Manuscripts Division
William L. Clements Library
University of Michigan

Finding aid for
Native American History Collection, 1688-1921

Finding aid created by
Christopher G. Tounsel, July 2010; Philip Heslip, February 2011

Summary Information
Title: Native American History collection
Creator: William L. Clements Library
Inclusive dates: 1688-1921
Extent: 0.25 linear feet
Abstract:
The Native American History collection contains miscellaneous letters and documents concerning Native American Indians in the United States, Canada, and the West Indies, and their interactions with British and American settlers.

Language: The material is in English and Algonquian and Cherokee and Ojibwa and Mohawk and Spanish
Repository: William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Phone: 734-764-2347
Web Site: www.clements.umich.edu


Access and Use
Acquisition Information:

M-342 et al.

Access Restrictions:

The collection is open for research.

Copyright:

Copyright status is unknown

Processing Information:

Cataloging funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the "We the People" project.

Preferred Citation:

Native American History collection, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan


Arrangement

This collection is arranged in chorological order.


History

This collection documents various aspects and Native American relations with European settlers in North America between 1689 and 1921.


Collection Scope and Content Note

The Native American History collection is comprised of approximately 125 miscellaneous letters and documents concerning Native American Indians in the United States, Canada, and the West Indies, and their interactions with British and American settlers (1689-1921). Topics range from land agreements, legal issues, treaties, descriptions of travel through Indian Territory, Indian uprisings and conflicts, Indian captivities, prisoners of war, Indian enslavement, and interactions with Quaker and Moravian missionaries. Tribes include the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cree, Iroquois, Ojibwa, Oneida, Ottawa, Kickapoo, Seneca, Shawnee, Sioux, among others, and concern activities in Canada, New England, the Midwest, the South, and the western frontier. Also present are items written in Cherokee, Mohawk, and Ojibwa.

Subject Terms

    Subjects:
    • Albany (N.Y.)
    • Barbados.
    • Fallen Timbers, Battle of, Ohio, 1794.
    • Boston (Mass.)
    • Bouquet, Henry, 1719-1765.
    • Canada.
    • Charles City (Iowa)
    • Cherokee Indians.
    • Chickesaw Indians.
    • Chipppewa Indians.
    • Cleveland (Ohio)
    • Cree Indians.
    • Cross Village (Mich.)
    • Detroit (Mich.)
    • Easton (Pa.)
    • Fort Michilimackinac (Mackinaw City, Mich.)
    • Fort Meigs (Ohio)
    • Greenville, Treaty of, 1795.
    • Illinois Indians.
    • Indian land transfers.
    • Indiana Yearly Meeting of Women Friends.
    • Indians of North America--Alcohol use.
    • Indians of North America--Great Lakes Region (North America)
    • Indians of North America--Michigan.
    • Indians of North America--New England.
    • Iowa.
    • Iroquois Indians.
    • Jesuits--United States.
    • Kahnawake (Québec)
    • Kickapoo Indians.
    • Marietta (Ohio)
    • Minnesota.
    • Mobile (Ala.)
    • Mohawk Indians.
    • Moosonee (Ont.)
    • Moravian Church.
    • Nevada.
    • New York (N.Y.)
    • Ojibwa Indians.
    • Oneida Indians.
    • Onondaga Indians.
    • Ottawa Indians.
    • Philadelphia (Pa.)
    • Pittsburg (Pa.)
    • Quakers.
    • Saint Paul (Minn.)
    • Sac & Fox Nation, Oklahoma.
    • Salem (Mass.)
    • Seminole War, 2nd, 1835-1842.
    • Seneca Indians.
    • Shawnee Indians.
    • Six Nations Indians.
    • Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge.
    • Sioux Indians.
    • St. Regis Band of Mohawk Indians of New York.
    • Stockbridge and Munsee Tribe of Indians.
    • Superior, Lake.
    • Utah.
    • United States--History--King William's War, 1689-1697.
    • Westport (Kansas City, Mo.)
    • Wickliffe, Robert, 1775-1859.
    • Wyandot Indians.
    Contributors:
    • Adlum, John, 1759-1836.
    • Andre, John, 1751-1780.
    • Burd, James, 1726-1793.
    • Cass, Lewis, 1782-1866.
    • Eaton, William, 1720-1800.
    • Croghan, George, 1720-1782.
    • Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787.
    • Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
    • Johnson, William, Sir, 1715-1774.
    • King, Rufus, 1755-1827 .
    • Knox, Henry, 1750-1806.
    • Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, 1793-1864.
    • Shippen, Joseph, 1706-1793.
    • Wayne, Anthony, 1745-1796.
    Genre Terms:
    • Land grants.
    • Letters (correspondence)
    Contents List
       Container / Location    Title
    Box   1  
    Native American History collection [series]:
     
      1688 May 7; 1688 May 19 . Tho[mas] Dongan LS to the Sheriff of Ulster County [Henry Pawling]; Fort James, [New York]. (1 page)
    Calling the sheriff to gather Native Americans to help defend Albany. "…call together all ye Indyan men within your county & cause such of them as are able to bear armes to cause to Repair with all convenient speed to his Majties ffort at Albany there to Joyne with and assist the other Indyans of this Province in prosecuton of ye present Ware." Asks the sheriff to make a return to the Secretary’s Office and to include names of Native Americans that "shall Refuse or deley to Conforme themselves hereunto." Includes a note signed by Henry Pawling, High Sheriff of Ulster County, attesting to his having gathered Native Americans "and finde the younge men willing to assist… and promise to march towards ye forte at Albany ye next Satterdaye."
     
      1689 . Anonymous Manuscript report, Some Objections by some of New Engd and Observations Concerning New England. (3 pages)
    This report discusses attitudes of New Englanders towards the Crown, settlement and plantations, wars with Native Americans, and trade and customs (including trade with Barbados).
     
      1694 December 7 . William Stoughton LS to Francis Hooke; Boston, Massachusetts. (1 page)
    Regarding King William's War: "Forasmuch as there is an Expedition intended for their Majties Service against the Indian Enemy and Rebels within the Eastern parts of this Province, and Advised by the Council, That there be a detachment of a Company of Fifty or Sixty able Souldiers out of the County of Yorke… Pursuant thereto I order that you forthwith List in their Majties Service and under their pay, the above number of men… You are also to draw home the Ten men, which you sent by order into ye Province of New Hampshire for the Enforceing of ye Posts within your County…"
     
      1707 October 4 . Thomas How ADS; Marlborough, [Massachusetts]. (1 page)
    Memorandum regarding reported Indian captivity of David Morse, which How, a Justice of peace, feels was a cover-up.
     
      1717/18 January 8 . Job Almy ADS; [Colony of Rhode Island]. (1 page)
    Deposition of John Hopper, "Indian of Little Comton," in which he testifies that Mrs. Head sold hard cider to Zacheus [Pohgunnassit?], which he shared with Hopper. "I further see Zacheus give Joab, Mrs Heads Indian boy sum penneyes & ye boy came & sayd his Mistriss sayd there was not money enough."
     
      1721 August . [Abigail Tapin] ADS; [Massachusetts]. (1 page)
    Parents' petition for the release of their son, "James Bryant indian" from involuntary servitude; "hope and pray you will not suffer such [unreasonable] things to be done but that Justice may take place which is all necessary…This indian Tapin is…an honnest indian."
     
      1736 March 18 . Joseph Picolimini ADS; Asuncion, Paraguay (4 pages)
    [In Spanish] Testimony of Bernardino Martinez admitting that he had falsely sworn that Jesuits had burned a Montes Indian Mission. He had claimed that the Jesuits "had set fire to a temple in which Indians of the Montes nation, just recently converted to Catholicism, were gathered together..."
     
      1742 February 23 . Jonathan Glading ADS to John Watterman; Bristol, [Rhode Island]. (1 page)
    Request for payment for a table and coffin for a deceased Native American; "be plesd to pay to Mr Rogers Richman Sixteen Shillings which is due to me for a table that you had of me…I desire you to tell your wifes father to Send me that twenty Shillings which he promust me for the coffin that i made for the ingon that came to bristol...and dide at toms wigwom..."
     
      1745 October 25 . Conrad Weiser ALS to [Thomas Lee]; Heidelberg, [Pennsylvania] (4 pages)
    Report of Albany Congress with Six Nations and colonial representatives from New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts regarding conflicts with French Indians during King George's War; "the Governor after having Informed the Indians of the french Indians behaviour towards the people of New England he proclaimed Warr [against] them in the name of god and desired the united nation to join..."
     
      1749 July 8 . Naomi Omaush DS; Gayhead, [Massachusetts]. (1 page)
    Will of a Christian Native American in Algonquian [has translation] "I Naomi Ommaush of Gayhead know that very soon I go the way of all the earth, whence I shall not be able to return again." She bequeaths property to her kin, a minister, and his wife. Includes marks by witnesses.
     
      1750 June 12 . Conrad Weiser ALS to Thomas Lee; Heidelberg, [Pennsylvania]. (3 pages)
    Concerning an attempt to bring Native Americans to Fredericksburg; Group of Native Americans in Ohio going to "receive large presents which the governor of Virginia had ordered them…" but claims that “it is not worth your Honours while to medle with them...”
     
      1750 August 13 . Conrad Weiser ALS to Thomas Lee; Heidelberg, [Pennsylvania]. (3 pages)
    Cannot bring Six Nations to Fredericksburg as they are not concerned with treaties; Tensions with French and efforts to keep them out of Ohio; "It is to the Intrigues of the French…as they have been this many years, and I hope they will be disappointed, with the Indian of Ohio..." Discusses the role of Native Americans.
     
      1750 September 20 . James Hamilton ALS to [Thomas] Lee; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (2 pages)
    Six Nations have moved to branches of the Mississippi, "at which both the French and the Council of Onondago, are not a little alarmed." Possibilities for shifts in the Six Nations’ alliances; Pennsylvania can no longer afford to spend so much on Native Americans.
     
      1755 May 28 . Moses Pearson ALS to William Shirley; Fal[mouth], York County, Massachusetts [Maine]. (1 page)
    Complaints of early settlers in Maine about turbulent interactions with the Indians; Pearson and others had cleared roads and built bridges and houses, "But much discouraged by the unsettled state with the Indians." Some Native Americans on the hunt set fire to some of the settlers' stores, there is arms being kept in case war ensues.
     
      1755 July 5 . I[srael] Williams ALS to William Pitkin; Hatfield, Massachusetts and Windsor, [Connecticut]. (2 pages)
    Regarding disturbances caused by Native Americans in Massachusetts; 3 women and 11 children were captured and one man killed. "The Enemy are discover'd Daily and within these few Days in almost every Part of our Frontier - 150 Are said to be come down with Design to murther and destroy our People..." Folder includes an ALS from [Roger] Wolcott to William Pitkin dated July 6, 1755.
     
      [after 1757 August] . [William Trent?] Manuscript. (10 pages)    [Note: Located in Oversize Manuscripts]
    Commentary on Jacob Moreau's A Memorial Containing a Summary View of Facts, with Their Authorities, in Answer to the Observations Sent by the English Ministry to the Courts of Europe (Philadelphia: J. Chattin, 1757). Regards events surrounding the outbreak of fighting between the French and English in the Ohio country in the spring and early summer of 1754.
     
      1761 June 22 . Correspondents for Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge LS to William Johnson; New York (2 pages)
    Request for pass for Rev. Samson Occom in his mission to the Oneida Indians, who "are very desirous to be instructed in the Principles of the Cristian Religion…" Occom will "use his best endeavours to teach them Christinianity, but Also to civilize, fix and Establish them in Loyalty to His Britannick Majesty," which will be advantageous for the empire.
     
      1761 August 4 to 1761 August 12 . Unknown Quaker woman. Journal; Easton, Pennsylvania. (1 page)    [Note: Located in the Quaker collection]
    Journal of trip made by Quakers to the Native Americans during the Treaty of Easton [in Quaker collection]
     
      1761 August 17 . Robert Proud ALS to J. Pemberton; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (1 page)    [Note: Located in the Quaker collection]
    Friends have recently returned from Treaty of Easton.
     
      1763 January 15 . James Pemberton ADfS to Joseph Phipps; Philadelphia, PA. (1 page)    [Note: Located in the Quaker collection]
    Thanks for letter and testimony to avoid strengthening slave trade. Concern over inherited slaves; Perplexed on how to deal with Native Americans on the frontier; Clamor for copies of the journal of George Fox.
     
      1763 December 15 . James Campbell ALS to John Campbell, Earl of London; Mobile, [Alabama]. (6 pages. )
    Regarding a conference of tribes at Mobile and British desire to move west now that the French and Indian War is over. The French and English "had agreed to make the River [Mississippi] The Boundary that Each Nation were to keep on their own Side." The Indians are to be told "to live in peace with the English on whome they Were for the future to Depend on and look on them as their [friends]..."
     
      1763 December 19 . [Israel Pemberton] ADf to Joseph Phipps; Philadelphia, [Pennsylvania]. (3 pages)
    Believes pacification of the Northern tribes might be possible, siege of Detroit has been raised; "the Indians who had invested Detroit have raised the Siege…" Mentions Quakers bringing suit to other members of the meeting, and sentiments regarding Amherst's traveling to London; "his Conduct in direction of pub affairs is much blamed by the people." [Thomas Gage had been appointed his temporary replacement as Commander-in-Chief.]
     
      1764 January 3 . Joseph Shippen ADfS to James Burd; Philadelphia, [Pennsylvania]. (4 pages)
    Pennsylvania Assembly preparing an expedition against the Delaware and Shawnee; 1000 men have been voted "for the general service against the Indians, agreeable to Sir Jeffery Amherst's Requisition, which has been renewed by the present Commander in chief, General Gage." Mentions the massacre of Conestoga Indians by rioters.
     
      1764 August 1 . William Johnson DS to Ottawa Indians -- Chief Akowawbomye; Niagara. (1 page)    [Note: Located in Oversize Manuscripts]
    Testimony of good esteem for services and good behavior to this chief of the Ottawa nation, "in protecting the officers, soldiers…down to Montreal…and you having likewise entered into the strongest engagements of Friendship with the English...I DO therefore give you this Testimony of any Esteem for your Services and Good behaviour."
     
      1764 December 16 . Thomas Gage ALS to William Johnson; New York, [New York]. (2 pages)    [Note: Located in the Thomas Gage papers, American Series]
    Indian affairs in aftermath of peace. Mentions correspondence with [Col. Henry] Bouquet; "I have wrote to Colonel Bouquet to use his Endeavours concerning the Illinois, and shall be greatly obliged to you for your sentiments towards the gaining Possession of that Country." They can no longer afford loose spending with the Indians, as Gage has received "very strong Letters from the Treasury on that subject." He has enclosed the treaty "made by...Bradstreet at the Detroit." [Located in Thomas Gage papers, American Series]
     
      1766 September 8 . William Johnson ALS to Minisink, [New York] Magistrates; Johnson Hall [Schenectady, New York]. (1 page)
    Request to give a present to the widow of a murdered Native American; "it would remove from her & her [friends] remembrance any Malice or resentment, and appear well…"
     
      1770 April 20 . George Croghan ALS to Nicholas Herkimer. (3 pages)
    Distribution of funds to Joseph [Brant?] and his family, and the Turtle, Bear, and Wolf tribes. He has "another attack of the gout" and requests some metal buttons.
     
      1775 March 5 . John André ALS to Mary André; Quebec.    [Note: Located in the Schoff Revolutionary War collection]
    Description of his life in Quebec; Detailed description of a Native American ceremony and traditional dress.
     
      [1775 March] . Walter Alves Cy to Cherokees. (1 page)
    Copy listing portions of land deeds giving the extent of Kentucky lands granted to Richard Henderson and Co. by the Cherokees. [Treaty of Sycamore Shoals].
     
      1776 June 3 . George Morgan ALS to Great Britain Commission of Indian Affairs; Pittsburgh, [Pennsylvania]. (2 pages)
    Expresses that Virginia’s plan to arm Native Americans will be injurious to the colonies’ frontiers, specifically "sending an Agent…to engage two hundred of the Western Indians to act in Conjunction with their Troops…I apprehend it may occasion Hostilities against our frontier Settlements to our infinintely greater Damage..."
     
      1785 September 12 . Abraham Cuyler ALS to Peter S. Curtenius; Albany, New York. (2 pages)
    Concerning the accounts of an Indian treaty held at Fort Schuyler the previous year, "which we have certified agreeable to your desire…"
     
      [1785 ca.] . [Joseph Hadfield] AMs. (14 pages)
    "Observations upon the commerce of Canada; particularly that part, which explains the Indian Fur Trade" Includes as Account of Sale from January 1777, interactions with Indians, and descriptions of furs and skins.
     
      1789 December 25 . Anthony Wayne ADfS to Henry Knox; Richmond, Georgia.    [Note: Located in the Schoff Revolutionary War collection]
    Regarding Native Americans in the South East particularly the Creek Nation and Spanish ambitions in the area.
     
      1790 December 14 . Rufus King ALS to Unknown; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (2 pages)
    Regarding reports of an expedition against the Miami nation and “some indian town on the Wabash." Major Hamtramck commanded a detachment sent from Fort Vincennes, [Indiana] against the town and had apparently succeeded and returned.
     
      1791 April 20 . Benjamin Harrison ALS to Charles Scott; South Licking, [Kentucky County]. (2 pages)
    Requesting additional troops, to be "Sent to the Three Islelands, the Iron Works, Morgans & Holders New Station, & leave there Famylies exposed fifty or Sixty Miles in their front & non to Save."
     
      1793 April 15 . William Eaton ALS to Stephen Jacobs; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. (4 pages)
    Proposed treaty with Northwest Indians, movement of army down the Ohio River; "The Indians are determined not to talk of a peace so long as one Federal American lives on the N. West side of the Ohio…The English dictate the preliminaries to Indian treaties. This is beyond a doubt...The interest, the honor, the pride of the United States all bar an accomodation on the terms proposed."
     
      1793 December 16 . James Staats Morris ALS to Lewis Morris; Fort Fidius, [Georgia]. (4 pages.)
    Creeks remain peaceful with Cherokee; "They have…at three different times, rejected the war hatchet, which was sent them by the Cherokees…" Native Americans are not crossing boundary line, he has heard of Anthony Wayne's victory; "We have had reports in different ways that that Thunder bolt of war Genl Wayne has been victorious in an Action with the Indians, tho' they say with considerable loss."
     
      1794 August 8 . John Adlum ADf to Thomas Mifflin; Fort Franklin.    [Note: Located in the John Adlum papers]
    Regarding Adlum’s work trying to surveying land in Pennsylvania Native Americans do not want to give up.
     
      1794 August 31 . John Adlum ADf to Thomas Mifflin; Fort Franklin.    [Note: Located in the John Adlum papers]
    Attempts to set a treaty line with Corn Planter.
     
      1794 September 7 . John Adlum ADf to John Wilkins; Fort Franklin.    [Note: Located in the John Adlum papers]
    Attempts to set a treaty line with Corn Planter.
     
      1794 October 29 . Unknown AD. (2 pages)
    Responds to the question, "Is the prosecution of the present Indian War an advantage to the United States?" Begins the answer with discussion on self-preservation.
     
      1799 July 30 . Frederick Bates ALS to Arthur St. Clair; Detroit, Michigan. (3 pages)
    Discusses Native Americans around Detroit and the movement and storage of goods. "There are a great number of Indians at, and about Detroit, expecting, I believe a distribution of their presents." Includes a message concerning the reception of invoices, as suggested by Jonathan Schieffelin, an Agent of Indian Affairs.
     
      1799 August 13 . [Arthur St. Clair] ADf to Matthew Ernest; Cincinnati, [Ohio]. (1 page)
    Regarding annuities to Native Americans to be sent to Fort Wayne; "At that time I had no certain knowledge that they had gone by the way of Detroit…"
     
      1800 April 11 . William Vousdan ALS to Winthrop Sargent; St. Catharine’s Township [Ontario, Canada]. (2 pages)
    Requesting an interpreter and advice regarding the near-fatal beating of a Native American; partly drunk, the man entered a home an attempted to kill a man with an ax. He "was prevented by one Reubin jones who has beat the savage so unmercifully that his life was dispaired of, I issued a warrant for Jones but he is fled." he fears that the Indians might retaliate if the wounded Indian dies.
     
      [1800] . Sewall Hopkins, Eli Bristoll, Asahel S. Norton, Andrew Blanchard, and James Curtiss DS to New York Legislature; [Oneida, New York]. (1 page)
    Petition requesting “restraint upon the free sale of liquor” to Native Americans; "their unbounded thirst…and intoxicating liquor, frequently render themselves very uncomfortable neighbours, when in liquor greatly disturbing the [peace] of society."
     
      1810 December 31 . Richard Mentor Johnson ALS to John Mason; [Washington, D.C.]. (1 page)
    Wishes Mason to complete a bill on trade with Native Americans and asks that he transmit it to him. "I shall turn my attention to the Subject & make additions as the case may require."
     
      [ca. 1812] . Anonymous Manuscript. ( 12 pages)    [Note: Located in the Duane Norman Diedrich collection]
    First person account of the Battle of Fallen Timbers titled: "Recollections of General Wayne’s campaign against the Northwestern Indians in [the] years 1793, & 4."
     
      1815 September 10 . William Claus DS Cy; York, [Canada]. (6 pages)
    "Proceedings of a meeting of the Grand River Indians with the American Indians of Buffalo at Niagara" Lists tribes represented at the meeting, including the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onandagoes, Cayugas, Senecas, Hurons, Delawares, and Tuscaroras.
     
      1815 October 15 . Edmund P[endleton] Gaines ALS to Thomas Cumming; Augusta, Georgia. ( 1 page)
    Requests $20,000 from the Bank of Augusta for troop transport to quell Seminoles; "I am authorised to draw, on the War Department, for funds to meet the transportation of troops, which the hostile temper and menacing conduct of the Seminole Indians towards our [commissions] and guards upon the Line in the Creek nation, have rendered it necessary to order thither."
     
      1817 April 17 . Lewis Cass ALS to George Graham; Lower Sandusky.    [Note: Located in the Michigan collection]
    Attempts to get value land from Native Americans near Sandusky.
     
      1817 July 3 . Lewis Cass LS to George Graham; Detroit, Michigan.    [Note: Located in the Michigan collection]
    Land from the Wyandote.
     
      1817 September 30 . Lewis Cass and McArthur Duncan ALS to George Graham; Fort Meigs.    [Note: Located in the Michigan collection]
    Description of treaty with the Wyandote.
     
      1817 November 29 . Lewis Cass and McArthur Duncan LS to George Graham; Miami Rapids.    [Note: Located in the Michigan collection]
    Response to getting land from Native Americans.
     
      1818 October 1 . David Folsom ALS to [Thomas Loraine] McKenn[ey]; Pigeon Roost, Choctaw Nation [Indiana]. (3 pages)
    Concerning the Choctaw Nation’s relationship with the U.S. government; "they are more than highly pleased to know that the Government of the U.S. are so good to the Red pople…" Expresses hope that the Choctaw can remain on friendly terms, "and give their Children education..."
     
      [ca. 1820] . S[amuel] Worcester ALS Cy to Puckshenubbee and Moshullatubbee; [Salem, Massachusetts]. (2 pages)
    Thanking Choctaw Headmen for gifts to the Eliot Mission, expresses concern for the Choctaw; "The good white people here at the North, & in all the United States know, that 'your game is gone'- & that you cannot live any longer by hunting."
     
      [1821] July 25 . Stephens Smith ALS to Jane Morse; Andover, [Phillips Academy, Massachusetts]. (4 pages)
    Excerpts from two letters received from an Indian mission school in Elliot, Georgia. Discusses matters pertaining to school, poor living conditions and the need for supplies; "Has christian charity ceased to act?- Are there no mercies on the land where the light of heaven shines?- How long shall we continue to send children from our doors, for want of the means of giving them bread to eat, & clothes to wear?"
     
      1822 July 7 . M[ary] N[exsen] Thompson ALS to Cassandra Smith; Michilimackinac. (6 pages)    [Note: Located in the Duane Norman Diedrich collection]
    Extract from her journal, June 17 to July 5, 1822. Travel from Sackett’s Harbor, New York, to Fort Niagara, to Buffalo, past Cleveland, then up the Detroit River, Lake St. Clair, and Lake Huron to Fort Mackinac. The letter contains many topics of discussion and descriptions of places, including: Col. Brady, General and Mrs. Porter at Buffalo; Fort Malden; Detroit; Native Americans along the Detroit River and shore of Lake St. Clair; Henry Schoolcraft, Indian Agent (who went with them); Thunder Bay, a July 4th celebration on board the ship; Fort Mackinac; an Indian dance; and the Sault and Fort Brady.
     
      1822 October 11 . Society of Friends, Indiana, Yearly Meeting of Women Friends AL Cy to Society of Friends, New York, Yearly Meeting of Women Friends; Indiana.    [Note: Located in the Quaker collection]
    Second yearly epistle; Have established school for Native Americans; Concern over slavery.
     
      1822 . Swan Ms. to J[ohn] Halkett; [Washington, D.C.]. (1 page)
    Pictorial signature of Swan; "The above is the Signature of a North American chief. He was ne of an Embassy from several of the Indian Tribes to the President of the United States at Washington, and gave it to me as that place in 1822." Pictorial signature to "J. Halkett"
     
      1823 June 6 . Samuel Dakin ALS to William [Learned] Marcy; New Hartford, [New York]. (2 pages)
    Regarding a $42 annuity due to Anthony Otsequitte, an Oneida; "He has for a long time been indebted to another Indian by the name of John Powlas in whose favour he has formerly drawn several orders for this annuity- But it seems before Powlas could present his order some other person having the like authority has presented his order and obtained the money..."
     
      1824 May 31 . Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe Chiefs, Headmen, and Warriors DS to New York Governor [Joseph C. Yates]; [Saint Regis Reservation, New York]. (4 pages)
    Assurance of loyalty to United States, signed by all chiefs; they testify to being members of the American Tribe of St. Regis Indians, have no fealty to Great Britain, "that we were friendly to the United States during the late war, and have continued to be since, and that it is our fixed determination to establish & continue our Residence within the limits of the said United States..."
     
      1824 May 31 . Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe Chiefs, Headmen and Warriors DS to New York Governor [Joseph C. Yates]; [Saint Regis Reservation, New York]. ( 4 pages)
    Agreement to appoint deputy representatives for the Saint Regis Nation, "in order to put an end to all quarrels for power & authority which lately have disturbed our peace, we will not henceforth recognize any other Individuals to be Chiefs or Trustees" except three men, who would be empowered to transact for the tribe.
     
      1824 August 2 . Thomas Dean ALS to Philaner Hunt; Mackinaw, [Michigan]. (2 pages)
    Updating the progress of a group of Stockbridge Indians heading west from Buffalo to Mackinaw with Dean [who represented the Brothertown Indians of New York]. Describes the difficulties of the journey, contrary weather, and a missionary "who appears to be a pious good man" and who teaches Indian children.
     
      1824 October 14 . Henry Schoolcraft ALS to Lewis Cass; Detroit, Michigan.    [Note: Located in the Michigan collection]
    Including sketch of seat of war between the Sioux and Chippewa; Letter identifies places on the map.
     
      1824 October 14 . Lewis Cass LS to John C. Calhoun; Detroit, Michigan.    [Note: Located in the Michigan collection]
    Relating to the murder of settlers by a party of Chipppewa.
     
      1827 June 1 . John Bamber ALS to John Lingard; Prairie du Long, [Illinois]. (4 pages)    [Note: Located in the Blandina Diedrich collection]
    Bamber offers descriptions of the climate and agriculture of Prairie du Long and religious groups in Ohio and Kentucky. He mentions that the Jesuits have a college in Kentucky, "under pay from Goverment" to civilize Indian boys.
     
      1829 January 28 . John Thompson ALS to Mrs. Laurana Giles; Carmel, Cherokee Nation, [Georgia]. (4 pages)
    Thompson, a missionary, describes his eight-day sea journey from New York to Charleston and later passage by steamboat to augusta. Also discusses his missionary work; "We were received by the most hearty welcome and christian affection by our Misionary brethren and Sisters...We have five native children in the family, two boys and three girls."
     
      1836 May 21 . Henry Mumford ALS to Tom [Mumford]; Fort Gaines, [Georgia]. (3 pages)
    Description of Seminole attack on a Chattahoochee River steamboat; "the din of War is Sundry in our ear…" Ten people were killed and wounded and a Committee of Safety formed soon afterwards.
     
      1838 January 6 . Edward Jones ALS to John H. Sumner; Richmond. (4 pages)
    Travel from Burlington, Vermont, to Milwaukee, Wisconsin Territory. Buffalo, New York; along the shore of Lake Erie; Detroit; Rock and Fox Rivers. Steam boat travel; descriptions of flora; mentions of Kalamazoo County and Chicago. Jones' son in Milwaukee works for the Surveyor General; he was called away to districts on the "black hawk or Rather the Sauk and fox purchase." [Original located in the American Travel Collection]
     
      1838 September 30 . Salmon Sawyer ALS to Aaron Sawyer; Appanooce, Illinois. (4 pages)    [Note: Located in the Duane Norman Diedrich collection]
    Responding to his cousin, who had inquired about "speculation &c in the West." Some think the area "the very Garden of the world while others… are disappointed and return back". Sawyer notes that the area is excellent for selling goods; business is principally done on navigable streams. Persons who are able to speak in native languages are able to engage in profitable trading with Indians. The Blackhawks will not speak English.
     
      1840 February 11 . [W. M.?] Stamp manuscript copy to T. J. Brooke; Cincinnati, Ohio. (6 pages)
    Reflections on religion brought about by visiting Native American mounds in Illinois and reading Alexis De Toqueville’s Democracy in America . Compares Jews in Canaan to new settlers in America, considering Providential protection.
     
      1842 July 4 . James Campbell ALS to A.C. Flagg; Fort Covington, [New York]. (1 page)
    Opposes the possible appointment of Col. Elias Bowker as agent for the Saint Regis Nation. Expresses hope that the Indians will dispose of their lands, "as they are an [encumbrance] to all of us that own property at Hogansburgh…"
     
      1843 June 26 . Silver Smith, William Jacket, Button George, Big John, and John Kill Buck ALS to James Kane; Buffalo, [New York]. (1 page)
    Concerning several groups of Onondagas who are demanding annuity payments. Their number on reservations has not decreased, "and we do most solemny protest against the payment of our annuities [at] Syracuse or Onondaga Hollow We have had trouble enough of this kind and are determined to Compel the State to fulfill the Stipulations & [provisions] of the Treaty [with] us."
     
      [1843 July 6] . Silver Smith, William Jacket, Button George, Big John, and John Kill Buck ALS to Isaac Denniston; [New York]. (3 pages)
    Onondaga Chiefs’ version of the agreement between the government, Senecas and Onondagas regarding annuity payments; discussion of Onondagas living on Seneca land, including Buffalo, Allegany, Tuscarora, and Cattaraugus.
     
      1843 November 16 . Henry Rowe Schoolcraft ALS to Albert Haller Tracy; New York. (3 pages)
    Visited Joseph Brant’s daughter who supplied him with the Seneca word for Buffalo, in case there is a move to rename the city. "The word, as pronounced by her, is TEHO'SARO'RO…It is a Seneca word, adopted by the Mohawk, and she was unable to give its etymology." He has provided this in case "popular opinion, hereafter justify a change of the name of your city, which is destined, in my opinion..."
     
      1843 December 26 . Thomas Tiohatekon, Martin Tekanasontie, Charles Katserakeron, and Pierre Thawensati DS to New York Legislature; [Kahnawake, Quebec]. (5 pages)
    Appointment of Jean Baptiste Saonwentisiowane as attorney to manage the annuity claim of the Caughnawaga [Kahnawake] Nation. Includes two-page manuscript of the same date confirming a man as an interpreter, agent, and magistrate in the Caughnawaga village in Canada, and a letter from the Indian Office in Montreal, dated December 20, 1843, confirming the names of "Grand Chiefs of the Iroquois Tribe of Caughnawaga" and that the men, or most of them, are empowered to represent those Indians.
     
      1844 April . Seneca Chiefs LS to William Wilkins; Cattaraugus, [New York]. (2 pages)
    Recommendation of John Mack to oversee the Seneca migration to their western location; "It ought not to be a Stranger! Mr. Mack talks our language has been our Neighbor and a peacemaker and referee of domestic troubles for almost thirty years…"
     
      1846 July 16 . L[emuel] Stephens ALS to Anna; "Saut de St. Marie", [Michigan]. (3 pages)    [Note: Located in the Duane Norman Diedrich collection]
    Description of Native American settlement at the Falls of St. Mary. Travel from Pittsburgh to Cleveland, Detroit, and the Falls of St. Mary. By stage and steam boat. Descriptions of scenery along the River St. Mary. Travelers bound for "Copper Country"; their voyage on Lake Superior is expected to last one to four days.
     
      1847 July 24 . Samuel George ALS to A.C. Flagg; Cattaraugus Reservation, [New York]. (2 pages)
    Complaint about American alterations in annuity payments; "In the provisions of the old treaties between this State and the Onondaga…this annuity is perpetual…there was nothing said in those treaties that the State would have power to make alteration in the manner of paying these annuities...it is a force upon our rights, it being done without our consent." Because some chiefs near Buffalo have debts there is concern for "our good name and Credit..."
     
      1849 August 12 . Seth Dickinson ALS to "Brother & sister"; Newcomerstown, [Ohio]. (4 pages)    [Note: Located in the Western America collection]
    Death of a man, probably "over heating himself in the harvest field brot on inflammation on the brain he was deranged from the next morning till he died." Seth may not travel on account of the presence of cholera. Received a letter from Seth, who wrote from Fort Laramie on his way to California. Their company is in relatively good health although some had "a touch of the cholera." The travelers suffered from lack of good water. Description of a "pitch" battle with Sioux Indians.
     
      1850 October 31 . Joseph Naw-we-mash-ko-ta Partially printed DS to Tharese Shomin; Cross Village, Michigan. (2 pages)
    Sale of lot 1 in block 1, Cross Village, Emmett County. Signed by Joseph Naw-we-mash-ko-ta, with his mark.
     
      [ca. 1850] . Anonymous AMs. (4 pages)
    Essay assailing the expulsion of Indians from their native lands; "that our forfathers were justifiable in expelling the Indian from their [native] home I unhesitantingly deny, and it must be the conclusion of every national being [when] viewed in the light of reason, justice & humanity."
     
      1851 May 7 . Robert S. Findlay ALS to “Will”; West Port, Missouri. (4 pages)
    Describes the lively trade with Sac, Fox, Delaware, and Kickapoo due to Indian payments; "The Indian Payments are coming off now and that will make times very [brisk] for a while…"
     
      1853 March 8 . Orson Pratt ALS to Stephen A[rnold] Douglas; Washington, D.C. (1 page)
    Recommending Capt. George P. Dyker as Indian agent for Utah territory; he is "well qualified…having a knowledge of the Spanish language which is more or less spoken by some of the Indians of that Country."
     
      1853 September 10 . Joseph Henry LS to Brantz Mayer; Washington, D.C. (1 page)    [Note: Original located in the American Science and Medicine collection.]
    Henry, of the Smithsonian Institute, presents Mayer with a copy of Grammar and dictionary of the Dacota Language .
     
      [1854 January] . Horace A. Wentz Manuscript prayer; s.l. (1 page)    [Note: Located in the Blandina Diedrich collection]
    The Lords Prayer in Cherokee.
     
      1855 June 8 . George Copway Document; Lafayette, [Michigan]. (2 pages)
    Autograph in Anglicized and transliterated Chippewa.
     
      1856 June 10 . George Woodward ALS to A.J. Maltson; Depere, [Wisconsin]. (2 pages)
    Letter responding to Maltson, who wishes to purchase lumber, giving him information on the lumber industry in the area. He explains the benefits of purchasing lumber from Native American lumbermen versus those funded by Chicago investors.
     
      1858 August 18 . James Buchanan partially printed document to Benjamin F. Bell; Washington, [D.C.]. (1 page)    [Note: Located in the Thomas Beauvais Collection]
    Awarding Benjamin Bell with 160 acres of land in Stillwater, Minnesota for service in "Hill's Company, Tennessee Milita Cherokee Removals." The bounty was awarded according to a Congressional Act approved March 3, 1855.
     
      [after 1860 December 13] . Robert Ould ADS (copy); Washington, D.C. (3 pages)    [Note: Located in the Duane Norman Diedrich collection]
    Charges against Godard Bailey (of the Department of the Interior) for the theft of bonds issued by the States of Missouri, North Carolina, and Tennessee, and belonging to the Indian Trust Fund.
     
      1862 August 26 . Charlie ALS to sister; St. Paul, Minnesota. (4 pages)
    Describes reactions and hysteria to an Indian massacre and his encounter with a Sioux Chief that helped 62 peeople escape. "There appears to be but one wish in the public mind here at ths time, and that is that the Indians may be exterminated or driven beyond the Missouri River - the former is prefered."
     
      1862 September 2 . S[chuyler] R. Ingham ALS to [Samuel] Kirkwood; Kossuth Centre, [Iowa]. (4 pages)
    Letter to the Governor of Iowa regarding public responses to the Sioux uprising in Minnesota. Iowa scouts had been sent to Minnesota; they report that the Indians who had committed depredations have moved Northwest. He has had difficulty convincing Iowa residents that they are not in danger; he believes that one good company of 40-50 men is all that will be necessary to send.
     
      1863 July 28 . Harry Stubbs ALS to Frank [Stubbs]; Clifton, N[evada] T[erritory]. (10 pages)    [Note: Located in the Western America collection]
    Describes a fifteen day trip from Bannock City and Beaverhead mines to Clifton - through "Indian country." A variety of conflicts results in the death of one Native American and member of their party being shot. Stubbs shaved his head so that he couldn't be scalped.
     
      1866 September 29 . D. Walker ALS to Isaac Shawandese; Sault Ste. Marie, [Michigan]. (1 page)
    Written in Ojibwa language.
     
      1867 July 4 . Winfield S[cott] Hancock letter (official copy) to P[hilip] H[enry] Sheridan; near Fort Wallace, Kansas. (2 pages)
    Providing General Sheridan with estimated strengths of Comanche, Kiowa, Arapahoe, Apache, Cheyenne, and Sioux tribes. Written on Headquarters Department of the Missouri stationery.
     
      1868 April 28 and 1868 September 2 . A[insworth] R[and] Spofford ALsS to Robert Clarke; Washington, D.C. (6 pages)
    Two letters regarding authorship of Historical Account of the Expedition against the Ohio Indians in 1764. Both written on Library of Congress illustrated stationery. The first letter encloses a manuscript copy of William Smith's letter to William Johnson, dated January 13, 1766.
     
      1869 November 23 . Edward A. Henderson ALS to Carrie; Red Wing, Minnesota. (3 pages)
    Mentions a large population of people from Sweden and Norway, the town is named for the Indian Chief Red Wing, who is buried in one of the bluffs. Boys from Red Wing stole bones and artifacts from Native American graves on a nearby bluff. Mentions the sale of an unearthed Peace Medal given to Chief Red Wing by Harrison; "last spring the red wing boys dug into a chiefs grave and found a silver medal given by Harrison to the chief and they sold it for $75..."
     
      1869 December 23 . Tharese Shomin Partially printed DS to Sameul Morris; Cross Village, Michigan. (2 pages)
    Sale of lot 1 in block 1, Cross Village, Emmett County. Signed by Tharese Shomin.
     
      1876 July 15 . King ALS to Jonathan Brown; Genera, Minnesota.    [Note: Located in the Western America collection]
    Reference to army near frontier town to keep back Native Americans.
     
      1878 March 12 . D.W.C. Duncan ALS to Alexander Twining; Charles City, Iowa. (5 pages)
    Discusses writing about the history of the U.S. government’s dealings with Native Americans, from the point of view of a Cherokee who lives with white people; "I am fully aware that there is a vast field of facts constituting a legitimate branch of American history, which American historians studiously avoid...I mean the 'dealings' of the white people and the U.S. Govt. with the American Indians."
     
      1881 October 17 . [John Horden] ANS to R. Maton [Middleton]; Auckland Castle, [Bishop Auckland, England]. (1 page)
    Signed John Moosonee, as 1st Bishop of Moosonee Diocese in Ontario, Canada; "Many thanks for your Kind invitiation, which I thankfully accept."
     
      1883 September 3 . Sarah M. Broadhead ALS to "cousin"; Reynoldsville, [Pennsylvania]. (4 pages)    [Note: Located in the Culinary collection]
    Account of her son-in-law being treated by a Native American doctor for an injury; "he is like most…he failes as often as he cures he has helped our son-in-law he was hit by A limb of A tree across the shoulders..." Provides information on farming and food.
     
      1884 July 24 . [John Horden] Pr. Cir. LS to R. M. Middleton; Moose Factory, [Ontario]. (8 pages)
    Account of a year at Moosonee Mission, ministering to Cree, Ojibwa and Eskimo, "during which God was pleased to lay upon us very great affliction, teaching us most forcibly the truth of Scripture…"
     
      1885 August 23 . Sophia Osa wa ne me kee Partially printed DS to Orville H. and Willie M. Shurtleff; Cross Village, Michigan. (2 pages)
    Sale of lot 2 in block 10, Cross Village, Emmett County. Signed by Sophia Osa wa ne me kee, "formerly Oginabinacy," with her mark.
     
      1890 January 20 . [John Horden] Pr. Cir. LS to "Christian Friend"; Rupert’s House, [Quebec]. (5 pages)
    Account of previous year’s missionary work with Cree, Ojibwa and Eskimos at southern tip of Hudson Bay. Provides an account of his expenditures for 1889, which totals approximately £770.
     
      1891 January 19 . Henry Prince AMs to ; London, [England]. (13 pages)
    Account of service with 4th Infantry during 2nd Seminole War, beginning with the winter of 1835-6 and concluding in the winter of 1840-1. Folder includes a 4-page letter dated March 21, 1891 entitled "Addition to my narrative in its appropriate place", and an undated one-page manuscript from Prince as well.
     
      1894 May 30 . Orville H. and Elmira B. Shurtleff Partially printed DS to Will M. Shurtleff; Cross Village, Michigan. (2 pages)
    Sale of lot 2 in block 10, Cross Village, Emmett County.
     
      1894 August 28 . Partially printed DS; Emmett County, Michigan. (5 pages)
    Emmett County Abstracts of Title, "Tax History." Certifying that a block of land in Cross Village is delinquent for unpaid taxes for the years 1892 and 1893. With records of title for lot 12 in block 1, 1846-1893. With a small manuscript map, depicting "Part of Bk 1 Vil. Of the Cross."
     
      1896 April 25 . Theresa Kis-wan-be Partially printed DS to Will M. Shurtleff; Cross Village, Michigan. (2 pages)
    Sale of lot 3 in block 10, Cross Village, Emmett County. Signed by Theresa Kis-wan-be, with her mark.
     
      1897 April 26 and 1897 April 27 . T.F. Jamerson, Jr. ADsS to "Susan Fatty" and "Lemuel Twoguns"; North Collins, New York. (1 page )
    Two checks made out by R.F. Jamerson, Jr., treasurer of the Seneca Nation.
     
      1921 August 29 . H.S. Reynolds TLS to Junius Emery Beal; New York, [New York]. (1 page)
    Request support to make a film on Native Americans; "We are very desirous of having your name and support in connection with the American Indian Memorial…A memorial in the form of a motion picture of the American Indians is to be made immediately before the Indian race has become extinct, and while the personnel and equipment are still available." Includes a four-page pamphlet describing the film.
     
      Undated . AL to Johann Caspar Leydig. (5 pages)
    Two manuscripts in Mohawk with address sheet to Moravian preacher Leydig.
     
      Undated . ADf, "The Big Bason"; s.l. (6 pages)
    Tells of a raid led by Captain [Samuel] Brady (1756-1795) from Fort Pitt in March 1780 with "twenty select men, and a friendly Delaware indian as a guide," named Cole. Sent out on account of a Native American attack on the Baker family at Hannastown, Pennsylvania, killing some and capturing two children. The company was to intercept the party before they crossed the Allegany River. Describes the soldier’s hearing "the scalp halloo" of the raiding Indians, their furtive approach to the Native American camp, their attack on it, and the rescue of the children. "After the boy had recovered from his fright, he asked the captain for his tomahawk. On receiving it he commenced cutting off the head of the indian who had fallen in the fire." Returns the children to their father, who asked about his "Big Basin." "It appears the indians had taken away or destroyed the Big Pewter Basin, that Baker and his family used to eat their pork and sour-crout from, and he did not know how to keep house without it." The author, the brother of Captain Brady, met the captured boy at Greensburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1804, but he showed little interest or thanks. "At this time Baker was about 36 years old; a stout, healthy (Pa.) Dutchman… I then thought, that if his circumstances were as easy as his manners he must… have as many dollars in the till of the old chest at home, as would fill his fathers Big bason."
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Related Materials

    Among the many Clements Library collections that contain Native American material, the George Clinton, Thomas Gage, Lucius Lyon, and William Henry Lyttelton papers all extensively document colonial and United States Indian relations and conflicts.