Theodore Leonard collection
The Charles Henri, comte d’Estaing Journal Militaire traces the efforts of France to engage the British military in Europe during the American Revolutionary War. After d’Estaing unsuccessfully attempted to defeat the British navy in North America between 1777 and 1780, he turned his attention to allying with Spain for the siege on Gibraltar. The Franco-Spanish forces blockaded Gibraltar from to December 1779 to February 1783, and though they succeeded in taking Minorca on February 5, 1782, they failed to capture Gibraltar. In early 1783, d'Estaing was ordered to leave Gibraltar and command his fleet to America. Though not a success, the siege depleted England's resources and the additional strain contributed to America's eventual victory for independence.