William L. Clements Library
University of Michigan
Finding aid for
Finding aid created by
Stephen Cross Journal, 1756-1757
Catherine Emery, February 2010, and Shannon Wait, July 2010
Stephen Cross journal
Cross, Stephen, 1731-1809
60 pages (1 volume)
The Stephen Cross Journal details the Massachusetts shipbuilder's journey to Fort Oswego to help with the French and Indian War effort, his capture after the fall of Fort Oswego in 1756, and imprisonment in Quebec City and Dijon, France.
The material is in English
William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Web Site: www.clements.umich.edu
Access and Use
The collection is open for research.
Copyright status is unknown
Cataloging funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the "We the People" project.
The manuscript has been transcribed.
Stephen Cross Journal, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan
Stephen Cross was born in October 1731, in Newbury, Massachusetts, the son of Ralph Cross and Sarah Johnson. The elder Cross worked as a shipbuilder, and Stephen and his brother joined him in the family business. In March 1756 Cross was recruited, along with 18 others from his town, to build vessels at Fort Oswego, New York, for a planned attack on the French-held Fort Niagara. British soldiers accompanied the shipbuilders as they traveled through the Mohawk Valley, reaching Fort Oswego on May 14, 1756. Cross and his fellow carpenters were present at Oswego when the French fleet attacked and destroyed the fort in August 1756, although it is unclear whether they actively participated in its defense. The French captured the men in the garrison, including Cross and several other shipbuilders.
On August 19, 1756, the French Army sent the prisoners to Quebec; the captives camped at Montreal before reaching Quebec City, where they were confined to stone barracks. After a month of imprisonment, all the Newbury shipbuilders were sent to France in October 1756. The journey was difficult, with 144 men crowded into a small vessel. Cross and his fellow prisoners landed in Brest and were marched to Dijon, France. While imprisoned there, Cross became ill; the journal ends with his admission to the hospital in January 1757.
Cross eventually recovered and returned to Massachusetts. He and his brother Ralph became successful shipbuilders in Newburyport, and built several frigates used during the Revolutionary War. In 1759, he married Hannah Beck and they had eight children. Cross died in 1809.
Collection Scope and Content Note
The Stephen Cross journal consists of 60 pages of entries, spanning March 1, 1756-January 22, 1757. The journal begins with Cross' agreement to travel to Fort Oswego with eighteen others from his town, in order to "build some vessels for the King's service" (March 1, 1756). In mid-March and April, he provided a detailed account of his travel from Newbury, Massachusetts, to Oswego, New York, via Boston, Providence, Newport, Block Island, New York City, and Albany. During this period, Cross frequently described the difficulty of navigating the terrain of upstate New York, his encounters with Native Americans, and the details of his work, which included cutting and hauling timber to construct ships and to rebuild Fort Bull after its destruction by the French (April 27, 1756). On May 12, 1756, Cross mentioned an incident in which friendly Native Americans saluted his party with their muskets, resulting in confusion and a supposition that their greeting was "an ambush laid for us." Luckily, the misunderstanding was quickly discovered.
Cross and his party arrived at Fort Oswego on May 14, 1756, and he subsequently recounted the process of preparing for a siege. On May 23, 1756, he reported a bizarre incident in which a soldier survived a scalping while in a drunken stupor. He also described several desertions (May 30, 1756), the frequent discovery of enemy spies, and occasional skirmishes. On August 14, 1756, he gave a detailed description of the Battle of Fort Oswego and its aftermath, including his capture and the drunken antics of his fellow prisoners.
After his capture, Cross described his experiences as a prisoner of war, including imprisonment in Quebec City, crossing the Atlantic en route to France (August 22, 1756: “[W]e are confined to our dark and wretched hole below both decks, only allowed to come on deck twice a day”), several near shipwrecks, and various plots to escape. On November 20, 1756, he gave an account of the escape of several prisoners from Brest and their eventual return to prison because of starvation. He also noted his dislike of General Shirley's regiment (the 50th Regiment of Foot), consisting of fellow captives on their way to France and, Cross supposed, "convicts" (November 15, 1756). The last entries concern imprisonment in a castle and the kindness of a wealthy widow to the prisoners (December 27, 1756). In January, he expressed his fear of going to the hospital, where an increasing number of men were dying. The journal ends with Cross' admission to the hospital on January 22, 1757.
- Albany (N.Y.)
- Boatbuilding--United States.
- Bradstreet, John, 1711-1774.
- Dijon (France)
- Fort Oswego (Oswego, N.Y.)--Capture, 1756.
- France--Description and travel.
- Indians of North America--New York (State)
- Iroquois Indians--Wars.
- Newbury (Mass.)
- Newburyport (Mass.)
- New York (State)--Description and travel.
- New York (State)--History--French and Indian War, 1755-1763--Campaigns.
- Oswego (N.Y.)
- Prisoners of war.
- United States--History--French and Indian War, 1755-1763.
- United States--History--French and Indian War, 1755-1763--Prisoners and prisons.
- United States--History--French and Indian War, 1755-1763--Personal narratives.
Additional Descriptive Data
|8 March 1756
|| Left Newbury, Massachusetts
|26 March 1756
|| Albany, NY
|27 March-26 April 1756
|| Travel down Mohawk River
|27 April 1756
|| Great Carrying Place (Rome, NY)
|7-14 May 1756
|| Travel down Oswego River
|14 May 1756
|| Arrival at Fort Oswego
|| Shipbuilding, desertions
|| Fortification of Oswego
|11-14 August 1756
|| Attack and capture of Fort Oswego
|26-30 August 1756
|| Forced trip to Montreal
|30 August-4 September 1756
|| Travel to Quebec City
|5 September-4 October 1756
|| In prison in Quebec City
|5 October-16 November 1756
|| Voyage across the Atlantic
|16-26 November 1756
|| In prison in Brest, France
|26 November-27 December 1756
|| Travel from Brest to Dijon
|27 December 1756-22 January 1757
|| In prison in Dijon
|22 January 1756
|| Cross in hospital, journal ends
Blake, Euphemia Vale. History of Newburyport: From the Earliest Settlement of the Country to the Present Time. Boston: Damrell and Moore, 1854: 381-383.