Manuscripts Division
William L. Clements Library
University of Michigan

Finding aid for
James V. Mansfield Papers, 1859-1933

Finding aid created by
Bethany Anderson, 2008

Summary Information
Title: James V. Mansfield papers
Creator: Mansfield, James V., b. c. 1817
Inclusive dates: 1859-1933
Bulk dates: 1862-1864
Extent: 29 volumes and 13 loose items
Abstract:
The James V. Mansfield papers include 27 volumes of bound letters and 2 account books. With the exception of two letters, each volume contains the outgoing correspondence of Mansfield, who was a "writing medium" by profession, and a prominent member of the spiritualist movement during the mid- to late-nineteenth century. The letters were sent to his wife and children in Chelsea, Massachusetts, when he lived in San Francisco, California, for two years. His letters provide detailed description of Civil War era San Francisco, and are an excellent source of common attitudes regarding women and various ethnic groups. Two alphabetized account books contain unfinished entries on his séances from December 24, 1860, to March 26, 1883.

Language: The material is in English
Repository: William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Phone: 734-764-2347
Web Site: www.clements.umich.edu


Access and Use
Acquisition Information:

1993 and 1996. M-2930, M-3219.3.

Access Restrictions:

The collection is open for research.

Copyright:

Copyright status is unknown.

Preferred Citation:

James V. Mansfield papers, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan


Biography

James V. Mansfield (b. c. 1817) was known as a "writing medium," and a prominent member of the spiritualist movement during the mid- to late-nineteenth century. Born in Dudley, Massachusetts, Mansfield was one of many children of Jera Mansfield (b. c.1790) and Lucretia Corbin Mansfield (b. c.1795). Not much is known of his early life, though he eventually settled in Chelsea, Massachusetts, with his wife, Mary Hopkinson (b. c.1827), and two children, Mary Gertrude "Gertie" (b. c.1854) and John Worthington (1849-1933). The latter became a well-known artist, whose paintings are still extant. Mansfield endured many financial struggles, and was impelled at times to travel in search of work. This included trips to San Francisco, California, and to New York City.

Mansfield provided spirit communications solely through letter writing, and this earned him the title of the "spirit postmaster." Those who wished to communicate with the departed could do so in two ways: they could have a séance with him in person, or they could mail a letter to the spirit in care of Mansfield. In the latter case, Mansfield would provide answers to unopened letters. Being very confident in his abilities, he also referred to himself as a "test medium," providing free communications for skeptics.

Mansfield was both admired and loathed for his "talents." Allegedly satirizing him in his bookLife on the Mississippi, Mark Twain writes, "If this man is not the paltriest fraud that lives, I owe him an apology." Though Mansfield claimed to have converted a number of people into "believers," and many wrote admiringly of his abilities, he could not escape the scrutiny of skeptics. In 1885, he was studied by the University of Pennsylvania's Seybert Commission, which was established to investigate spiritualist phenomena. After observing Mansfield, Dr. Horace Howard Furness of the Commission concluded in the official report that he was at best a charlatan, thus tarnishing his name.


Collection Scope and Content Note

The James V. Mansfield papers amount to approximately 10,000 pages of outgoing correspondence to his wife and children in Chelsea, Massachusetts. Spanning from March 7, 1862, to June 3, 1864, the letters cover Mansfield's journey to, as well as his two-year stay in, San Francisco, California. The collection's historical significance, however, is largely derived from Mansfield's meticulous recording of major events that occurred during this period, such as news of Civil War battles, earthquakes, and the S.S. Golden Gate disaster, and from his detailed descriptions of the cultural milieu of San Francisco between 1862 and 1864.

In his first journal, Mansfield recounts his journey from New York City to San Francisco. He traveled aboard the ship the North Star until he reached the Isthmus of Panama, and then continued the rest of his journey on the Sonora . He describes the deplorable conditions on the overly crowded ships, including shortages of food and clean drinking water, and flea and bedbug infestations in the sleeping quarters. He also reports his first impressions of San Francisco, such as the general appearance and attitudes of the people, as well as the climate and geography.

His correspondence is particularly instrumental in illuminating the social conditions and cultural life of San Francisco. Mansfield describes the diverse array of people he encountered, social attitudes, and ethnic tensions. In addition to indigenous peoples of California, immigrants from Mexico, China, Ireland, and Germany were all living in the city in substantial numbers. Those from China and Ireland comprised the largest immigrant groups that he observed. A large number of people had also traveled from the East Coast or the southern states to San Francisco. Some of these newcomers found work as miners or servants. Like Mansfield, most New Englanders came to California with the intention of staying only for a short period of time before returning home.

Although San Francisco was far removed from the operations of the Civil War, the people felt the impact of Confederate and Union victories and defeats. Likewise, Mansfield was deeply concerned by the war, and records his impressions of the news of battles as it was reported in San Francisco. Though California was part of the Union, Mansfield witnessed discrimination against free African Americans and frequently encountered anti-Union sentiments. He notes, "…they will not for a long time submit to allow the colored man or woman the same rights, same privileges as they themselves claim a Strong Southern feeling is Evident on the face of things here …" 19: 224. He provides examples of African Americans being barred from privileges the white people enjoyed, such as not being able to ride on steam engines and in horse carriages. One such case was brought before a municipal judge, who decided in favor of African Americans, granting them the right to use public transportation. Although such victories were possible in Civil War era San Francisco, racial segregation remained prevalent.

Mansfield observed vast differences between New Englanders and the people in California. Of the latter he writes, "…they are a hard set of people driving on from 4 oclock in the morning till 10 or 12 oclock at night, their general appearance is of Brown Complexion long hair, long whiskers and not more than one in 4 Ever shave; so you can imagine what for a looking people they are and all invariably Chew & Smoke Tobaco and drink the meanest Kinds of Whiskey. Consequently they swear much and their word is usually not worth a fig either…" 12: 115-116. Throughout the 27 journals, he provides a substantial amount of commentary on the indigenous people of California and Native Americans in general, of which his opinion is also not high. He thought Native Americans deliberately interfered with mail sent overland, especially when he had not received his wife's letters: "…the mails are to be conveyed by steam and not overland -- you see the trouble the Indians gave the mail carriers…" 1: 16-17. He did, however, recognize the atrocities white people committed against them, and later admitted that the Native Americans were not at fault for poor mail service.

Mansfield also provides a great deal of commentary on gender, noting differences between women on the East Coast and in San Francisco, especially in terms of appearance and dress. He was very conscious of feminine beauty, and was quick to note the physical aspect of a woman he encountered, and whether or not she was sufficiently attractive. He describes women from different ethnic backgrounds, including Chinese and Irish immigrant women. A great number of the former worked as prostitutes, while the latter were overwhelmingly employed as servants. In several instances, he discusses the hard life such women endured, especially those who worked as domestic servants. He also notes differences between the ways in which "Western" and "Eastern" women are treated, especially after noticing public displays of subservience among Chinese women.

Perhaps one of the most remarkable aspects of San Francisco was its markets. Mansfield found a variety of foods in San Francisco, which he had not seen before, or at least in such abundance. The overwhelming plentitude of fruits of all kinds included strawberries, cherries, apples, pineapples, bananas, figs, peaches, mangoes, pears, grapes, oranges, and watermelon. He also relates what he ate for his daily meals and the prices of food. Wine was widely available, which "…they drink here as they would water in the East…" 11: 83. Mansfield periodically visited his brother and sister-in-law, Jera (b. c.1825) and Nellie Mansfield (b. c.1836), who had moved to Napa several years before his arrival. In Napa, they planted a vineyard, where Mansfield was first exposed to the blossoming wine culture in California.

Mansfield became acquainted with a number of important people in San Francisco. The one who perhaps had the greatest influence on him was the preacher Thomas Starr King (1824-1864). Mansfield dutifully attended King's sermons every Sunday, and wrote about him profusely, including his impact on the city. He considered King to be one of the greatest minds of the 19th century. When he died on March 4, 1864, the entire city mourned, including Mansfield. Shortly after his death he wrote, "How lovely the Sabbath morning appears to those who were wont to attend Thomas Starr King's meeting there is no use his departure has created a vacuum that cannot be filled in the minds in the hearts of this people -- The Bell Tolls now for church service but it has lost its charm for me. It seems like tolling for the funeral requiem of the great good man rather than an invitation to listen to his heavenly soul stirring thoughts…" 26: 509. With the exception of his fellow spiritualist, Emma Hardinge Britten (1823-1899), Mansfield wrote of no other person with such admiration.

Spiritualism and the general religious community also figured prominently in his correspondence. Although he referred to himself as the "…notorious Spiritual Writing Medium …" 2:51, his being a public person did not always guarantee financial success. He did, nevertheless, procure enough business to send money to his family on a regular basis, via Wells Fargo and Company. Mansfield often gives detailed accounts of these séances, revealing the names and messages of the spirits. Likewise, he describes a variety of individuals who came to him to communicate with the departed, some wanting advice, others seeking comfort in the wake of the death of a loved one. He usually charged five dollars for a one-hour session, and three dollars for a half hour. Even the famous wished to utilize his talents, such as Mary Todd Lincoln (1818-1882). Only once, however, does he describe the process by which a spirit "entered" his body and commenced writing. He wrote communications in many different languages and alphabets, most of which, he claimed to not know. He often spoke of other mediums, especially his friend, the eminent clairvoyant and public speaker Emma Hardinge Britten. After much encouragement, Mansfield convinced her to travel to San Francisco, thinking her talents would earn her great success. Indeed, once in California, her lectures attracted sizeable crowds that rivaled those of Thomas Starr King.

As he was meticulous in his observations of San Francisco, so too did he keep detailed records of his séances. Also owned by the Clements Library are two alphabetized account books that originally belonged to Mansfield, containing entries on séances from December 24, 1860, to March 26, 1883. Volume 1 contains names and dates of séances of people with last names of the letters "A" through "B," but he never finished his entries. Inside the inner cover is a printed advertisement for Mansfield, which includes a lithograph of him. The rest of this volume, as well as volume 2, are blank, with the exception of two pages of the latter that were used in 1933 by an unknown individual.

In addition to these 29 volumes are 13 miscellaneous items that include two letters written in 1874 and 1875 to his son while he studied art in Paris. At this time, Mansfield was living in New York City. Two earlier letters to his daughter are also present, one written in 1859 and the other in 1860. Another letter that dates to 1877 is addressed to a grandson named Bertie. Among these items are also a lithograph of Mansfield and his business card.

The Mansfield collection is very valuable for the chronicling of Civil War era San Francisco, and for the insight it provides into the spiritualist movement. It is an excellent source of common attitudes regarding women and various ethnic groups. Although the lure of wealth drew many enterprising individuals to California, Mansfield's writings, above all, bring to light the many hardships endured by those endeavoring to attain such prosperity.

Subject Terms

    Subjects:
    • African Americans--California--San Francisco--History--19th century.
    • African Americans--California--Social Conditions--19th century.
    • African Americans--Legal status, laws, etc.--California--History--19th century.
    • Agriculture--California.
    • California--Climate.
    • California--Geography.
    • California--Social Life & customs--19th century.
    • Chinese Americans--California--San Francisco--History.
    • Chinese Americans--California--San Francisco--Social life and customs.
    • Death--United States--History--19th century.
    • Dogs--California.
    • Earthquakes--California--San Francisco.
    • Fleas--California--San Francisco.
    • Footbinding.
    • Fruit--California.
    • German Americans--California--History.
    • Gold mines & mining--California--History--19th century.
    • Hair.
    • Horses--California--San Francisco.
    • Indians of North America--1860-1870.
    • Indians of North America--California--History--19th century.
    • Irish Americans--California--History--19th century.
    • Irish Americans--California--San Francisco--Social conditions.
    • Italian Americans--California--San Francisco.
    • Markets--California--San Francisco.
    • Mediums--United States.
    • Murder--California--San Francisco--History--19th century.
    • Prices--California--San Francisco.
    • Prostitution--California--San Francisco.
    • Religious institutions--California--San Francisco Bay area.
    • San Francisco Bay Area (Calif.)--History--19th century.
    • San Francisco Bay Area (Calif.)--Social life and customs--19th century.
    • Séances--California--San Francisco.
    • Slavery--United States.
    • Spirit photography.
    • Spiritualism--United States--History--19th century.
    • Steamboats--California--San Francisco.
    • Steamboat disasters--United States--History--19th century.
    • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
    • Wells, Fargo & Company--History.
    • Wine and wine making--California--Napa Valley.
    • Women--California.
    • Women--Social conditions.
    • Women mediums.
    • Working class--California--San Francisco--Social conditions.
    Genre Terms:
    • Account books.
    Contents List
       Container / Location    Title
     
    Correspondence [series]:
    Volume   1  
     1862 March 07-May 30
    Volume   2  
     1862 May 31-June 27
    Volume   3  
     1862 June 29-July 10
    Volume   4  
     1862 July 28-August 09
    Volume   5  
     1862 August 11-August 20
    Volume   6  
     1862 August 21-August 30
    Volume   7  
     1862 September 01-September 10
    Volume   8  
     1862 September 11-September 22
    Volume   9  
     1862 September 20-September 30
    Volume   10  
     1862 October 11-October 19
    Volume   11  
     1862 October 20-November 22
    Volume   12  
     1862 November 18-December 08
    Volume   13  
     1862 December 19-1863 January 09
    Volume   14  
     1863 February 23-March 10
    Volume   15  
     1863 March 11-April 01
    Volume   16  
     1863 April 02-April 22
    Volume   17  
     1863 April 23-May 12
    Volume   18  
     1863 May 13-May 22
    Volume   19  
     1863 May 23-June 12
    Volume   20  
     1863 June 13-July 02
    Volume   21  
     1863 July 03-July 20
    Volume   22  
     1863 July 22-August 12
    Volume   23  
     1863 August 13-September 02
    Volume   24  
     1863 September 04-September 28
    Volume   25  
     1863 November 09-December 17
    Volume   26  
     1864 February 04-March 23
    Volume   27  
     1864 April 23-June 03
     
    Account books [series]:
    Volume   28  
     1860 December 24-1883 March 26
    Volume   29  
     1933 April 28-June 01
    Volume   30  
    13 Loose items,  1859 November 18-1877 July 08, undated [series]:
    Additional Descriptive Data

    The following lists and indexes are located below:

    • 1. List of personal names.
    • 2. List of geographical locations.
    • 3. Partial subject index (with textual references)
    • 4. Partial name index (with textual references)
    • 5. Partial geographical index (with textual references)

    List of Personal Names

    • Andrew, John Albion, 1818-1867.
    • Beecher, Henry Ward, 1813-1887.
    • Beecher, Lyman, 1775-1863.
    • Bellows, Henry Whitney, 1814-1882.
    • Britten, Emma Hardinge, 1823-1899.
    • Brown, Charles Farrar (Artemus Ward), 1834-1867.
    • Brown, John, 1800-1859.
    • Brownlow, William Gannaway, 1805-1877.
    • Butler, Benjamin F., 1818-1893.
    • Child, Asaph Bemis, 1813-1879.
    • Davis, Andrew Jackson, 1826-1910.
    • Davis, Jefferson, 1808-1889.
    • Edwards, Amasa, 1814-1885.
    • Edwards, Matilda "Mattie", 1821-1884.
    • Farnham, Eliza, 1815-1864.
    • Fitch, Col. H.S.
    • Forster, Thomas Gales, 1816-1886.
    • Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890.
    • Grant, Ulysses S., 1822-1885.
    • Hooker, Joseph, 1814-1879.
    • Kalakaua I, 1836-1891.
    • King, Edith, b. c. 1851.
    • King, Julia Wiggin, b. c. 1828.
    • King, Thomas Starr, 1824-1864.
    • Lee, Robert E., 1807-1870.
    • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865.
    • Lincoln, Mary Todd, 1818-1882.
    • Macondray, Capt. Frederick William, 1803-1862.
    • Mansfield, Bertie.
    • Mansfield, Daniel.
    • Mansfield, James Valentine, b. c. 1817.
    • Mansfield, Jera M., b. c. 1825.
    • Mansfield, John Worthington, 1849-1933.
    • Mansfield, Mary Gertrude "Gertie", b. c. 1854.
    • Mansfield, Mary Hopkinson, b. c. 1827.
    • Mansfield, Ellen "Nellie" Greenwood Estabrook, b. c. 1836.
    • Mansfield, Walter D., b. c. 1860.
    • McClellan, George Brinton, 1826-1885.
    • McClellan, R. Guy.
    • McDougal, Governor John, 1818-1866.
    • Montez, Lola, 1821-1861.
    • Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte), 1808-1873.
    • Owen, James Jerome, 1827-1895.
    • Peebles, James Martin, 1822-1922.
    • Rowe, Gen. George.
    • Stow, Marietta L., d. 1902.
    • Stidger, O.B.
    • Strickland, Edward F.
    • Twiggs, David Emanuel, 1790-1862.
    • Young, Brigham, 1801-1877.

    List of Geographical Locations

    • Alcatraz Island, California.
    • Baltimore, Maryland.
    • Benicia, California.
    • Boston, Massachusetts.
    • Chelsea, Massachusetts.
    • Denver, Colorado.
    • Grass Valley, California.
    • Marysville, California.
    • Napa, California.
    • New York City, New York.
    • Paris, France.
    • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    • Sacramento, California.
    • San Francisco, California.
    • Sierra Nevada Mountains, California.
    • Sonoma, California.
    • Virginia City, Nevada.
    • Washoe County, Nevada.
    • Yuba County, California.
    Related Materials

    Item located in Book Division:

    Britten, Emma Hardinge.Funeral oration on the late Rev. T. Starr King to be delivered by Miss Emma Hardinge, at Platt's New Music Hall, Thursday evening, March 10th, at 8 o'lock, P.M. Clements Broadsides Small.

    Materials at other institutions:

    John W. Mansfield papers (1864-1931), Archives of American Art, The Smithsonian Institution.

    Seybert Commission records (1884-1922), University of Pennsylvania, Franklin Library.

    Bibliography

    Britten, Emma Hardinge. Modern American spiritualism: A twenty years' record of the communion between earth and the world of spirits. New York, 1870.

    Cox, Robert S. Body and Soul: A sympathetic history of American Spiritualism. University of Virginia Press: Charlottesville, 2003.

    Kerr, Howard. Mediums, and spirit-rappers, and roaring radicals; Spiritualism in American literature, 1850-1900.. University of Illinois Press: Urbana, 1972.

    Spence, Lewis. Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Part 2. Gale Research Inc.: Detroit, 1991.

    Twain, Mark. Life on the Mississippi. J.R. Osgood & Company: Boston, 1883.

    Wolfe, Napoleon Bonaparte. Startling Facts in Modern Spiritualism. Religio-Philosophical Publishing House: Chicago, 1875.

    Partial Subject Index
    African Americans--California--San Francisco--History--19th Century
    • 16: 67-71
    • 23: 233
    African Americans--California--Social Conditions--19th century
    • 10: 97
    • 15: 280-281, 396
    • 16: 67-68
    • 17: 486-494
    • 19: 222-228
    • 21: 199
    • 23: 233
    • 24: 300-301
    African Americans--Legal status, laws, etc.--California--History--19th century
    • 19: 222-224
    Agriculture--California
    • 11: 165
    • 13: 43
    California--Climate
    • 2: 175
    • 8: 149-150
    • 14: 76-78
    • 16: 207, 512
    California--Geography
    • 4: 46-48, 75-79, 137-138
    • 11: 80-81
    • 13: 46-47, 96-97
    • 16: 512
    • 20: 127
    • 24: 270, 315-317
    California--Social Life & customs--19th century
    • Passim, but especially
    • 1: 46-47
    • 2: 319
    • 12: 115-117
    • 20: 140
    • 22: 568
    • 26: 481
    • 27: 442
    Chinese Americans--California--San Francisco—History
    • 13: 163-168, 320
    Chinese Americans--California--San Francisco--Social life and customs
    • 1: 327-329
    • 2: 289
    • 10: 48-54
    • 13: 77-78
    • 15: 283-285
    • 22: 487-488
    Death--United States--History--19th century
    • passim
    Dogs--California
    • 2: 127-132
    • 5: 186
    • 6: 137-140
    • 17: 166-167
    Earthquakes--California--San Francisco
    • 9: 187
    • 26: 169-171, 198-198, 304, 321, 326
    • 27: 463-463
    Fleas--California--San Francisco
    • 2: 18
    • 4: 127
    • 9: 46
    • 15: 159-161
    • 17: 326
    • 19: 37
    • 23: 63-67
    Footbinding
    • 10: 51-54
    Fruit--California
    • 1: 132-133, 270, 347
    • 2: 175
    • 4: 158
    • 6: 39
    • 8: 32-33
    • 9: 57
    • 14: 76
    • 16: 44
    • 17: 38
    • 19: 133, 251
    • 20: 21, 161-167, 280-281
    • 21: 201
    • 22: 564-568
    • 24: 318-319
    • 27: 600
    German Americans--California--History
    • 14: 153
    • 24: 41-43
    Gold mines & mining--California--History--19th century
    • 1: 347
    • 6: 78-80
    • 8: 71
    • 13: 4-5, 14-15, 22-26
    • 15: 3-6, 199-205, 316-319
    Hair
    • 2: 88
    • 17: 376-380
    • 20: 339-343
    Horses--California--San Francisco
    • 8: 11-13
    • 9: 189-192
    • 12: 71-75
    • 13: 19-22
    • 17: 239
    Indians of North America--1860-1870
    • 2: 228
    • 6: 127-129
    • 16: 88-89
    • 20: 117-118, 202-205
    • 21: 206
    • 22: 118
    • 27: 469, 570
    Indians of North America--California--History--19th century
    • 1: 291
    • 2: 144, 268, 287-288, 309-310
    • 12: 117-120
    • 20: 409
    • 21: 123-124, 206
    • 27: 469, 570
    Irish Americans--California--History--19th century
    • 16: 72
    • 26: 462
    Irish Americans--California--San Francisco--Social conditions
    • 4: 105-110
    • 16: 72
    • 21: 84
    • 22: 487-488
    • 23: 355-357
    Italian Americans--California--San Francisco
    • 23: 189
    Jews--California--San Francisco
    • 15: 273-277, 371
    • 16: 7
    Markets--California--San Francisco
    • 9: 57
    • 14: 78-79
    • 15: 230
    • 21: 201
    • 22: 564-567
    • 24: 318-319
    • 27: 600
    Mediums--United States
    • Passim, but especially
    • 15: 36-40
    • 17: 213
    Murder--California--San Francisco--History--19th century
    • 17: 213
    • 21: 15-19, 45-48
    • 26: 198-200
    Prices--California--History
    • 1: 136, 176
    • 8: 32-33
    • 16: 72, 116
    • 19: 105
    • 21: 366
    • 23: 145
    • 25: 117, 181
    • 27: 254
    Prostitution--California--San Francisco
    • 15: 283-285
    • 16: 214
    • 20: 175-176
    Religious institutions--California--San Francisco Bay area
    • 5: 203-215
    • 12: 155
    San Francisco Bay Area (Calif.)--History--19th century
    • passim
    San Francisco Bay Area (Calif.)--Social life and customs--19th century
    • passim
    Séances--California--San Francisco
    • Passim, but especially
    • 2: 95
    • 11: 104-105
    • 14: 35
    • 20: 246-250
    • 23: 24, 135-136, 244-245
    • 28: passim
    Slavery--United States
    • 15: 282-283
    • 25: 327
    Spirit photography
    • 13: 66-67; 525
    • 14: 42
    • 15: 164, 235-238
    Spiritualism--United States--History--19th century
    • Passim, but especially
    • 3: 21-37
    • 4: 229-230
    • 5: 28-30
    • 8: 100-102, 116-118
    • 10: 9-12
    • 12: 54-61, 86-90
    • 13: 54-59, 494
    • 15: 26-29, 229, 402-403
    • 16: 161-169
    • 20: 294-296
    Steamboats--California--San Francisco
    • 1: 1-20, 136, 283-284
    • 2: 175
    • 17: 136
    • 20: 405
    • 24: 48
    • 27: 601
    Steamboat disasters--United States--History--19th century
    • 4: 220-242, 259-260
    • 5: 9-16, 33-34
    • 14: 153
    • 21: 259
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865
    • Passim, but especially
    • 1: 353-354
    • 3: 123-124
    • 4: 99-101, 152-155, 194-198
    • 5: 35, 96-98, 121-124, 134-146
    • 6: 50-52, 70-71, 94-95, 108-109, 141-143
    • 7: 11-12, 64-65, 83-86, 111, 123-124, 151-153, 156-160, 170, 181-188
    • 8: 2-4, 30-31, 135-136 143-144
    • 9: 199-200
    • 11: 132-134
    • 12: 180-183
    • 13: 44-50, 384-395, 466-70, 513-515
    • 14: 21-24
    • 15: 79-88, 136-141 144-145, 198-199, 385-387
    • 16: 5-6, 31-39
    • 17: 284, 467-477
    • 19: 29
    • 20: 72-76
    • 21: 41 54-58
    • 22: 48, 127, 130-131, 278, 284
    • 24: 144, 250-251
    • 25: 327
    Wells, Fargo & Company--History
    • passim
    Wine and wine making--California--Napa Valley
    • 11: 163-167
    Women--Appearance
    • 1: 108-109
    • 2: 219
    • 3: 50, 79-80
    • 4: 30-33
    • 5: 107-109, 153
    • 6: 6-8
    • 7: 101-102
    • 10: 81-82
    • 14: 88-91
    • 17: 32-37, 83-84, 172-175, 306-307, 376-380
    • 20: 339-343
    • 21: 237
    • 22: 151-152
    Women--California
    • 1: 105
    • 2: 219, 261-262
    • 3: 51-52, 178-179
    • 6: 6-8
    • 9: 80
    • 11: 161
    • 13: 478
    • 14: 88-91
    • 17: 32-37, 172-175, 306-307
    • 19: 76, 96
    • 21: 377-378
    • 22: 151-152, 266-286, 344
    Women--Social conditions
    • 15: 283-285
    • 22: 130-131, 266-268
    • 23: 284
    • 24: 41-46, 184
    Women mediums
    • 13: 26-27, 69-75, 179, 407
    • 14: 154
    • 16: 266
    • 24: 149
    • 27: 801
    • See also Britten, Emma Hardinge
    Working class--California--San Francisco--Social conditions
    • 1: 39-40
    • 16: 72
    • 22: 266-268
    • 24: 41-46
    • 27: 525-527
    Partial Name Index
    Andrew, John Albion, 1818-1867
    • 10: 17-18
    • 16: 37
    Beecher, Henry Ward, 1813-1887
    • 4: 132-133
    Beecher, Lyman, 1775-1863
    • 14: 79
    • 27: 510
    Bellows, Henry Whitney, 1814-1882
    • 26: 458
    • 27: 138
    Britten, Emma Hardinge, 1823-1899
    • Passim, but especially
    • 1: 120
    • 2: 35, 87
    • 3: 94-95, 170-171
    • 5: 26-28, 238-240
    • 13: 68-69
    • 15: 231, 399-402
    • 25: passim
    • 26: 319
    Brown, Charles Farrar (Artemus Ward), 1834-1867
    • 1: 236
    • 25: 28, 93
    Brown, John, 1800-1859
    • 9: 40-41
    Brownlow, William Gannaway, 1805-1877
    • 4: 10-11
    Butler, Benjamin F., 1818-1893
    • 10: 17-18
    Child, Asaph Bemis, 1813-1879
    • 2: 77
    • 13: 53, 246-248, 441-442
    • 15: 40
    Davis, Andrew Jackson, 1826-1910
    • 4: 201
    Davis, Jefferson, 1808-1889
    • 21: 41
    • 26: 475
    Edwards, Amasa, 1814-1885
    • passim
    Edwards, Matilda "Mattie", 1821-1884
    • passim
    Estabrook, Col.
    • passim
    Estabrook, Hattie
    • passim
    Farnham, Eliza, 1815-1864
    • 1: 173
    Fitch, Col. Henry S.
    • 21: 2-8
    • 25: 109-110
    Forster, Thomas Gales, 1816-1886
    • 2: 43-44, 62
    Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890
    • 5: 191-199
    Grant, Ulysses S., 1822-1885
    • 21: 127
    • 27: 377
    Hooker, Joseph, 1814-1879
    • 17: 467-468
    • 20: 72-76
    Kalakaua I, 1836-1891
    • June 20, 1874
    • January 2, 1875
    King, Edith, b.c. 1851
    • 27: 796-797
    King, Julia Wiggin, b.c. 1828
    • 3: 167-169
    • 13: 526-527
    • 22: 312-314
    • 23: 397-399
    • 26: 357-358
    King, Thomas Starr, 1824-1864
    • Passim, but especially
    • 2: 229
    • 3: 5-9, 128-130, 165-172
    • 4: 75-79, 94-98, 130-133
    • 6: 52-55, 69
    • 7: 44-45, 94
    • 8: 55-57, 68-69
    • 9: 66-70, 156-159
    • 10: 20-21, 113-115
    • 14: 1-5
    • 15: 57, 350-366, 425-432
    • 18: 21-22
    • 19: 121
    • 20: 44
    • 25: 427, 432-433
    • 26: 291-303, 319, 509
    Lee, Robert E., 1807-1870
    • 21: 41, 146
    Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865
    • 1: 354-355
    • 4: 151-152
    • 15: 455-456
    • 16: 67-68
    • 26: 97
    Lincoln, Mary Todd, 1818-1882
    • 14: 165
    Macondray, Capt. Frederick William, 1803-1862
    • 4: 24-25
    Mansfield, Bertie
    • July 8, 1877
    Mansfield, Daniel
    • 20: 29
    Mansfield, James Valentine, b.c. 1817
    • passim
    Mansfield, Jera M., b.c. 1825
    • passim
    Mansfield, John Worthington, 1849-1933
    • 3: 83
    • 4: 39
    • 6: 100
    • 15: 3, 10-12, 149-150
    • 19: 231
    • 21: 141-142, 169-170, 231
    • 23: 154-155, 158-164
    • 24: 10-11, 241-242
    • 25: 97, 279, 409
    • June 20, 1874
    • January 2, 1875
    Mansfield, Mary Gertrude "Gertie", b.c. 1854
    • 1: 296
    • 2: 25
    • 3: 79-80
    • 10: 93
    • 14: 88-89
    • 15: 10-12, 151
    • 17: 229-230, 376-380
    • 20: 339-343
    • 21: 237-238
    • 23: 170
    • 24: 104, 189
    • 27: 259
    • November 18, 1859
    • April 27, 1860
    Mansfield, Mary Hopkinson, b.c. 1827
    • passim
    Mansfield, Ellen "Nellie" Greenwood Estabrook, b.c. 1836
    • passim
    Mansfield, Walter D., b.c. 1860
    • 11: 41
    McClellan, George Brinton, 1826-1885
    • 6: 50
    • 8: 144
    McClellan, R. Guy
    • 10: 71-76
    • 13: 497-498
    McDougal, Governor John, 1818-1866
    • 2: 10, 22-27, 68-69, 73
    Montez, Lola, 1821-1861
    • 13: 26-27
    Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte), 1808-1873
    • 21: 73-75
    • 22: 179, 210-213
    • 23: 355
    • 24: 262
    Owen, James Jerome, 1827-1895
    • 2: 71-72
    • 5: 43-48
    • 7: 72-74, 98
    Peebles, James Martin, 1822-1922
    • 12: 123
    Rowe, Gen. George
    • 3: 10, 279-280, 350-352, 389-395, 405-409
    Stow, Marietta L., d. 1902
    • 13: 69-75, 179, 407
    • 14: 154
    Stidger, O.B.
    • 27: 352, 465-470
    Strickland, Edward F.
    • passim
    Twiggs, David Emanuel, 1790-1862
    • 6: 112
    Young, Brigham, 1801-1877
    • 8: 16
    • 15: 15-16
    Partial Geographical Index
    Alcatraz Island, California
    • 6: 13-18
    Baltimore, Maryland
    • November 18, 1859
    Benicia, California
    • 12: 24-25
    Boston, Massachusetts
    • 4: 131
    Chelsea, Massachusetts
    • passim
    Denver, Colorado
    • July 8, 1877
    Grass Valley, California
    • 13: 5
    Marysville, California
    • 11
    • 12: 46-47, 96-99
    Napa, California
    • 11: 41-42, 48-50, 67, 107
    • 19: 178
    New York City, New York
    • passim
    Paris, France
    • June 18, 1874: 42-43
    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    • April 27, 1860
    Sacramento, California
    • 2: 62
    San Francisco, California
    • passim
    Sierra Nevada Mountains, California
    • 12: 46-47
    Sonoma, California
    • 22: 207
    Virginia City, Nevada
    • 27: pasim
    Washoe County, Nevada
    • passim
    Yuba County, California
    • 13: 418