Sir William Howe (1729-1814) was the British commander-in-chief in North America from October 1775 to 1777. Taking over the office from Thomas Gage, he concentrated the British army around New York City, and in 1776, fought the rebels at Long Island, Kip's Bay, White Plains, and Fort Washington, eventually forcing the American troops out of the area. The British, however, lost battles at Trenton (December 1776) and Princeton (January 1777). In September of 1777, Howe and his forces moved into Pennsylvania, where they were victorious at the Battle at Brandywine (September 11, 1777). Focusing on Pennsylvania, however, came at the expense of supporting Burgoyne's army at Saratoga, where the British forces surrendered to the Continental troops on October 17, 1777. Under severe criticism, Howe submitted his resignation to London at the end of 1777, and in May 1778 transferred his command to Sir Henry Clinton. During this period of inactivity, Howe's headquarters remained in Philadelphia.