An English chronicle of the reigns of Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI written before the year 1471; with an appendix, containing the 18th and 19th years of Richard II and the Parliament at Bury St. Edmund's, 25th Henry VI and supplementary additions from the Cotton. ms. chronicle called "Eulogium." Edited by John Silvester Davies.
Davies, John Silvester, ed. 1829 or 30-1909,
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HENRY VI. Of kyng Harry the vj te aftir the conqueste, sone of kyng Harri the v the , and of the bataille of Vernulle, &c. [folio 178b] *. [Capm. cxlix.]

A.D. 1422.

AFTIR the noble and victorious prince kyng Harri the V, regned*. [[Reign began September 1st.]] his sone kyng Harri the vjte, that was bore at Wyndesore, in the feste of saynt Nicholas the confessour, and began forto regne in*. [[December 6th. 1421.]] the age of ix monethis and xv daieȝ.

Anno iij [ij]. A.D. 1424.

And the iijde yeer of his regne*. [The 2nd of Henry VI. The battle was on August 16th, 1424.], was a gret batille don at Vernul in Perch, betuene Johan duke of Bedforde, thanne regent of Fraunce, and the Scottis and the Frenshemenne; in the whiche bataille was take the duke of Alaunsonne, and there were slayne the bastard of Alaunsonne, the erl of Narbonne, and the erl of Marrebonne. And on the Scottis part were slayne the erl Douglas, the erl Boghan, the erlle of Marre, the erl of Murreye, and meny othir to the noumbre of vij Ml. and more. And aftir the said bataille was done, ther were y founde in the dicheȝ of the toun more than iiij Ml. ydround. And thus hadde Englisshemen the victory, thanked be Almyghti God.

Anno iiijto. A.D. 1425-6.

The iiij yeer of his regne, on the morow aftir the feste of Simon and Jude, aroos a gret debaat betuene Humfrey duke of Gloucestre*. [[October 29th.]] and master Harri Beaufort his vncle bisshoppe of Wynchestre, being that tyme Chaunceller of Englond; so that alle the cite of Londoun was mevid ayens the bisshoppe, and wolde haue destroid him Page  54 in his yn in Suthwerk; but the yatis of Londoun brigge were so sureli kept that no man myȝte passe out, and the Thamise was also kept [folio 179a] that no man myȝt passe ouer. And the said bisshoppe hadde a gret company of men of armeȝ and archiers withynne his place, to haue maad defens if nede hadde be. But atte laste be mene of lordis and specialli of the prince of Portyngale, that was the same tyme in Londoun, this troubille was cesid: and aftirward the same yeer atte parlement holden at Leycestre thay were fulli accordid, but yit ther was prive wrath betuene thaym long tyme aftir.

Anno v. A.D. 1427.

The v yeer of this kyng Harri, the forsaid maister Harri Beaufort, bisshoppe of Wynchestre, was maad a Cardinal of Rome be pope*. [[March.]] Martyn the V, of the title of saint Euseby; and sente his hat to Caleys, and thider he wente, and there receyued it.

nno viij. A.D. 1429.

The viij yere of his regne, he was crouned at Westmynstre on*. [[November 6th.]] the Sunday in the feste of saint Leonard.

Anno [i]x. A.D. 1430-1.

And sone aftir he wente into Fraunce, and was crouned at Paris*. [[April 24th.]] the ix day of December, the x yeer*. [The 9th year of his reign. 1430.] of his regne, thorough special help and supportacioun of the said cardinalle there beyng present; and cam the same yeer in to Englond agayn.

And this same yeer, whilis the kyng was in Fraunce, and Humfrey duke of Gloucestre his vncle beyng protectour and gouernour of this lond, aroos a man that named himself Jacke Sharpe, purposyng with his fals feleshippe to haue destroid the chirche and the lordis [folio 179b] spirituel and temporel: but he was take and dampned to the deth befor the said duke at Oxenforde, and drawe and hanged and quartrid; and his hed and his quarters were set vp in dyuers placeȝ of Englond.

And this same yeer, on saint Katerineȝ eve, the lord Fitz Watier wolde haue come fro Normandie in to Englond, and ayens the wille and counsel of the shipmenne wente heddily to ship at Dope; and whanne he was in the se, ther fil on him a greet tempest, and drounde him with moche othir peple.

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A.D. 1433.

The xj yeer of this kyng Harri, was the grete and general clip of the sunne on saynt Botulfis day; wherof moche peple was sore aferd.*. [Anno xjo. fuit generalis eclip|sis solis, &c.]

Anno xijo. A.D. 1433-4.

And the next yeer aftir, the xij yeer of kyng Harri, was the grete frost that nevir eny such was seen before; and it endurid fro saint Kateryneȝ day vnto Sheoftide; and the Thamise and othir grete rivers were so hard frosen that hors and cariage myȝte passe ovir.

Anno xiijo. A.D. 1434-5.

And the nexte yeer aftir began the grete derthe of corn in this land, the whiche endurid ij yeer, so that a busshelle of whete was sold*. [Caristia bladi.] for xl. d., and the poer peple in dyuers partieȝ of the Northcuntre eet breed maad of farn rotes.

Anno xiii[j]. A.D. 1435-6.

The xiij yeer of king Harri deide that noble prince Johan duke of Bed|forde,*. [The duke of Bedford died September 16th, 1435; consequently in the 14th of Henry VI.] the kyngis vncle, and regent of Fraunce, and is buried at Roon.

Anno xiiij. A.D. 1435-6.

The xiiij yeer of king Harri, Philip duke of Burgoyne, as a fals forsworn man, besegid the toun of Caleys with gret ordenaunce,*. [[July.]] [folio 180a] and an huge noumbre of peple, that is to say CL.Ml., as it was said. And forto breke the said sege Humfrey duke of Gloucestre with a gret retenu was sent to Caleys. But befor his goyng the erl of Morteyne and the lord Camoys were sent to Caleys with v C men for to kepe the toune, til more strengthe myȝte come. And sone aftir, be counselle and manhood of ser Johan Radclyffe, that tyme lieutenaunt of Caleys, the said sege was broke; for whanne the duke of Burgoyne herde of the comyng of the duke of Gloucestre with so gret a power, he lefte the sege and wente his way, levyng behynde him some of his gonneȝ and bombardeȝ hid vnder the sandeȝ.

Thanne wente the said duke of Gloucestre vnto Caleys, and fro*. [[August.]] thennys into Flaundris, destroyyng the cuntre and the corn stondyng vpon the grounde, and brende the toun of Poperyng and othir smale villageȝ, and thanne cam in to Englond agayne aboute the feste of saint Bartilmew.

And this same yeer withynne a moneth aftir that the said duke of Burgoyne was fled from Caleis, Jameȝ kyng of Scottis besegid Page  56 the castel of Rokesburgh in Northumbirlond with CXL.Ml. men as it was said: but thay withynne the castel kept it with iiijxx menne of armeȝ ayens the king of Scottis, and and all his ost. And whanne the said kynge herde telle that certayn lordis of the Northcuntre*. [[August.]] wolde come and breke the sege, he fledde in Scotland ayenne. [folio 180b]

[Anno xvo.] A.D. 1437.

And aftirward aboute the moneth of Marche be excitacion and stiryng of the erl of Atholle and othir, the said kyng of Scottis, as he was goyng toward his bed, hauyng no more vn him but onli his*. [Rex Scotorum interficitur.] shirte, cruelli and vnmanli was slayne; and as it was said he hadde on him xxx woundis, wherof vij were dedly.

Anno xix [xviij.*. [Correction by the hand of Stowe.]] A.D. 1440.

The xix yeer of kyng Harri, the Friday before midsomer, a prest callid ser Richard Wyche, that was a vicary in Estsexe, was brend on the Tourhille for heresie, for whooȝ deth was gret murmur and troubil among the peple, for some said he was a good man and an holy, and put to deth be malice; and some saiden the contrary; and so dyuers men hadde of him dyuers oppinions. And so fer forth the comune peple was brought in such errour, that meny menne and wommen wente be nyghte to the place where he was brend, and offrid there money and ymageȝ of wax, and made thair praiers knel|yng as thay wolde haue don to a saynt, and kiste the ground and baar away with thaym the asshis of his body as for reliqueȝ; and this endurid viij daieȝ, til the mair and aldermenne ordeyned men of armeȝ forto restreyne and lette the lewd peple fro that fals ydolatrie, and meny were therfore take and lad to prisoun.

And among othir was take the vicary of Berkyngchirche beside [folio 181a] the tour of Londoun, in whoȝ parishe alle this was done, that receyued the offeryng of the symple peple. And for to excite and stire thaym to offre the more feruently, and to fulfille and satisfie his fals couetise, he took asshis and medlid thaym with powder of spiceȝ and strowed thaym in the place where the said heretic was brend; and so the symple peple was deceyued, wenyng that the swete flauour hadde comme of the asshis of the ded Page  57 heretic: for this the said vicari of Berkyngchirche confessid aftir|ward in prisoun. And the said heretic cesid nevir vnto the laste breth forto blaspheme and desclaundre the iiij ordris of freris, the whiche was no token of perfeccion ne of charite.

[Anno] xix.*. [Correction by Stowe.] A.D. 1441.

And this same yeer in the moneth of Juylle, maister Roger Bol|tyngbroke that was a gret and a konnyng man in astronomye, and*. [Hoc anno magister Jo|hannes Kemp, archiepiscopus Ebor. factus fuit cardinalis; Feb. 1440.] maister Thomas Suthwelle a chanon of saint Steveneȝ chapel wythynne Westmynstre, were take as conspiratours of the kyngis deth; for it was said that the said maister Roger sholde laboure to consume the kyngis persone be wey of nygromancie, and that the said maister Thomas sholde say massis in forboden and inconuenient placeȝ, that is to say, in the logghe of Harnesey Park beside London, vpon certayn instrumentis with the whiche the said maister Roger sholde and (sic) vse his said craft of nygromancie ayens the feith and good beleue, and was assentyng to the said Roger in alle his workis. And the Sunday the xxv day of the same moneth, the forsaid maister Roger with all his instrumentis of nygromancie—that [folio 181b] is to say a chaier ypeynted, wherynne he was wont to sitte whanne he wroughte his craft, and on the iiij corners of the chaier stood iiij swerdis, and vpon euery swerd hanggyng an ymage of copir—and with meny othir instrumentis accordyng to his said craft, stood in a high stage aboue alle menneȝ heddis in Powlis chircheyerd befor the cros whileȝ the sermon endurid, holdyng a suerd in his right hand and a septre in his lift hand, araid in a marvaillous aray whereynne he was wont to sitte whanne he wrouȝte his nygro|mancie. And aftir the sermon was don, he abiurid alle maner articleȝ longyng in eny wise to the said craft of nigromancie, or mys sownyng to the Cristen feith.

And the Tywisday next folowyng dame Alienore Cobham,*. [Hic incipit pro|cessus contra Alienoram Cob|ham.] duchesse of Gloucestre, fledde be nyȝte in to the sayntewary at Westmynstre; wherfore she was holde suspect of certayn articleȝ of tresoun. Page  58

In the mene tyme, the forsaid maister Roger was examned before the kyngis counsel; where he confessid and saide that he wroughte the said nygromancie atte stiryng of the forsaid dame Alienore, to knowe what sholde falle of hir and to what astat she sholde come. Wherfore she was citid to appere befor certayn bisshoppis of the kyngis; that is to say, befor maister Harri Chicheli, archebisshop of Cauntirbury, maister Harry Beaufort bisshoppe of Wynchestre and cardinalle, maister Johan Kemp archebisshoppe of York and [folio 182a] cardinalle, maister William Ayscoughe bisshoppe of Salisbury, and othir, on the Monday the xxij day off Juylle next folowyng, in saint Stepheneȝ chapelle of Westmynstre, forto ansuere to certayn articleȝ of nygromancie, of wicchecraft or sorcery, of heresy and of tresoun. Atte whiche day she apperid; and the forsaid Roger was brouȝt forth forto witnesse ayens hir, and saide that she was cause and first stirid himme to laboure in the said nygromancie; and thanne be commaundement of the said bisshoppis she was com|mittid to the warde of sir Johan Stiward knyghte, and of Johan Stanley squier, and othir of the kyngis hous, forto be lad to the castelle of Ledis, there to be safli kept vnto iij wikis aftir Mighel|masse next thanne comyng. But the said dame Alienore was lothe to go out of the sayntwary and fayned her seek, and wolde haue stole away priveli be watir, but she was let of her purpos and lad forth to the castel beforsaid.

[Anno xxo.] A.D. 1441.

Anonne aftir, a commission was direct to the erl of Huntyngdoun, to the erl of Stafforde, to the erl of Suffolk, and to certayn juges of bothe benchis, to enquire of al maner tresons, sorcery, and alle othir thyngiȝ that myȝte in eny wise towche or concerne harmfulli the kyngis persone; befor whom the said maister Roger and maister Thomas as principalle, and the said dame Alienore as accessory, were enditid of treson, yn the Guyldehalle of Londoun.

And this same tyme was take a womman callid the wicche of Eye, [folio 182b] whooȝ sorcerie and wicchecraft the said dame Alienore hadde longe*. [Nota de sorti|legâ de Eye.] tyme vsid; and be suche medicineȝ and drynkis as the said wicche Page  59 made, the said Alienore enforced the forsaid duke of Gloucestre to loue her and to wedde her. Wherfore, and also for cause of relaps, the same wicche was brend in Smythfeld, in the vigily of Saint Simon and Jude.

Ferthirmore on the Satirday the xxj day of Octobir, in the chapel beforsaid, befor the bisshoppis of Londoun, maister Robert Gilbert, and of Lincoln maister William Alnewik, and of Norwich maister Thomas Brouns, to whom the said archebisshoppe of Cauntirbury, maister Henri Chichele, hadde committid his power be his commis|sioun because of his seeknesse to fynyshe and ende this mater, the said Alienore apperid. And maister Adam Moleyns, thanne clerc of the kyngis counsel, redde certayn articleȝ obiectid ayens hir of sorcerie and nygromancie, wherof some she denyed and some she grauntid.

Thanne was this processe proroged vnto the Monday the xxiij day of Octobir thanne next folowyng, at whiche day the said Alienore apperid and witnesseȝ were broughte forth and examned, and she was convict of the said articleȝ. Thanne it was axed of hir, yf she wolde eny say ayens the witnesseȝ, and she said Nay, but submitted hir onli to the correccioun of the bisshoppis; and on the Friday next, the said Alienore abiurid before the bisshoppis the articleȝ abouesaid. And thanne she was enioyned forto appere before the [folio 183a] said archebisshoppe of Cauntirbury or his forsaid commissioners, the Thursday the ix day of Nouembir next folowyng, forto receyue her penaunce. And in the mene tyme the forsaid maister Thomas Suthwelle deide in the tour of Londoun.

The Thursday abouesaid the said dame Alienore apperid befor tharchebisshoppe and othir in the forsaid chapelle, and receyued her penaunce vnder this fourme; that she sholde go the same day fro Templebarre with a meke and a demure countenaunce vnto Poulis*. [Nota peniten|ciam Alienoræ Cobham, sibi iniunctam.] beryng in her hond a tapir of a pound, and offre it there atte highe auter. And the Wedenesday next she sholde go fro the Swan in Thamyse strete beryng a tapir of the same weighte vnto Crichirche Page  60 in Londoun, and there offre it vp. And the Friday next she shold go in lik wise fro Quenehide berying a tapir of the same weighte vnto saint Migheleȝ in Cornhulle, and there offre it vp. The whiche penaunce she fulfillid and dede righte mekely, so that the more part of the peple hadde on hir gret compassioun.

And aftir this she was committid ayen to the warde of ser Thomas Stanley, wherynne she was al her lif aftir, hauyng yeerli C marc., assigned to hir for hir fyndyng and costis; whooȝ pride, fals couetise and lecherie were cause of her confusioun. Othir thyngis myghte [folio 183b] be writen of this dame Alienore, the whiche atte reuerence of nature and of wommanhood shul not be reherced.

And the Satirday the xviij day of Nouembir next sewyng, maister Roger Boltyngbroke at Guyldehalle at Londoun befor the said lordis and justiceȝ was arreymed of the forsaid articleȝ of tresoun ayens the kyngis persone, and therof be xij men of Londoun he was founde gilty. Wherfore be the iugement of ser Johan Hody that tyme chief justice of the kyngis bench, he was drawe fro the tour of Londoun vnto Tyburne; and there he was hanged and leet doun half alive, and his bowellis take out and brent, and his hed smyte of and set on London brigge, and his body quartrid and sent to certayn tounes of Englond, that is to saye, Oxenford, Cambrigge, York and Hereforde. And whanne the said maister Roger sholde die, he confessid that he was nevir gilty of eny treson ayens the kyngis persone; but he pre|sumed to fer in his konnyng, as he sayde, wherof he cride God mercy; and the justice that yaf on him iugement livid not longe aftir.

Anno xxjo A.D. 1443.

The xxj yeer of king Harri, saint Georges feste was holde at Westmynstre, and there ser Johan Beaufort erl of Somerset was maad duke of Somerset.

Anno xxij. A.D. 1444.

The xxij yeer of kynge Harri, Johan erlle of Huntyngdoun at Wyndesore was made duke of Excestre.

And this same yeer deide the forsaid Johan Beaufort duke of Somerset, the vj kalendes of May, at Wymborne mynstre in the counte of Dorset, and there he is buried.

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Anno xxiij. [ij.] A.D. 1444.

The xxiij [xxij] yere of kyng Harri, aboute the beginnyng of Lente, were sente ambassiatours in to Fraunce; that is to say, the erl of [folio 184a] Suffolk, maister Adam Moleyns dean of Salisbury and keper of the kyngis pryve seal, and ser Robert Roos, and other, to trete of the mariage betuene kyng Harri and dame Margarete the kyngis douȝtir of Cecile. And the Sunday next befor Witsuntide the xxiiij day of May, in saint Martyneȝ chirche in the toun of Touris in Tureyne, assuraunce of mariage was maad betuene the said erlle, as in name of the kyngis persone, and the said dame Marga|rete, before the popis legat Petrus de Monte, that tyme beyng there. And thanne were grauntid treweȝ and abstinence of warre betuene Englond and Fraunce for terme of xviij monetheȝ,—but what treson grew vnder tho treweȝ, it was sone know aftirward be alienacion of Anges and Mayne, and wilful lesyng of al Normandy; and aftir this, our ambassiatours cam hoom agayne.

[Anno xxiijo] A.D. 1444.

The xxiiij [xxiij] yeer of kyng Harri in the moneth of Nouembir, the said erl of Suffolk with othir wente ayenne in to Fraunce, forto brynge and condue the said dame Margarete into Engelond: the whiche erl was made befor his goyng markeys of Suffolk; and sone aftir he was maad duke.

And this same yeer, at Witsuntid, Humfrey erl of Stafford was maad duke of Bukynghame.

And this same yeer, on the Thursday the xxv. day of Feuerer was a parlement begonne att Westmynstre, in the whiche Gye [Henry]*. [This is Stowe's correction, the word "Gye" is struck out from the text and "Henry" written in the margin.] the yong erl of Warwic was maad duke of Warwic; and the lord Beaumond was maad vicount Beaumond. [folio 184b]

A.D. 1445.

And duryng this parlement, the forsaid dame Margarete landid at Porchestre and wente fro thenneȝ to Hamptoun be water, and restid her there in the Goddeshous; and thanne she wente in to the abbey of Tychfeld, and there she was weddid to king Harri on the Thursday the xxij. day of Aprille, and maister William Ascoghe, Page  62 bisshoppe of Salisbury, dede the solennite of the marriage and weddid thaym, and on the Sunday the xxx. day of May next folowyng she was crouned at Westmynstre.

This same yeer in the moneth of Juylle deide the forsaid Gye [Henry]*. [Stowe's correction.] duke of Warwic withoute heir male; and so in him cessid and failid the noble lyne of the erlis of Warwic, as to heir male, and remayned in his douȝtir.

[Anno xxvo.] A.D. 1446.

The xxv. yeer of kyng Harri, yn the monethis of Nouembir and Decembir fille grete thundryng and lightnyng, with huge and grete wyndis.

A.D. 1447.

And in the moneth of Feuerer next aftir, the x. day thereof, began*. [Nota de parlia|mento de Bury.] the parlement at saint Edmundis Bury in Suffolk; the whiche parle|ment was maad only for to sle the noble duke of Gloucestre, whoȝ deth the fals duke of Suffolk William de la Pole, and ser Jameȝ Fyneȝ lord Say, and othir of thair assent, hadde longe tyme con|spired and ymagyned. And they seyng that thay myȝt not sle him be no trewe meneȝ of iustiȝe ne of lawe, and enfourmed falsli the king, and sayde that he wolde reise the Walshmenne forto distresse him and destroie him; and ordeyned that euery lord sholde come to [folio 185a] the said parlement in thair best aray and withe strengthe. And alle the weyeȝ aboute the said toun off Bury, be commaundement of the said duke of Suffolk, were kept with gret multitude of peple of the cuntre, wakyng day and nyghte; vnknowyng the said peple wherfore it was: and the wedir was so cold that some of the poer peple that there wakid, deide for cold.

And ayens the ende of the parlement, the said duke of Gloucestre was sent for, for to come and ansuer to suche poynteȝ of tresoun as sholde be laid ayens him; and er he cam fully into the toun of Bury, ther were sent vnto him messagers commaundyng him on the kyngis behalfs, that he sholde go streighte to his yn, and come not nyghe the kyng til he hadde othirwise in commaundement. And the secunde day aftir, whileȝ he sat at mete in his yn, cam a sergeaunt Page  63 of armeȝ and arestid certayn knyȝtis and squyers and othir special seruauntis of his, and ladde thaym to dyuers prisons.

And the iij. day aftir, the lord Beaumount with othir, that is to say, the duke of Bukynghame, the duke of Somerset, and othir, cam to the said duke of Gloucestre and arestid him: and thanne were certayn of the kyngis hous commaunded to waite on him. And the iij. day aftir, he deide for sorou, as some men saide, because he*. [[Feb. 28th.]] myghte not come to his ansuer and excuse him of suche thyngis as were falsli put on him; for the said duke of Suffolk and lord Say, [folio 185b] and othir of thair assent, so stirid and excitid the kyng ayens the said duke of Gloucestre that he myghte nevir come to his excuse; for thay hadde cast among thaym a prive conclusioun, the whiche as yit is not come to the knowlage of the commune peple, and thay wiste welle that thay sholde nevir brynge it aboute til he were ded; but the certaynte of his deth is not yit openly knowe, but ther is no thyng so prive, as the gospell saith, but atte laste it shal be openne.

And this same yeer, on the Tiwisday in the Estirwike deide*. [[April 11th.]] maister Harri Beaufort, bisshoppe of Wynchestre and prest cardi|nalle of Rome.

And this yeer in the moneth of August, deide ser Johan Holond, duke of Excestre and erlle of Huntyngdoun.

Anno xxvjo. A.D. 1448.

The xxvj. yeer of king Harri was lepe yeer, and our ladieȝ evyn in Lente fille on Estirday.

Anno xxviij. A.D. 1449.

The xxviij. yeer of king Harri, on Simon day and Jude, and other daieȝ before and aftir, the sonne in his risyng and goyng doune apperid as reed as blood, as meny a man saw; wherof the peple hadde gret marvaille, and demed that it sholde betokened sum harm sone aftirward.

And this same yeer, in the feste of saint Mighelle in Monte Tumba,*. [[October 16th.]] Roon was lost and yolden to the Frensshemenne;*. [Rouen was evacuated, according to treaty, November 4, 1449 (Monstrelet).] beyng therynne that tyme the duke of Somerset and the erl of Shrowesbury.

And the next yeer aftir, alle Normandy was lost.

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A.D. 1450.

And this yeer, the Friday the ix. day of Januarye, maister Adam Moleyns, bisshoppe of Chichestre and keper of the kyngis prive seel, [folio 186a] whom the kyng sente to Portesmouth, forto make paiement of money to certayne soudiers and shipmenne for thair wageȝ; and so it happid (sic) that with boisteȝ langage, and also for abriggyng of thair wageȝ, he fil in variaunce with thaym, and thay fil on him,*. [Episcopus Cicestre inter|ficitur.] and cruelli there kilde him.

And this same yer, in the feste of Saint Petir and Paule aftir*. [[June 29th.]] Midsomer, that is to say, the Monday, the laste day of Juyn saue one, maister William Ascoghe bisshop of Salisbury was slayn of his owen parisshens and peple at Edyngdoun aftir that he hadde said masse, and was drawe fro the auter and lad vp to an hille ther beside, in his awbe, and his stole aboute his necke; and there thay slow him horribly, thair fader and thair bisshoppe, and spoillid him*. [Episcopus Sarum occi|ditur.] vnto the nakid skyn, and rente his blody shirte in to pecis and baar thaym away with thaym, and made bost of thair wickidnesse: and the day befor his deth his chariot was robbed be men of the same cuntre of an huge god and tresour, to the value of x. Ml. marc., as thay saide that knewe it. Thise ij. bisshoppis were wonder couetous men, and evil beloued among the comune peple, and holde suspect of meny defautes, and were assentyng and willyng to the deth of the duke of Gloucestre, as it was said.

And this same yeer, in the moneth of May, aroos thay of Kent*. [Nota de Johanne Cade, capitaneo Kanciæ.] and made thaym a capteyne, a ribaude, an Yrissheman, callid Johan Cade; the whiche atte begynning took on him the name of a [folio 186b] gentilmanne, and callid himself Mortymer forto haue the more*. [[May 30th.]] fauour of the peple; and he callid himself also John Amende-alle; for forasmuche as thanne and longe before the reme of Englond hadde be rewlid be untrew counselle, wherfore the comune profit was sore hurt and decresid; so that alle the comune peple, what for Page  65 taxeȝ and tallageȝ and other oppressions myght not live be thair handwork and husbondrie, wherfore thay grucchid sore ayens thaym that hadde the gouernaunce of the land.

Thanne cam the said capteyn and the Kentisshmen vnto the Blakeheth, and there kepte the feld a moneth and more, pilyng alle the cuntre aboute; to whom the cite of Londoun, at that tyme, was fulle fauorable and frendly; but it last not longe aftir. In the mene tyme the king sente notable menne to the said capteyn and his feleshippe, to knowe thair purpose and the cause of thair insur|reccioun.*. [[June.]] The capteyn was a sotill man, and saide that he and his feleship were assemblid and gadrid there, forto redresse and refourme the wrongis that were don in the reme, and to withstonde the malice of thayme that were destroiers of the comune profit; and forto correcte and amende the defautis of thaym that were the kyngis chief counselours; and shewde vnto thaym the articles of his peticions concernyng and touchyng the myschiefs and mysgouern|aunceȝ [folio 187a] of the reme, wherynne was nothyng conteyned but that that was rightful and resonable, wherof a copie was sent to the parlement holden that tyme at Westmynstre; wherfore the said capteyne desirid that suche grevaunceȝ sholde be amendid and re|fourmed be the parlement, and to haue ansuer therof agayne, but he hadde none.

Sone aftir the kyng remeued fro Westmynstre vnto Grenewich; and while he was there he wolde haue sent certayn lordis with a power forto haue distressid the Kentisshmenne, but thair men that sholde haue gon with thaym ansuerde to thair lordis and saide, that thay wolde not fiȝte ayens thaym that labourid forto amende and refourme the comune profit; and whanne the lordis herde this, thay lefte thair purpoȝ.

Thanne cride the Kentisshmenne and othir ayens the lord Say, the kyngis chamberlayne, that was on of the kyngis fals counselours and holden suspect of tresoun, and the king dredyng the malice of the peple, committid him to the tour of Londoun. Page  66

Thanne wente the kyng ayen to Londoun, and withynne ij. daieȝ aftir he wente ayens the Kentisshmenne with xv Ml. men wel araid vnto the Blakeheth, but the said Kentisshmen heryng how the king wolde come, and fledde the nyȝt befor his comyns, in to the wode cuntre to Seuenok.

The kyng thanne retourned to Londoun, and sente out a squier [folio 187b] callid William Stafford, and ser Humfrey Stafford, knyȝt, his cosyne, forto aspie where the Kentisshmen were; and whanne they knew that thay were at Seuenok, thay rood thider hastily with a few menne, wenyng to haue gotenne a singuler worshippe and laude; but thay were withyn the daunger of thaym er thay wiste it, and were there bothe yslayne, with the more part of thair men that*. [[June 28th?]] abood with thaym.

Whanne this was don the king dissolued the parlement, and re|meued*. [[June 30th?]] vnto Kyllyngworth. And whanne the Kentishmen herde that the kyng was gon fro Londoun, thay cam ayen in to Suthwerk,*. [[July 1st.]] and thair capteyn was loggid atte Hert. And the Thursday*. [Friday, not Thursday, July 3rd. "Die Veneris, tertio die Julii." Wm. Worcest.] aftir*. [[July 3rd, Friday.]] be fauour of some of the men of Londoun he cam in to the cite, but sone aftir thay repentid, for thay were diuidid among thaymself; but the keieȝ of the cite were delyuerid vnto the said capteyn, and he kepte thaym ij. daieȝ and ij. nyghtes. And whanne he hadde entrid the cite anon he and his men fille to roborie, and robbid certayn worthi men of the cite, and put some of thaym in to prison til thay hadde paid notable summeȝ of money to saue thair livis. And the said capteyn rood aboute the cite beryng a nakid swerd in his hand, armed in a peire of brigaundyneȝ, weryng a peire of gilt sporis, and a gilt salat, and a gowne of blew veluet, as he hadde be a lord or a knyȝt,—and yit was he but a knaue,—and hadde his swerd born befor him. [folio 188a]

And the Satirday next the said capteyn commaundid that the*. [[July 5th, Sunday.]] lord Say sholde be brouȝt out of the tour vnto Guyldehalle in Page  67 Londoun, where that certayn justiceȝ sat that tyme; and whanne he was ycome, the Kentisshmen wolde not suffre him forto abide the lawe, but ladde him vnto the Standard in Chepe, and there his hed was smyte of, and his body was drawe naked at a hors taille vpon the pament so that the flesshe clivid to the stoneȝ fro Chepe in to Suthwerk, the said capteyneȝ ynne. Also a squier callid Crowmer that was the shireue of Kent, that hadde weddid the said lord Saieȝ douȝtir, be commaundement of the capteyne was broughte out of Flete, that was committid thider for certayn extorsioneȝ that he hadde do in his office, and lad to Mile Ende, withoute Londoun, and there withoute eny othir iugement his hed was smyte of, and the lord Saieȝ hed and his also were bore vpon ij. long shaftis vnto Londoun brigge, and there set vppe, and the lord Saieȝ body was quartrid.

On the Sunday next, men of London seyng the tiranny and robory*. [[July 6th, Monday.]] of the said cursid capteyne and of his men; and whanne it was nyghte thay laide hand on thayme that were disparblid aboute in the cite, and bet thaym and droof thaym out of the cite, and shit the yatis. And whanne the capteyn that was in his yn in Suthwerk saw this, anon he with his men made assaut to Londoun brigge, and [folio 188b] wolde haue come yn, and spoylid the cite; and the lord Scaleȝ with*. [[July 7th.]] his menne and menne of the cite faughte with thayme fro ix. of the clocke in the euyn, vnto x. of the clocke in the morow; and meny*. [[July 8th.]] men were slayn on bothe partieȝ, and sore wounded; and there were slayne, Mathew Goghe a squyer of Walis, and Johan Sutton an alderman of Londoun. And this skyrmysh endurid til the brigge of tre was set on fire, betuene thaym of Kent and of Londoun; and thanne thay of Kent withdrow thaym litille and litille. And thair capteyn put alle his pilage and the godis that he hadde robbid in to a barge, and sente it to Rouchestre be watir, and he wente be lande*. [[July 9th.]] and wolde haue go in to the castel of Queneburghe with a fewe men that were left with himme, but he was let of his purpoȝ. And anon he fledde in to the wode cuntre beside Leweȝ, and the shireue of Page  68 Kent him pursude, and there he was wounded vnto the dethe, and take and caried in a carte toward Londoun, and be the wey he deide.*. [A proclamation, promising a thousand markes for the head of Cade, was issued 10th of July. See Stowe's Annals, 646; Holinshed, iii. 635. And on the 15th of the same month an order was given to the Treasurer of the Exchequer to pay the amount to Alex|ander Iden, sheriff of Kent (Rymer, xi. 275). This would fix his death between the 10th and 15th July. The Rolls of Parliament seem to prove that it must have taken place after the 11th Rot. Parl. v. 224.] And thanne his hed was smyte of and set on Londoun brigge, and his body quartrid and sent to dyuers touneȝ of Englond; whooȝ tirannye endurid fro Trinite Sunday vnto Saint Thomas eve*. [Eve of translation of Thomas of Canterbury, July 6th.]*. [[May 31st.]] of Caunterbury: and thus endid this capteyn of myschief.

And this same yeer, the communeȝ arooȝ in dyuers partieȝ of Englond, as in Sussex, Salisburye, Wilshire, and othir placeȝ, and [folio 189a] dede moche harm to meny personeȝ.

And this same yeer, was the yeer of grace at Rome, and began on Neweyeris day, and lastid vnto the same day the nexte yeer folowyng.

Anno xxix. [xxviij.] A.D. 1450.

The xxix*. [The Chronicler is still in the 28th of Henry VI.] yere of king Harri, Normandie was lost be the vntrouthe and fals couetiȝe of Edmund duke of Somerset, beyng that tyme lieutenaunt of Normandie; for he menuȝid and abatid the noumbre of the soudiers that were in the garisonȝ, and sente thaym in to Englond vnpaid of thair wageȝ, wherby the strengthe of Normandie was lost.

Also the comune vois and fame was that tyme, that the duke of Suffolk William de la Pole, and the said duke of Somerset, with othir of thair assent, hadde maad delyueraunce of Aunge and Mayn withoute assent of this lond vnto the kyng of Cicile the queneȝ fader; and hadde also aliened and sold the duchie of Normandie to the king of Fraunce; wherfore alle the peple of this lond and specialli the communeȝ cride ayens the said duke of Suffolk, and said he was a traitour; and atte instaunce and peticioun of the said communeȝ Page  69 of the parlement holden that tyme at Westmynstre, he was arestid*. [[January 28th.]] and put in to the tour.

This duke of Suffolk hadde axed befor this tyme of on that was an astronomer, what sholde falle of him, and how he sholde ende his lif; and whanne the said astronomer hadde labourid therfore in his said craft, he ansuerde to the duke and said that he sholde die a [folio 189b] shameful deth, and counselid him alwey to be war of the tour; wherfor be instaunce of lordis that were his frendis, he was sone delyuerid out of the said tour of Londoun.

Thanne the kyng seyng that alle this lond hatid the said duke dedly, and that he myȝt not bere ne abide the malice of the peple,*. [[March 17,]] and exilid him for terme of v. yeer. And the Friday the iij. day of May,*. [He was to leave the kingdom before the 1st of May (Rot. Parl. v. 183.)] he took his shippe at Episwich and sailed forth in to the high see, where anothir shippe callid the Nicholas of the Tour lay in waite for him, and took him. And thay that were wythynne grauntid him space of a day and a nyghte to shryue him, and make him redy to God. And thanne a knaue of Yrlond smot of his hed, vpon the side of the boot of the said Nicholas of the Tour, notwithstondyng his saaf conduct; and the body with the hed was cast to the lond at Douor.

And this yeer, on Newyeris day, began the yeer of grace at Saint Jameȝ.

[Anno xxixo.] A.D. 1451.

And this same yeer*. [The 29th Henry VI. must be here intended, although Easter day in that year was April 25, and the fixed feast mentioned in the text (St. George's) was April 23. But the second calculation is accurate, for Corpus Christi day, 1451, fell on the 24th of June.] saint Georgeȝ day fille on Estirday, and Corpus Christi day fille on Midsomer day, that is to say, the viij. kalendes of Juylle.

[Anno xxx.] A.D. 1452.

The xxx. yeere of kyng Harry, aboute Shroftyde, the duke of Yorke, the erle of Deuenshire, and the lord Cobham, gadered a grete peple in destruccioun of theire enemyes that were aboute the kyng;*. [[February.]] and sente by an herowde to London, prayng that they myghte Page  70 passe wyth theyre peple thorough the cyte, but they cowde gete no graunte therof for asmoche as the kyng had commaunded the con|trary. [folio 190a] Wherfore thay passed ouer the Temes by Kyngstone brige, and wente forthe to the toune of Derteforde in Kent; and there, besyde the toune, ordeyned and pyghte theyre felde. And thenne the kyng with many lordes wyth the nombre of xv. Ml. men, came towarde the seyde duke of Yorke, for to dystresse hym and his peple. And when the duke sawe that the peple of Kent and of other places came nat to hym as they had promysed, and that they were nat stronge ynoughe for the kyngys parte, by entrete of diuerse bysshops they yelde theym vnto the kynges grace, and so retorned to London. And there the matier was put in a rewle betwene the kyng and the seyde duke, as for that tyme.

Anno xxxj. A.D. 1453.

The xxxj. yere of kyng Harry, in the moneth of May, the erle of Shrouesbury was slayne besyde Burdeux, and sir Edward Hulle,*. [[July.]] knyghte, and the lorde Lyle sone of the sayde erle; and the lorde Molyns take prysoner, and after delyuered for a grete raunsom.

Anno xxxijo. A.D. 1453-4.

The xxxij. yere of kyng Harry, and the yere of oure Lorde Ml.iiijc.liiij.*. [Prince Edward was born Saturday 13th October, feast of translation of Edw. Conf. 1453.] on the Saturday the xiiij. day of Octobre, in the feste of seynt Edwarde the Confessoure, was bore at Westmynstre Edward the furst sone of kyng Harry; whoos godfadres were master Johan Kempe, archebysshoppe of Caunterbury and bysshoppe cardinal of Rome, and Edmunde duke of Somerset, his godmother was the [folio 190b] duchesse of Buckynghame: and master William Wayneflete, bysshop of Wynchestre, hym baptized.

And this same yeer, deyed the same mastre Johan Kempe arche|*. [A.D. 1454]bysshop of Caunterbury on the Friday the xxij. day of Marche. After whom succeded in to the seyde archebysshopryche mastre Thomas Bouchier bisshoppe of Ely, and into the office of the chaun|celer, ser Richard Nevyle erle of Salysbury.

Anno xxxiij. A.D. 1454-5.

The xxxiij. yere of kyng Harry, the erle Douglas of Scotlonde Page  71 fled oute of Scotlande and came into Engelond, because that the kyng of Scottis hadde vnmanly and traytourly slayne the sayde erle hys brother vnder sauf conduct. And he became kyng Harryeȝ liege man, and was swore to him and dede to him homage, and had a place assigned to him in the parlement.

This same yere, in the moneth of Juyne [May*. [Correction in the text by the hand of Stowe.]], the kyng wolde*. [A.D. 1455] haue ryde to Leycestre for to haue holde a counseylle there; and*. [[May.]] rode by the toune of Watforde, abiding there alle nyghte, and came on the morow to Saynt Albonys aboute ix. of the clocke.

Thenne was there a mortalle debate and a variaunce bitwene Richard duke of Yorke, Richard erle of Salesbury, Richard erle of Warrewyke, and Edmund duke of Somerset, be whom at that tyme the kyng was principally gided and gouerned, as he had be beforne by the duk of Suthfolk. And this saide duke Edmond euer kept hym nygh the kyng, and durste nat departe fer from his presence, [folio 191a] dreding alwey the power of the seyde duk of York and of the for|seyde erles, and euer excited and stered the kyng ageyns thaym; notwithstandyng that the comones of this lande hated this duk Edmond and loued the duk of York, because he loued the communes and preserued the commune profyte of the londe.

The seyde duke Richard and the erle abouesayde, seyng that they myghte nat preuayle ne withstond the malice of the forseyde duk Edmond; the whiche dayly entended and prouoked the kyng to*. [First battayle ofSeintAlbons.] theyre fynal destruccioun; and gadered priuyly a power of peple*. [[May 22nd.]] and kept thaym couertly in villages aboute the toune of Seynt Albons; and whan the kyng was there, they beseged the toune aboute, and sente to the kyng besechyng hym that he wolde sende oute vnto theym theyre mortal enemy, Edmond duke of Somerset, and enemy to alle the reame; yef he wolde nat so, they wolde haue hym by streynghte and violence. The kyng by advyse of his counseylle answered and seyde he wolde nat delyuer him. Page  72

Whanne the duk of York and the erles herde this aunswere, thoughe the toune were strongly barred and arrayed for defence, they and theyr peple brake doune vyolently howses and pales on the este syde of the toune, and entred in to seynt Petres strete sleyng alle tho that wythestoode theym. Thanne came the kyng oute of the abbey wyth his baner dysplayed in to the same strete, and duke Edmond wythe hym, and the duk of Bokyngham, the erle of Northumbrelonde, and the lorde Clyfforde, and the lorde Sudeley beryng the kynges baner; and there was a sore fyghte, as for the [folio 191b] tyme, and there at laste was slayne the seyde duke Edmond, the erle of Northumbrelond, and the lorde Clyfforde; the kyng that stoode vndre his baner was hurte in the necke wythe an arowe. And when the seyde duke Edmonde and the lordes were slayne, the batayle was ceased. And thus was done the Thurseday the xxij. day of May.

Thys sayde Edmond duke of Somerset had herde a fantastyk prophecy that he shuld dy vndre a castelle; wherefore in as meche as in him was, he lete the kyng that he sholde nat come in the castelle of Wyndsore, dredyng the seyde prophecy; but at Seynt Albonys ther was an hostry hauyng the sygne of a castelle, and before that hostry he was slayne.

When this was done, the forseyde duke of York and the erles re|torned to Londoun, and had the kyng with theym.

And at this bataylle were slayne lx. persones of gentilmen and of other.

[Anno xxxiv.] A.D. 1456.

And this same yeer, in the moneth of Juyne was seen stella comata, betwene the northe and the est, extendyng her bemes towardes the sowthe. The whiche sterre was seyenne also in the court of Rome, as they reported that came fro thens.

Anno xxxv. A.D. 1456-7.

The xxxv. yere of kyng Harry, and the yere of oure lorde Ml.CCCC.lvij.*. [Michaelmas, 1457, was in the 36th Henry VI. Holinshed places the second prodigy here mentioned under November 1456.] a pylgryme that alle his dayes had be a shipmanne, Page  73 came fro seynt James in Spayne into Englond aboute Mighelmas, and was loged in the toune of Weymouthe, in Dorsetshyre, with a brewer, a Duchemanne, the whiche had be with hym in his seyde pylgremage. And as the sayde pylgryme laye in his bedde waking, he sawe one come in to the chambre clothed alle in whyte hauing a whyte heede, and sate doune on a fourme nat fer fro hys bed; and alle the [folio 192a] chambre was as lyghte of hym as it had be clere day. The pylgryme was agaste and durst not speke, and anone the seyde spirite vanysshed awey. The secund nyghte the same spyryte came ayene in lykewyse, and wythonte eny tareyng vanysshed awey. In the morow the pyl|grym tolde alle this to his oste, and seyde he was sore afeerde, and wolde no more lye in that chambre. Hys oste counseled hym to telle this to the parysshe preeste, and shryue hym of all his synnes, demyng that he hadde be acombred with some grete dedely synne. The pyl|grym sayde, "I was late shryue at seynt James, and rescued there my Lord God, and sethe that tyme, as fer as I canne remembre, I haue nat offended my conscience." Natheles he was shryuenne, and tolde alle this to the preest; and the preest seyde, "Sen thow knowest thy selfe clere in conscience, haue a goode herte and be nat agast, and yef the sayde spirite come ayene, coniure hym in the name of the Fader, and of the Sone, and of the Holy Goste, to telle the what he ys." The iijde nyghte the spyryte came ayene in to the chambre as he had do before, wyth a grete lyghte; and the pylgrym, as the preest had counseled him, coniured the spyryte, and bade hym telle what he was. The spyryte answered and seyde, "I am thyne eme, thy faderes brother." The pylgrym seyde, "How longe ys it ago sen thow deyde?" The spiryte seyde, "ix. yere." "Where ys my fader?" seyde the pylgrime. "At home in his owne hous," seyde the spiryte, "and hath another wyfe." "And where ys my moder?" "In heuene," seyde the spiryte. Thenne seyde the spiryte to the pylgryme, "Thou haste be at seynt James; trowest thou that thow hast welle done thy pylgremage?" [folio 192b] "So I hoope," saide the pylgryme. Thanne sayde the spiryte, Page  74 "Thow hast do to be sayde there iij. masses, one for thy fader, another for thy moder, and the iijde for thy selue; and yef thou haddest lete say a masse for me, I had be delieured of the peyne that I suffre. But thow most go ayene to seynt James, and do say a masse for me, and yeue iijd. to iij. pore men." "O," sayde the pylgrime, "howe shulde I go ayene to seynt James? I haue no money for myne expenses, for I was robbed in the shyppe of v. nobles." "I know welle thys," sayde the spirite, "for thow shalt fynde thy purce hanging at the ende of the shyp and a stoone therynne; but thow most go ageyne to seynt James, and begge, and lyue of almesse." And when the spyryte had thus seyde, the pyl|gryme saw a deuelle drawe the same spyryte by the sleue, for to haue hym thennys. Thenne saide the spyryte to the pylgryme, "I haue folewed the this ix. yere, and myghte neuer speke with the vnto now; but blessed be the hous where a spyryte may speke, and farewell, for I may no lenger abyde with the, and therfore I am sory:" and so he vanysshed awey. The pylgryme went into Portyngale, and so forthe to seynt James, as the spyryte had hym commaunded; wherefore I counseylle euery man to worship seynt James.

Also this yere, in the moneth of Novembre, in the yle of Portlond, nat fer from the forseyde toune of Weymouthe was sey a cocke commyng oute of the see, hauyng a greete creeste vppon his hede and a greete rede beerde and legges of half a yerde long, and stood in the water and crew iij. tymes; and euery tyme that he crew he turned hym rounde aboute, and bekened wyth his hede towarde [folio 193a] the north, the southe, and the weste, and he was of the coloure of a fesaunt; and when he had crowe iij. tymes he vanysshed awey.

And this same yere, the xxviij. day of August, on the Sunday in*. [A.D. 1457.] the morow, the Frensshemen robbed and spoyled the toune of*. [[August 28th.]] Sandewyche in Kent, abydyng thereynne an hoole day, and at the laste a kynghte of the contre called ser Thomas Kyryel drofe theym to the see, and kylde many of theym.

Page  75

[Anno xxvj.] A.D. 1457-8.

The xxxvj. yere of kyng Harry, in the moneth of January, dyed the erle of Deuynshire in the abbey of Abyndoun poysened, as men*. [trew with the record.] sayde, and beyng there at that tyme with quene Margarete.

And this same yere, and the yere of oure Lorde Ml.iiijc.lvij.*. [The 4 of Decembar.] master Reynold Pocock bysshop of Chichestre a seculer doctour of dyuynyte, that had labored meny yeres for to translate Holy Scrip|ture into Englysshe; passing the bondes of diuinite and of Crysten beleue, was accused of certayne articles of heresy, of the whyche he was conuyct before the archebysshoppe of Caunterbury and other bysshopys and clerkys; and vtterly abiured, reuoked, and re|nounced the sayde articles opynly at Powles Crosse in his moder tunge as folowethe hereafter. "In the name of the Holy Trynyte,*. [The abiuracoun of master Reynold Pocok, bysshoppe of Chichestre.] Fader, Sone, and Holy Gost, I Reynold Pocok bysshop of Chichestre vnworthy, of myne owne power and wylle withoute eny maner cohercioun or drede, confesse and knowlege that I herebefore this tyme presumyng of myne natural wytte, and preferryng my iuge|ment and naturalle resoun before the Newe and the Olde Testament, [folio 193b] and the auctoryte and determinacoun of oure moder hooly churche, haue holde, wrytenne and taughte otherwys thanne the hooly Romane and uniuersalle churche techythe, prechethe, or obseruethe; and ouer thys, ayenst the trew catholyc and aposteles feythe, I haue made, wryten, taughte and publysshed meny and diuerse perylous doc|trynes, bookes, werkes and wrytyng, conteynyng heresyes and errours contrary to the feythe catholyk and determinacoun of holy churche; and specially these heresyes and errours folowyng, that ys to say:

"In primis, quod non est de necessitate fidei credere quod Dominus noster Ihesus Christus post mortem descendit ad inferos.

"Item, quod non est de necessitate salutis, credere in sanctorum communione. Page  76

"Item, quod ecclesia vniuersalis potest errare in hiis que sunt fidei.

"Item, quod non est de necessitate salutis credere et tenere illud quod consilium generale et vniuersalis ecclesia statuit, approbat, seu determinat in fauorem fidei et ad salutem animarum, est ab vniuersis Christi fidelibus approbandum, credendum et tenendum.

"Wherefore I, myserable synner, whiche here before long tyme haue walked in derkenesse, and now by the mercy and infynyte goodnes of God reduced in to the ryghte wey and lyghte of trouthe, and consideryng myself greuously haue synned and wyckedly haue enformed and enfect the peple of God, retorne and come ayene to the vnyte of our moder holy churche; and alle heresyes and errours wryten and conteyned in my seyde bookes, workes and wrytyng, here solemply and openly reuoke and renounce, whiche heresyes and errours, and alle other spices of heresyes, I haue before thys tyme before the moste reuerend fader in God and my good lord of [folio 194a] Caunterbury, in dyuers and lawfulle forme iudicially abiured; sub|myttyng myself, beyng thanne and also nowe at this tyme verrey contryte and penytent synner, to the correccioun of the churche and of my sayde lorde of Caunterbury,

"And ouer thys, exhortyng and requiring in the name and vertew of Almyghtye God, in the saluacioun of youre soules and of myne, that no man hereafter yeue feythe and credence to my seyde perny|cyous doctrynes, heresyes and errours, neyther my sayde bookes kepe, holde or rede in any wyse; but that they alle suche bokes, workes and wrytyng, suspect of heresyes, delyuer in alle goodly haste vnto my saide lorde of Caunterbury or to his commyssioners and deputees, in eschewyng of meny inconuenientys and grete peryles of soules, the whiche elles myghte be cause of the contrary. And ouer this declaracoun of my conuersion and repentaunce I here openly assent, that my seyde bookes, werkes and wrytyng, for declaracioun and cause aboue rehersed be deput vn to the fyre, and openly brende in ensample and terrour of alle other," &c. Page  77

"Wythe wondrethe that reson nat telle can,
Howe a mayde ys a moder, and God ys manne,
Fle reasoune, and folow the woundre,
For beleue hathe the maystry and reasone ys vnder."

Thys made the sayde Pocock, as it was seyde.

And after thys he was pryued of his bysshopryche, hauyng a certeyne pensione assigned vn to hym for to lyue on in an abbey, and sone after he dyed.*. [[A.D. 1460.?]]

Afterwarde this same yere, was holde a counseylle at West|*. [A.D. 1458.]mynstre aboute Shroftyde, to the whiche came the yong lordes*. [[February.]] whoos fadres were sleyne at Seynt Albonys; that ys to sey, the [folio 194b] duke of Somerset, the erle of Northumberlond, and his brother lord Egremount, and the lorde Clyfforde, with a grete power, and were loged withoute the walles of Londoun aboute Templebarre and Westmynstre. The cyte wolde nat receyue theym, because they came ageyns the pease. The duk of York and the erle of Sales|bury came but onely with theyre householde men in pesyble manner, thynkyng none harme, and were loged wythynne the cytee; for they abouesayde came forto dystroy vtterly the sayde duk of York and the erle of Salesbury, and of Warrewyk; and the cyte was euery day armed forto withstonde the malice of tho yong lordes yef nede had be. And sone after came the erle of Warrewyk fro Caleys, wherof he was capteyne, and lay wythynne the cyte.

Thanne the byshoppys and other lordes tretyd betwyxt theym of the pease and accorde, and after long trete bothe partyes submytted theym to the laude and arbytrement of the kyng and his counselle. The whiche after good deliberacione and avysement yaf this awarde and arbitrement; that of yerely rente shulde be amorteysed and founded in for euermore by the sayde duk of York and the erles, in the abbey of Seynt Albons, where the forseyde lordes so slayne were buryed, for to pray for theyre soules and for the soules of alle tho that were slayne there. And ouer this the sayde duk of York and the erles shulde pay to the duke of Somerset and to hys Page  78 moder, to the erle of Northumbrelond, to the lorde Egremont and to the lorde Clyfford, a notable summe of money, for recompens of theyre fadres dethe, and for wronges done vnto theym.

Where uppon was made wrytyng and suerte; and so was the [folio 195a] trowble ceased, and pease and accorde made betwene theym; but hit endured nat long.

One of the causes of this trouble betwene the duk of York and the duk of Somerset was thys—Duryng the kynges sykenesse the duk of York was made protector of Englond, whereof the duk of*. [[April 3, 1454.]] Somerset had grete indignacioun and alwey malygned ayenst hym and stered the kyng ageyne hym; natheles meny of the lordes of the counceyl fauored more the duk of York thanne hym. Where|fore for certeyne causes and articles that were leyde ayenst the seyde duk of Somerset, he was commytted by the kynges counselle*. [[Nov. 1453.]] to the toure of London: but be instaunce and mediacione of his frendes he was sone delyuered, vnder this condicione, that he shulde neuer after entremete, ne have a do with the gouernaunce of the reame, and that he sholde nat come nyghe the kyng by xx. myle. And for to obserue and kepe these condicions he was swore vppon a book.

Whenne he was delyuered oute of the toure, he took more vppon*. [[Feb. 7, 1455.]] hym thenne he dyd before, stiryng the kyng dayly and maliciously ageyns the forseyde duke of York and erles, coniectyng and yma|ginyng howe he myghte dystroy theyme; but at seynt Albonys he fylle in to the same snare that he had ordeyned for theyme.

[Anno] xxxvij.*. [By the hand of Stowe.] A.D. 1458.

The xxxvij. yere, the kyng and the quene beyng at Westmynstre, the ix. day of Nouembre fylle a grete debate betwene Richard erle of Warrewyk and theym of the kynges hous, in so moche that they wolde haue sleyne the erle; and vnnethe he escaped to his barge, and went anone after to Caleys for a lytel before he was made [folio 195b] capteyne therof by auctoryte of the parlement.

[Anno xxxviij.] A.D. 1459.

Sone afterwarde the yonge duke of Somerset by steryng of theyme Page  79 that hated the erle of Warrewyk was made capteyn of Caleys, and*. [[October 9th.]] a pryue seale directe to the erle for to dyscharge hym of the capteynshyppe; but the erle forasmeche as he was made be aucto|ryte of the parlement, he wolde nat obey the pryue seale, but con|tinued forthe in the sayde offyce meny yeres after.

Anno xxxviij. A.D. 1459-60.

The xxxviij. yere of kyng Harry, in a lytylle toune in Bedford|shyre, there fylle a blody rayne, whereof the rede dropys appered in shetes, the whiche a woman had honged out for to drye.

In this same tyme, the reame of Englonde was oute of alle good gouernaunce, as it had be meny dayes before, for the kyng was simple and lad by couetous counseylle, and owed more then he was worthe. His dettes encreased dayly, but payment was there none; alle the possessyons and lordeshyppes that perteyned to the croune the kyng had yeue awey, some to lordes and some to other simple per|sones, so that he had almoste noughte to lefe onne. And suche ymposiciones as were put to the peple, as taxes, tallages, and quynȝymes, alle that came from theym was spended on vayne, for he helde no householde ne meyntened no warres. For these mys|gouernaunces, and for many other, the hertes of the peple were turned away from thayme that had the londe in gouernance, and theyre blyssyng was turnyd in to cursyng.

The quene with such as were of her affynyte rewled the reame as her lyked, gaderyng ryches innumerable. The offices [sic] of the reme, and specially the erle of Wylshyre tresorere of Engelond for [folio 196a] to enryche hymself, peled the pore peple, and disheryted ryghtefulle eyres, and dede meny wronges. The quene was defamed and desclaundered, that he that was called Prince, was nat hir sone, but a bastard goten in avoutry; wherefore she dreding that he shulde nat succede hys fadre in the crowne of Englond, allyed vn to her alle the knyghtes and squyers of Chestreshyre for to haue theyre benyuolence, and helde open householde among theym; and made her sone called the Prince yeue a lyuery of Swannys to alle the gentilmenne of the contre, and to many other thorought the Page  80 lande; trustyng thorough thayre streynghte to make her sone kyng; makyng pryue menys to some of the lordes of Englond for to styre the kyng that he shulde resygne the croune to hyre sone: but she coude nat bryng her purpos aboute.

The xxxviij. yere of kyng Harry, in the moneth of Septembre, the yere of our Lord, Ml.CCCC.lix. on the Sonday in the feste of*. [[Sept. 23rd.]] Seynt Mathew, Richard erle of Salesbury, hauyng with hym vij.Ml. of wele arayed men, dredyng the malyces of his enemyes and spe|cially of the quene and hyre company the whiche hated hym dedly and the duk of York and the erle of Warrewyk also, tooke hys wey towarde Ludlow where the sayde duk of York lay at that tyme, to thentent that they bothe togedre wolde haue ryde to the kyng to Colshylle in Staffordshyre, for to haue excused theym of certeyne articles and fals accusaciones touchyng thaire ligeaunce layde agayns theyme maliciously by their enemyes. [folio 196b]

Whenne the kyng herde of thayre commyng, they that were*. [Blorehethe.] aboute hym counseyled hym to gadre a power for to wythestand*. [[Sept. 23rd.]] theym, and enformed hym that they came forto dystroy hymme. Thenne lay the quene at Eglishale, and anone by hire stiryng the kyng assembled a grete power whereof the lorde Audeley was chyef and had the ledyng of thaym, and wente forthe in to the felde called Blorehethe; by the whyche the sayde duk of York and the erl most nedes passe. And there bothe hostes mette and countred to gedre, and fauȝt mortally. And there was the lorde Audeley sleyne, and meny of the notable knyghtes and squyers of Chesshyre that had resceued the lyuery of the swannes; and there were take prysoners, the erlles ij. sones of Salisbury, Thomas and Johan, and ser Thomas Haryngtone, and enprysoned in the castelle of Chestre; but sone after they were delyuered.

After this discomfiture, the erlle past forthe to duke Richard to Ludlow, and thyder came to theyme fro Caleys the erle of War|rewyk, and they iij. wrote a letter vn to kyng Harry, whereof the tenoure ys thus:— Page  81

"Most Crystyne kyng, ryghte hyghe and myghtye Prince, and oure most drad souuerayne lorde, after as humble recommendacione to youre hyghe excellence as we suffice. Oure trewe entent to the prosperyte and augmentacione of youre hyghe estate, and to the commone wele of this reaume, hath be showd vn to youre hyghenesse in suche wrytyng as we made thereof. And ouer that, an endenture sygned by oure handes in the churche Cathedralle of Worcestre comprehendyng the preef of the trouthe and dewte that, God knowethe, we bere to youre seyde estate and to the preemynence and prerogatif thereof, we sent vn to youre good grace by the prior of the saide churche and diuerse other doctours, and among other, [folio 197a] by master William Lynwode, doctour of diuinite, whyche mynistred vnto us seuerally the blessed Body of God our Lorde Jhesu; sacred whereoponne, we and euery of vs deposyd for oure sayde trouthe and dewtee accordyng to the tenure of the seyde endenture. And syth that tyme, we haue certyfyed at large in wrytyng and by mouthe by Garter kyng of Armes, nat only to youre sayde hyghenesse, but also to the good and worthy lordes beyng aboute youre moste noble presence, the largenesse of oure sayde trouthe and dewte, and oure entent and oure disposicione to seche alle the mocions that myghte serue conuenyently to thaffirmacione therof, and to oure parfyte suertees from suche inconuenient and unreuerent geopardyes, as we haue ben put ynne diuerse tymes herebefore. Wherof we haue cause to make, and owe to make, suche exclamacione and compleynt, nat withoute reasone, as ys nat unknowen to alle the sayd worthy lordes and to alle his lande, and wolle offre vs to youre hyghe pre|sence to the same entent, yef we myghte so do wythe oure sayde sewrte, whiche onely causethe vs to kepe aboute vs suche felyshyp as we do in oure leeffulle. And hereto we haue forborne and avoyded alle thynges that myghte serue to the effusione of Crysten blood, of the drede that we haue of God and of youre royalle mageste; and haue also eschewed to approche your seyde moste noble pre|sence, of the humble obeysaunce and reuerence whereon we haue Page  82 and duryng oure lyfe wolle haue the same. And yet neuertheles, we here that we be proclamed and defamed in oure name vnryghte|fully, vnlawfully, and sauyng youre hyghe reuerence, vntrewly, and otherwyse, that God knowethe, then we haue yeue cause; knowyng [folio 197b] certaynly that the blessed and noble entent of youre sayde goode grace and the ryghtwysnesse thereof ys, to take, repute, and accepte youre trew and lowly sugettys, and that it accordethe neyther with youre sayde entent, ne wythe youre wylle or pleasure, that we shuld be otherwyse take or reputed. And ouer that, oure lordshyppes and tenauntes bene of hyghe vyolence robbed and spoyled, ayenst youre peese and lawes and alle ryghtewysnesse. We therefore, as we suffice, beseche youre sayde good grace, to take, repute, and re|ceyue thervnto oure sayde trouthe and entent, whiche to God ys know, as we shewe it by the seyde tenure of the sayde endenture, and nat apply youre sayde blessednesse ne the grete ryghtewysnesse and equite whereinne God hathe euer endowed youre hyghe nobeley, to thymportune impacience and violence of suche persones as entende of extreme malyce to procede vnder the shadow of youre hyghe myghte and presence to oure destruccione, for suche inordinate couetyse, whereof God ys nat pleased, as they haue to oure landes, offices, and goodes, not lettyng or sparyng therefore to put suche thyngys in alle lamentable and to sorowfulle geopardy, as moot in alle wyse take effect by the mystery of Goddys wille and power, nor nat hauyng regarde to theffusione of Crystyne blood, ne any tendre|nesse to the noble blood of thys lond suche as serue to the tuicione and defens therof, ne nat weyng the losse of youre trew liegemenne of youre sayde reame, that God defende whiche knowethe oure entent, and that we haue avoyded therfro, as fer as we may with oure sewertees, nat of any drede that we haue of the sayde per|sones, but onely of the drede of God and of youre sayde hyghe|nesse, and nat wylle vse oure sayde defence vnto the tyme that we be provoked of necessyte, whereof we calle heuene and erthe in to [folio 198a] wyttenesse and recorde; and therynne beseche God to be oure Juge, Page  83 and to delyuer vs accordyng to oure sayde entent, and oure sayde trouthe and dutie to youre seyde hyghenesse, and to the sayde com|mone wele. Most Crysten Kyng, ryghte hyghe and myghtye Prince, and moste drad souerayne lorde, we beseche oure blessed Lord to preserue youre honoure and estate in ioye and felycite.

"Wretynne at Ludlow, the x. day of Octobre. "R. York, R. Warrewyk, R. Salesbury."

After theyre excusacionne conteyned in thys letter sent to the kyng, thay withdrowe thayme, and went in to dyuers parties of be|yonde the see, for the more sewrte of theyre personnes: the duke of York wente into Yrelond, where he was worshypfully resceued. The erles of March, of Salesbury, and Warrewyk, nat wythoute grete geopardy and perylle, as welle in the londe as in the see, wente vnto Caleys and abood there.

Thanne was a parlement holden at Couentre, and they that were*. [[Novemb. 20th] chosenne knyghtes of the shyres, and other that had interesse in the parlement, were nat dyfferent but chosen a denominacione of thaym that were enemyes to the forseyde lordes so beyng oute of the reame. In the whiche parlement, the sayde duk of York and the iij. erles and other, whos names shalle be rehersed afterward, withoute any answere, as traytours and rebelles to the kyng were atteynt of treson, and theyre goodes, lordshyppys and possessyons escheted in to the kynges hande, and they and theyre heyres dysheryted vn to the ixthe degre. And by the kynges commissione in euery cyte, burghe, and toune cryed opynly and proclamed as for rebelles and traytoures; and theyre tenauntes and there men spoyled of theyre goodes, maymed, bete, and slayne withoute eny pyte; the toune of Ludlow, [folio 198b] longyng thanne to the duk of York, was robbed to the bare walles, and the noble duches of York vnmanly and cruelly was entreted and spoyled.

In the mene tyme the erle of Warrewyk, hauyng a strong and a myghte naueye kept the strayte see, and fauȝt with the Spaynardys Page  84 and kylde many of thaym, and tooke theyre grete vesselles and a carake of Jene, and gate in theym grete rychesse.

The names of the lordes and other that were atteynt in the for|seyde parlement bythe these. Richard duk of York, Edward erle of Marche his sone and heyre, Richard erle of Warwyk, Edmund erle of Rutlond, Richard erle of Salesbury, Johan lorde Clyfford, lord Clyntone, ser Thomas Haryngtone, ser Johan Wenlock, Thomas Nevyle, Johan Nevyle, sones of the erle of Salesbury, James Pyk|ryng, Johan Conyers, Thomas Par, Wyllyam Oldhalle, and Harry Ratford, knyghtes: Johan Bowser, Thomas Cook, Johan Clay, Richard Gytone, Robert Browe, Edward Bowser, Thomas Vaughan, Johan Roger, Richard Gray, Watier Deuoros, Watier Hopton, Roger Kynderton, Wyllyam Bowes, Fook Stafford, the lorde Powys, and Alys countesse of Salesbury.

In the monethe of Octobre next folowyng, the yonge duke of*. [October, 1459.] Somerset, Harry lord Roos, and lorde Audeley, with a certeyne nombre of men of armes, hauyng with theym the kynges letters, wente to Caleys to thentent that the seyde duk shulde haue be cap|teyne of Caleys, the whyche office the kyng had yeue hym,*. [By letters dated Oct. 9th, Rymer, xi. 436.] wenyng that the Erle of Warrewyk wolde lyghtely haue yolde vp the sayde offyce to him as he was commaunded by the kynges lettres; but when he came to the londe, they of Caleys wolde haue take hym, [folio 199a] and with muche payne he escaped and fled in to the castelle of Guynes, and there helde hym meny dayes after; the sovdyers that came with hym were stryppyd oute of theyre harneys by thayme of Caleys, and let go. The lorde Audeley was take into Caleys, and the lord Roos fledde in to Flaunders, and afterward came priuely agayne in to Engelond.

Not long afterward the lord Ryuers was sent to Sandewyche for to kepe the toun, that the erle of Warrewyk and the other lordes shulde nat londe there, for it was seyde that alle Kent fauored and supported thaym; and sothe it was: and also that the seyde lord Page  85 Ryuers shulde kepe certeyne grete forstage shyppys, that were the erles of Warrewyk, the whiche lay at ankere there in the hauene.

And whanne the seyde erle of Warrewyk sawe a conuenient tyme,*. [A.D. 1460.] he sent some of his men to Sandwhyche by nyghte, the whyche took*. [[January.]] the sayde lorde Ryuers and Antony [Woodvill*. [Insertion by the hand of Stowe.]] his sone, in theyre beddes, and lad theym ouer to Caleys, and took with theym alle the grete shyppes, saue on called "Grace Dieu," the whyche myghte nat be had awey because she was broke in the botome.

Thanne aroos a knyght of Deuenshyre, called syr Bawdewyn*. [[April.]] Fulford, and sayde that on payne of lesyng of his hed he wolde destroy the erle of Warrewyk and his nauey, yef the kyng wolde graunte hym his expensis; and he resceued therfore a Ml. marc., and whenne he had consumed and wasted alle that money, his vyage was done and [he] wente home ayene.

And at laste the duk of Excestre,*. [He was appointed Admiral, March 19th; but he does not seem to have sailed till after April 26th, see Rymer, ibid.] that was Amyralle, was sent to the see with a grete nauy for to dystresse the seyde erle of Warrewyk and his nauey, and sayled from Sandwyche to Derte|mouthe, and there for lack of vetayle and of money hys soudyers were [folio 199b] dysparbeled, and wente awey fro hym. And betwene Sandwyche and Dertemouth he mette the erle of Warrewyk, commyng oute of Yrelond, that had be there to speke with the duk of York, and broughte with hym hys moder that was fled theder for drede, and lad her to Caleys; but the duke durst nat sette opponne the erle, ne the erle wolde nat dystresse hym because he was amyral, and of the kynges bloode, but late hym passe by.

In the monethe of Juyne, this same yere, were gadered v. hundred*. [June, 1460.] men for to fette and condue the duk of Somerset from Guynes in to Englande, abydyng wynde in the poort of Sandwyche, and thyder Page  86 came sowdyers of the erles of Warrewyk and spoyled theym of theyre harness and kylde some of theym; and theyre capteyne was slayne that was called Mounfort.

Thanne sente the forseyde lordes the articles vnder wryten to the archebysshop of Caunterbury, and at large to the Communes of Engelond, of the whych articles thys ys the tenoure:—

"Worshypfulle Syres, We, the duk of York, the erles of March,*. [Articles sent fro the duk of York and the erles, to the Arche|bysshop of Caunterbury and to the Commones.] Warrewyk, and Salesbury sewde and offred to haue come vnto the kyng oure souerayn lordes most noble presens, to haue declared there afore hym, for oure dewte to God and to hys hyghenesse, and to the prosperyte and welfare of his noble estate, and to the comon wele of alle his londe, as trew lyegemen, the matiers folowyng, that ys to say:

For the furst, The grete oppressyone, extorsion, robry, murther, and other vyolencys doone to Goddys churche, and to his mynystres therof, ayens Goddys and mannes law.

Item, The pouerte and mysery that to oure grete heuynesse oure sayde souerayne lorde standeth inne, nat hauyng any lyuelode of the croune of Englond wherof he may kepe hys honorable housholde, [folio 200a] whyche causethe the spyllyng of his sayde lyegemenne by the takers of hys seyde howsholde, whyche lyuelode ys in theyre handes that haue be destroyers of his seyde estate, and of the seyde commone wele.

Item, Howe hys lawes been parcially and vnrightfully guyded, and that by thayme that sholde moste loue and tendre hys sayde lawes the sayde oppressyon and extorsyone as (sic) most fauored and supported, and generally, that alle rightwysnesse and justice ys exyled of the sayde lond, and that no manne dredethe to offende ayenst the sayde lawes.

Item, That it wolle please his sayde good grace to lyve upponne his owne lyuelode, whereopon hys noble progenitures haue in dayes heretofore lyued as honorably and as worthily as any Crystyn prynces; and nat to suffre the destroyers of the sayde londe and of his trewe sugettes to lyue theroponne, and therefore to lacke the Page  87 sustenaunces that sholde be bylongyng to hys sayde estate, and fynde hys sayde householde opponne his pore communes withoute pay|ment, whyche nouther accordethe wyth Goddes nor mannes lawe.

Item, Howe ofte the seyde commones haue ben gretely and mer|ueylously charged with taxes and tallages to theyre grete enporyssh|yng, whereof lytelle good hathe eyther growe to the kyng or to the saide londe, and of the moste substaunce therof the kyng hathe lefte to his part nat half so moche and other lordes and persones, enemyes to the sayde commune wele, haue to theyre owne vse, suffryng alle the olde possessyons that the kyng had in Fraunce and Normandy, Angew and Meyne, Gascoyne and Guyene, wonne and goten by his fadre of moste noble memory, and othir hys noble progenitors, to be shamefully loste or solde.

Item, How they cannat cece therewith, but nowe begynne a new [folio 200b] charge of imposiccione and tallages vpponne the sayde peple whyche neuer afore was seen; that ys to say, euery tounshyp to fynde men for the kynges garde, takyng ensample therof of oure enemyes and aduersaryes of Fraunce: whiche imposicione and tallage yef hit be continued to theyre heyres and successours, wol be the heuyest charge and worst ensample that euer grewe in Englond, and the forseyde sugettes, and the seyde heyres and successours, in suche bandom as theyre auncetours were neuer charged with.

Item, Where the kyng hathe now no more lyfelode oute of his reame of Englond but onely the londe of Irelond and the toune of Caleys, and that no kyng crystened hathe suche a londe and a toune withoute hys reaume, dyuers lordes haue caused his hyghenesse to wryte letterȝ vnder his priuy seale vnto his Yrisshe enemyes, whyche neuer kyng of Englond dyd heretofore, wherby they may haue com|fort to entre in to the conquest of the sayde londe; whiche letters the same Yrysshe enemyes sent vn to me the sayde duke of York, and merueled gretely that any suche letters shuld be to theym sent, spekyng therinne gret shame and vylony of the seyde reme.

Item, In like wyse, the kyng by excytacione and laboure of the Page  88 same lordes wrote other letters to his enemyes and aduersaryes in other landes, that in no wyse thay shold shew eny favoure or good wylle to the toun of Caleys, whereby they had comfort ynowghe to procede to the wynnyng therof; considered also, that hit ys ordeyned by the laboure of the sayde lordes, that nowther vetayle ner other thyng of refresshyng or defens shulde come oute of Englond to the socoure or relyef of the sayde toune, to thentent that they wolde [folio 201a] haue hyt lost, as yt may opynly appere.

Item, It ys demed, and oweth gretely to be douted, that after that, the same lordes wolde put the same rewle of Englond, yef they myghte haue theyre purpos and entent, in to the handes and gouern|aunce of the seyde enemyes.

Item, How continuelly, syth the pytyous, shamefulle, and sorow|fulle murther to alle Englond, of that noble, worthy, and Crystyn prince, Humfrey duk of Gloucestre the kynges trew vncle, at Bury, hit hathe be labored, studyed, and conspyred, to haue dy|stroyed and murthryd the seyde duke of York, and the yssew that it pleased God to sende me of the royalle blode; and also of vs the sayde erlys of Warrewyk and Salysbury, for none other cause but for the trew hert that God knoweth we euer haue borne, and bere, to the profyte of the kynges estate, to the commone wele of the same reame, and defens therof.

Item, How the erles of Shrouesbury and Wylshyre, and the lorde Beaumount, oure mortalle and extreme enemyes, now and of long tyme past, hauyng the guydyng aboute the most noble persone of oure sayde souuerayn lorde, whos hyghenes they haue restrayned and kept from the liberte and fredom that bylongethe to his seyde astate, and the supporters and fauorers of alle the premysses, wolde nat suffre the kynges seyde good grace to resceue and accepte [us] as he wolde haue done, yet (sic) he myghte haue had his owne wylle, in hys sayde presence; dredyng the charge that wolde haue be layde vpponne theym of the mysery, destruccione, and wrechednesse of the sayde reame, wherof they be causes, and nat the kyng, whiche Page  89 ys hymself a[s] noble, as vertuous, as ryghtewys, and blyssed of dys|posicione, as any prince erthely. [folio 201b]

Item, The erles of Wylshyre and Shrouesbury, and the lorde Beaumount, nat satysfyed nor content with the kynges possessyouns and hys good, stered and excyted his sayde hyghenesse to holde hys parlement at Couentre, where an acte ys made by theyre prouoca|cioun and laboure ayenst vs the sayde duk of York, my sones Marche and Rutlande, and the erles of Warrewyk and Salysbury, and the sones of the sayde erle of Salysbury, and meny other knyghtes and esquyers, of diuerse matiers falsly and vntrewly ymagened, as they wolle answere afore Almyghty God in the day of Dome; the whyche the sayde erles of Shrouesbury and Wylshyre and the lorde Beaumount prouoked to be maad to thentent of oure destruccione and of oure yssew, and that thay myghte haue oure lyfelode and goodes, as they haue openly robbed and dyspoyled alle oure places and oure tenementes, and meny other trew men; and now procede to hangyng and drawyng of men by tyranny, and wolle therinne shewe the largenesse of theyre vyolence and malyce as vengeably as they can, yef no remedy be prouyded at the kynges hyghenesse, whos blessednes ys nother assentyng ne knowyng therof.

We therfore, seyng alle the sayde myscheues, heryng also that the Frensshe kyng makethe in hys lande grete assemble of hys peple whyche ys gretely to be drad for many causes, purpose yet ayene with Goddes grace [to] offre us to come ayene to the sayde presence of oure sayde souuerayn lorde, to opene and declare there vn to hym the myscheues aboue declared, and in the name of the land to sew in as reuerent and lowly wyse as we can to hys seyde good grace, [folio 202a] and to haue pyte and compassione uppon hys sayde trew sugettys, and nat to suffre the same myscheueȝ to regne upponne theym. Requiryng yow on Goddys behalf and prayng yow in oure oune thereinne to assyste vs, doyng alwey the dewte of ligeaunce in oure personnes to oure sayde souuerayne lorde, to hys estate, prerogatyf, and preemynence, and to thasuerte of hys most noble persone, where|vnto Page  90 we haue euer be and wylle be trew as any of his sugettes alyue: Whereof we call God, our Lady Saynt Mary and alle the Sayntes of heuene vn to wyttenesse and record."

In the mene tyme therlle of Wylshyre tresorer of Englond, the lorde Scales, and the lorde Hungreford, hauyng the kynges com|myssyone went to the toune of Newbury, the whyche longed to the duk of York, and there made inquysycione of alle thayme that in any wyse had shewed any fauoure or benyuolence or frendshyppe to the sayde duk, or to any of hys; whereof some were found gylty and were drawe hanged and quartered, and alle other inhabitantes of the forseyde toune were spoyled of alle theyre goodes.

Whanne thys was done the erle of Wylshyre went to Southamp|toun, and there vnder colore for to take the erle of Warrewyk, but specyally for to stele priuyly owte of the reame as hit preued after|wardes, he armed and vytayled v. grete carrakys of Jene that were at that tyme in the port of the sayde toune, and stuffed theym with sowdyers of Englysshemen, takyng vytayle of the kynges pryce without payment, as he sholde haue made a vyage for the kyng, and put a grete parte of his tresoure in to the sayde carrakeȝ; and [folio 202b] sone after he past owte of the port and sayled aboute in the see, dredyng alwey the commyng of the forseyde erles of Warrewyk and Salesbury, and atte laste arryued in Ducheland, and sent hys sowdyers in to Englond ayene.

Thanne were the kynges pryue seales dyrect to alle manner of bysshops, abbotys, pryores, and to alle the grete men of the spiri|tuelte and temporalte, for to leue the kyng money withoute delay for to wage men to kepe the see costes, that the sayde erles shuld nat arryue in no syde: and the sayde erle of Wylshyre made promys to alle suche persones as lent the kyng any money, that they shulde haue assignementes and repayment of the goodes of the forseyde duk of York and erles, whom they called oponne traytours. And the seyde erle of Wylshyre taxed the summe what euery man shuld leue, and so he made leve of many grete summes. And ouer thys, Page  91 proclamacione was made by commaundement of the kyng, that euery cyte, toune, and burghe, and hundredys, shuld fynde certayne sowdyers of thayre owne coste to kepe the see costys, for drede of landyng of the seyde erles.

Ferthermore, the commones of Kent, dredyng the malyce and the tyranny of the forseyde erlle of Wylshyre and of other, lest he wolde exercyse his vengeaunce vppon thaym, as he had done vppon thaym at Newbery, and sent priuyly messagers and letters to Caleys to the forseyde erles, besechyng thaym that they wolde in alle haste possible come and socour thaym fro theyre enemyes, promyttyng that they wolde assyste theym with alle thayre power.

The sayde erles wold nat anone yeue credence to theyre wrytyng and wordes, but send ouer in to Kent the lord Fauconbrege, to [folio 203a] know whether theyre promys and theyre dedes sholde accorde: and anone the peple of Kent and of other shyres aboute resorted to the sayde lorde Fauconbrege in grete nombre, abydyng the commyng of the erles.

Whan the erles knew the trew hertes of the peple, they dysposed theyme dayly for to com in to thys londe. And nat longe before theyre commyng, thys balat that folowethe was sette vppon the yates of the cyte of Caunterbury.

In the day of faste and spirituelle afflixione,*. [Balat set upponne the yates of Caun|terbury.]
The celestialle influence of bodyes transytory,
Set asyde alle prophecyes, and alle commixtione
Of iujementys sensualle to ofte in memory,
I reduced to mynde the prophete Isay,
Consideryng Englond to God in greuous offence, with wepyng ye;
This text I fonde in his story:—
"Omne caput languidum, et omne cor merens!"
Regnum Anglorum regnum Dei est,
As the Aungelle to seynt Edward dede wyttenesse;
Now regnum Sathane, it semethe, reputat best,
For filii scelerati haue broughte it in dystresse. Page  92
This preuethe fals wedlock and periury expresse,
Fals heryres fostred, as knowethe experyence,
Vnryghtewys dysherytyng with false oppresse,
Sic "omne caput languidum, et omne cor merens!"
A plantâ pedis, fro the pore tylyer of the lond
Ad verticem of spiritualle eke temperalle ennoynted crown
Grace ys withdrawe and Goddys mercyfulle hand,
Exalted ys falsehod, trowthe ys layde adoune;
Euery reame cryethe owte on Engelondes treson.
O falshod with thy colored presence!
Euer shulle we syng duryng thy season,
"Omne caput languidum, et omne cor merens!"
"Omne regnum in se divisum," sayethe dyuyne Scrypture,
"Shall be desolate," than folewethe translacione
Into the handes of theyre enemyes, Jewes arn figure; [folio 203b]
And now ys Englond in lyk reputacione,
In wey to be conquered; truste it for sewre!
Jhesu, for thy mercy and thy noble reuerens,
Reforme vs to goodnesse and condicione pure,
For, "omne caput languidum, et omne cor merens!"
Harry oure souerayne and most Crystyne kyng
His trew bloode hathe flemed bothe be swerde and exyle;
What prynce by thys rewle may haue long enduryng,
That also in moste pouert hath be long whyle?
Tho bestys that thys wroughte to mydsomer haue but a myle—
But euer mornethe Engelond for ham that be hens
Wythe languysshyng of herte rehersyng my style,
"Omne caput languidum, et omne cor merens!"
Jonathas ys ded that Dauid shuld restore
To the presence of the kyng, vnyte to make
Murum pro domo Israel, presthode dar no more
Put hymself forthe, his fat benefyce he shuld forsake.
Mercyfulle God! it ys tyme thow for vs awake.
Mercenarius fugit, ne wylle make resistence,
He ferethe the wolf that wolde hys bonys crake,
"Omne caput languidum, et omne cor merens!" Page  93
Tempus ys come falshede to dystroy,
Tempus eradicandi the wedes fro the corne,
Tempus cremandi the breres that trees noye,
Tempus evellendi the fals hunter with his horne,
Tempus miserendi on por alle to torne,
Tempus ponendi falsnes in perpetuelle absence,
Thoroughe whom we syngyng bothe euyne and morne,
"Omne caput languidum, et omne cor merens!"
Send hom, most gracious Lord Jhesu most benygne,
Sende hoom thy trew blode vn to his propre veyne,
Richard duk of York, Job thy seruaunt insygne,
Whom Sathan not cesethe to sette at care and dysdeyne, [folio 204a]
But by The preserued he may nat be slayne;
Sette hym ut sedeat in principibus, as he dyd before,
And so to oure newe songe, Lorde, thyn erys inclyne,
Gloria, laus et honor Tibi sit Rex Christe Redemptor!
Edwarde Erle of Marche, whos fame the erthe shalle sprede,
Richard Erle of Salisbury named prudence,
Wythe that noble knyghte and floure of manhode
Richard erle of Warrewyk sheelde of oure defence,
Also lytelle Fauconbrege, a knyghte of grete reuerence;
Jhesu ham restore to thayre honoure as thay had before,
And euer shalle we syng to thyn Hyghe Excellence,
Gloria, laus et honor Tibi sit Rex Christe Redemptor!
No prynce, alle thyng consydered, wythe honoure
In alle thyng requysyte to a kynges excellence
Better may lyue, serche any worthy predecessoure;
Yet hastow souuerayne lord in these lordes absence
Of alle thaym to a kyng ryghte resonable expens;
Thay shalle come agayne and rekene for the scoore,
And thow shalt syng wythe vs thys verrey trew sens,
Gloria laus et honor Tibi sit Rex Christe Redemptor! Page  94
The deed man gretethe yow welle,
That ys iust trew as steele,
With verray good entent,
Alle the Reame of Englond
Sone to louse from sorowes bond,
Be ryghte indifferent iugement.
To the ryghte Worshypfulle Cyte of Caunterbury.

Thanne the noble erles of Marche, Warrewyk, and Salysbury,*. [Howe the Erles landed at Sand|wyche.] hauyng wynde and weder at thayre plesaunce, arryued graciously at Sandwyche; where met wythe thaym master Thomas Bourchier archebysshop of Caunterbury, and a grete multitude of peple wythe hym; and wythe hys crosse before hym, [he] went forthe wythe the sayde erles and theyre peple toward Londoun, and sente an herowde to the cyte to knowe howe they were dysposed, and whether they wolde stand with theyme in thayre iust quarelle, and graunte hem leve for to passe thoroughe the cite. They that were nat frendely [folio 204b] to the erles, counseyled the mayre and the comynalte for to ley gunneȝ at the brege for to kepe thaym owte, and so a lytelle diuision there was among the citeȝens, but yt was sone ceased.

Than sent thay of the cyte to the sayde erles xij. worshypfulle and dyscrete aldermen, the whyche, in the name of alle the cyte, graunted thaym fre entre wythe suche seruyce as they cowde and myghte do to thayr worshyppe and honoure. Thys done, the alder|men retorned to the cyte, and the sayde herowde ageyne to the lordes.

And the secund day of Juylle thay entred in to Londoun. And*. [2 of July, 1460.] wythe theym came the popys legat, that nat long before had be in Englond; the whyche had auctoryte by the popes bulles for to entrete pease betwene the kyng and the erles, yt (sic) nede were; but, how yt were, he vsurped and toke oponne hym more power thanne he had, as it was knowenne afterward. Page  95

Thanne was a conuocacione of the clergy holden at Paulys in Londoun, and theder came the sayde erles: and the erle of Warre|wyk there purposed, and recyted before alle the conuocacione, and innumerable peple standyng aboute, the causes of theyre commyng in to thys lond; and mysrewle and myscheues therof; and how with grete vyolence thay had be repeled and put from the kynges presence, that they myghte nat come to hys hyghenes forto excuse thaym of suche fals accusaciones as were layde ayens thaym; and now were come ayene, by Goddys mercy, accompanyed with peple for to come to hys presens, there to declare and excuse thayre inno|cence, or ellys to dy in the felde; and there [they] made an open othe vpponne the cros of Caunterbury that thay had euer bore trew [folio 205a] feythe and lygeaunce to the kynges persone, wyllyng no more hurt to hym than to thayre owen personnes; wherof they took God and hys moder and alle the sayntes of heuene to wyttenesse.

The kyng, that held a counseylle at Couentre, heryng of the commyng of the erles, went to Northamptone.

The erle of Salesbury be comyn assent of the cite was maad rewler and gouernour of Londoun, in absence of the forseyde erles. And the seyde erles of Marche and Warrewyk and other lordes, that ys to say the lorde Facombrege, lorde Clyntone, lorde Bourser, prioure of Seynt Johannes, lorde Audeley, lorde Bergevenny, lord Say, lord Scroope, tharchebysshoppe of Caunterbury, the popes legat, the bysshoppe of Excetre, the bysshops of Ely, Salesbury, and Rouches|tre, dressed hem forth to the kyng to Northamptone.

The lord Scales and the lorde Hungreford that before the com|myng of the erles were in the cyte of London, wolde haue had the rewle and gouernaunce therof, but they of the cyte wold nat suffre thaym, for thay sayde that they were suffysaunt for to rewle the cyte thaymself; wherof the lordes hauyng indygnacione wente in to the toure of Londoun, and meny other grete men with theym, whos names bethe here vndre wretynne:—lord Vessy, lord Louelle, lord Delaware, lord Kendale a Gascoyne, ser Edmond Hampden Page  96 knyghte, Thomas Broun knyghte, shireue of Kent, Johan Bruyn of Kent, ser Geruays Clyftone knyghte, tresorer of the kynges hows, ser Thomas Tyrelle knyghte, the duchesse of Exetre, and many other. And the toure was beseged by lond and by water, that no vytayl myghte come to thayme that were wythynne. [folio 205b]

Whanne the erles and lordes were gone to Northamptone, thay that were wythynne the toure caste wyld fyre in to the cyte, and shot in smale gonnes, and brend and hurte men and wymmen and chyldren in the stretes. And they of London leyde grete bom|bardes on the ferther syde of the Thamyse agayns the toure and crased the walles therof in diuerse places; natheles they hoped dayly forto haue be rescued, but alle was in veyne.

The kyng at Northamptone lay atte Freres, and had ordeyned there a strong and a myghty feeld, in the medowys beside the Nonry, armed and arayed wythe gonnys, hauyng the ryuer at hys back.

The erles with the nombre of lx. Ml., as it was sayd, came to Northamptone, and sent certayne bysshops to the kyng besechyng hym that in eschewyng of effusyone of Crysten blood he wolde admytte and suffre the erles for to come to his presence to declare thaym self as thay were. The duk of Bukynghame that stode besyde the kyng, sayde vn to thaym, "Ye come nat as bysshoppes for to trete for pease, but as men of armes;" because they broughte with thaym a notable company of men of armes. They answered and sayde, "We come thus for suerte of oure persones, for they that bethe aboute the kyng bythe nat oure frendes." "Forsothe," sayde the duk, "the erle of Warrewyk shalle nat come to the kynges presence, and yef he come he shalle dye." The messyngers retorned agayne, and tolde thys to the erles.

Thanne the erle of Warrewyk sent an herowde of armes to the kyng, besechyng that he myghte haue ostages of saaf goyng and commyng, and he wolde come naked to his presence, but he myghte [folio 206a] nat be herde. And the iijde tyme he sente to the kyng and sayde Page  97 that at ij howres after none, he wolde speke with hym, or elles dye in the feeld.

The archebysshoppe of Caunterbury sent a bysshoppe of this lond to the kyng with an instruccione, the whyche dyd nat hys message indyfferently, but exorted and coraged the kynges part for to fyȝte, as thay sayde that were there. And another tyme he was sent to the kyng by the commones, and thanne he came nat ayene, but pryuely departed awey. The bysshop of Herforde, a Whyte Frere, the kynges confessoure, ded the same: wherfore after the batayle he was commytted to the castelle of Warrewyk, where he was long in pryson.

Thanne on the Thurseday the xth day of Juylle, the yere of oure*. [The bataylle of Northampton.] Lorde Ml.CCCC.lx, at ij howres after none, the sayde erles of Marche*. [[July 10th.]] and Warrewyk lete crye thoroughe the felde, that no man shuld laye hand vpponne the kyng ne on the commune peple, but onely on the lordes, knyghtes and squyers: thenne the trumpettes blew vp, and bothe hostes countred and faughte togedre half an oure. The lorde Gray, that was the kynges vawewarde, brake the feelde and came to the erles party, whyche caused sauacione of many a mannys lyfe: many were slayne, and many were fled, and were drouned in the ryuer.

The duk of Bukyngham, the erle of Shrouesbury, the lorde Beaumont, the lorde Egremount were slayne by the Kentysshmen besyde the kynges tent, and meny other knyghtes and squyers. The ordenaunce of the kynges gonnes avayled nat, for that day was so grete rayne, that the gonnes lay depe in the water, and so were [folio 206b] queynt and myghte nat be shott.

Whanne the feld was do, and the erles thoroughe mercy and helpe had the vyctory, they came to the kyng in his tent, and sayde in thys wyse—

"Most Noble Prince, dysplease yow nat, thoughe it haue pleased God of His Grace to graunt vs the vyctory of oure mortalle enemyes, the whyche by theyre venymous malyce haue vntrewly Page  98 stered and moued youre hyghenesse to exyle vs oute of youre londe, and wolde vs haue put to fynalle shame and confusyone. We come nat to that entent for to inquyete ne greue youre sayde hyghenesse, but for to please youre moste noble personne, desiryng most tendrely the hyghe welfare and prosperyte thereof, and of alle youre reame, and for to be youre trew lyegemen, whyle oure lyfes shalle endure."

The kyng of theyre wordes was gretely recomforted, and anone was lad in to Northamptone wythe processyone, where he rested hym iij dayes, and thanne came to London, the xvj day of the monethe*. [[July 16th.]] abouesayde, [and] loged in the bysshop's paleys. For the whyche vyctory London yaf to Almyghtye God grete lawde and thankyng.

Nat longe before this batayle it was proclamed in Lancastreshyre and Chesshyre, that yef so were that the kyng had the vyctory of the erles, that thanne euery man shulde take what he myghte and make havok in the shyres of Kent, Essexe, Middylsexe, Surreye, Sussexe, Hamshyre and Wylshyre: bot God wolde nat suffre suche fals robbery.

Furthermore the Saturday the xix day of Juylle, thay that were*. [[July 19th.]] in the toure of Londoun for lack of vytayl yolden vp the toure, and came oute: of the whyche afterward some were drawe and beheded. [folio 207a]

The lord Scales, for as meche as men of Londoun loued hym nat, he thoughte that he myghte haue stande in the more sewrte in the saintwary of Westmynstre thanne in the toure. Late in the euyn, [he] entred a boote with iij persones rowyng toward Westmynstre, and a wommanne the whiche that knewe hym ascryed hym, and anone the boote men gadered theym togedre and folowed hym, and fylle vpponne hym, and kylde hym and caste hym on the lond, besyde seynt Mary Ouerey. And grete pyte it was, that so noble and so worshypfulle a knyghte, and so welle approued in the warrys of Normandy and Fraunce, shuld dy so myscheuously.

Whan quene Margarete harde telle, that the kyng was dyscom|fyted Page  99 and take, she fledde with hyr sone and viij persones in to the castelle of Hardlaghe in Wales, and as she went by Lancastreshyre, there she was robbed and dyspoyled of alle her goodes, to the valew of x.Ml. marc., as yt was sayde; and sone after she went into Scotlonde.

Thys same yeere, in the monethe of August, the kyng of Scottes beseged the castelle of Rokesburghe in Northumbreland, and on seynt Laurence day in the mornyng, er he had herde masse, he wolde haue*. [Ye 10 of Aw|gust.] fyred a grete gonne for to have shot to the castelle, and the chambre of the gonne brake and slowe hym.

Anno xxxix. A.D. 1460-1.

The xxxix. yere of kyng Harry, aboute seynt Mathews day in Septembre, the duk of Somerset came fro Guynes in to Englond.*. [Ye 21 of Sep|tembar.]

And thys same yere the Tewesday the viij. day of Octobre, a*. [[October 8th.]] parlement was begonne at Westmynstre; and thyder came Richard duk of York, that a lytelle before was come oute of Yrlond, and was loged in the paleys, the kyng beyng there, and brak vp the dores [folio 207b] of the kynges chambre. And the kyng heryng the grete noyse*. [Kynge Harry forcid to for|sake his cham|bar.] and rumore of the peple, yaafe hym place and took another chambre.

Then the seyde duk Richard, remembryng the grete and many|folde wrongys, exylys, and vylonyes, that he had suffred and be put vnto by thys seyde kyng Harry, and by hys; and also how wrongfully and vniustly he had be, and was, dyspleased and dyseased of hys ryghte enheritaunce of the reaume and croune of Englond, by violent intrusyonne of kyng Harry the iiijthe, whyche vnryghte|fully, wrongfully, and tyrannously vsurped the crowne after the dethe of kyng Rychard his cosyn, verray and ryghtfulle heyre therof, and so wrongfully holdyn from hymm, and occupyed and holde, by the sayde kyng Harry the iiijthe, the vthe, and kyng Harry the vjthe that now ys in to thys tyme; he as ryghte heyre by lynealle descens from the sayde kyng Richard, chalaunged and claymed the Page  100 sayd reame and croune of Englond, purposyng withoute any more delay to haue be crouned onne Alle Halow day, thanne next folow|yng: and heropon sent to the lordes and comones of the parlement in wrytyng, hys sayde clayme, tytle and pedegre, and nat wold come in to the parlement tylle he had aunswere therof. The whyche tytle, clayme and pedegre, after diligent inspeccione and wyse dely|beracione of thaym had, dyscussed and approued, by alle the seyde parlement; peese, vnyte and concorde betwene the kyng and the sayde duk Richard, the Fryday in the vygylle of Alhalow was maad,*. [[Friday, Oct. 31st.]] stabylysshed and concluded, as yt appereth plenely, and ys con|teyned in tharticles here next folowyng:— [folio 208a]

"Blyssed be Jhesu, in Whos handes and bounte restethe and ys*. [The articles be|twyxt kyng Harry and the duk of York.] the pease and vnyte betwyxt princes, and the weele of euery reaume yknow, by Whos direccione aggreed hit ys, appoynted, and accorded as folowethe, betwyxt the moste Hyghe and most Myghty Prynce, Kyng Harry the vjth, kyng of Englond and of Fraunce and lorde of Yrelond, on that on party, and the ryghte Hyghe and Myghty Prynce Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, on that other party, uppon cer|tayne matyers of variaunce meued betwyxt thayme; and in espe|cyalle, uppon the clayme and tytle vn to the corones of Englond and of Fraunce, and royalle power, estate, and dygnyte apperteynyng to the same, and lordshyppe of Yrelond, opened, shewed, and declared by the sayde duk afore alle the lordes spyrytuelle and temporalle beyng in thys present parliament: The sayde aggrement, appoynte|ment and accord, to be auctorysed by the same parlement.

"Furst, where the sayde Richard duk of York hathe declared and opened as aboue ys sayde tytle and clayme in the manner as folowethe:

"That the ryghte noble and worthy prince Harry kyng of Englond the iijde had issew and lawfully gate Edward hys furst begoten sone, borne at Westmynstre the xv. kalendis of Juylle, in the vygyl of seynt Marc and Marcellyane, the yere of oure Lorde Ml.CC.xxxix.: and Edmonde his seconde goten sone whyche was in saynt Marcelle Page  101 day, the yere of oure Lorde Ml.CC.: The whyche Edward, after the dethe of kyng Harry hys fader, entiteled and called kyng Edward the furst, had yssew Edwarde, hys furst begoten sone, entitled and called after the desese of the sayde furst Edwarde, hys fader, kyng Edward the [folio 208b] secunde: The whiche had yssew and lawfully gate the ryghte noble and honorable prince Edward the thryd, trew and vndowted kyng of Engelond and of Fraunce and lord of Yrelond: Whyche Edwarde the iijde trew and vndowted kyng of Engelond and of Fraunce and lord of Yrelond, had yssew and lawfully gate, Edward hys furst begotenne sone, prince of Wales; Wyllyam of Hatfyeld, secund begotenne; Leonel, thryd begoten, duke of Clarence; Johan of Gaunt, fourthe begotenne, duke of Lancastre; Edmond Langley, fyfth begoten, duk of York; Thomas Wodstoke, syxthe gotenne, duk of Gloucestre; and Wyllyam Wyndsore, the seuenthe goten. The sayde Edwarde, prince of Wales, whyche dyed in the lyf of the sayde Edward, kyng, had yssew and lawfully gat Richard, the whyche succeded the same Edward, kyng, hys grauntsyre, in royalle dygnyte, entyteled and called kyng Richard the secund, and deyed withoute yssew. Wyllyam Hatfeld the ijde goten sone of the seyde Edward, kyng, dyed withoute yssew. Leonelle, the iijde goten sone of the sayde Edward, kyng, duke of Clarence, had yssew and lawfully*. [Some have denied this.] gat Phylyppa, his ownely doughtre and heyre, whyche by sacrament of matrymony cowpeled vnto Ed|mond Mortymer erle of Marche, had yssew and lawfully beere Roger Mortymer, erle of Marche, her sone and heyre. Whiche Roger erle of Marche had yssew and lawfully begate Edmund erle of Marche, Roger Mortymer, Anne and Alianore, whyche Edmund, Roger and Alyanore, dyed withoute yssew. And the sayde Anne vndre the sacrament of matrymony cowpeled vnto Richard erle of Cambrege, the sone of the sayde Edmond Langley, the fyfthe goten [folio 209a] sone of the sayde kyng Edward, as yt ys afore specyfyed, had yssew and bare lawfully Richard Plantagenet, comonly called duk of York. Page  102 The sayde Johan of Gaunt the iiijth goten sone of the seyde kyng Edward, and the yonger brother of the sayde Leonelle, had yssew and lawfully gat Harry Erle of Derby, whyche incontinent after the tyme that the seyde kyng Richard resygned the coroneȝ of the sayde reames and the sayde lordeshyppe of Yrlond, vnryghtewysly entred vpponne the same, then be alyue Edmond Mortymer erle of Marche, sone to Roger Mortymer erle of Marche, sone and heyre of the sayde Phylyppa, doughter and heyre of the sayde ser Leonelle, the iijde sone of the sayde kyng Edward the iijde, to the whyche Edmond the ryghte and title of the seyde corones and lordshyp by lawe and custom belonged. To the whyche Richard duk of York, as sone to Anne, doughter to Roger Mortymer erle of Marche, sone and heyre to the sayde Phylyppa, doughter and heyre of the sayde Leonelle, the iijde goten sone of the sayde kyng Edwarde the iijde, the ryghte, tytle, dygnyte royalle, and estate of the corones of the reames of Englond and Fraunce, and of the lordeshyppe and the londe of Yre|lond, of the ryghte lawe and custume perteynethe and belongethe, afore any yssew of the sayde Johan of Gaunt the iiijthe goten sone of the same kyng Edwarde.

"The sayde tytle natheles natwythestandyng, and withoute preiudice of the same, the sayde Richard duk of York, tendrely desyryng the weele, reste and prosperyte of thys lande, and to sette aparte alle [folio 209b] that that myghte be a trouble to the same; and consideryng the possessyone of the sayd kyng Harry the vjthe, and that he hathe for hys tyme be named, taken and reputed kyng of Engelond and of Fraunce and lorde of Yrlond; ys content, aggreed and consentethe that he be had, reputed and taken kyng of Englond and of Fraunce, with the royalle astate, dignyte and preemynence bylongyng therto, and lorde of Yrlond, duryng hys lyfe naturalle; and for that tyme the sayde duk, withoute hurte or preiudice of hys sayde ryghte and title, shalle take, worshyp and honoure hym for his souerayne lord.

"Item, The sayde Rychard, duk of York, shalle promyt and bynde hym by hys solemne othe, in maner and forme as folowethe: Page  103

"In the name of God, Amenne. I Rychard, duke of York, promytte and swere by the feythe and trowthe that I owe to Almyghty God, that I shalle neuer do, consent, procure or stere, directly or indi|rectly, in pryve or appert, neyther, asmoche as in me ys, shalle suffre to be do, consented, procured or stered, any thyng that may be or sowne to abrygement of the naturalle lyfe of kyng Harry vjth, or to hurte or amenusyng of hys regne or dygnyte royalle, by vyolence or any otherwyse ayens hym (sic) fredom or liberte: But yef any persone or persones wold do or presume any thyng to the contrary, I shalle with alle my myghte and power withstande hyt, and make yt to be wythstonde, as fer as my power wylle streche therevnto: so helpe me God, and His holy Euangelyes.

"Item, Edward erle of Marche and Edmond erle of Rutlond, sones of the sayde Richard duk of York, shalle make lyke othe. [folio 210a]

"Item, It ys accorded, appoynted, and aggreed, that the sayde Rychard duke of York shalle be called and reputed from hensfoorth verray and ryghtefulle heyre to the corounes, royalle astate, dygnyte and lordeshyp abouesayde: And after the decees of the sayde king Harry, or whenne he wolle laye from hym the sayde corounes, astate, dignite and lordshyppe, the sayde duke and hys heyres shalle immediately succede to the sayde corones, royalle astate, dygnyte and lordshyppe.

"Item, The sayde Richard, duk of York, shalle haue by auctoryte of thys present parlement, castelles, maners, londes and tenementes, wythe the wardes, mariages, releues, seruices, fynes, amerciamentes, offyces, avousons, fees and other appurtenaunces to thaym belongyng what soeuer they be, to the yerely valew of x. Ml marc., ouer alle charges and repryses; whereof v. Ml marc. shalle be to his owen estate; iij. Ml VC. marc. to Edwarde hys furst begoten sone, earle of Marche, for his astate; and Ml li. to Edmond, erle of Rutlond, hys secund goten sone, for his yerly sustentacione, of suche consi|deraciones and suche entent as shal be declared by the lordes of the kynges counselle. Page  104

"Item, Yef any persone, or persones, ymagyne or compasse the dethe of the sayde duk, and therof prouably be atteynt of open dede doone by folkes of other condicione, that yt be demed and adiuged hyghe tresone.

"Item, For the more estabylysshyng of the sayde accord, it ys appoynted and consented, that the lordes spirituelle and temporalle beyng in thys present parliament, shalle make othys to accept, take, worshyppe and repute, the sayde Richard duk of York, and hys [folio 210b] sayde eyres, as aboue ys rehersed, and kepe and obserue and streynghte, in as moche as apparteynethe vn to thaym, alle the thynges abouesayde, and resyste to theyre power alle thaym that wold presume the contrary, accordyng to thayre astates and de|grees.

"Item, The sayde Richard duk of York, erles of Marche and Rut|land, shalle promyt and make othe to helpe, ayde and defend the sayde lordes and euery of theyme, ayens alle tho that wolle quarelle or any thyng attempt ayenst the sayde lordes, or any of thaym, by occasyone of aggrement or consenttyng to the sayde accorde, or assystence yeuyng to the duk and erles or any of thaym.

"Item, Hit ys aggreed and appoynted that thys accorde, and euery article therof, be opened and notyfyed by the kynges letters patentes, or otherwyse, at suche tymes and places and in manner as hit shal be thoughte expedyent to the sayde Richard duk of York, with thavyse of the lordes of the kynges counseylle.

"The kyng vnderstandethe certaynly the sayde tytle of the sayde Richard duk of York, iust, lawfulle and sufficiant, by thauyse and assent of the lordes spiritualle and temporalle and commones, in this parliament assembled; and by auctoryte of the same parlement de|clarethe, approuethe, ratyfyethe, confermethe and acceptethe the sayde tytle, iust, good, lawfulle, and trew, and therevnto yeuethe his assent and aggrement of his fre wylle and liberte. And ouer that, by the sayde avyce and auctoryte, declarethe, entitlethe, callethe, stabylysshethe, affermethe and reputethe the sayde Richard duk of Page  105 York, verray, trew and ryghtefulle heyre to the corones, royalle [folio 211a] astate and dygnyte, of the reames of Englond and of Fraunce and of the lordeshyppe of Yrlond aforesayde: and that accordyng to the worshyp and reuerence that therto belongethe, he be taken, accepted and reputed in worshyppe and reuerence, by alle the states of the sayd reame of Englond, and of alle hys subiectes therof; sauyng and ordeynyng, by the same auctoryte, the kyng to haue the sayde corones, reames, royalle estate, dignyte and preemynence of the same, and the sayde lordshyppe of Yrlond, duryng his lyf naturalle. And forthermore, by the same avyse and auctoryte, wylle, con|sentethe and aggreethe that after hys decease, or whan hit shalle please his hyghenesse to ley from hym the seyde corones, estat, dignyte and lordshyp, or therof ceasethe; The seyde Richard duke of York and his heyres shalle immediatly succede hym, in the seyde corones, royalle astate, dignyte and worshyppe, and thaym thanne haue and ioye, any acte of parlement, statute or ordenaunce or other thyng to the contrary maad, or interrupcion or dyscon|tynuance of possessyone natwythstandyng. And moreouer, by the sayde avyse and auctoryte, stabylysshethe, grauntethe, confermethe, approuethe, ratyfyethe and acceptethe the seyde accorde, and alle thyng therynne conteyned, and therevnto freely and absolutely assenteth and aggreeth.

And by the same avyse and auctoryte ordeynethe and esta|bylysshethe, that yef any persone or persones ymagyne or compasse the dethe of the sayde duk, and prouably be atteynt of open dede done by folkes of that condicions, that it demed and adiuged hygh treason.

And forthermore ordeyneth, puttethe and stabylysshethe, by the sayde avyse and auctoryte, that alle statutys, ordenaunces and actes of parlement, made in the tyme of the sayde kyng Harry the iiijth, by the whiche he and the heyres of his body commyng of Harry late kyng of Englond the vth, the sone and heyre of the sayde kyng Harry the iiijth, and the heyres of the body of the same kyng Harry Page  106 the vth comyng, were or be enherytable to the sayde corones and reames, or to the herytage or enherytament of the same, be annulled, repeled, reuoked, dampned, cancelled, voyde, and of no force or effect. And ouer thus, the kyng by the sayde aduyse, assent and auctoryte, wylle, ordeynethe and stabylysshethe, that alle other actes and statutes, maade afore thys tyme by auctoryte of parlement, nat repeled or adnulled by lyk auctoryte, or otherwyse voyde, be in suche foorce, effect and vertew as thay were afore the makyng of these ordenaunces, and that no letters patentes royalx of record, nor actys iudycyalle, maade or done afore thys tyme, nat repeled, re|uersed ne otherwyse voyde by the lawe, be preiudyced or hurt by thys present acte."

Also it was ordeyned by the sayde parlement, that the sayde Rychard duk of York shold be called Prince of Wales, duke of Cornewayle, and erle of Chestre; and [he] was made also by the sayde parlement protectoure of Englond.

Thys same yeere, in the moneth of Decembre, the duk of Somerset*. [[December.]] and the erle of Deuenshyre went in to the Northcuntre, wythe viij.C. men: and anone after the seyde duk of York, the erle of Rutland hys sone, and the erle of Salesbury, a lytelle before Crystynmas, [folio 212a] wyth a fewe personnes went in to the Northe also, for to represse the malyce of the Northermenne the whyche loued nat the sayd duk of York ne the erle of Salesbury, and were loged at the castelle of Sandale and at Wakefeld.

Than the lord Nevyle, brother to the erle of Westmorland, vnder a falce colour wente to the sayde duk of York, desyryng a commys|syone of hym for to reyse a peple for to chastyse the rebelles of the cuntre; and the duk it graunted, demyng that he had be trew and on hys parte. When he had his commyssyone he reysed to the nombre of viij. Ml. men, and broute thaym to the lordes of the cuntre; that ys to say, the erle of Northumbrelond, lord Clyfford, and duke of Somerset, that were aduersaryes and enemyes to duke Richarde. And whan they sawe a conuenient tyme for to fylle Page  107 theyre cruelle entent, the laste day of Decembre they fyll oponne the sayde duk Rychard, and hym kylde, and hys sone therlle of*. [[December 31st.]] Rutland, and meny other knyghtes and squyers; that ys to say, the lorde Haryngtone a yong man, Thomas Haryngtone knyght, ser Thomas Nevyle sone to therlle of Salesbury, and ser Harry Ratford knyghte; and of other peple to the nombre of Ml. Ml.CC. The erle of Salesbury was take alyue, and lad by the sayde duk of Somerset to the castel of Pountfreete, and for a grete summe of money that he shuld haue payed had graunt of hys lyfe. But the commune peple of the cuntre, whyche loued hym nat, tooke hym owte of the castelle by violence and smote of his hed.

Whan the dethe of these lordes was knowe, greete sorow was*. [A.D. 1461.] [folio 212b] made for thaym; and anone, by the kynges commaundement, wryttes and commyssiones were sent and direct to the Shyreues and other officers, to reyse peple for to chastyse the peple and the rebelles of the North.*. [See in Rymer a commission directed to Edward duke of York for this purpose, dated Feb. 12 (vol. xi. p. 471.)] And they of the Northe heryng thys gadred pryuyly a grete peple, and came doune sodeynly to the towne of Dunstaple, robbyng alle the cuntre and peple as they came; and spoylyng abbeyes and howses of relygyone and churches, and bare awey chalyces, bookes and other ornamentes, as thay had be paynems or Sarracenes, and no Crysten menne.

The xij. day of Feuerer, the Thurseday, kyng Harry with his*. [[February 12th.]] lordes, that ys to say, the duk of Norfolk, and Suffolk, the erles of Warrewyk and of Arundelle, the lorde Bonevyle and other, went oute of Londoun, and came with thayre peple to the toune of Seynt Albonys, nat knowyng that the peple of the North was so nyghe. And whanne the kyng herde that they were so nyghe hym, he went oute and took hys felde besyde a lytelle towne called Sandryge, nat*. [The secunde batayl of Seynt Albonys.] fer fro Seynt Albonys, in a place called No-mannes land, and there he stoode and sawe his peple slayne on bothe sydes. And at the Page  108 laste, thorow the withdrawyng of the Kentisshmen with thayre cap|teyne, called Lovelace, that was in the vaunt-warde,—the whych Lovelace fauored the Northe party, for as moche as he was take by the Northurnmen at Wakefeld whan the duk of York was slayne, and made to theym an othe for to saue his lyfe, that he wold neuer be agayns theym,—and also be vndysposycion of the peple of the kynges syde, that wold nat be guyded ne gouerned by theyre cap|teyns, kyng Harryes part loste the feeld. The lordes that were wyth [folio 213a] the kyng seyng thus, withdrowe theym, and went theyre wey.

Whan the kyng sawe his peple dysparbeled and the feeld broke, he went to his quene Margarete that came wyth the Northurmen, and hyr sone Edward; for thay of the North sayde that thay came for to restore the kyng to the quene his wyfe, and for to delyuer hym owte of pryson; forasmeche as seth the batayle of Northampton he had be vnder the rewle and gouernaunce of the erles of Warre|wyk and Salesbury, and of other.

The sayde erle of Warrewyk dressed hym toward the erle of Marche, commyng toward London owte of Wales, fro the dyscom|fyture of the erles of Penbroke and Wylshyre. The lorde Bone|vyle that came wyth kyng Harry wolde haue withdrawe hym, as other lordes ded, and saued hymself fro his enemyes, but the kyng assured hym that he shuld haue no bodyly harme; natheles nat|wythstandyng that sewrte, at instaunce of the quene, the duk of Exetre, and therlle of Deuonshyre, by iugement of hym that was called the Prince, a chylde, he was beheded at Seynt Albons, and with hym a worthy knyghte of Kent called ser Thomas Kyryelle. Ser Johan Nevyle, kyng Harryes chamburlayne, brother to the erle of Warrewyk, was take; but sone after he was delyuered. This bataylle was done on Shroftwysday, the yere aboue sayde, the xvij.*. [[February 17th.]] day of Feuerer, in the whiche were slayne Ml.IX.C.xvj. persones.

Whan thys batayle was doon, London dredyng the manas and the malyce of the quene and the duke of Somerset and other, leste they wolde have spoyled the cyte,—for as moche as the quene with her [folio 213b] Page  109 counselle had graunted and yeue leve to the Northurmen for to spoyle and robbe the sayde cyte, and also the townes of Couentre, Bristow, and Salesbury, wyth the shyrys withynne rehersed, as for payment and recompense of theyre sowde and wages, as the comon noyse was among the peple at that tyme;—then ther was sent vnto the sayde quene owte of the cyte of Londoun the duchesse of Bukynghame, with other wytty men with her, to trete with thaym for to be benyuolent and owe good wylle to the cyte, the whyche was dyuyded withyn hyt self; for some of the worthy and of the Aldremen, dredyng and weyyng the inconueniens and myscheues that myghte folow contrary to the comone wele of the cyte, and for to stonde in sewrte of the cyte both of bodyes and of goodes no robry to be had, graunted and promytted a certayne some of money to the sayde quene and duk of Somerset, and that he shulde come in to the cyte aponne thys appoyntement with a certayne nombre of persones wyth hym. And anon hereaponne certayn speres and men of armes were sent by the sayde duk, for to have entred the cyte before his commyng; whereof some were slayne, and some sore hurte, and the remanent put to flyghte. And anone after, the comones, for the sauacione of the cyte, toke the keyes of the yates were they shulde have entred, and manly kept and defended hit fro theyre enemyes, vnto the commyng of Edwarde the noble erle of Marche.

Thanne kyng Harry, with Margarete his quene and the Norther|men, went and retorned homewarde toward the North ayene: the [folio 214a] whyche Northurnemenne as they went homwarde dyd harmes innumerable, takyng mennys cartes, waynes, horses and bestis, and robbed the peple and lad theyre pylage into the North contre, so that men of the shyres that they past by, had almoste lefte no bestys to tyle theyre londe.

This same tyme the ij bretheryn of the erle of March, George and Richard, were sent to Phylyp duk of Burgoyne for saaf garde of theyre persones, the whyche were of the sayde duk notably Page  110 resceyued, cherysshed and honoured; and afterwarde sende hom with meny grete yeftes vn to Englond ayene.

The iijde day of Feuerer the same yere, Edward the noble erle of*. [[February3rd.]] Marche faught with the Walsshmen besyde Wygmore in Wales, whos capteyns were the erle of Penbrook and the erle of Wylshyre, that wolde fynally haue dystroyed the sayde erle of Marche.

And the Monday before the daye of batayle, that ys to say, in*. [[February 2nd.]] the feest of Puryficacion of oure blessed Lady abowte x atte clocke before none, were seen iij sonnys in the fyrmament shynyng fulle clere, whereof the peple hade grete mervayle, and therof were agast. The noble erle Edward thaym comforted and sayde, "Beethe of good comfort, and dredethe not; thys ys a good sygne, for these iij sonys betokene the Fader, the Sone, and the Holy Gost, and therfore late vs haue a good harte, and in the name of Almyghtye God go we agayns oure enemyes." And so by His grace, he had the vyctory of his enemyes, and put the ij erles to flyghte, and slow of the Walsshemen to the nombre of iiij. Ml.

After thys dyscomfyture he came to Londoun, the xxviij day of [folio 214b] the moneth abouesayde, and anone fylle vnto hym peple innumerable,*. [[February 28th.]] redy for to go with hym in to the northe, to venge the dethe of the noble duke Richard hys fadre.

Here endethe the reygne of kyng Harry the vjthe that had regned xxxix. [viij.]*. [Correction by the hand of Stowe.] yere, vj monethes and iij dayes, that ys to say vnto Twysday, the iij day of Marche; and the Wennesday next after, vppon the morow, Edwarde the noble erle of Marche was chosen*. [[Wednesday, March 4th.]] kyng in the cyte of Londoun, and began for to reygne, &c.