William L. Clements Library
University of Michigan
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Finding aid created by
Bouquet’s Expedition against the Indians, 1764
Philip Heslip, January 2010
Bouquet’s Expedition against the Indians
Bouquet, Henry, 1719-1765
Bouquet’s Expedition against the Indians consists of two orderly books issued by Colonel Henry Bouquet, spanning August-November 1764, during which time he lead a small army into western Ohio Indian territory to retrieve white captives and to enforce a peace settlement with the Delaware, Mingo, Shawnee, and Wyandot Indians. These volumes contain detailed information on Bouquet's decisions and actions, and explain how he maneuvered his forces through the wilderness.
The material is in English
William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Web Site: www.clements.umich.edu
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Cataloging funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the "We the People" project.
Bouquet’s Expedition against the Indians, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan
Famous British army officer Henry Bouquet (1719--1765) gained notoriety as a brilliant military strategist on the western frontier during the French and Indian War and Pontiac’s War. Bouquet was born in Rolle, Switzerland, and entered the Swiss Regiment of Constant in the army of the Netherlands at age 17. He climbed through the ranks of the Swiss Guard until 1755, when he was recruited by the British as a lieutenant in the Royal American Regiment. Upon arriving in America in 1756, Bouquet was initially employed training new corps in western Pennsylvania, and first distinguished himself with the First Battalion in a skirmish with civilian Philadelphians over quartering troops. Bouquet commanded a number of frontier expeditions and was stationed at various western outposts between 1758 and 1763, including Fort Ligonier, Fort Bedford, and Fort Pitt. One of his most celebrated victories was the Battle of Bushy Run near Fort Pitt, during Pontiac's Rebellion. Bouquet led 438 British relief soldiers against a force of Delaware, Huron, Mingo, and Shawnee, and successfully overtook them after two days of fighting. Much of the success of the battle is attributed to Bouquet's leadership and military tactics.
In October 1864, under orders from the Commander-in-Chief, Major General Thomas Gage, Bouquet mustered a small force and traveled from Carlisle, Pennsylvania, to western Ohio, where they negotiated the return of over 300 white captives from the Indians and signed a treaty that forced peace between English settlers and a number of New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio tribes. He was rewarded by a promotion to brigadier-general and commandant of the British troops occupying the southern colonies in 1765. On his way sailing from Cape May, New Jersey, to Pensacola, Florida, to assume his command, Bouquet was stricken with a fever. He died on shore in Pensacola on August 15, 1765. Bouquet was remembered by British and Americans alike for his brilliant military strategies, which greatly influenced how the British deployed battles in the wilderness, as well as for his skill as a diplomat and negotiator.
Collection Scope and Content Note
Bouquet’s Expedition against the Indians consists of two headquarters books (262 pages) of orders issued by Colonel Henry Bouquet, spanning August-November, 1764, during which time he lead a small army, made up of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Maryland troops, into western Ohio Indian territory to retrieve all white captives in the region and to enforce a peace settlement with the Delaware, Mingo, Shawnee, and Wyandot Indians. The orderly books are entitled "Orders and Dispositions for the Troops Serving in the Southern Department on an Expedition against the Savages, in 1764," and are the first two of a three volume set (the whereabouts of the third volume is unknown, but Bouquet's mission ended only nine days after the second journal ends). The two volumes are written in several different hands.
The entries contain typical orders, such as promotions, disciplinary actions, travel progress, food ration amounts, and the daily parole and countersign, but the books are notable for their detailed descriptions of Bouquet's military strategies for leading a small army into an unfamiliar wilderness, and for their thorough documentation of army life. Orders contain lengthy discussions of troop formations and are accompanied by diagrams of camp layouts, and marching and attack formations. (For a complete list of diagrams, see the Related Collections section below where each sketch has been individually catalogued). Bouquet gives specific instructions for how the camp is to be maintained. For example, on August 18 he orders: "At least Ten yards in Front and rear of the different faces of the Encampment to be cleared & swept Clean Immediately. All the men off Duty to be employed at this Work and the Quarter Master of the Day will see that is properly performed." Each operation is given in a similar if not better level of attention. Bouquet often even specifies the precise distance that should separate troops while marching. No detail, it seems, is too small to escape Bouquet's attention.
Bouquet's orders contain the names of his officers and many of the soldiers marching with him. Throughout the journal he notes the numbers, ranks, and occupations of his forces, as well as those stationed in forts along the way. Positions include regulars, light infantry, reserve, flankers, advanced rifle men, doctors, surgeons, cattle drivers, coopers, horse men, axe men, and hunters. The troops expended much effort clearing paths through the thick forests, but their hatchets served an important second purpose. On September 8, Bouquet recommended that the officers "be particularly carefull that their Men do not negligently lose or abuse their Hatchets as they are the only weapons they can depend on in Attacking the Enemy after they have discharged their Fire Arms."
The orderly books document women traveling with the troops, though Bouquet did not approve of their presence. On August 13 and 15, Bouquet ordered a prohibition on women travelling with the army. By September 23, however, Bouquet ordered that "One Woman belonging to Each Corps & two Nurses for the Genl Hospital will be pitched upon by the Commanding Offic[ers] of Corps to proceed wt ye Army...All the Women now in Camp and Those unnecessary in Garrison are to be sent down the Country." Bouquet repeated this order on September 27 and threatened that any women following the army would "be punished in the Severest Manner and sent back unprotected from the Enemy and unprovided wt Food." Nurses were mentioned again on November 1, in an order for them to attend the sick and the young children among the captives.
The second volume opens with a general order from Bouquet stating "that every thing is now ready to act offensively against the enemy Indians in order to obtain satisfaction for the Murders and depredations they have committed against his Majestys Subjects, without the least provocation, cause, or pretence...The Savages now will find to their Terror...men [filled] with resentment at at so many Injuries received and not yet revenged" (October 2, 1764). Though similar proclamations of revenge are scattered throughout the books, the mission turned out to be largely peaceful with few violent encounters with the enemy. In fact, after a soldier was murdered by some Indians on November 7, Bouquet first requested that the chiefs offer up the murderer for justice, and also "Expressly forbid that any person in the Army shou'd Offer Violence, to any of the Indians on that account." Bouquet sought to control all British interactions with the Indians. He forbade any trading, especially horse trading, between soldiers and Indians, and commanded that "Any person Detected for the future, in the Actual possession of a horse, not his own whether he be a White man, or Indian will be Immediately Hang'd" (November 8). The punishment for embezzlement or theft was equally severe (October 8).
Of particular interest is the description of the expedition's treatment of the returned white captives. On October 29, for instance, Bouquet ordered that "Upon the delivery of the Prisoners they are to be separated and sent to the Apartments alloted for each Sex. Exact and distinct Lists of their Names to be Immediately taken, specifying their Age, Sex, where and when taken &c And particular description of the Features, Complexion, Size...there will be many among them who are very much attached to the Savages by having lived wt them from their Infancy, These if not narrowly watched may be apt to make their Escape after they are delivered up." These descriptions were taken so that family would be able to claim their lost relatives. Also of interest are references to military leaders such as General Thomas Gage, General John Forbes, and Sir William Johnson.
Bouquet's forces marched through the following locations in Pennsylvania and Ohio, as noted in the orderly books:
Volume 1, August 5-October 1, 1864 (167 pages): Carlisle, Fort Loudoun, Fort Littleton, Fort Bedford, Camp at Edmonds Swamp, Quemahoning Bridge, Fort Ligonier, a camp at Nine Mile Run, and Fort Pitt.
Volume 2, October 2 to November 9, 1764 (95 pages): Mont Gage, a number of encampments on the banks of the Ohio River labeled by mileage markers from Fort Pitt, camp at Tuscarawas, camps on the Muskingum River, and camps near the Wakatomika Creek.
The back of the first volume contains 7 pages of earlier general orders, starting on November , 1763, with a blank order followed by lengthier entries for scattered dates between January 7, 1764 and June 14, 1764:
- January 7: General orders commendation from His Majesty for the Battle of Bushy Run.
- January 15: Notice of a general court marshal hearing in Albany.
- January 16: Discharge and payment of the members of the 1st Battalion Royal American Regiment.
- January 23: Information for the discharge of the men of the 77 and 42 Regiments.
- February 22: Orders for transporting the 3rd Battalion.
- March 30: Future instructions for accounting for leaves of absence.
- April 1: Announcement of Colonel Bradstreet's appointment.
- April 4: Rough estimates of numbers of officers in the Royal American Regiment.
- June 14: recruiting notice.
See Related Collections for information on the published versions of the journals.
- Bouquet's Expedition, 1764.
- Delaware Indians.
- Forbes, John, 1710-1759.
- Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787.
- Great Britain. Army. King's Royal Rifle Corps.
- Great Britain. Army--Colonial forces--America.
- Great Britain. Army--Military Life--History--18th century.
- Indian Captivities.
- Indians of North America--Government relations.
- Johnson, William, Sir, 1715-1774.
- Mingo Indians.
- Northwest, Old.
- Ohio--History--To 1787.
- Pennsylvania--History--Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775.
- Shawnee Indians.
- United States--History--French and Indian War, 1755-1763--Campaigns.
- Wyandot Indians.
Additional Descriptive Data
Camp. Vol. 1, p. 7
Order of March . Vol. 1, p.11
Disposition to receive the enemy. Vol. 1, p.13
For the attack. Vol. 1, p. 17
Order of march as before described. Vol. 1, p.109-110
Camp as described above. Vol. 1, p.111
Disposition to receive the enemy . Vol. 1, p.112
Order of march as before described. Vol. 2, p.13
Camp as before describ'd. Mont Gage. Vol. 2, p.18
Disposition for the march of the army Ocbr. 22d. Camp on the Muskingum . Vol. 2, p.64-65
The Clements Library's Miscellaneous Manuscripts collection holds Bouquet's appointment as Brigadier General.
The Jeffery Amherst papers contain 6 letters written by Colonel Bouquet.
The Thomas Gage papers hold several letters written by Colonel Bouquet.
Bouquet, Henry; Thomas Hutchins. Plans of camps, tactical disposition, and line of march of Colonel Henry Bouquet's army.
Gates, David. "Bouquet, Henry (1719--1765)" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online ed.
Waddell, Louis M. "Bouquet, Henry." American National Biography Online, 2000.
Williams, Edward G. A survey of Bouquet's road, 1764: Samuel Finley's field notes. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, c. 1983-1984.