reame, and that he sholde nat come nyghe the kyng by xx. myle. And for to obserue and kepe these condicions he was swore vppon a book.

Whenne he was delyuered oute of the toure, he took more vppon*. [[Feb. 7, 1455.]] hym thenne he dyd before, stiryng the kyng dayly and maliciously ageyns the forseyde duke of York and erles, coniectyng and yma|ginyng howe he myghte dystroy theyme; but at seynt Albonys he fylle in to the same snare that he had ordeyned for theyme.

[Anno] xxxvij.*. [By the hand of Stowe.] A.D. 1458.

The xxxvij. yere, the kyng and the quene beyng at Westmynstre, the ix. day of Nouembre fylle a grete debate betwene Richard erle of Warrewyk and theym of the kynges hous, in so moche that they wolde haue sleyne the erle; and vnnethe he escaped to his barge, and went anone after to Caleys for a lytel before he was made [folio 195b] capteyne therof by auctoryte of the parlement.

[Anno xxxviij.] A.D. 1459.

Sone afterwarde the yonge duke of Somerset by steryng of theyme Page  79 that hated the erle of Warrewyk was made capteyn of Caleys, and*. [[October 9th.]] a pryue seale directe to the erle for to dyscharge hym of the capteynshyppe; but the erle forasmeche as he was made be aucto|ryte of the parlement, he wolde nat obey the pryue seale, but con|tinued forthe in the sayde offyce meny yeres after.

Anno xxxviij. A.D. 1459-60.

The xxxviij. yere of kyng Harry, in a lytylle toune in Bedford|shyre, there fylle a blody rayne, whereof the rede dropys appered in shetes, the whiche a woman had honged out for to drye.

In this same tyme, the reame of Englonde was oute of alle good gouernaunce, as it had be meny dayes before, for the kyng was simple and lad by couetous counseylle, and owed more then he was worthe. His dettes encreased dayly, but payment was there none; alle the possessyons and lordeshyppes that perteyned to the croune the kyng had yeue awey, some to lordes and some to other simple per|sones, so that he had almoste noughte to lefe onne. And suche ymposiciones as were put to the peple, as taxes, tallages, and quynȝymes, alle that came from theym was spended on vayne, for he helde no householde ne meyntened no warres. For these mys|gouernaunces, and for many other, the hertes of the peple were turned away from thayme that had the londe in gouernance, and theyre blyssyng was turnyd in to cursyng.

The quene with such as were of her affynyte rewled the reame as her lyked, gaderyng ryches innumerable. The offices [sic] of the reme, and specially the erle of Wylshyre tresorere of Engelond for [folio 196a] to enryche hymself, peled the pore peple, and disheryted ryghtefulle eyres, and dede meny wronges. The quene was defamed and desclaundered, that he that was called Prince, was nat hir sone, but a bastard goten in avoutry; wherefore she dreding that he shulde nat succede hys fadre in the crowne of Englond, allyed vn to her alle the knyghtes and squyers of Chestreshyre for to haue theyre benyuolence, and helde open householde among theym; and made her sone called the Prince yeue a lyuery of Swannys to alle the gentilmenne of the contre, and to many other thorought the Page  80 lande; trustyng thorough thayre streynghte to make her sone kyng; makyng pryue menys to some of the lordes of Englond for to styre the kyng that he shulde resygne the croune to hyre sone: but she coude nat bryng her purpos aboute.

The xxxviij. yere of kyng Harry, in the moneth of Septembre, the yere of our Lord, Ml.CCCC.lix. on the Sonday in the feste of*. [[Sept. 23rd.]] Seynt Mathew, Richard erle of Salesbury, hauyng with hym vij.Ml. of wele arayed men, dredyng the malyces of his enemyes and spe|cially of the quene and hyre company the whiche hated hym dedly and the duk of York and the erle of Warrewyk also, tooke hys wey towarde Ludlow where the sayde duk of York lay at that tyme, to thentent that they bothe togedre wolde haue ryde to the kyng to Colshylle in Staffordshyre, for to haue excused theym of certeyne articles and fals accusaciones touchyng thaire ligeaunce layde agayns theyme maliciously by their enemyes. [folio 196b]

Whenne the kyng herde of thayre commyng, they that were*. [Blorehethe.] aboute hym counseyled hym to gadre a power for to wythestand*. [[Sept. 23rd.]] theym, and enformed hym that they came forto dystroy hymme. Thenne lay the quene at Eglishale, and anone by hire stiryng the kyng assembled a grete power whereof the lorde Audeley was chyef and had the ledyng of thaym, and wente forthe in to the felde called Blorehethe; by the whyche the sayde duk of York and the erl most nedes passe. And there bothe hostes mette and countred to gedre, and fauȝt mortally. And there was the lorde Audeley sleyne, and meny of the notable knyghtes and squyers of Chesshyre that had resceued the lyuery of the swannes; and there were take prysoners, the erlles ij. sones of Salisbury, Thomas and Johan, and ser Thomas Haryngtone, and enprysoned in the castelle of Chestre; but sone after they were delyuered.

After this discomfiture, the erlle past forthe to duke Richard to Ludlow, and thyder came to theyme fro Caleys the erle of War|rewyk, and they iij. wrote a letter vn to kyng Harry, whereof the tenoure ys thus:— Page  81

"Most Crystyne kyng, ryghte hyghe and myghtye Prince, and oure most drad souuerayne lorde, after as humble recommendacione to youre hyghe excellence as we suffice. Oure trewe entent to the prosperyte and augmentacione of youre hyghe estate, and to the commone wele of this reaume, hath be showd vn to youre hyghenesse in suche wrytyng as we made thereof. And ouer that, an endenture sygned by oure handes in the churche Cathedralle of Worcestre comprehendyng the preef of the trouthe and dewte that, God knowethe, we bere to youre seyde estate and to the preemynence and prerogatif thereof, we sent vn to youre good grace by the prior of the saide churche and diuerse other doctours, and among other, [folio 197a] by master William Lynwode, doctour of diuinite, whyche mynistred vnto us seuerally the blessed Body of God our Lorde Jhesu; sacred whereoponne, we and euery of vs deposyd for oure sayde trouthe and dewtee accordyng to the tenure of the seyde endenture. And syth that tyme, we haue certyfyed at large in wrytyng and by mouthe by Garter kyng of Armes, nat only to youre sayde hyghenesse, but also to the good and worthy lordes beyng aboute youre moste noble presence, the largenesse of oure sayde trouthe and dewte, and oure entent and oure disposicione to seche alle the mocions that myghte serue conuenyently to thaffirmacione therof, and to oure parfyte suertees from suche inconuenient and unreuerent geopardyes, as we haue ben put ynne diuerse tymes herebefore. Wherof we haue cause to make, and owe to make, suche exclamacione and compleynt, nat withoute reasone, as ys nat unknowen to alle the sayd worthy lordes and to alle his lande, and wolle offre vs to youre hyghe pre|sence to the same entent, yef we myghte so do wythe oure sayde sewrte, whiche onely causethe vs to kepe aboute vs suche felyshyp as we do in oure leeffulle. And hereto we haue forborne and avoyded alle thynges that myghte serue to the effusione of Crysten blood, of the drede that we haue of God and of youre royalle mageste; and haue also eschewed to approche your seyde moste noble pre|sence, of the humble obeysaunce and reuerence whereon we haue Page  82 and duryng oure lyfe wolle haue the same. And yet neuertheles, we here that we be proclamed and defamed in oure name vnryghte|fully, vnlawfully, and sauyng youre hyghe reuerence, vntrewly, and otherwyse, that God knowethe, then we haue yeue cause; knowyng [folio 197b] certaynly that the blessed and noble entent of youre sayde goode grace and the ryghtwysnesse thereof ys, to take, repute, and accepte youre trew and lowly sugettys, and that it accordethe neyther with youre sayde entent, ne wythe youre wylle or pleasure, that we shuld be otherwyse take or reputed. And ouer that, oure lordshyppes and tenauntes bene of hyghe vyolence robbed and spoyled, ayenst youre peese and lawes and alle ryghtewysnesse. We therefore, as we suffice, beseche youre sayde good grace, to take, repute, and re|ceyue thervnto oure sayde trouthe and entent, whiche to God ys know, as we shewe it by the seyde tenure of the sayde endenture, and nat apply youre sayde blessednesse ne the grete ryghtewysnesse and equite whereinne God hathe euer endowed youre hyghe nobeley, to thymportune impacience and violence of suche persones as entende of extreme malyce to procede vnder the shadow of youre hyghe myghte and presence to oure destruccione, for suche inordinate couetyse, whereof God ys nat pleased, as they haue to oure landes, offices, and goodes, not lettyng or sparyng therefore to put suche thyngys in alle lamentable and to sorowfulle geopardy, as moot in alle wyse take effect by the mystery of Goddys wille and power, nor nat hauyng regarde to theffusione of Crystyne blood, ne any tendre|nesse to the noble blood of thys lond suche as serue to the tuicione and defens therof, ne nat weyng the losse of youre trew liegemenne of youre sayde reame, that God defende whiche knowethe oure entent, and that we haue avoyded therfro, as fer as we may with oure sewertees, nat of any drede that we haue of the sayde per|sones, but onely of the drede of God and of youre sayde hyghe|nesse, and nat wylle vse oure sayde defence vnto the tyme that we be provoked of necessyte, whereof we calle heuene and erthe in to [folio 198a] wyttenesse and recorde; and therynne beseche God to be oure Juge, Page  83 and to delyuer vs accordyng to oure sayde entent, and oure sayde trouthe and dutie to youre seyde hyghenesse, and to the sayde com|mone wele. Most Crysten Kyng, ryghte hyghe and myghtye Prince, and moste drad souerayne lorde, we beseche oure blessed Lord to preserue youre honoure and estate in ioye and felycite.

"Wretynne at Ludlow, the x. day of Octobre. "R. York, R. Warrewyk, R. Salesbury."

After theyre excusacionne conteyned in thys letter sent to the kyng, thay withdrowe thayme, and went in to dyuers parties of be|yonde the see, for the more sewrte of theyre personnes: the duke of York wente into Yrelond, where he was worshypfully resceued. The erles of March, of Salesbury, and Warrewyk, nat wythoute grete geopardy and perylle, as welle in the londe as in the see, wente vnto Caleys and abood there.

Thanne was a parlement holden at Couentre, and they that were*. [[Novemb. 20th] chosenne knyghtes of the shyres, and other that had interesse in the parlement, were nat dyfferent but chosen a denominacione of thaym that were enemyes to the forseyde lordes so beyng oute of the reame. In the whiche parlement, the sayde duk of York and the iij. erles and other, whos names shalle be rehersed afterward, withoute any answere, as traytours and rebelles to the kyng were atteynt of treson, and theyre goodes, lordshyppys and possessyons escheted in to the kynges hande, and they and theyre heyres dysheryted vn to the ixthe degre. And by the kynges commissione in euery cyte, burghe, and toune cryed opynly and proclamed as for rebelles and traytoures; and theyre tenauntes and there men spoyled of theyre goodes, maymed, bete, and slayne withoute eny pyte; the toune of Ludlow, [folio 198b] longyng thanne to the duk of York, was robbed to the bare walles, and the noble duches of York vnmanly and cruelly was entreted and spoyled.

In the mene tyme the erle of Warrewyk, hauyng a strong and a myghte naueye kept the strayte see, and fauȝt with the Spaynardys Page  84 and kylde many of thaym, and tooke theyre grete vesselles and a carake of Jene, and gate in theym grete rychesse.

The names of the lordes and other that were atteynt in the for|seyde parlement bythe these. Richard duk of York, Edward erle of Marche his sone and heyre, Richard erle of Warwyk, Edmund erle of Rutlond, Richard erle of Salesbury, Johan lorde Clyfford, lord Clyntone, ser Thomas Haryngtone, ser Johan Wenlock, Thomas Nevyle, Johan Nevyle, sones of the erle of Salesbury, James Pyk|ryng, Johan Conyers, Thomas Par, Wyllyam Oldhalle, and Harry Ratford, knyghtes: Johan Bowser, Thomas Cook, Johan Clay, Richard Gytone, Robert Browe, Edward Bowser, Thomas Vaughan, Johan Roger, Richard Gray, Watier Deuoros, Watier Hopton, Roger Kynderton, Wyllyam Bowes, Fook Stafford, the lorde Powys, and Alys countesse of Salesbury.

In the monethe of Octobre next folowyng, the yonge duke of*. [October, 1459.] Somerset, Harry lord Roos, and lorde Audeley, with a certeyne nombre of men of armes, hauyng with theym the kynges letters, wente to Caleys to thentent that the seyde duk shulde haue be cap|teyne of Caleys, the whyche office the kyng had yeue hym,*. [By letters dated Oct. 9th, Rymer, xi. 436.] wenyng that the Erle of Warrewyk wolde lyghtely haue yolde vp the sayde offyce to him as he was commaunded by the kynges lettres; but when he came to the londe, they of Caleys wolde haue take hym, [folio 199a] and with muche payne he escaped and fled in to the castelle of Guynes, and there helde hym meny dayes after; the sovdyers that came with hym were stryppyd oute of theyre harneys by thayme of Caleys, and let go. The lorde Audeley was take into Caleys, and the lord Roos fledde in to Flaunders, and afterward came priuely agayne in to Engelond.

Not long afterward the lord Ryuers was sent to Sandewyche for to kepe the toun, that the erle of Warrewyk and the other lordes shulde nat londe there, for it was seyde that alle Kent fauored and supported thaym; and sothe it was: and also that the seyde lord Page  85 Ryuers shulde kepe certeyne grete forstage shyppys, that were the erles of Warrewyk, the whiche lay at ankere there in the hauene.

And whanne the seyde erle of Warrewyk sawe a conuenient tyme,*. [A.D. 1460.] he sent some of his men to Sandwhyche by nyghte, the whyche took*. [[January.]] the sayde lorde Ryuers and Antony [Woodvill*. [Insertion by the hand of Stowe.]] his sone, in theyre beddes, and lad theym ouer to Caleys, and took with theym alle the grete shyppes, saue on called "Grace Dieu," the whyche myghte nat be had awey because she was broke in the botome.

Thanne aroos a knyght of Deuenshyre, called syr Bawdewyn*. [[April.]] Fulford, and sayde that on payne of lesyng of his hed he wolde destroy the erle of Warrewyk and his nauey, yef the kyng wolde graunte hym his expensis; and he resceued therfore a Ml. marc., and whenne he had consumed and wasted alle that money, his vyage was done and [he] wente home ayene.

And at laste the duk of Excestre,*. [He was appointed Admiral, March 19th; but he does not seem to have sailed till after April 26th, see Rymer, ibid.] that was Amyralle, was sent to the see with a grete nauy for to dystresse the seyde erle of Warrewyk and his nauey, and sayled from Sandwyche to Derte|mouthe, and there for lack of vetayle and of money hys soudyers were [folio 199b] dysparbeled, and wente awey fro hym. And betwene Sandwyche and Dertemouth he mette the erle of Warrewyk, commyng oute of Yrelond, that had be there to speke with the duk of York, and broughte with hym hys moder that was fled theder for drede, and lad her to Caleys; but the duke durst nat sette opponne the erle, ne the erle wolde nat dystresse hym because he was amyral, and of the kynges bloode, but late hym passe by.

In the monethe of Juyne, this same yere, were gadered v. hundred*. [June, 1460.] men for to fette and condue the duk of Somerset from Guynes in to Englande, abydyng wynde in the poort of Sandwyche, and thyder Page  86 came sowdyers of the erles of Warrewyk and spoyled theym of theyre harness and kylde some of theym; and theyre capteyne was slayne that was called Mounfort.

Thanne sente the forseyde lordes the articles vnder wryten to the archebysshop of Caunterbury, and at large to the Communes of Engelond, of the whych articles thys ys the tenoure:—

"Worshypfulle Syres, We, the duk of York, the erles of March,*. [Articles sent fro the duk of York and the erles, to the Arche|bysshop of Caunterbury and to the Commones.] Warrewyk, and Salesbury sewde and offred to haue come vnto the kyng oure souerayn lordes most noble presens, to haue declared there afore hym, for oure dewte to God and to hys hyghenesse, and to the prosperyte and welfare of his noble estate, and to the comon wele of alle his londe, as trew lyegemen, the matiers folowyng, that ys to say:

For the furst, The grete oppressyone, extorsion, robry, murther, and other vyolencys doone to Goddys churche, and to his mynystres therof, ayens Goddys and mannes law.

Item, The pouerte and mysery that to oure grete heuynesse oure sayde souerayne lorde standeth inne, nat hauyng any lyuelode of the croune of Englond wherof he may kepe hys honorable housholde, [folio 200a] whyche causethe the spyllyng of his sayde lyegemenne by the takers of hys seyde howsholde, whyche lyuelode ys in theyre handes that haue be destroyers of his seyde estate, and of the seyde commone wele.

Item, Howe hys lawes been parcially and vnrightfully guyded, and that by thayme that sholde moste loue and tendre hys sayde lawes the sayde oppressyon and extorsyone as (sic) most fauored and supported, and generally, that alle rightwysnesse and justice ys exyled of the sayde lond, and that no manne dredethe to offende ayenst the sayde lawes.

Item, That it wolle please his sayde good grace to lyve upponne his owne lyuelode, whereopon hys noble progenitures haue in dayes heretofore lyued as honorably and as worthily as any Crystyn prynces; and nat to suffre the destroyers of the sayde londe and of his trewe sugettes to lyue theroponne, and therefore to lacke the Page  87 sustenaunces that sholde be bylongyng to hys sayde estate, and fynde hys sayde householde opponne his pore communes withoute pay|ment, whyche nouther accordethe wyth Goddes nor mannes lawe.

Item, Howe ofte the seyde commones haue ben gretely and mer|ueylously charged with taxes and tallages to theyre grete enporyssh|yng, whereof lytelle good hathe eyther growe to the kyng or to the saide londe, and of the moste substaunce therof the kyng hathe lefte to his part nat half so moche and other lordes and persones, enemyes to the sayde commune wele, haue to theyre owne vse, suffryng alle the olde possessyons that the kyng had in Fraunce and Normandy, Angew and Meyne, Gascoyne and Guyene, wonne and goten by his fadre of moste noble memory, and othir hys noble progenitors, to be shamefully loste or solde.

Item, How they cannat cece therewith, but nowe begynne a new [folio 200b] charge of imposiccione and tallages vpponne the sayde peple whyche neuer afore was seen; that ys to say, euery tounshyp to fynde men for the kynges garde, takyng ensample therof of oure enemyes and aduersaryes of Fraunce: whiche imposicione and tallage yef hit be continued to theyre heyres and successours, wol be the heuyest charge and worst ensample that euer grewe in Englond, and the forseyde sugettes, and the seyde heyres and successours, in suche bandom as theyre auncetours were neuer charged with.

Item, Where the kyng hathe now no more lyfelode oute of his reame of Englond but onely the londe of Irelond and the toune of Caleys, and that no kyng crystened hathe suche a londe and a toune withoute hys reaume, dyuers lordes haue caused his hyghenesse to wryte letterȝ vnder his priuy seale vnto his Yrisshe enemyes, whyche neuer kyng of Englond dyd heretofore, wherby they may haue com|fort to entre in to the conquest of the sayde londe; whiche letters the same Yrysshe enemyes sent vn to me the sayde duke of York, and merueled gretely that any suche letters shuld be to theym sent, spekyng therinne gret shame and vylony of the seyde reme.

Item, In like wyse, the kyng by excytacione and laboure of the Page  88 same lordes wrote other letters to his enemyes and aduersaryes in other landes, that in no wyse thay shold shew eny favoure or good wylle to the toun of Caleys, whereby they had comfort ynowghe to procede to the wynnyng therof; considered also, that hit ys ordeyned by the laboure of the sayde lordes, that nowther vetayle ner other thyng of refresshyng or defens shulde come oute of Englond to the socoure or relyef of the sayde toune, to thentent that they wolde [folio 201a] haue hyt lost, as yt may opynly appere.

Item, It ys demed, and oweth gretely to be douted, that after that, the same lordes wolde put the same rewle of Englond, yef they myghte haue theyre purpos and entent, in to the handes and gouern|aunce of the seyde enemyes.

Item, How continuelly, syth the pytyous, shamefulle, and sorow|fulle murther to alle Englond, of that noble, worthy, and Crystyn prince, Humfrey duk of Gloucestre the kynges trew vncle, at Bury, hit hathe be labored, studyed, and conspyred, to haue dy|stroyed and murthryd the seyde duke of York, and the yssew that it pleased God to sende me of the royalle blode; and also of vs the sayde erlys of Warrewyk and Salysbury, for none other cause but for the trew hert that God knoweth we euer haue borne, and bere, to the profyte of the kynges estate, to the commone wele of the same reame, and defens therof.

Item, How the erles of Shrouesbury and Wylshyre, and the lorde Beaumount, oure mortalle and extreme enemyes, now and of long tyme past, hauyng the guydyng aboute the most noble persone of oure sayde souuerayn lorde, whos hyghenes they haue restrayned and kept from the liberte and fredom that bylongethe to his seyde astate, and the supporters and fauorers of alle the premysses, wolde nat suffre the kynges seyde good grace to resceue and accepte [us] as he wolde haue done, yet (sic) he myghte haue had his owne wylle, in hys sayde presence; dredyng the charge that wolde haue be layde vpponne theym of the mysery, destruccione, and wrechednesse of the sayde reame, wherof they be causes, and nat the kyng, whiche Page  89 ys hymself a[s] noble, as vertuous, as ryghtewys, and blyssed of dys|posicione, as any prince erthely. [folio 201b]

Item, The erles of Wylshyre and Shrouesbury, and the lorde Beaumount, nat satysfyed nor content with the kynges possessyouns and hys good, stered and excyted his sayde hyghenesse to holde hys parlement at Couentre, where an acte ys made by theyre prouoca|cioun and laboure ayenst vs the sayde duk of York, my sones Marche and Rutlande, and the erles of Warrewyk and Salysbury, and the sones of the sayde erle of Salysbury, and meny other knyghtes and esquyers, of diuerse matiers falsly and vntrewly ymagened, as they wolle answere afore Almyghty God in the day of Dome; the whyche the sayde erles of Shrouesbury and Wylshyre and the lorde Beaumount prouoked to be maad to thentent of oure destruccione and of oure yssew, and that thay myghte haue oure lyfelode and goodes, as they haue openly robbed and dyspoyled alle oure places and oure tenementes, and meny other trew men; and now procede to hangyng and drawyng of men by tyranny, and wolle therinne shewe the largenesse of theyre vyolence and malyce as vengeably as they can, yef no remedy be prouyded at the kynges hyghenesse, whos blessednes ys nother assentyng ne knowyng therof.

We therfore, seyng alle the sayde myscheues, heryng also that the Frensshe kyng makethe in hys lande grete assemble of hys peple whyche ys gretely to be drad for many causes, purpose yet ayene with Goddes grace [to] offre us to come ayene to the sayde presence of oure sayde souuerayn lorde, to opene and declare there vn to hym the myscheues aboue declared, and in the name of the land to sew in as reuerent and lowly wyse as we can to hys seyde good grace, [folio 202a] and to haue pyte and compassione uppon hys sayde trew sugettys, and nat to suffre the same myscheueȝ to regne upponne theym. Requiryng yow on Goddys behalf and prayng yow in oure oune thereinne to assyste vs, doyng alwey the dewte of ligeaunce in oure personnes to oure sayde souuerayne lorde, to hys estate, prerogatyf, and preemynence, and to thasuerte of hys most noble persone, where|vnto Page  90 we haue euer be and wylle be trew as any of his sugettes alyue: Whereof we call God, our Lady Saynt Mary and alle the Sayntes of heuene vn to wyttenesse and record."

In the mene tyme therlle of Wylshyre tresorer of Englond, the lorde Scales, and the lorde Hungreford, hauyng the kynges com|myssyone went to the toune of Newbury, the whyche longed to the duk of York, and there made inquysycione of alle thayme that in any wyse had shewed any fauoure or benyuolence or frendshyppe to the sayde duk, or to any of hys; whereof some were found gylty and were drawe hanged and quartered, and alle other inhabitantes of the forseyde toune were spoyled of alle theyre goodes.

Whanne thys was done the erle of Wylshyre went to Southamp|toun, and there vnder colore for to take the erle of Warrewyk, but specyally for to stele priuyly owte of the reame as hit preued after|wardes, he armed and vytayled v. grete carrakys of Jene that were at that tyme in the port of the sayde toune, and stuffed theym with sowdyers of Englysshemen, takyng vytayle of the kynges pryce without payment, as he sholde haue made a vyage for the kyng, and put a grete parte of his tresoure in to the sayde carrakeȝ; and [folio 202b] sone after he past owte of the port and sayled aboute in the see, dredyng alwey the commyng of the forseyde erles of Warrewyk and Salesbury, and atte laste arryued in Ducheland, and sent hys sowdyers in to Englond ayene.

Thanne were the kynges pryue seales dyrect to alle manner of bysshops, abbotys, pryores, and to alle the grete men of the spiri|tuelte and temporalte, for to leue the kyng money withoute delay for to wage men to kepe the see costes, that the sayde erles shuld nat arryue in no syde: and the sayde erle of Wylshyre made promys to alle suche persones as lent the kyng any money, that they shulde haue assignementes and repayment of the goodes of the forseyde duk of York and erles, whom they called oponne traytours. And the seyde erle of Wylshyre taxed the summe what euery man shuld leue, and so he made leve of many grete summes. And ouer thys, Page  91 proclamacione was made by commaundement of the kyng, that euery cyte, toune, and burghe, and hundredys, shuld fynde certayne sowdyers of thayre owne coste to kepe the see costys, for drede of landyng of the seyde erles.

Ferthermore, the commones of Kent, dredyng the malyce and the tyranny of the forseyde erlle of Wylshyre and of other, lest he wolde exercyse his vengeaunce vppon thaym, as he had done vppon thaym at Newbery, and sent priuyly messagers and letters to Caleys to the forseyde erles, besechyng thaym that they wolde in alle haste possible come and socour thaym fro theyre enemyes, promyttyng that they wolde assyste theym with alle thayre power.

The sayde erles wold nat anone yeue credence to theyre wrytyng and wordes, but send ouer in to Kent the lord Fauconbrege, to [folio 203a] know whether theyre promys and theyre dedes sholde accorde: and anone the peple of Kent and of other shyres aboute resorted to the sayde lorde Fauconbrege in grete nombre, abydyng the commyng of the erles.

Whan the erles knew the trew hertes of the peple, they dysposed theyme dayly for to com in to thys londe. And nat longe before theyre commyng, thys balat that folowethe was sette vppon the yates of the cyte of Caunterbury.

In the day of faste and spirituelle afflixione,*. [Balat set upponne the yates of Caun|terbury.]
The celestialle influence of bodyes transytory,
Set asyde alle prophecyes, and alle commixtione
Of iujementys sensualle to ofte in memory,
I reduced to mynde the prophete Isay,
Consideryng Englond to God in greuous offence, with wepyng ye;
This text I fonde in his story:—
"Omne caput languidum, et omne cor merens!"
Regnum Anglorum regnum Dei est,
As the Aungelle to seynt Edward dede wyttenesse;
Now regnum Sathane, it semethe, reputat best,
For filii scelerati haue broughte it in dystresse. Page  92
This preuethe fals wedlock and periury expresse,
Fals heryres fostred, as knowethe experyence,
Vnryghtewys dysherytyng with false oppresse,
Sic "omne caput languidum, et omne cor merens!"
A plantâ pedis, fro the pore tylyer of the lond
Ad verticem of spiritualle eke temperalle ennoynted crown
Grace ys withdrawe and Goddys mercyfulle hand,
Exalted ys falsehod, trowthe ys layde adoune;
Euery reame cryethe owte on Engelondes treson.
O falshod with thy colored presence!
Euer shulle we syng duryng thy season,
"Omne caput languidum, et omne cor merens!"
"Omne regnum in se divisum," sayethe dyuyne Scrypture,
"Shall be desolate," than folewethe translacione
Into the handes of theyre enemyes, Jewes arn figure; [folio 203b]
And now ys Englond in lyk reputacione,
In wey to be conquered; truste it for sewre!
Jhesu, for thy mercy and thy noble reuerens,
Reforme vs to goodnesse and condicione pure,
For, "omne caput languidum, et omne cor merens!"
Harry oure souerayne and most Crystyne kyng
His trew bloode hathe flemed bothe be swerde and exyle;
What prynce by thys rewle may haue long enduryng,
That also in moste pouert hath be long whyle?
Tho bestys that thys wroughte to mydsomer haue but a myle—
But euer mornethe Engelond for ham that be hens
Wythe languysshyng of herte rehersyng my style,
"Omne caput languidum, et omne cor merens!"
Jonathas ys ded that Dauid shuld restore
To the presence of the kyng, vnyte to make
Murum pro domo Israel, presthode dar no more
Put hymself forthe, his fat benefyce he shuld forsake.
Mercyfulle God! it ys tyme thow for vs awake.
Mercenarius fugit, ne wylle make resistence,
He ferethe the wolf that wolde hys bonys crake,
"Omne caput languidum, et omne cor merens!" Page  93
Tempus ys come falshede to dystroy,
Tempus eradicandi the wedes fro the corne,
Tempus cremandi the breres that trees noye,
Tempus evellendi the fals hunter with his horne,
Tempus miserendi on por alle to torne,
Tempus ponendi falsnes in perpetuelle absence,
Thoroughe whom we syngyng bothe euyne and morne,
"Omne caput languidum, et omne cor merens!"
Send hom, most gracious Lord Jhesu most benygne,
Sende hoom thy trew blode vn to his propre veyne,
Richard duk of York, Job thy seruaunt insygne,
Whom Sathan not cesethe to sette at care and dysdeyne, [folio 204a]
But by The preserued he may nat be slayne;
Sette hym ut sedeat in principibus, as he dyd before,
And so to oure newe songe, Lorde, thyn erys inclyne,
Gloria, laus et honor Tibi sit Rex Christe Redemptor!
Edwarde Erle of Marche, whos fame the erthe shalle sprede,
Richard Erle of Salisbury named prudence,
Wythe that noble knyghte and floure of manhode
Richard erle of Warrewyk sheelde of oure defence,
Also lytelle Fauconbrege, a knyghte of grete reuerence;
Jhesu ham restore to thayre honoure as thay had before,
And euer shalle we syng to thyn Hyghe Excellence,
Gloria, laus et honor Tibi sit Rex Christe Redemptor!
No prynce, alle thyng consydered, wythe honoure
In alle thyng requysyte to a kynges excellence
Better may lyue, serche any worthy predecessoure;
Yet hastow souuerayne lord in these lordes absence
Of alle thaym to a kyng ryghte resonable expens;
Thay shalle come agayne and rekene for the scoore,
And thow shalt syng wythe vs thys verrey trew sens,
Gloria laus et honor Tibi sit Rex Christe Redemptor! Page  94
The deed man gretethe yow welle,
That ys iust trew as steele,
With verray good entent,
Alle the Reame of Englond
Sone to louse from sorowes bond,
Be ryghte indifferent iugement.
To the ryghte Worshypfulle Cyte of Caunterbury.

Thanne the noble erles of Marche, Warrewyk, and Salysbury,*. [Howe the Erles landed at Sand|wyche.] hauyng wynde and weder at thayre plesaunce, arryued graciously at Sandwyche; where met wythe thaym master Thomas Bourchier archebysshop of Caunterbury, and a grete multitude of peple wythe hym; and wythe hys crosse before hym, [he] went forthe wythe the sayde erles and theyre peple toward Londoun, and sente an herowde to the cyte to knowe howe they were dysposed, and whether they wolde stand with theyme in thayre iust quarelle, and graunte hem leve for to passe thoroughe the cite. They that were nat frendely [folio 204b] to the erles, counseyled the mayre and the comynalte for to ley gunneȝ at the brege for to kepe thaym owte, and so a lytelle diuision there was among the citeȝens, but yt was sone ceased.

Than sent thay of the cyte to the sayde erles xij. worshypfulle and dyscrete aldermen, the whyche, in the name of alle the cyte, graunted thaym fre entre wythe suche seruyce as they cowde and myghte do to thayr worshyppe and honoure. Thys done, the alder|men retorned to the cyte, and the sayde herowde ageyne to the lordes.

And the secund day of Juylle thay entred in to Londoun. And*. [2 of July, 1460.] wythe theym came the popys legat, that nat long before had be in Englond; the whyche had auctoryte by the popes bulles for to entrete pease betwene the kyng and the erles, yt (sic) nede were; but, how yt were, he vsurped and toke oponne hym more power thanne he had, as it was knowenne afterward. Page  95

Thanne was a conuocacione of the clergy holden at Paulys in Londoun, and theder came the sayde erles: and the erle of Warre|wyk there purposed, and recyted before alle the conuocacione, and innumerable peple standyng aboute, the causes of theyre commyng in to thys lond; and mysrewle and myscheues therof; and how with grete vyolence thay had be repeled and put from the kynges presence, that they myghte nat come to hys hyghenes forto excuse thaym of suche fals accusaciones as were layde ayens thaym; and now were come ayene, by Goddys mercy, accompanyed with peple for to come to hys presens, there to declare and excuse thayre inno|cence, or ellys to dy in the felde; and there [they] made an open othe vpponne the cros of Caunterbury that thay had euer bore trew [folio 205a] feythe and lygeaunce to the kynges persone, wyllyng no more hurt to hym than to thayre owen personnes; wherof they took God and hys moder and alle the sayntes of heuene to wyttenesse.

The kyng, that held a counseylle at Couentre, heryng of the commyng of the erles, went to Northamptone.

The erle of Salesbury be comyn assent of the cite was maad rewler and gouernour of Londoun, in absence of the forseyde erles. And the seyde erles of Marche and Warrewyk and other lordes, that ys to say the lorde Facombrege, lorde Clyntone, lorde Bourser, prioure of Seynt Johannes, lorde Audeley, lorde Bergevenny, lord Say, lord Scroope, tharchebysshoppe of Caunterbury, the popes legat, the bysshoppe of Excetre, the bysshops of Ely, Salesbury, and Rouches|tre, dressed hem forth to the kyng to Northamptone.

The lord Scales and the lorde Hungreford that before the com|myng of the erles were in the cyte of London, wolde haue had the rewle and gouernaunce therof, but they of the cyte wold nat suffre thaym, for thay sayde that they were suffysaunt for to rewle the cyte thaymself; wherof the lordes hauyng indygnacione wente in to the toure of Londoun, and meny other grete men with theym, whos names bethe here vndre wretynne:—lord Vessy, lord Louelle, lord Delaware, lord Kendale a Gascoyne, ser Edmond Hampden Page  96 knyghte, Thomas Broun knyghte, shireue of Kent, Johan Bruyn of Kent, ser Geruays Clyftone knyghte, tresorer of the kynges hows, ser Thomas Tyrelle knyghte, the duchesse of Exetre, and many other. And the toure was beseged by lond and by water, that no vytayl myghte come to thayme that were wythynne. [folio 205b]

Whanne the erles and lordes were gone to Northamptone, thay that were wythynne the toure caste wyld fyre in to the cyte, and shot in smale gonnes, and brend and hurte men and wymmen and chyldren in the stretes. And they of London leyde grete bom|bardes on the ferther syde of the Thamyse agayns the toure and crased the walles therof in diuerse places; natheles they hoped dayly forto haue be rescued, but alle was in veyne.

The kyng at Northamptone lay atte Freres, and had ordeyned there a strong and a myghty feeld, in the medowys beside the Nonry, armed and arayed wythe gonnys, hauyng the ryuer at hys back.

The erles with the nombre of lx. Ml., as it was sayd, came to Northamptone, and sent certayne bysshops to the kyng besechyng hym that in eschewyng of effusyone of Crysten blood he wolde admytte and suffre the erles for to come to his presence to declare thaym self as thay were. The duk of Bukynghame that stode besyde the kyng, sayde vn to thaym, "Ye come nat as bysshoppes for to trete for pease, but as men of armes;" because they broughte with thaym a notable company of men of armes. They answered and sayde, "We come thus for suerte of oure persones, for they that bethe aboute the kyng bythe nat oure frendes." "Forsothe," sayde the duk, "the erle of Warrewyk shalle nat come to the kynges presence, and yef he come he shalle dye." The messyngers retorned agayne, and tolde thys to the erles.

Thanne the erle of Warrewyk sent an herowde of armes to the kyng, besechyng that he myghte haue ostages of saaf goyng and commyng, and he wolde come naked to his presence, but he myghte [folio 206a] nat be herde. And the iijde tyme he sente to the kyng and sayde Page  97 that at ij howres after none, he wolde speke with hym, or elles dye in the feeld.

The archebysshoppe of Caunterbury sent a bysshoppe of this lond to the kyng with an instruccione, the whyche dyd nat hys message indyfferently, but exorted and coraged the kynges part for to fyȝte, as thay sayde that were there. And another tyme he was sent to the kyng by the commones, and thanne he came nat ayene, but pryuely departed awey. The bysshop of Herforde, a Whyte Frere, the kynges confessoure, ded the same: wherfore after the batayle he was commytted to the castelle of Warrewyk, where he was long in pryson.

Thanne on the Thurseday the xth day of Juylle, the yere of oure*. [The bataylle of Northampton.] Lorde Ml.CCCC.lx, at ij howres after none, the sayde erles of Marche*. [[July 10th.]] and Warrewyk lete crye thoroughe the felde, that no man shuld laye hand vpponne the kyng ne on the commune peple, but onely on the lordes, knyghtes and squyers: thenne the trumpettes blew vp, and bothe hostes countred and faughte togedre half an oure. The lorde Gray, that was the kynges vawewarde, brake the feelde and came to the erles party, whyche caused sauacione of many a mannys lyfe: many were slayne, and many were fled, and were drouned in the ryuer.

The duk of Bukyngham, the erle of Shrouesbury, the lorde Beaumont, the lorde Egremount were slayne by the Kentysshmen besyde the kynges tent, and meny other knyghtes and squyers. The ordenaunce of the kynges gonnes avayled nat, for that day was so grete rayne, that the gonnes lay depe in the water, and so were [folio 206b] queynt and myghte nat be shott.

Whanne the feld was do, and the erles thoroughe mercy and helpe had the vyctory, they came to the kyng in his tent, and sayde in thys wyse—

"Most Noble Prince, dysplease yow nat, thoughe it haue pleased God of His Grace to graunt vs the vyctory of oure mortalle enemyes, the whyche by theyre venymous malyce haue vntrewly Page  98 stered and moued youre hyghenesse to exyle vs oute of youre londe, and wolde vs haue put to fynalle shame and confusyone. We come nat to that entent for to inquyete ne greue youre sayde hyghenesse, but for to please youre moste noble personne, desiryng most tendrely the hyghe welfare and prosperyte thereof, and of alle youre reame, and for to be youre trew lyegemen, whyle oure lyfes shalle endure."

The kyng of theyre wordes was gretely recomforted, and anone was lad in to Northamptone wythe processyone, where he rested hym iij dayes, and thanne came to London, the xvj day of the monethe*. [[July 16th.]] abouesayde, [and] loged in the bysshop's paleys. For the whyche vyctory London yaf to Almyghtye God grete lawde and thankyng.

Nat longe before this batayle it was proclamed in Lancastreshyre and Chesshyre, that yef so were that the kyng had the vyctory of the erles, that thanne euery man shulde take what he myghte and make havok in the shyres of Kent, Essexe, Middylsexe, Surreye, Sussexe, Hamshyre and Wylshyre: bot God wolde nat suffre suche fals robbery.

Furthermore the Saturday the xix day of Juylle, thay that were*. [[July 19th.]] in the toure of Londoun for lack of vytayl yolden vp the toure, and came oute: of the whyche afterward some were drawe and beheded. [folio 207a]

The lord Scales, for as meche as men of Londoun loued hym nat, he thoughte that he myghte haue stande in the more sewrte in the saintwary of Westmynstre thanne in the toure. Late in the euyn, [he] entred a boote with iij persones rowyng toward Westmynstre, and a wommanne the whiche that knewe hym ascryed hym, and anone the boote men gadered theym togedre and folowed hym, and fylle vpponne hym, and kylde hym and caste hym on the lond, besyde seynt Mary Ouerey. And grete pyte it was, that so noble and so worshypfulle a knyghte, and so welle approued in the warrys of Normandy and Fraunce, shuld dy so myscheuously.

Whan quene Margarete harde telle, that the kyng was dyscom|fyted Page  99 and take, she fledde with hyr sone and viij persones in to the castelle of Hardlaghe in Wales, and as she went by Lancastreshyre, there she was robbed and dyspoyled of alle her goodes, to the valew of x.Ml. marc., as yt was sayde; and sone after she went into Scotlonde.

Thys same yeere, in the monethe of August, the kyng of Scottes beseged the castelle of Rokesburghe in Northumbreland, and on seynt Laurence day in the mornyng, er he had herde masse, he wolde haue*. [Ye 10 of Aw|gust.] fyred a grete gonne for to have shot to the castelle, and the chambre of the gonne brake and slowe hym.

Anno xxxix. A.D. 1460-1.

The xxxix. yere of kyng Harry, aboute seynt Mathews day in Septembre, the duk of Somerset came fro Guynes in to Englond.*. [Ye 21 of Sep|tembar.]

And thys same yere the Tewesday the viij. day of Octobre, a*. [[October 8th.]] parlement was begonne at Westmynstre; and thyder came Richard duk of York, that a lytelle before was come oute of Yrlond, and was loged in the paleys, the kyng beyng there, and brak vp the dores [folio 207b] of the kynges chambre. And the kyng heryng the grete noyse*. [Kynge Harry forcid to for|sake his cham|bar.] and rumore of the peple, yaafe hym place and took another chambre.

Then the seyde duk Richard, remembryng the grete and many|folde wrongys, exylys, and vylonyes, that he had suffred and be put vnto by thys seyde kyng Harry, and by hys; and also how wrongfully and vniustly he had be, and was, dyspleased and dyseased of hys ryghte enheritaunce of the reaume and croune of Englond, by violent intrusyonne of kyng Harry the iiijthe, whyche vnryghte|fully, wrongfully, and tyrannously vsurped the crowne after the dethe of kyng Rychard his cosyn, verray and ryghtfulle heyre therof, and so wrongfully holdyn from hymm, and occupyed and holde, by the sayde kyng Harry the iiijthe, the vthe, and kyng Harry the vjthe that now ys in to thys tyme; he as ryghte heyre by lynealle descens from the sayde kyng Richard, chalaunged and claymed the Page  100 sayd reame and croune of Englond, purposyng withoute any more delay to haue be crouned onne Alle Halow day, thanne next folow|yng: and heropon sent to the lordes and comones of the parlement in wrytyng, hys sayde clayme, tytle and pedegre, and nat wold come in to the parlement tylle he had aunswere therof. The whyche tytle, clayme and pedegre, after diligent inspeccione and wyse dely|beracione of thaym had, dyscussed and approued, by alle the seyde parlement; peese, vnyte and concorde betwene the kyng and the sayde duk Richard, the Fryday in the vygylle of Alhalow was maad,*. [[Friday, Oct. 31st.]] stabylysshed and concluded, as yt appereth plenely, and ys con|teyned in tharticles here next folowyng:— [folio 208a]

"Blyssed be Jhesu, in Whos handes and bounte restethe and ys*. [The articles be|twyxt kyng Harry and the duk of York.] the pease and vnyte betwyxt princes, and the weele of euery reaume yknow, by Whos direccione aggreed hit ys, appoynted, and accorded as folowethe, betwyxt the moste Hyghe and most Myghty Prynce, Kyng Harry the vjth, kyng of Englond and of Fraunce and lorde of Yrelond, on that on party, and the ryghte Hyghe and Myghty Prynce Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, on that other party, uppon cer|tayne matyers of variaunce meued betwyxt thayme; and in espe|cyalle, uppon the clayme and tytle vn to the corones of Englond and of Fraunce, and royalle power, estate, and dygnyte apperteynyng to the same, and lordshyppe of Yrelond, opened, shewed, and declared by the sayde duk afore alle the lordes spyrytuelle and temporalle beyng in thys present parliament: The sayde aggrement, appoynte|ment and accord, to be auctorysed by the same parlement.

"Furst, where the sayde Richard duk of York hathe declared and opened as aboue ys sayde tytle and clayme in the manner as folowethe:

"That the ryghte noble and worthy prince Harry kyng of Englond the iijde had issew and lawfully gate Edward hys furst begoten sone, borne at Westmynstre the xv. kalendis of Juylle, in the vygyl of seynt Marc and Marcellyane, the yere of oure Lorde Ml.CC.xxxix.: and Edmonde his seconde goten sone whyche was in saynt Marcelle Page  101 day, the yere of oure Lorde Ml.CC.: The whyche Edward, after the dethe of kyng Harry hys fader, entiteled and called kyng Edward the furst, had yssew Edwarde, hys furst begoten sone, entitled and called after the desese of the sayde furst Edwarde, hys fader, kyng Edward the [folio 208b] secunde: The whiche had yssew and lawfully gate the ryghte noble and honorable prince Edward the thryd, trew and vndowted kyng of Engelond and of Fraunce and lord of Yrelond: Whyche Edwarde the iijde trew and vndowted kyng of Engelond and of Fraunce and lord of Yrelond, had yssew and lawfully gate, Edward hys furst begotenne sone, prince of Wales; Wyllyam of Hatfyeld, secund begotenne; Leonel, thryd begoten, duke of Clarence; Johan of Gaunt, fourthe begotenne, duke of Lancastre; Edmond Langley, fyfth begoten, duk of York; Thomas Wodstoke, syxthe gotenne, duk of Gloucestre; and Wyllyam Wyndsore, the seuenthe goten. The sayde Edwarde, prince of Wales, whyche dyed in the lyf of the sayde Edward, kyng, had yssew and lawfully gat Richard, the whyche succeded the same Edward, kyng, hys grauntsyre, in royalle dygnyte, entyteled and called kyng Richard the secund, and deyed withoute yssew. Wyllyam Hatfeld the ijde goten sone of the seyde Edward, kyng, dyed withoute yssew. Leonelle, the iijde goten sone of the sayde Edward, kyng, duke of Clarence, had yssew and lawfully*. [Some have denied this.] gat Phylyppa, his ownely doughtre and heyre, whyche by sacrament of matrymony cowpeled vnto Ed|mond Mortymer erle of Marche, had yssew and lawfully beere Roger Mortymer, erle of Marche, her sone and heyre. Whiche Roger erle of Marche had yssew and lawfully begate Edmund erle of Marche, Roger Mortymer, Anne and Alianore, whyche Edmund, Roger and Alyanore, dyed withoute yssew. And the sayde Anne vndre the sacrament of matrymony cowpeled vnto Richard erle of Cambrege, the sone of the sayde Edmond Langley, the fyfthe goten [folio 209a] sone of the sayde kyng Edward, as yt ys afore specyfyed, had yssew and bare lawfully Richard Plantagenet, comonly called duk of York. Page  102 The sayde Johan of Gaunt the iiijth goten sone of the seyde kyng Edward, and the yonger brother of the sayde Leonelle, had yssew and lawfully gat Harry Erle of Derby, whyche incontinent after the tyme that the seyde kyng Richard resygned the coroneȝ of the sayde reames and the sayde lordeshyppe of Yrlond, vnryghtewysly entred vpponne the same, then be alyue Edmond Mortymer erle of Marche, sone to Roger Mortymer erle of Marche, sone and heyre of the sayde Phylyppa, doughter and heyre of the sayde ser Leonelle, the iijde sone of the sayde kyng Edward the iijde, to the whyche Edmond the ryghte and title of the seyde corones and lordshyp by lawe and custom belonged. To the whyche Richard duk of York, as sone to Anne, doughter to Roger Mortymer erle of Marche, sone and heyre to the sayde Phylyppa, doughter and heyre of the sayde Leonelle, the iijde goten sone of the sayde kyng Edwarde the iijde, the ryghte, tytle, dygnyte royalle, and estate of the corones of the reames of Englond and Fraunce, and of the lordeshyppe and the londe of Yre|lond, of the ryghte lawe and custume perteynethe and belongethe, afore any yssew of the sayde Johan of Gaunt the iiijthe goten sone of the same kyng Edwarde.

"The sayde tytle natheles natwythestandyng, and withoute preiudice of the same, the sayde Richard duk of York, tendrely desyryng the weele, reste and prosperyte of thys lande, and to sette aparte alle [folio 209b] that that myghte be a trouble to the same; and consideryng the possessyone of the sayd kyng Harry the vjthe, and that he hathe for hys tyme be named, taken and reputed kyng of Engelond and of Fraunce and lorde of Yrlond; ys content, aggreed and consentethe that he be had, reputed and taken kyng of Englond and of Fraunce, with the royalle astate, dignyte and preemynence bylongyng therto, and lorde of Yrlond, duryng hys lyfe naturalle; and for that tyme the sayde duk, withoute hurte or preiudice of hys sayde ryghte and title, shalle take, worshyp and honoure hym for his souerayne lord.

"Item, The sayde Rychard, duk of York, shalle promyt and bynde hym by hys solemne othe, in maner and forme as folowethe: Page  103

"In the name of God, Amenne. I Rychard, duke of York, promytte and swere by the feythe and trowthe that I owe to Almyghty God, that I shalle neuer do, consent, procure or stere, directly or indi|rectly, in pryve or appert, neyther, asmoche as in me ys, shalle suffre to be do, consented, procured or stered, any thyng that may be or sowne to abrygement of the naturalle lyfe of kyng Harry vjth, or to hurte or amenusyng of hys regne or dygnyte royalle, by vyolence or any otherwyse ayens hym (sic) fredom or liberte: But yef any persone or persones wold do or presume any thyng to the contrary, I shalle with alle my myghte and power withstande hyt, and make yt to be wythstonde, as fer as my power wylle streche therevnto: so helpe me God, and His holy Euangelyes.

"Item, Edward erle of Marche and Edmond erle of Rutlond, sones of the sayde Richard duk of York, shalle make lyke othe. [folio 210a]

"Item, It ys accorded, appoynted, and aggreed, that the sayde Rychard duke of York shalle be called and reputed from hensfoorth verray and ryghtefulle heyre to the corounes, royalle astate, dygnyte and lordeshyp abouesayde: And after the decees of the sayde king Harry, or whenne he wolle laye from hym the sayde corounes, astate, dignite and lordshyppe, the sayde duke and hys heyres shalle immediately succede to the sayde corones, royalle astate, dygnyte and lordshyppe.

"Item, The sayde Richard, duk of York, shalle haue by auctoryte of thys present parlement, castelles, maners, londes and tenementes, wythe the wardes, mariages, releues, seruices, fynes, amerciamentes, offyces, avousons, fees and other appurtenaunces to thaym belongyng what soeuer they be, to the yerely valew of x. Ml marc., ouer alle charges and repryses; whereof v. Ml marc. shalle be to his owen estate; iij. Ml VC. marc. to Edwarde hys furst begoten sone, earle of Marche, for his astate; and Ml li. to Edmond, erle of Rutlond, hys secund goten sone, for his yerly sustentacione, of suche consi|deraciones and suche entent as shal be declared by the lordes of the kynges counselle. Page  104

"Item, Yef any persone, or persones, ymagyne or compasse the dethe of the sayde duk, and therof prouably be atteynt of open dede doone by folkes of other condicione, that yt be demed and adiuged hyghe tresone.

"Item, For the more estabylysshyng of the sayde accord, it ys appoynted and consented, that the lordes spirituelle and temporalle beyng in thys present parliament, shalle make othys to accept, take, worshyppe and repute, the sayde Richard duk of York, and hys [folio 210b] sayde eyres, as aboue ys rehersed, and kepe and obserue and streynghte, in as moche as apparteynethe vn to thaym, alle the thynges abouesayde, and resyste to theyre power alle thaym that wold presume the contrary, accordyng to thayre astates and de|grees.

"Item, The sayde Richard duk of York, erles of Marche and Rut|land, shalle promyt and make othe to helpe, ayde and defend the sayde lordes and euery of theyme, ayens alle tho that wolle quarelle or any thyng attempt ayenst the sayde lordes, or any of thaym, by occasyone of aggrement or consenttyng to the sayde accorde, or assystence yeuyng to the duk and erles or any of thaym.

"Item, Hit ys aggreed and appoynted that thys accorde, and euery article therof, be opened and notyfyed by the kynges letters patentes, or otherwyse, at suche tymes and places and in manner as hit shal be thoughte expedyent to the sayde Richard duk of York, with thavyse of the lordes of the kynges counseylle.

"The kyng vnderstandethe certaynly the sayde tytle of the sayde Richard duk of York, iust, lawfulle and sufficiant, by thauyse and assent of the lordes spiritualle and temporalle and commones, in this parliament assembled; and by auctoryte of the same parlement de|clarethe, approuethe, ratyfyethe, confermethe and acceptethe the sayde tytle, iust, good, lawfulle, and trew, and therevnto yeuethe his assent and aggrement of his fre wylle and liberte. And ouer that, by the sayde avyce and auctoryte, declarethe, entitlethe, callethe, stabylysshethe, affermethe and reputethe the sayde Richard duk of Page  105 York, verray, trew and ryghtefulle heyre to the corones, royalle [folio 211a] astate and dygnyte, of the reames of Englond and of Fraunce and of the lordeshyppe of Yrlond aforesayde: and that accordyng to the worshyp and reuerence that therto belongethe, he be taken, accepted and reputed in worshyppe and reuerence, by alle the states of the sayd reame of Englond, and of alle hys subiectes therof; sauyng and ordeynyng, by the same auctoryte, the kyng to haue the sayde corones, reames, royalle estate, dignyte and preemynence of the same, and the sayde lordshyppe of Yrlond, duryng his lyf naturalle. And forthermore, by the same avyse and auctoryte, wylle, con|sentethe and aggreethe that after hys decease, or whan hit shalle please his hyghenesse to ley from hym the seyde corones, estat, dignyte and lordshyp, or therof ceasethe; The seyde Richard duke of York and his heyres shalle immediatly succede hym, in the seyde corones, royalle astate, dignyte and worshyppe, and thaym thanne haue and ioye, any acte of parlement, statute or ordenaunce or other thyng to the contrary maad, or interrupcion or dyscon|tynuance of possessyone natwythstandyng. And moreouer, by the sayde avyse and auctoryte, stabylysshethe, grauntethe, confermethe, approuethe, ratyfyethe and acceptethe the seyde accorde, and alle thyng therynne conteyned, and therevnto freely and absolutely assenteth and aggreeth.

And by the same avyse and auctoryte ordeynethe and esta|bylysshethe, that yef any persone or persones ymagyne or compasse the dethe of the sayde duk, and prouably be atteynt of open dede done by folkes of that condicions, that it demed and adiuged hygh treason.

And forthermore ordeyneth, puttethe and stabylysshethe, by the sayde avyse and auctoryte, that alle statutys, ordenaunces and actes of parlement, made in the tyme of the sayde kyng Harry the iiijth, by the whiche he and the heyres of his body commyng of Harry late kyng of Englond the vth, the sone and heyre of the sayde kyng Harry the iiijth, and the heyres of the body of the same kyng Harry Page  106 the vth comyng, were or be enherytable to the sayde corones and reames, or to the herytage or enherytament of the same, be annulled, repeled, reuoked, dampned, cancelled, voyde, and of no force or effect. And ouer thus, the kyng by the sayde aduyse, assent and auctoryte, wylle, ordeynethe and stabylysshethe, that alle other actes and statutes, maade afore thys tyme by auctoryte of parlement, nat repeled or adnulled by lyk auctoryte, or otherwyse voyde, be in suche foorce, effect and vertew as thay were afore the makyng of these ordenaunces, and that no letters patentes royalx of record, nor actys iudycyalle, maade or done afore thys tyme, nat repeled, re|uersed ne otherwyse voyde by the lawe, be preiudyced or hurt by thys present acte."

Also it was ordeyned by the sayde parlement, that the sayde Rychard duk of York shold be called Prince of Wales, duke of Cornewayle, and erle of Chestre; and [he] was made also by the sayde parlement protectoure of Englond.

Thys same yeere, in the moneth of Decembre, the duk of Somerset*. [[December.]] and the erle of Deuenshyre went in to the Northcuntre, wythe viij.C. men: and anone after the seyde duk of York, the erle of Rutland hys sone, and the erle of Salesbury, a lytelle before Crystynmas, [folio 212a] wyth a fewe personnes went in to the Northe also, for to represse the malyce of the Northermenne the whyche loued nat the sayd duk of York ne the erle of Salesbury, and were loged at the castelle of Sandale and at Wakefeld.

Than the lord Nevyle, brother to the erle of Westmorland, vnder a falce colour wente to the sayde duk of York, desyryng a commys|syone of hym for to reyse a peple for to chastyse the rebelles of the cuntre; and the duk it graunted, demyng that he had be trew and on hys parte. When he had his commyssyone he reysed to the nombre of viij. Ml. men, and broute thaym to the lordes of the cuntre; that ys to say, the erle of Northumbrelond, lord Clyfford, and duke of Somerset, that were aduersaryes and enemyes to duke Richarde. And whan they sawe a conuenient tyme for to fylle Page  107 theyre cruelle entent, the laste day of Decembre they fyll oponne the sayde duk Rychard, and hym kylde, and hys sone therlle of*. [[December 31st.]] Rutland, and meny other knyghtes and squyers; that ys to say, the lorde Haryngtone a yong man, Thomas Haryngtone knyght, ser Thomas Nevyle sone to therlle of Salesbury, and ser Harry Ratford knyghte; and of other peple to the nombre of Ml. Ml.CC. The erle of Salesbury was take alyue, and lad by the sayde duk of Somerset to the castel of Pountfreete, and for a grete summe of money that he shuld haue payed had graunt of hys lyfe. But the commune peple of the cuntre, whyche loued hym nat, tooke hym owte of the castelle by violence and smote of his hed.

Whan the dethe of these lordes was knowe, greete sorow was*. [A.D. 1461.] [folio 212b] made for thaym; and anone, by the kynges commaundement, wryttes and commyssiones were sent and direct to the Shyreues and other officers, to reyse peple for to chastyse the peple and the rebelles of the North.*. [See in Rymer a commission directed to Edward duke of York for this purpose, dated Feb. 12 (vol. xi. p. 471.)] And they of the Northe heryng thys gadred pryuyly a grete peple, and came doune sodeynly to the towne of Dunstaple, robbyng alle the cuntre and peple as they came; and spoylyng abbeyes and howses of relygyone and churches, and bare awey chalyces, bookes and other ornamentes, as thay had be paynems or Sarracenes, and no Crysten menne.

The xij. day of Feuerer, the Thurseday, kyng Harry with his*. [[February 12th.]] lordes, that ys to say, the duk of Norfolk, and Suffolk, the erles of Warrewyk and of Arundelle, the lorde Bonevyle and other, went oute of Londoun, and came with thayre peple to the toune of Seynt Albonys, nat knowyng that the peple of the North was so nyghe. And whanne the kyng herde that they were so nyghe hym, he went oute and took hys felde besyde a lytelle towne called Sandryge, nat*. [The secunde batayl of Seynt Albonys.] fer fro Seynt Albonys, in a place called No-mannes land, and there he stoode and sawe his peple slayne on bothe sydes. And at the Page  108 laste, thorow the withdrawyng of the Kentisshmen with thayre cap|teyne, called Lovelace, that was in the vaunt-warde,—the whych Lovelace fauored the Northe party, for as moche as he was take by the Northurnmen at Wakefeld whan the duk of York was slayne, and made to theym an othe for to saue his lyfe, that he wold neuer be agayns theym,—and also be vndysposycion of the peple of the kynges syde, that wold nat be guyded ne gouerned by theyre cap|teyns, kyng Harryes part loste the feeld. The lordes that were wyth [folio 213a] the kyng seyng thus, withdrowe theym, and went theyre wey.

Whan the kyng sawe his peple dysparbeled and the feeld broke, he went to his quene Margarete that came wyth the Northurmen, and hyr sone Edward; for thay of the North sayde that thay came for to restore the kyng to the quene his wyfe, and for to delyuer hym owte of pryson; forasmeche as seth the batayle of Northampton he had be vnder the rewle and gouernaunce of the erles of Warre|wyk and Salesbury, and of other.

The sayde erle of Warrewyk dressed hym toward the erle of Marche, commyng toward London owte of Wales, fro the dyscom|fyture of the erles of Penbroke and Wylshyre. The lorde Bone|vyle that came wyth kyng Harry wolde haue withdrawe hym, as other lordes ded, and saued hymself fro his enemyes, but the kyng assured hym that he shuld haue no bodyly harme; natheles nat|wythstandyng that sewrte, at instaunce of the quene, the duk of Exetre, and therlle of Deuonshyre, by iugement of hym that was called the Prince, a chylde, he was beheded at Seynt Albons, and with hym a worthy knyghte of Kent called ser Thomas Kyryelle. Ser Johan Nevyle, kyng Harryes chamburlayne, brother to the erle of Warrewyk, was take; but sone after he was delyuered. This bataylle was done on Shroftwysday, the yere aboue sayde, the xvij.*. [[February 17th.]] day of Feuerer, in the whiche were slayne Ml.IX.C.xvj. persones.

Whan thys batayle was doon, London dredyng the manas and the malyce of the quene and the duke of Somerset and other, leste they wolde have spoyled the cyte,—for as moche as the quene with her [folio 213b] Page  109 counselle had graunted and yeue leve to the Northurmen for to spoyle and robbe the sayde cyte, and also the townes of Couentre, Bristow, and Salesbury, wyth the shyrys withynne rehersed, as for payment and recompense of theyre sowde and wages, as the comon noyse was among the peple at that tyme;—then ther was sent vnto the sayde quene owte of the cyte of Londoun the duchesse of Bukynghame, with other wytty men with her, to trete with thaym for to be benyuolent and owe good wylle to the cyte, the whyche was dyuyded withyn hyt self; for some of the worthy and of the Aldremen, dredyng and weyyng the inconueniens and myscheues that myghte folow contrary to the comone wele of the cyte, and for to stonde in sewrte of the cyte both of bodyes and of goodes no robry to be had, graunted and promytted a certayne some of money to the sayde quene and duk of Somerset, and that he shulde come in to the cyte aponne thys appoyntement with a certayne nombre of persones wyth hym. And anon hereaponne certayn speres and men of armes were sent by the sayde duk, for to have entred the cyte before his commyng; whereof some were slayne, and some sore hurte, and the remanent put to flyghte. And anone after, the comones, for the sauacione of the cyte, toke the keyes of the yates were they shulde have entred, and manly kept and defended hit fro theyre enemyes, vnto the commyng of Edwarde the noble erle of Marche.

Thanne kyng Harry, with Margarete his quene and the Norther|men, went and retorned homewarde toward the North ayene: the [folio 214a] whyche Northurnemenne as they went homwarde dyd harmes innumerable, takyng mennys cartes, waynes, horses and bestis, and robbed the peple and lad theyre pylage into the North contre, so that men of the shyres that they past by, had almoste lefte no bestys to tyle theyre londe.

This same tyme the ij bretheryn of the erle of March, George and Richard, were sent to Phylyp duk of Burgoyne for saaf garde of theyre persones, the whyche were of the sayde duk notably Page  110 resceyued, cherysshed and honoured; and afterwarde sende hom with meny grete yeftes vn to Englond ayene.

The iijde day of Feuerer the same yere, Edward the noble erle of*. [[February3rd.]] Marche faught with the Walsshmen besyde Wygmore in Wales, whos capteyns were the erle of Penbrook and the erle of Wylshyre, that wolde fynally haue dystroyed the sayde erle of Marche.

And the Monday before the daye of batayle, that ys to say, in*. [[February 2nd.]] the feest of Puryficacion of oure blessed Lady abowte x atte clocke before none, were seen iij sonnys in the fyrmament shynyng fulle clere, whereof the peple hade grete mervayle, and therof were agast. The noble erle Edward thaym comforted and sayde, "Beethe of good comfort, and dredethe not; thys ys a good sygne, for these iij sonys betokene the Fader, the Sone, and the Holy Gost, and therfore late vs haue a good harte, and in the name of Almyghtye God go we agayns oure enemyes." And so by His grace, he had the vyctory of his enemyes, and put the ij erles to flyghte, and slow of the Walsshemen to the nombre of iiij. Ml.

After thys dyscomfyture he came to Londoun, the xxviij day of [folio 214b] the moneth abouesayde, and anone fylle vnto hym peple innumerable,*. [[February 28th.]] redy for to go with hym in to the northe, to venge the dethe of the noble duke Richard hys fadre.

Here endethe the reygne of kyng Harry the vjthe that had regned xxxix. [viij.]*. [Correction by the hand of Stowe.] yere, vj monethes and iij dayes, that ys to say vnto Twysday, the iij day of Marche; and the Wennesday next after, vppon the morow, Edwarde the noble erle of Marche was chosen*. [[Wednesday, March 4th.]] kyng in the cyte of Londoun, and began for to reygne, &c.