Manuscripts Division
William L. Clements Library
University of Michigan

Finding aid for
Thirza Finch Diary and Letter Transcriptions, 1858-1870

James S. Schoff Civil War Collection

Finding aid created by
Rob S. Cox, April 1992

Summary Information
Title: Thirza Finch diary and letter transcriptions
Creator: Finch, Thirza, 1831-1872
Inclusive dates: 1858-1870
Extent: 480 pages
Abstract:
The Finch diary and letter transcriptions volume contains Thirza Finch's sporadic (or selected) diary entries from 1858-1870, plus copies of letters written to Thirza and other family members from her brothers who served in the Civil War.
Language: The material is in English
Repository: William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Phone: 734-764-2347
Web Site: www.clements.umich.edu


Access and Use
Acquisition Information:

1990. M-2562.

Access Restrictions:

The collection is open for research.

Copyright:

Copyright status is unknown.

Preferred Citation:

Thirza Finch diary and letter transcriptions, James S. Schoff Civil War Collection, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan


Biography

Finch, Edwin, 1846-1870

Rank : Pvt.

Regiment : 15th New York Cavalry Regiment (1863-1865)

Service : 1863 September-1865

Finch, Foster M., 1839-1885

Rank : Pvt.

Regiment : 7th New York Artillery Regiment (Heavy) (1862-1865)

Service : 1863 July-1865

Finch, Madison, 1835-1917

Rank : Pvt.

Regiment : C.S.A. Virginia Cavalry Regiment, 4th. Co. A (1861-1865)

Service : 1861-1863 November

Finch, Richmond, b. 1837

Rank : Sgt., Q.M.Sgt, Lt. (Jan. 1864); Capt. (Oct. 1864)

Regiment : 3rd New York Cavalry Regiment (1861-1865); 15th New York Cavalry (1863-1865) (transferred Jan. 1864)

Service : 1861 August 1-1865 March 22

In the early 1850's, Thirza Finch, her father and eight siblings moved from Knox, N.Y., to a farm in Maple Valley, Prince William County, Va. Though the Finches were staunch Unionists in a predominantly pro-secession region, father John Finch (d. 1862) could not bear, or afford, to abandon his possessions and escape to the north when the war broke out, even after several great battles, including the 1st Battle of Bull Run, took place within a few miles of their house. Yet as early as the summer of 1861, the family began to disperse under pressure of the war, when one son, Richmond, enlisted in a New York cavalry regiment, and another, Madison, despite his Unionist sympathies, was drafted into the 4th Virginia Cavalry (Confederate). Madison served very unwillingly under several Lees until his capture in Maryland in November, 1863. After five weeks spent at Old Capitol Prison in Washington, he was paroled and allowed to join his family in Knox, where he remained for the balance of the war.

Richmond Finch had apparently been estranged from his family for several years prior to the war, having been completely separated from them since April, 1858. In August, 1861, he mustered in with the rank of Sergeant in the 3rd New York Cavalry, and later, in November, 1863, accepted a commission in the 15th New York Cavalry. During his service, Richmond was posted in Washington, N.C., during the Confederate siege of that city, and saw action under Sigel and Hunter in the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864, and under Sheridan during the campaigns of 1864 and 1865. Richmond was an avid, apparently fearless soldier and was as aggressive as he was successful in pursuing a military career, eventually rising to the rank of Captain. After the war, Richmond operated a business in New Berne, N.C., for two years. Richmond's younger brother, Edwin (Eddie) also served in the 15th Cavalry. For several months in 1864, Eddie was posted as a guard for new recruits and prisoners of war at Hart Island, N.Y., before being transferred to the Shenandoah to take part in Sheridan's campaigns.

Having failed in his attempt to "find a situation" in Albany, a fourth Finch boy, Foster M. (his namesake, an elder brother, had died in infancy), stayed out of the war until July, 1863, when he enlisted in the 7th N.Y. Heavy Artillery. Early in 1864, Foster was apparently captured by Mosby's Rangers and imprisoned in Virginia. Weakened by his imprisonment, Foster spent some time in hospital after his release before rejoining his regiment in March, 1865. During most of his service, he was stationed defending forts in the vicinity of Baltimore and Washington, D.C.

The eldest of the Finch children, Thirza, had been a sickly child and remained in fragile health throughout her short life. For more than a year after the outbreak of the war, Thirza and her father remained in Maple Valley, even after her brothers all had left for the military. In the month leading up to the 2nd Battle of Bull Run, Thirza's diary begins to show the depth of mistrust between Black and white, and between pro-Union and pro-Secession neighbors in Maple Valley. Several times, men in civilian clothes appeared at her door asking for food or shelter and claiming to be Confederate deserters or draft resisters. Her farm was visited and ransacked by soldiers from both armies, and she was called on to nurse several wounded or sick Union soldiers in her house. The aid she dispensed was always given with an overtone of reluctance, suspicion and mistrust, as she worried about who these men might really be and about reprisals from pro-Southern neighbors. Thirza was alone at the farm, in August, 1862, when long columns of Union soldiers and cattle passed by to the engagement at Bull Run. When her father returned on August 27th, the Finches decided that they, as known Unionists, would be in peril if the Union army again failed, and that her father, like her brother Madison, might be forced into the Confederate service. As a result, the Finches abandoned their farm and fled to their old home in Knox. Thirza spent the remainder of her life in Knox, as did her father, who died at the end of October, 1862.


Collection Scope and Content Note

The Finch diary and letter transcriptions contains Thirza Finch's sporadic (or selected) diary entries from 1858-1870, plus copies of letters written to Thirza and other family members from her brothers in the service. Unfortunately, in many cases the diary entries and letters appear to be extracts of the originals, rather than true transcriptions, and there is no way to know what has been omitted.

Except for a few entries written during the first year of the war, while Thirza was at Maple Valley, the diary entries are generally brief. These few entries, though, are a powerful record of the uncertainty felt by civilians caught in a war zone, and of the fear and suspicion surrounding the appearance of unknown persons, white or Black, soldier or civilian, northern or southern. The diary is at its best in the few days surrounding the 2nd Battle of Bull Run, when Thirza writes longer pieces, and when events take place at a very rapid pace and the tension reaches its peak. There are also several excellent entries relating her experiences nursing Union soldiers -- semi-voluntarily, it seems -- and hosting "deserters" from the Confederate Army.

Among the correspondence copied into the book, a few of the letters from Thirza's brothers are outstanding, though most are fairly routine, and many have been edited down during the copying process. Particularly noteworthy are a letter written by Richmond following the death of their father, in which he laments the fact that the family have drifted apart, and the series of letters written during the siege of Washington, N.C. Edwin's letters describing a spirited cavalry skirmish at Lacey Springs and the trenches at Petersburg three days before the fall are also excellent, as is his lengthy description of a huge snowball fight between members of three New York regiments and the 1st Vermont Cavalry.

Subject Terms

    Subjects:
    • Bull Run, 2nd Battle of, Va., 1862.
    • Custer, George A. (George Armstrong), 1839-1876.
    • Draft resisters--Confederate States of America.
    • Draft--Confederate States of America.
    • Early, Jubal, 1816-1894.
    • Fathers--Death.
    • Five Forks, Battle of, Va., 1865.
    • Foraging--North Carolina.
    • Gordonsville (Va.)--Raid, 1864.
    • Guard duty.
    • Guerillas--Virginia.
    • Hart Island (N.Y.)
    • Lacey's Springs (Va.)--Raid, 1864.
    • Military deserters--Confederate States of America.
    • Petersburg (Va.)--History--Siege, 1864-1865.
    • Poetry.
    • Prisoners of War.
    • Prisoners of War--Confederate States of America.
    • Refugees--Virginia.
    • Religion.
    • Religious poetry.
    • Shenandoah Valley Campaign, 1864.
    • Shenandoah Valley Campaign, 1865.
    • Soldiers--Confederate States of America.
    • Soldiers--United States.
    • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Cavalry operations.
    • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Confiscations and contributions.
    • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Peace.
    • United States. Army--Officers.
    • Virginia--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
    • Women--Virginia.
    Contributors:
    • Finch family.
    • Finch, Edwin, 1846-1870.
    • Finch, Foster M., 1839-1885.
    • Finch, John, d. 1862--Death.
    • Finch, Madison, 1835-1917.
    • Finch, Richmond, b. 1837.
    • Finch, Thirza, 1831-1872.
    Genre Terms:
    • Diaries.
    • Letter books.
    Contents List
       Container / Location    Title
    Volume   1  
    Thirza Finch diary and letter transcriptions,  1858-1870 [series]:

    Scope note: The contents of the Thirza Finch diary are not in any discernable order (chronologically, by original writer, or otherwise). Thirza's diary entries and copies of letters are scattered throughout the volume. The following contents list identifies the writers and recipients of the copied correspondence and the page numbers on which they are located.

     
    Edwin Finch to Emma Finch
    Page   377  
     1864 Sep. 23. Hart Island [N.Y.]. (1 p. extr.)
    Page   377-379  
     1865 Jan. 16. nr. Winchester, Va. (3 pp.)
    Page   376  
     1867 Aug. 17. Guilderland Ctr., [N.Y.]. (1 p. extr.)
    Page   377  
     1869 Aug. 1. S.l. (1 p. extr.)
     
    Edwin Finch to Thirza Finch
    Page   380  
     1864 Apr. 23. Shutter's Corners. (1 p.)
    Page   33  
     1864 Aug. 19. Hart Id., N.Y. (1 p.)
    Page   37-38  
     1864 Aug. 25. Hart Id., N.Y. (2 pp.)
    Page   39-41  
     1864 Sep. 3. Hart Id., N.Y. (3 pp.)
    Page   47-49  
     1864 Sep. 10. Hart Id., N.Y. (3 pp.)
    Page   44  
     1864 Sep. 22. Hart Id., N.Y. (1 p.)
    Page   45-46  
     1864 Sep. 25. Hart Id., N.Y. (2 pp.)
    Page   50  
     1864 Oct. 10. Hart Id., N.Y. (1 p.)
    Page   51-52  
     1864 Oct. 20. Hart Id., N.Y.
    Page   55-56  
     1864 Oct. 23. Hart Id., N.Y. (2 pp.)
    Page   63-64  
     1864 Dec. 3. Pleasant Valley, Md. (2 pp.)
    Page   65-66  
     1864 Dec. 13. Winchester, Va. (2 pp.)
    Page   61-62, 67  
     1864 Dec. 25. Winchester, Va. (3 pp.)
    Page   83-84  
     1865 Jan. 14. nr Winchester, Va. (2 pp.)
    Page   75-78  
     1865 Feb. 22. nr Winchester, Va. (4 pp.)
    Page   386-388  
     1865 Mar. 28. Petersburg, Va. (3 pp.)
    Page   59-60  
     1865 Apr. 16. City Point, Va. (2 pp.)
    Page   112-114  
     1865 May 2. City Point, Va. (3 pp.)
    Page   98-100  
     1865 May 16. City Point, Va. (3 pp.)
    Page   116-117  
     1865 May 24. City Point, Va. (2 pp.)
    Page   118  
     1865 May 30. McLeod's Mills, Va. (1 p.)
    Page   311-312  
     1865 July 30. Albany, [N.Y.]. (2 pp.)
    Page   394  
     1867 June 26. Guilderland Ctr., [N.Y.]. (1 p.)
    Page   382  
     1868 Sep. 28. Guilderland Ctr., [N.Y.]. (1 p.)
     
    Edwin Finch to Madison Finch
    Page   33-34  
     1864 Aug. 22. Hart Id., N.Y. (2 pp.)
    Page   35-36  
     1864 Aug. 29. Hart Id., N.Y. (2 pp.)
    Page   42-43  
     1864 Sep. 17. Hart Id., N.Y. (2 pp.)
    Page   52-53  
     1864 Oct. 5. Hart Id., N.Y. (2 pp.)
    Page   53-54  
     1864 Oct. 11. Hart Id., N.Y. (2 pp.)
    Page   57-58  
     1864 Oct. 28. Hart Id., N.Y. (2 pp.)
    Page   69  
     1864 Nov. 7. Camp Stoneman, [Md.]. (1 p.)
    Page   73-75  
     1865 Feb. 7. nr Winchester, Va. (3 pp.)
    Page   72  
     1865 March 23. White House Lndg, Va. (1 p.)
    Page   70-71  
     1865 April 29. City Point, [Va.]. (2 pp.)
     
    Edwin Finch to Madison and Thirza Finch
    Page   68  
     1864 Nov. 26. Camp Distrib'n, Va. (1 p.)
     
    Edwin Finch extract to Richmond Finch
    Page   223  
     1860 Dec. 16. S.l. (1 p.)
     
    Edwin Finch to "Willsey"
    Page   369-371  
     1864 Dec. 25. nr. Winchester, Va. (3 pp.)
     
    Foster M. Finch to Thirza Finch
    Page   85-86  
     1862 July 15. S.l. (2 pp.)
    Page   363  
     1862 July 15. S.l. (1 p.)
    Page   364-360  
     1862 Nov. 10. Alexandria, [Va.]. (3 pp.)
    Page   206  
     1862 Oct. 28. Fairfax C.H., [Va.]. (1 p.)
    Page   354-355  
     1863 July 16. Fort Kearny, D.C. (2 pp.)
    Page   362-363  
     1865 May 18. Fort Federal Hill, [Md.]. (2 pp.)
    Page   361  
     1865 July 25. Fort McHenry, [Md.]. (1 p.)
    Page   353  
     1865 Nov. 2. Albany, [N.Y.]. (1 p.)
    Page   306-308  
     1865 Dec. 5. Albany, N.Y. (3 pp.)
    Page   367  
     1868 Sep. 10. Albany, [N.Y.]. (1 p.)
     
    Foster M. Finch to Madison Finch
    Page   309-311  
     1863 June 13. Fort Kearny, D.C. (3 pp.)
    Page   350  
     1865 Apr. 10. Alexandria, Va. (1 p.)
    Page   352  
     1865 May 24. Fort Federal Hill [Md.]. (1 p.)
    Page   216  
     1865 July 1. Fort Federal Hill [Md.]. (1 p.)
    Page   300  
     1865 July 15. Fort McHenry [Md.]. (1 p.)
     
    Foster M. Finch to Madison and Thirza Finch
    Page   360  
     1865 May 6. Fort Federal Hill [Md.]. (1 p.)
    Page   217  
     1865 July 6. Fort Federal Hill [Md.]. (1 p.)
     
    Madison Finch to Foster M. Finch
    Page   400  
     1865 Mar. 26. West Township. (1 p.)
     
    Madison Finch to Thirza Finch
    Page   119  
     1861 Sep. 6. Langsters Cross Roads, Va. (1 p.)
    Page   24  
     1861 Sep. 13. Camp Ellis, [Va.]. (1 p.)
    Page   21-22  
     1861 Sep. Langsters Cross Rds., Va. (2 pp.)
    Page   23  
     1861 Oct. 25. S.l. (1 p.)
    Page   88-89  
     1862 March 22. Camp Stafford, [Va.]. ( 2 pp.)
    Page   29-30  
     1862 Oct. 15. Maple Valley, Va. (2 pp.)
    Page   90-91  
     1863 Nov. 4. Old Capitol Prison, D.C. (2 pp.)
    Page   405  
     1870 May 22. Knox [N.Y.]. (1 p.)
     
    Richmond Finch to Edwin Finch
    Page   264  
     1865 June 26. Camp of 15th N.Y. Cav. (1 p.)
    Page   439-440  
     undated, S.l. (1 p.)
     
    Richmond Finch to Foster M. Finch
    Page   401  
     1864 May 11. New Berne, [N.C.]. (1 p.)
     
    Richmond Finch to John Finch
    Page   142-143  
     1862 May 9. Hatteras Inlet [Va.]. (2 pp.)
    Page   144-145  
     undated, Washington, D.C. (2 pp.)
     
    Richmond Finch to Madison Finch
    Page   280  
     1864 Mar. 10. Burlington, Va. (1 p.)
    Page   267-268  
     1864 Mar. 29. Burlington, Va. (2 pp.)
    Page   277-278  
     1864 Nov. 15. Cumberland, Md. (2 pp.)
    Page   263  
     1865 Jan. 1. nr. Winchester, Va. (1 p. extr.)
    Page   265  
     1865 Feb. 23. nr. Winchester, Va. (1 p.)
    Page   276  
     1865 March 7. Pleasant Valley, [Md.]. (1 p.)
    Page   270  
     1865 March 29. Washington, D.C. (1 p.)
    Page   266  
     1865 Apr. 9. Pleasant Valley, Md. (1 p.)
    Page   272  
     1865 Apr. 12. Washington, D.C. (1 p.)
     
    Richmond Finch to Madison and Thirza Finch
    Page   220-222  
     1862 Nov. 15. Washington, N.C. (3 pp.)
     
    Richmond Finch to Thirza Finch
    Page   436-438  
     1859 Jan. 8. Kingsboro. (3 pp.)
    Page   31  
     1859 July 24. Cohoes. (1 p.)
    Page   148  
     1862 June 29. Washington, N.C. (1 p.)
    Page   215, 218-219  
     1862 Nov. 25. Washington, N.C. (3 pp.)
    Page   428-434  
     1863 Feb. 15. Washington, N.C. (7 pp.)
    Page   402-404  
     1863 April 4. Washington, N.C. (3 pp.)
    Page   426-427  
     1863 May 22. Washington, N.C. (2 pp.)
    Page   201  
     1863 July 15. New Berne, N.C. (1 p.)
    Page   392  
     1863 Oct. 14. Elmira, N.Y. (1 p.)
    Page   442  
     1863 Oct. 18. Elmira, [N.Y.]. (1 p.)
    Page   202-203  
     1863 Nov. 8. Elmira, N.Y. (2 pp.)
    Page   421-423  
     1863 Nov. 22. Elmira, [N.Y.]. (3 pp.)
    Page   204-205  
     1863 Nov. 29. Elmira, N.Y. (2 pp.)
    Page   167  
     1864 March 14. New Berne, [NC]. (1 p.)
    Page   408-409  
     1864 Mar. 22. Camp Burlington, W.Va. (2 pp.)
    Page   407  
     1864 Apr. 25. Springfield, W.Va. (1 p.)
    Page   257  
     1864 May 30. Winchster, Va. (1 p. extr.)
    Page   398-399  
     1864 June 8. Staunton, [Va.]. (2 pp.)
    Page   406  
     1864 Aug. 15. Cedar Creek, [Va.]. (1 p.)
    Page   260  
     1864 Sep. 21. Cumberland Gap, [Md.]. (1 p. extr.)
    Page   410-411  
     1865 Jan. 22. nr. Winchester, Va. (2 pp.)
    Page   262  
     1865 July 13. Ohio River. (1 p. extr.)
    Page   199-200  
     1865 Nov. 25. New Berne, N.C. (2 pp.)
    Page   389-391  
     1866 Jan. 3. New Berne, N.C. (3 pp.)
    Page   424-425  
     1866 June 24. New Berne, N.C. (2 pp.)
    Page   384  
     1867 Oct. 20. Washington, D.C. (1 p.)
    Page   381, 383  
     1868 Sep. 25. Washington, D.C. (2 pp.)
     
    Thirza Finch to Edwin Finch
    Page   315-316  
     Undated. S.l. (2 pp.)
     
    Thirza Finch to "Jane"
    Page   151, 152, 161, 162  
     1862 Aug. 25. Fairfax C.H., Va. (4 pp.)
     
    Henif, Azricht
    Page   210a-b  
    "Company I, 3rd N.Y.V. Cav."
    Page   211a-213  
    "Lines to a brother who was forced in Rebel ranks"
    Page   214  
    "How dear to my heart where our mother is laid"
     
    Morgan, S. to Thirza Finch
    Page   163  
     1862 Sep. 14. Washington, D.C. (1 p.)
     
    Morgan, S. to John Finch
    Page   164  
     1862 Sep. 14. [Washington, D.C.]. (1 p.)
     
    Windsor, Luther E. extr. to Madison Finch
    Page   282  
     1864 Oct. 2. Prison camp, Elmira, N.Y. (1 p.)
     
    Wood, George T. to John Finch and wife
    Page   2-3  
     1854 Jan. 16. Wausau, Wis. (2 pp.)
     
    Unknown to Thirza Finch
    Page   171  
     1862 Aug. 12. Albany, [N.Y.]. (1 p.)
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Bibliography

    Norton, Chauncey S. "The red neck ties," or, History of the Fifteenth New York Volunteer cavalry. (Ithaca: Journal book and job printing house, 1891)

    Partial Subject Index
    African Americans--Contraband
    • 426
    African Americans--Virginia
    • 125, 157
    Brother versus brother
    • 123, 130, 131, 145
    Brother versus brother--Poetry
    • 211a-213
    Brothers and sisters
    • 267
    Bull Run Campaign, 1862
    • 151-153
    Bull Run, 2nd Battle of, Va., 1862
    • 154
    Camp life--New York (State)
    • 55, 56
    Camp life--North Carolina
    • 429
    Camps (Military)
    • 83
    Camps (Military)--Virginia
    • 420
    Cedar Creek (Va.), Skirmish at, 1864
    • 406
    Centreville (Va.) Skirmish at, 1862
    • 159
    Civilians--North Carolina--Civil War, 1861-1865
    • 430
    Civilians--Virginia--Civil War, 1861-1865
    • 65, 66, 136
    Confederate States of America. Army of Northern Virginia--Surrender
    • 59
    Confederate States of America. Army--Mosby's Rangers
    • 263
    Cookery, Military
    • 74
    Custer, George A. (George Armstrong), 1839-1876
    • 59, 60
    Deserters, Military--Confederate States of America
    • 75, 128
    Draft resisters--Confederate States of America
    • 120, 121, 127
    Draft--Confederate States of America
    • 104, 239
    Early, Jubal, 1816-1894
    • 277, 386
    Enemy--Relations
    • 403
    Fathers
    • 256
    Fathers--Death
    • 206, 220-222
    Fear
    • 134
    Finch Family
    • 177, 178, 240-242, 356, 358, 372
    Finch, Edwin, 1846-1870
    • 108, 452, 454
    Finch, Foster M., 1839-1885
    • 266, 270, 272, 276
    Finch, John, d. 1862--Death
    • 206, 220-222
    Finch, Madison, 1835-1917
    • 103, 104, 156, 157, 229, 231-233, 236, 239, 249
    Finch, Richmond, b. 1837
    • 45, 66, 70, 197, 248, 250
    Five Forks, Battle of, 1865
    • 113-114
    Food
    • 84
    Foraging--North Carolina
    • 431-432
    Foraging--Virginia
    • 379
    Garrison duty
    • 300, 426
    Gilmor, H. W.
    • 74
    Gordonsville (Va.)--Raid, 1864
    • 61, 62, 67
    Guard duty
    • 35-45
    Guerillas--Virginia
    • 73, 263
    Hart Island (N.Y.)
    • 37, 39-41, 47
    Hatteras Inlet (N.C.)
    • 142
    Lacey's Springs (Va.)--Raid, 1864
    • 369-371, 377-379
    Laundry
    • 46
    Lice
    • 99
    Marriage
    • 390, 391
    Mothers
    • 259
    Mothers--Death--Poetry
    • 214
    New Berne (N.C.)
    • 401
    Nostalgia
    • 267, 268
    Officers' wives
    • 278
    Petersburg (Va.)--History--Siege, 1864-1865
    • 387, 388
    Piedmont, Battle of, 1864
    • 398
    Pillage--Virginia
    • 127
    Poetry
    • 25-27
    Prisoners of War
    • 277, 370, 371
    Prisoners of War--Confederate States of America
    • 90, 91, 263, 429
    Punishment
    • 150
    Reconstruction--North Carolina
    • 199, 200
    Refugees--Virginia
    • 104, 105, 155-162
    Religion
    • 2, 3, 7, 391
    Religious poetry
    • 207-209
    Rheumatism
    • 383
    Sabbath
    • 77
    Scorched earth policy
    • 63
    Secession--South Carolina
    • 223
    Shenandoah Valley Campaign, 1864
    • 257, 267, 268, 280, 398-400, 406-409
    Shenandoah Valley Campaign, 1864-1865
    • 64, 65, 72, 257, 260, 369-371, 377-379
    Sheridan's Raid in Northern Virginia, 1865
    • 386
    Slavery--Emancipation
    • 111
    Snowball fights
    • 75, 76
    Soldiers--Attitudes
    • 202, 203
    Soldiers--Confederate States of America
    • 156, 157
    Soldiers--Recreation
    • 75, 76
    Soldiers--Suffrage
    • 57
    Soldiers--United States
    • 129, 136-139, 147, 151, 152, 155
    Souvenirs
    • 84
    Spies
    • 136
    Spring
    • 375, 376
    Spring--Religious aspects
    • 254, 255
    Union sympathizers--Virginia
    • 103-105
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--African Americans
    • 430
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Artillery operations
    • 402-404
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Blockades
    • 403
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Cavalry operations
    • 61, 62, 280, 369-371
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Confiscations and contributions
    • 107, 398, 399
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Desertions
    • 37
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Hospitals
    • 150
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Peace
    • 73, 74, 272
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Postal service
    • 113
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Women
    • 278
    United States. Army--Barracks and quarters
    • 39
    United States. Army--Enlistment
    • 309
    United States. Army--New York Cavalry Regiment, 3rd--Poetry
    • 210a-b
    United States. Army--New York Cavalry Regiment, 15th--Poetry
    • Inside back cover
    United States. Army--Officers
    • 74, 280
    United States. Army--Recruiting
    • 40-43
    Virginia--History--Civil War, 1861-1865
    • 354-355
    War
    • 429
    Washington (D.C.)
    • 272
    Washington (N.C.)
    • 148
    Washington (N.C.), Skirmish near, 1863
    • 429
    Washington (N.C.)--History--Siege, 1863
    • 402-404, 428-434
    Women--Virginia
    • 124, 125
    Yorktown (Va.)--History--Siege, 1862
    • 143
    Youth
    • 258