Manuscripts Division
William L. Clements Library
University of Michigan

Finding aid for
Humphry and Moses Marshall Papers, 1721-1863

Finding aid created by
Manuscripts Division Staff, 1990; Shannon Wait, March 2010

Summary Information
Title: Humphry and Moses Marshall papers
Creator: Marshall, Humphry, 1722-1801 and Marshall, Moses, 1758-1813
Inclusive dates: 1721-1863
Extent: 1.25 linear feet
Abstract:
The Humphry and Moses Marshall papers primarily document the careers of botanist Humphry Marshall and his nephew and business associate, Moses Marshall.

Language: The material is in English
Repository: William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Phone: 734-764-2347
Web Site: www.clements.umich.edu


Access and Use
Acquisition Information:

1990, 1999. M-2549; M-4048.

Access Restrictions:

The collection is open for research.

Copyright:

Copyright status is unknown

Processing Information:

Cataloging funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the "We the People" project.

Preferred Citation:

Humphry and Moses Marshall papers, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan


Arrangement

The collection is arranged into three series: "Correspondence, Writings, and Documents," "Poetry," and "Bound Materials."


Biography

Humphry Marshall

Humphry Marshall was born in West Bradford, Pennsylvania, in 1722, the eighth child of Abraham and Mary Hunt Marshall. His parents, Quaker immigrants from Derbyshire, England, provided him with only a rudimentary English education, which ceased altogether at age 12, when he was apprenticed to a stonemason. However, from very early in life, Marshall was drawn to the study of natural history and continued his education on his own, reading widely. With the encouragement of his cousin, the botanist John Bartram, Marshall developed considerable practical skill in botany and natural history, and began to cultivate friendships with other scientists in America and abroad in the 1750s. Eventually, his correspondents included the British botanists John Fothergill, Peter Collinson, Sir Joseph Banks, and John Coakley Lettsom; the American scientists Thomas Parke, Benjamin Franklin, George Logan, Joseph Storrs, Timothy Pickering, John Dickinson, and Caspar Wistar; and French scientists and plant collectors including Michel-Guillaume St. Jean de Crèvecoeur, the Comtesse de Tesse, and Conrad-Alexandre Gérard; a number of German, Dutch, Swedish and Irish plant collectors and scientists.

In 1748, Marshall married Sarah Pennock (ca.1720-1766) and took up the management of his father's farm near the west branch of the Brandywine River. During the next few years, his time was largely consumed by farming; however, he continued to use free moments to pursue his botanical research. By the late 1750s, he began to exchange locally collected specimens with natural historians in other parts of the country and Great Britain, receiving scientific equipment, books, exotic specimens, money, or marketable goods such as linen in exchange. By 1764, when he began a major enlargement of his father's farmhouse, his botanical work had advanced to a stage that, necessitated his adding a conservatory for the culture of rare plants, probably the first such structure in Chester County.

Upon the death of his father in 1767, Marshall was left a substantial inheritance, enabling him to concentrate more time and resources on his botanical work. By this time, his correspondence with the British botanist, John Fothergill, had developed into an especially fruitful relationship, for Fothergill not only encouraged Marshall to collect plants beyond the confines of Chester County, but he paid well for Marshall's efforts. Equally important, Fothergill helped introduce Marshall to other botanists and plant collectors who had the resources to pay for American plants. Within a few years, Marshall found that he could depend almost entirely on horticulture and plant collecting for his income. His business expanded rapidly by means of a network of relationships established through family members, fellow Quakers, and fellow scientists.

In 1772, Marshall established a botanical garden on his estate, stocking it with herbaceous and arboreal representatives of the local flora and as many exotic plants as he could obtain from other parts of the nation and Europe. The following year, he began the construction of a new house adjacent to the garden, handling all phases of the construction by himself, and in that year, he was selected as a trustee of the General Loan Office. Despite pro-Independence sentiments, including long-standing support for the non-importation agreements, Marshall was in a precarious position as a pacifist and Quaker during the early days of the Revolution. He carefully monitored the events of the war as they unfolded, and was himself caught up when, in 1777, the Trustees of the Loan Office resigned as a body. Under the leadership of Samuel Preston Moore, the Trustees felt that to remain true to their affirmations that they would carry out the business of the crown, they should resign rather than follow the new laws.

Marshall's publishing career included contributions on tortoises, sunspots, and agriculture, but he is most remembered for Abrustrum Americanum (1785), the first botanical treatise written by a native American on American plants, produced in America. Despite slow sales in the United States, its use of Linnaean taxonomic nomenclature (though the plants are arranged alphabetically in the text) considerably enhanced Marshall's reputation among his European clientele. His scientific work and service to the scientific community earned Marshall honorary memberships in the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture and the American Philosophical Society.

Following the death of his first wife, Marshall married Margaret Minshall (1744-1823) in 1788. Neither marriage produced children. In the last two years of his life, his vision was greatly impaired by cataracts, for which he underwent an apparently unsuccessful surgery. He died in 1801 and was buried at Bradford Meeting House.

Moses Marshall

Moses Marshall was born in West Bradford, Pennsylvania, on November 30, 1758, to Humphry's younger brother, James Marshall and his wife, Sarah. Moses received an English and classical education, and from 1776 through 1779, he studied medicine in Wilmington, Delaware, under Dr. Nicholas Way. The Revolution, and particularly the nearby Battle of the Brandywine (1777), provided Moses a unique opportunity to sharpen his surgical skills. Moses soon abandoned his medical practice in favor of assisting his uncle in his expanding botanical and horticultural enterprise.

By late 1778, he was participating fully in his uncle's operations, assisting in locating, identifying, propagating, and shipping plant specimens, and he became quite a skilled "practical" botanist in his own right. His most significant contributions were in the preparation of Arbustrum Americanum, and the role he played on numerous exploring expeditions undertaken for the benefit of his uncle and their patrons. Moses appears to have taken great relish in these expeditions, and it was partly for his benefit that his uncle pressed scientific friends, including Franklin, Wistar, Jefferson (albeit indirectly), and members of the American Philosophical Society, to finance and organize a major expedition to the Missouri River region in 1785.

Moses' interest in botany appears to have waned by the mid-1790s. In 1796, Gov. Mifflin appointed him Justice of the Peace in Chester County, and his duties in this capacity occupied a great deal of his time. Moses' focus seems further to have shifted away from botany upon his marriage to Alice Pennock in 1797. The couple had six children. By the time of his uncle's death, Marshall had more or less washed his hands of the botanical and horticultural business, suggesting that he no longer had any time to fill orders for patrons and that his uncle's notes probably held little information of value to other botanists. Moses Marshall died in Philadelphia on October 13th, 1813.

Moses Marshall, Jr.

The life of Moses Marshall, Jr., is considerably less well known than that of his father or his great uncle. Moses, Jr., studied medicine in Philadelphia during the 1830s, and established a general practice in West Bradford shortly thereafter. Apparently he lectured publicly on scientific subjects, at least periodically, during the 1840s or 50s. Politically, Moses, Jr., aligned himself with the Democratic Party during the Civil War period, opposed actions to keep the South in the Union by force, and (unlike his mildly abolitionist great uncle), did not seem to consider slavery a major evil.


Collection Scope and Content Note

The Humphry and Moses Marshall papers consist of 233 items: 181 letters (including drafts), 15 legal documents, 11 manuscripts, 10 poems, 4 account books, and several each of books, letter books, arithmetic notebooks, and broadsides. The materials span from 1721-1863.

The first series contains correspondence and a few legal documents and writings, arranged chronologically. The correspondence dates from 1733 to 1863 and is predominantly incoming. Humphry Marshall is the recipient of the bulk of the material (approximately 40%), followed by Moses Marshall (approx. 30%). The majority of the outgoing correspondence comes from the two "letterbooks" kept by Moses Marshall in 1791 and 1793. These books contain correspondence from a couple of days each, but provide a record of Marshall's response to inquiries from clients.

The bulk of correspondence prior to 1800 relates to Marshall's horticultural and botanical operations. Substantial numbers of orders are for plants and seeds from clients in other parts of the United States, England, Ireland, France, and Germany, and communications with middle men in the operation detail methods of packaging and shipping. Also of botanical interest is the correspondence with Marshall's "agents" in the field, including Moses Mendenhall, John and James Watson, Matthias King, Samuel Kramsh, and James Kenny. These men were admirers and friends of Humphry Marshall, and provided him with specimens collected from various regions of the country. The unsuccessful search for wild Franklinia alatamaha is mentioned in several letters (April 8, 1788: "There is not a plant of the Franklinia to be found"), and other letters include discussions of scientific expeditions either actualized or planned, mostly involving the participation of Moses Marshall. On November 14, 1786, Humphry described the logistics of tracking down ginseng, providing insight into the duties of plant collectors: "both of you being obliged to…encamp in the mountains strike up a fire & lie by it all night in the morning…climb up the sides of the mountains and dig towards evening…about 20 days in Going and Coming home again & digging the roots packing up &c." The content of the letters does not indicate the Marshalls' scientific interests or abilities, but this correspondence provides documentation for the complex network used by the Marshalls to collect, sell and distribute plants.

Approximately 18 letters relate to the Revolutionary War (see "Subject Index" under "Additional Descriptive Data"). These include letters that indicate Marshall's support for the nonimportation agreements (January 6, 1775), second hand reports of the Battles of Lexington and Concord (April 25, 1775) and of Yorktown (August 24, 1781), and an important series of correspondence from Samuel Preston Moore relating to the resignation of the trustees of the General Loan Office when American revolutionaries seized control (June 17 and 21, 1777). Also significant are two letters from Quaker conscientious objectors on the morality of paying taxes to support military activities (undated c. 1780 letter; July 14, 1781), a letter relating to the North Carolina Regulator insurrection (March 3, 1771), and one concerning the arrest by American forces of Quakers suspected of Loyalist sympathies (September 6, 1777). Finally, in the pre-Revolutionary period, the letters of James Kenny provide excellent descriptions of plant collecting and the area around Fort Pitt in 1759-60.

The items from 1840-1863 mainly relate to Moses Marshall, Jr. Most notable in among them are several letters from William Darlington written as he was preparing his Memorial to Humphry and Moses Marshall in 1848 and 1849. Moses, Jr's pro-Confederacy political views are clearly expressed in the series of three speeches written during the Civil War, also included in the series.

The Poetry series includes 10 undated poems. The Bound Materials series comprises the arithmetic notebooks of Jacob Martin, whose relationship to the Marshalls is unclear; Darlington’s manuscript, Historical Introduction to Bartram & Marshall, Marshall's copy of Dover's Useful Miscellanies; and nine uncut and unfolded sets of signatures from Arbustrum Americanum.

Subject Terms

    Subjects:
    • Botany--America.
    • Chester (Pa.)
    • Fothergill, John, 1712-1780.
    • Franklinia.
    • Plant collectors.
    • Plants.
    • Quakers.
    • Science--History.
    • Trees.
    • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
    • United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783.
    • United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783--Conscientious objectors.
    Contributors:
    • Crèvecoeur, Michel-Guillaume Jean de, 1735-1813.
    • Darlington, William, 1782-1863.
    • Fothergill, Samuel, 1715-1772.
    • Kenny, James.
    • Martin, Jacob.
    • Mendenhall, Moses.
    • Moore, Samuel Preston, 1710-1785.
    • Watson, James.
    • Watson, John.
    Genre Terms:
    • Field notes.
    • Legal documents.
    • Letters (correspondence)
    • Memorial works.
    Contents List
       Container / Location    Title
     
    Correspondence, writings, and documents [series]:
    Box   1  
     1721 September 2-1789 February 24 (92 folders)
    Box   2  
     1789 December 10-1813 September (95 folders)
    Box   3  
     1830 April 4-1863 and  undated (45 folders)
    Box   3  
    Poetry,  Undated [series]:
    Box   3  
    Bound Items [series]:
     
    Jacob Martin arithmetic notebooks (2 volumes)
     
    Darlington's Historical Introduction to Bartram & Marshall manuscript
    Box   4  
    Uncut sheets of Arbustrum Americanum
     
    Milleson Account and Memorandum Book
     
    Dover's Useful Miscellanies
     
    Other published works (7 items)   

    See separated materials section of this finding aid for a complete list of these publications.

    Additional Descriptive Data
    Alternate Locations

    Items located in the Book Division of the Clements Library:

    Related Materials

    The Clements Library's Wayne papers contain a letter by Humphry Marshall: Humphry Marshall to A[nthony] Wayne, May 16, 1790.

    The University of Michigan holds copies of both Arbustrum Americanum and its French translation (search the University's online catalog).

    Marshall papers at other repositories include: Humphry Marshall papers, Special Collections, National Agricultural Library.

    Bibliography

    Darlington, William, and Peter Collinson. Memorials of John Bartram and Humphry Marshall: with notices of their botanical contemporaries. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, 1849.

    Marshall, Humphry, and Lézermes. Catalogue alphabétique des arbres et arbrisseaux: qui croissent naturellement dans les Etats-Unis de l'Amérique Septentrionale, arrangés selon les systême de Linne; contenant les caractères particuliers qui distinguent les genres auxquels ils sont rapportés, avec des descriptions claires & familières de leur manière de croître, de leur forme extérieure, &c., & leurs différentes espèces & variétes. A Paris: Chez Cuchet, libraire, rue & hotel Serpente, 1788.

    Pleasants, Henry. Three scientists of Chester County: by Henry Pleasants, Jr. [n. p., 1936].

    Partial Subject Index
    Abies balsamea.
    • 65
    • 180
    Abies.
    • 57
    • 64
    • 81
    • 206
    Accounting.
    • 246
    • 247
    Acer.
    • 57
    • 64
    • 79
    • 81
    • 82
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    Actions and defenses—Pennsylvania.
    • 130
    • 172
    • 188
    • 193
    Adiantum.
    • 255
    Admiralty--Great Britain.
    • 30
    Aesculus.
    • 9
    • 12
    • 64
    • 72
    • 79
    • 81
    • 93
    • 99
    • 106
    • 113
    • 129
    • 145
    • 148
    • 153
    • 162
    • 168
    • 191
    • 206
    • 318
    Agriculture--Pennsylvania.
    • 185
    • 186
    Aiton, William.
    • 1731-1793
    • 308
    Aletris.
    • 145
    Alligators--Pennsylvania.
    • 8
    Almshouses--Delaware.
    • 198
    Almshouses--Pennsylvania.
    • 198
    Alnus.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 168
    • 253
    American loyalists--Pennsylvania.
    • 37
    American Philosophical Society.
    • 272
    • 300
    Amorpha.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 145
    • 168
    Andromeda arborea.
    • 85
    Andromeda.
    • 64
    • 70
    • 79
    • 93
    • 99
    • 105
    • 113
    • 116
    • 129
    • 145
    • 148
    • 151
    • 162
    • 168
    • 292
    Anemone.
    • 308
    Animals--Pennsylvania.
    • 8
    Annona.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 129
    • 145
    • 153
    • 168
    Antietam, Battle of
    • 186
    • 223
    Antrim, Randal William MacDonnell, 6th earl and 1st marquis of, 1749-1791.
    • 16
    • 22
    Apios.
    • 64
    • 93
    • 129
    Aralia.
    • 64
    • 72
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 318
    Arboisia.
    • 64
    Arboretums--Great Britain.
    • 289
    Arbustrum Americanum.
    • 74
    • 86
    • 90
    • 173
    • 297
    • 298
    • 299
    • 301
    • 302
    • 307
    • 315
    Aristolochia.
    • 9
    • 64
    • 65
    • 73
    • 79
    • 106
    • 129
    • 153
    Arithmetic.
    • 246
    • 247
    Arum.
    • 129
    Asbestos.
    • 177
    Asclepias.
    • 129
    • 145
    • 148
    • 150
    • 151
    • 162
    • 168
    Ascyrum.
    • 99
    • 308
    Asimina.
    • 81
    • 179
    Asphodel.
    • 142
    • 148
    • 149
    • 150
    Aster.
    • 251
    • 308
    Astragalus carolinensis.
    • 123
    Astragalus.
    • 311
    Azalea.
    • 57
    • 64
    • 75
    • 79
    • 82
    • 94
    • 97
    • 99
    • 105
    • 106
    • 116
    • 129
    • 145
    • 151
    • 168,255
    • 292
    • 318
    • 319
    Baily, Joel C.
    • 194
    Baily, Joel.
    • 92
    Baker & Abell.
    • 57
    Baker, George.
    • 57
    • 59
    • 62
    Baker, Joseph.
    • 31
    Baldwin, William, 1779-1819.
    • 208
    Balloons.
    • 283
    Bancroft, Daniel.
    • 313
    Banks and banking--Pennsylvania.
    • 20
    • 24
    Banks, Joseph, 1743-1820.
    • 112
    • 124
    • 137
    • 142
    • 275
    • 276
    • 292
    Barbé-Marbois, François de, 1745-1837.
    • 41
    • 42
    • 45
    Barclay, David.
    • 67
    Barclay, Robert, ca.1750-1830.
    • 101
    • 134
    • 273
    • 276
    • 277
    • 288
    Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815.
    • 131
    • 179
    Bartram, John, 1699-1777.
    • 9
    • 204
    • 208
    • 255
    Bartram, John, 1743-1812.
    • 64
    • 80
    • 101
    • 135
    Bartram, William, 1739-1823.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 80
    • 101
    • 142
    • 173
    • 251
    • 252
    • 267
    • 277
    Berberis.
    • 79
    Bereavement.
    • 3
    Bertrand, Advocat.
    • 100
    Betula.
    • 72
    • 73
    • 79
    • 82
    • 99
    • 106
    • 145
    • 168
    Bible.
    • 11
    Bible. N.T. Matthew--Criticism, interpretation, etc.
    • 88
    Bignonia.
    • 57
    • 73
    • 79
    • 93
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 153
    • 168
    Birds--Collection and preservation.
    • 248
    Bohea.
    • 8
    Bond, Phineas, 1749-1815.
    • 37
    • 119
    • 135
    Botanical gardens--France.
    • 41
    Botanical gardens--Great Britain.
    • 255
    • 258
    • 287
    • 293
    • 308
    Botanical gardens--Pennsylvania.
    • 46
    • 65
    • 70
    • 319
    Botanical gardens--Pennsylvania--Chester County.
    • 206
    Botanical gardens--Philadelphia (Pa.)
    • 318
    Botanical gardens--Scotland.
    • 106
    Botanists--Delaware.
    • 313
    Botanists--France.
    • 79
    Botanists--Germany.
    • 170
    • 180
    • 181
    • 312
    Botanists--Great Britain.
    • 69
    • 248
    • 249
    • 250
    • 251
    • 252
    • 253
    • 254
    • 255
    • 256
    • 257
    • 258
    Botanists--New Jersey.
    • 137
    Botanists--North Carolina.
    • 12
    • 34
    • 54
    • 97
    Botanists--Pennsylvania.
    • 46
    • 55
    • 65
    • 69
    • 110
    • 111
    • 178
    • 179
    • 248
    • 249
    • 250
    • 315
    Botanists--Pennsylvania--Biography.
    • 199
    • 201
    • 202
    • 208
    Botanists--Scotland.
    • 106
    Botanists--South Carolina.
    • 104
    • 113
    Botanists--Sweden.
    • 48
    Botanists--United States.
    • 142
    Botanists--United States--Biography.
    • 221
    Botanists--Virginia.
    • 85
    Botany, Experimental.
    • 179
    Botany--Anatomy.
    • 84
    Botany--Classification.
    • 316
    Botany--Florida.
    • 181
    Botany--Georgia.
    • 70
    • 110
    Botany--Morphology.
    • 84
    Botany--North Carolina.
    • 12
    • 34
    Botany--Pennsylvania.
    • 4
    • 8
    • 9
    • 55
    • 84
    • 142
    • 180
    Botany--Pennsylvania--Lancaster County.
    • 315
    Botany--South Carolina.
    • 70
    • 75
    • 83
    • 113
    Botany--Study and teaching--Pennsylvania.
    • 86
    Botany--United States.
    • 63
    • 300
    Bowman, Roger.
    • 18
    Brandywine Railroad.
    • 231
    Brandywine, Battle of, 1777.
    • 52
    • 237
    Brinton, Moses.
    • 24
    • 32
    Broom.
    • 22
    Bucks County (Pa.)--Maps.
    • 21
    Buffington, Jacob.
    • 52
    Buffington, Robert.
    • 172
    Burnett, Richard.
    • 136
    Burning Bush.
    • 72
    Butomus.
    • 321
    Cabbage.
    • 4
    • 46
    Caesalpina.
    • 99
    Caledonian iris.
    • 65
    Calicarpa.
    • 79
    • 101
    • 168
    Callicarpa.
    • 93
    • 99
    Calumba.
    • 233
    Calycanthus.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 81
    • 93
    • 94
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 153
    • 168
    • 318
    • 319
    Camelia.
    • 93
    Canna.
    • 93
    Canvallaria.
    • 318
    Carolina moss.
    • 66
    Carpenter, Cidney.
    • 191
    Carpenter, Francis.
    • 165
    • 191
    Carpenter, Rachel.
    • 191
    Carpenter, Sarah.
    • 191
    Carpinus.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    Carya.
    • 41
    • 57
    • 81
    • 107
    • 206
    Cassia.
    • 57
    Cataract--Surgery.
    • 163
    Catfishes--Pennsylvania.
    • 8
    Ceanothus.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 105
    • 106
    • 145
    • 168
    Cedar.
    • 72
    • 81
    • 82
    • 148
    Celastrus.
    • 72
    • 79
    • 82
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    Celtis.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 106
    • 129
    • 168
    Cephalanthus.
    • 64
    • 79
    Ceratiola.
    • 294
    Cercis.
    • 79
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    • 206
    Cerebrovascular disease.
    • 230
    Chalfont, David.
    • 172
    Chambers, Benjamin.
    • 2
    Chapman, Abraham.
    • 24
    • 32
    • 36
    • 37
    Charities--Delaware.
    • 198
    Charities--Pennsylvania.
    • 198
    Charleston (S.C.)--Description.
    • 228
    Chemistry.
    • 232
    Chemistry--History.
    • 232
    Chemistry--Study and teaching.
    • 284
    Cheney, Thomas.
    • 92
    Cheronia angularis.
    • 176
    Cherry.
    • 74
    • 76
    • 98
    Chester County (Pa.)--Description and travel.
    • 202
    Chester County (Pa.)--Politics and government.
    • 92
    Chew, Benjamin, 1722-1810.
    • 20
    • 37
    Chionanthus.
    • 65
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 106
    • 145
    • 168
    Cist, Charles 1738-1805.
    • 301
    • 302
    Claypoole, David C., d. 1849.
    • 301
    Clayton, John, 1685-1773.
    • 142
    Claytonia.
    • 255
    Clematis.
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    Clethra.
    • 79
    • 82
    • 106
    • 153
    Coffee.
    • 257
    Collinson, Peter, 1694-1768.
    • 251
    Communicable diseases--Pennsylvania.
    • 213
    Concord, Battle of, 1775.
    • 30
    Conduct of life.
    • 7
    • 238
    • 242
    Conscientious objectors.
    • 88
    Conscientious objectors--Law and Legislation--Pennsylvania.
    • 44
    Continental Association, 1774.
    • 29
    Convincement (Quakers)
    • 1
    Cook, James.
    • 10
    Cookery--Pennsylvania.
    • 320
    Coombe, Thomas, 1747-1822.
    • 37
    Cordes, Diedrich.
    • 141
    • 143
    Cornus.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    • 179
    • 250
    Cornwallis, Charles Cornwallis, 1st marquess and 2d earl, 1738-1805.
    • 50
    Cortusa.
    • 129
    Corylus.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 145
    • 168
    Cottrell, John.
    • 186
    Coxe, Tench, 1755-1824.
    • 186
    Crataegus.
    • 64
    • 79
    Crotolaria.
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    Crukshank, Joseph, c.1747-1836.
    • 66
    • 300
    • 301
    Cumming, John.
    • 120
    Cupressus.
    • 64
    • 71
    • 72
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    Curlews.
    • 8
    Cyanastrum.
    • 145
    Cyanchum.
    • 168
    Cypripedium.
    • 129
    • 142
    • 145
    • 148
    • 149
    • 151
    Cyrilla.
    • 93
    • 113
    • 168
    • 292
    Darlington, William, 1782-1863.
    • 208
    Darlington, William, 1782-1863. Memorial of John Bartram and Humphry Marshall.
    • 204
    Death.
    • 23
    • 175
    Debt.
    • 286
    Delaware Indians.
    • 4
    Delaware Indians. Headmen. King George.
    • 4
    Democratic Party.
    • 159
    • 226
    Dickinson, John, 1732-1808.
    • 30
    Diervilla.
    • 64
    • 79
    Diet in disease.
    • 233
    Digitalis.
    • 153
    • 314
    Dionaea.
    • 129
    • 143
    • 151
    • 168
    • 252
    Diospyros.
    • 41
    • 64
    • 72
    • 73
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    • 319
    Dirca.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 104
    • 105
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    Domestic Encyclopedia.
    • 173
    • 175
    • 176
    • 177
    • 182
    Double almond.
    • 70
    Eddy, Charles.
    • 69
    • 84
    • 290
    • 308
    Eddy, Thomas, 1758-1827.
    • 62
    • 130
    Epidemics--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia.
    • 138
    • 142
    • 143
    Epigaea.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 82
    • 99
    • 129
    • 145
    • 148
    • 168
    • 308
    Epipactis.
    • 255
    Epitaphs--Pennsylvania.
    • 114
    Eryngium.
    • 129
    Estates (Law)--Pennsylvania.
    • 87
    • 147
    • 184
    Eulogies.
    • 23
    Euonymus.
    • 72
    • 73
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 106
    • 145
    • 153
    • 168
    • 206
    Eupatorium.
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    • 308
    Exchanges, Literary and scientific.
    • 42
    • 43
    • 45
    Eye--Surgery.
    • 163
    • 164
    • 167
    Fagus.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    Farmers--Pennsylvania--Chester County.
    • 320
    Fathers and sons.
    • 236
    Federalist Party.
    • 159
    Ferns.
    • 252
    • 256
    • 257
    • 308
    Ferrers, Earl of.
    • 7
    Finance, Personal.
    • 71
    • 192
    • 217
    Fisher, John.
    • 209
    • 210
    Fisher, Miers, 1748-1819.
    • 147
    Fisher, Samuel, c.1724-1793.
    • 37
    Fisher, Thomas, 1741-1810.
    • 250
    Fishing--Pennsylvania.
    • 8
    Flora Virginica.
    • 86
    Flour-mills.
    • 178
    Flour-mills--Pennsylvania.
    • 158
    Fontana, Felix, 1730-1805.
    • 221
    • 295
    Fort Duquesne (Pa.)
    • 4
    Fort Pitt, (Pa.)
    • 9
    Fossils--Collectors and collectors.
    • 287
    Fothergill, Ann.
    • 286
    Fothergill, John, 1712-1780.
    • 11
    • 260
    • 262
    • 263
    • 268
    • 269
    • 270
    • 286
    Fothergill, Samuel, 1715-1772.
    • 248
    • 255
    • 269
    Fothergilla.
    • 91
    • 93
    • 99
    • 106
    • 113
    • 129
    • 142
    • 148
    • 206
    • 234
    Fox, George, 1624-1691.
    • 49
    Fragaria.
    • 34
    France. Sovereigns. Louis XVI, 1774-1793.
    • 45
    Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790.
    • 114
    • 207
    • 252
    • 258
    • 268
    • 269
    • 278
    • 289
    Franklinia.
    • 64
    • 65
    • 75
    • 81
    • 83
    • 91
    • 99
    • 106
    • 110
    • 111
    • 113
    • 116
    • 143
    • 151
    • 168
    • 274
    • 277
    • 292
    • 308
    Fraxinus.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 106
    • 145
    • 162
    • 168
    French celery.
    • 9
    Furze.
    • 22
    Gardenia.
    • 64
    • 65
    Gardens--Great Britain.
    • 119
    Gardens--Pennsylvania--Chester County.
    • 191
    Gause, Eliza.
    • 195
    Geese--Pennsylvania.
    • 8
    Gentiana.
    • 50
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    Gerard, Conrad-Alexandre, 1729-1790.
    • 38
    • 39
    • 40
    • 41
    • 42
    • 45
    • 50
    Gibbons, James, 147.
    • 298
    Gilpin, Thomas, 1728-1778.
    • 37
    Gin.
    • 102
    Girard, Stephen, 1750-1831.
    • 181
    Glauca.
    • 82
    Gleditsia.
    • 57
    • 64
    • 72
    • 79
    • 81
    • 93
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    • 206
    Glossularia.
    • 64
    • 79
    Gordon, Henry.
    • 9
    Gordonia.
    • 91
    • 93
    • 113
    Graham, Henry Hale.
    • 71
    Gratton, Noah.
    • 18
    Gratton, Samuel.
    • 18
    Great Britain--Nobility.
    • 7
    Great Britain--Politics and government--1765-1775.
    • 259
    • 260
    • 264
    Great Britain. Army--Military life.
    • 4
    Great Britain. Sovereigns. George II, 1683-1760.
    • 4
    Great Britain. Sovereigns. George III, 1738-1820.
    • 146
    Greenhouses.
    • 191
    Grommee & Co.
    • 99
    • 143
    Guilandina.
    • 106
    • 129
    • 153
    Gymnocladus.
    • 206
    Gypsum.
    • 178
    Habeas corpus.
    • 222
    Halesia.
    • 64
    • 65
    • 79
    • 81
    • 93
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    • 206
    Hallowell, Norwood.
    • 223
    Hamamelis.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 94
    • 99
    • 145
    • 168
    Hamilton, William, d. 1813.
    • 155
    • 271
    • 273
    • 275
    Harlan, Caleb.
    • 294
    Harlan, Margaretta.
    • 194
    • 195
    Harper's Ferry (W.Va.)--John Brown Raid, 1859.
    • 225
    Harrison, Sarah.
    • 146
    Hart, Mary Ann.
    • 213
    • 214
    Hart, Susan.
    • 213
    Hedera.
    • 106
    Hedysarum.
    • 308
    Heinrich, Ernst.
    • 141
    • 143
    Helianthus.
    • 251
    Helonias.
    • 129
    • 142
    • 145
    • 148
    • 149
    • 150
    • 151
    • 168
    • 308
    Hessian flies.
    • 131
    Hibiscus.
    • 93
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    • 319
    Hickman, Tom.
    • 4
    Hilman, Gustavus Frederick.
    • 48
    • 50
    Hippophae.
    • 168
    • 318
    Hopea.
    • 91
    • 113
    • 168
    Horticultural products industry--Great Britain.
    • 129
    • 145
    • 148
    • 168
    Horticultural products industry--Ireland.
    • 25
    Horticultural products industry--Netherlands.
    • 100
    Horticultural products industry--Pennsylvania.
    • 39
    • 41
    • 42
    • 62
    • 64
    • 65
    • 72
    • 77
    • 78
    • 81
    • 101
    • 113
    • 139
    • 140
    • 143
    • 144
    • 145
    • 148
    • 152
    Horticultural products industry--South Carolina.
    • 74
    • 75
    • 93
    Horticulture--Pennsylvania.
    • 151
    • 153
    Hunt, John.
    • 250
    • 251
    • 258
    Hunter, James.
    • 15
    Husbands, Hermon, 1724-1795.
    • 15
    Hutchinson, James, 1752-1793.
    • 131
    Hyacinthe de Longuemare.
    • 125
    Hydrophyllum.
    • 318
    Hyericum.
    • 64
    Hyocyamus.
    • 129
    Hypericum.
    • 79
    • 315
    Ilex.
    • 64
    • 70
    • 79
    • 81
    • 93
    • 94
    • 99
    • 101
    • 106
    Indians of North America--Pennsylvania.
    • 4
    Indians of North America--Relations with Quakers.
    • 4
    Inner Light.
    • 1
    • 240
    Insects--Collection and preservation.
    • 248
    • 252
    • 253
    • 254
    • 255
    Insects--Packaging.
    • 253
    Ipecacuanha.
    • 253
    Itea.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 106
    • 153
    Itzenplitz, Baron.
    • 141
    • 312
    Iva.
    • 319
    Jackson, John, d. 1822.
    • 21
    • 206
    Jackson, William.
    • 163
    • 206
    Jardin du Roi, Paris.
    • 41
    Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826.
    • 131
    • 133
    Jeffersonia.
    • 318
    John, Willis.
    • 191
    Jones, Joshua.
    • 21
    Juglans.
    • 64
    • 73
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 106
    • 145
    • 162
    • 168
    • 319
    Juniperus.
    • 34
    • 72
    • 79
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 142
    • 145
    • 151
    • 168
    Junius.
    • 191
    Kalm, Peter, 1716-1779.
    • 142
    Kalmia.
    • 64
    • 65
    • 72
    • 79
    • 81
    • 82
    • 94
    • 98
    • 105
    • 106
    • 116
    • 129
    • 145
    • 148
    • 149
    • 150
    • 151
    • 153
    • 162
    • 168
    • 251
    • 255
    • 287
    Kalmianum.
    • 315
    Kaye, Abraham.
    • 124
    Kew Garden.
    • 308
    Kidneys--Diseases.
    • 233
    King, Matthias.
    • 182
    Kuhnia.
    • 308
    Lactuca.
    • 235
    Lafayette, Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch Gilbert du Motier, marquis de, 1757-1834.
    • 237
    Laffan, Andrew.
    • 68
    Larix.
    • 65
    • 82
    • 180
    • 206
    Laurus.
    • 57
    • 64
    • 79
    • 81
    • 93
    • 99
    • 105
    • 106
    • 113
    • 129
    • 145
    • 148
    • 150
    • 151
    • 168
    • 318
    Leases--Pennsylvania.
    • 190
    Ledum.
    • 99
    • 105
    • 106
    • 116
    • 318
    Lettsom, John Coakley, 1744-1815
    • 177
    • 221
    • 276
    Lettsomia.
    • 84
    • 290
    • 291
    Lewis, Esther, c.1740-1773.
    • 23
    Lexington, Battle of, 1775.
    • 30
    Lilium superbum.
    • 75
    • 251
    • 308
    Lilium.
    • 107
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    Linen--Ireland.
    • 16
    • 57
    • 59
    • 72
    • 94
    Linen--Netherlands.
    • 100
    von Linn, Carl, 1707-1778.
    • 254
    • 256
    • 288
    • 289
    • 316
    Linnean Society.
    • 289
    Liquidambar.
    • 64
    • 81
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    • 206
    Liriodendron tulipifera.
    • 57
    • 81
    • 94
    • 98
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 148
    • 150
    • 151
    • 168
    Liriodendron.
    • 57
    • 72
    • 79
    • 82
    • 255
    Listera.
    • 123
    • 311
    Loans--Pennsylvania.
    • 14
    • 192
    Lobelia.
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    London (England)--Economic conditions.
    • 269
    Lonicera.
    • 65
    • 79
    • 99
    • 105
    • 106
    • 168
    Love poetry.
    • 243
    Lowrey, Walter.
    • 224
    Lupinus.
    • 93
    • 129
    • 145
    • 148
    • 168
    Lychnoidea.
    • 251
    Mackie, John, 1748-1831.
    • 105
    Magnolia.
    • 12
    • 41
    • 57
    • 64
    • 72
    • 73
    • 75
    • 79
    • 81
    • 82
    • 91
    • 93
    • 94
    • 98
    • 99
    • 104
    • 106
    • 111
    • 113
    • 116
    • 129
    • 142
    • 145
    • 148
    • 149
    • 151
    • 153
    • 162
    • 168
    • 191
    • 206
    • 234
    • 251
    • 255
    • 287
    • 319
    Mahaw Indians.
    • 133
    Malacodendron,.
    • 148
    Malus.
    • 81
    • 98
    • 173
    • 176
    • 177
    • 178
    • 279
    Mandragon.
    • 72
    Marboisia.
    • 64
    • 79
    Marilandica.
    • 318
    Marriage.
    • 171
    • 236
    Marshall Family.
    • 17
    • 18
    • 201
    • 202
    • 227
    • 269
    Marshall, Abraham.
    • 17
    Marshall, Abram, b. c.1669.
    • 18
    Marshall, Elizabeth.
    • 17
    Marshall, Hannah.
    • 17
    Marshall, Humphrey.
    • 17
    Marshall, Humphrey, b. 1667.
    • 18
    Marshall, Humphry, 1722-1801.
    • 111
    • 130
    • 133
    • 158
    • 173
    • 175
    • 177
    • 199
    • 201
    • 202
    • 204
    • 206
    • 208
    • 221
    Marshall, Job.
    • 17
    Marshall, John, b. c.1703.
    • 18
    Marshall, Margaretta.
    • 195
    Marshall, Moses.
    • 195
    Marshall, Moses, 1758-1813.
    • 65
    • 69
    • 70
    • 104
    • 131
    • 167
    • 171
    • 174
    • 193
    • 199
    • 201
    • 202
    • 204
    • 208
    • 221
    • 267
    • 270
    • 272
    • 307
    • 318
    • 319
    Marshall, Noah.
    • 17
    Marshall, Ruth.
    • 17
    Marshall, Samuel.
    • 17
    Marshall, Thomas.
    • 17
    Marshallia.
    • 316
    Mason, George.
    • 18
    Mathers, Richard.
    • 21
    McClellan, George Brinton, 1826-1885.
    • 223
    McCulloch, John.
    • 22
    Mease, James, 1771-1846.
    • 185
    Medea.
    • 234
    Medical education--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia.
    • 270
    Medicinal plants.
    • 253
    • 314
    Medicine--Formulae, receipts, prescriptions.
    • 166
    • 233
    • 320
    Mellowsweet.
    • 12
    Menispermum.
    • 99
    Menzies, John, 1756-1834.
    • 279
    Menziesia.
    • 319
    Mercer, Hugh, 1725-1777.
    • 4
    Merchants--Saint Eustatius.
    • 27
    • 28
    Merchants--West Indies.
    • 29
    Mespilus.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 99
    • 106
    Meteorology.
    • 303
    Mifflin, Ann, c.1755-1815.
    • 163
    Mildred, Daniel.
    • 250
    Millers--Virginia.
    • 85
    Mimosa.
    • 318
    • 319
    Mineralogy--Collectors and collectors.
    • 287
    • 288
    Missouri River--Discovery and exploration.
    • 133
    Mitchella.
    • 64
    • 106
    Mockingbirds.
    • 250
    • 253
    Morris, John.
    • 35
    • 36
    Morus.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 162
    • 168
    Moss rose.
    • 65
    Muhlenberg, Gotthilf Henry Ernest, 1753-1815.
    • 173
    • 178
    Myrica.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 93
    • 99
    • 106
    Napaea.
    • 318
    Natural history museums--Great Britain.
    • 287
    Natural history--Collectors and collectors.
    • 295
    Natural history--Study and teaching.
    • 284
    Natural history--Study and teaching--Pennsylvania.
    • 86
    Naturalists--France.
    • 38
    Naturalists--Italy.
    • 295
    • 296
    Naturalists--Pennsylvania.
    • 55
    • 69
    Naturalists--Sweden.
    • 48
    Nelumbo.
    • 250
    • 251
    • 252
    • 253
    • 254
    • 255
    • 257
    Nerium.
    • 65
    • 75
    Newsom, Andrew.
    • 68
    Newsom, George.
    • 53
    Nicotiana.
    • 143
    • 144
    Noailles, Louis, duc de et marechal de France, 1713-1793.
    • 41
    Non-importation agreements.
    • 29
    • 259
    • 260
    • 261
    • 265
    • 266
    Norris, Isaac, b. 1760.
    • 283
    Norris, Joseph Parker, b. 1763.
    • 77
    • 78
    • 285
    Norris, Mary.
    • 62
    North Carolina--Description and travel.
    • 97
    North Carolina--History--Regulator Insurrection, 1766-1771.
    • 15
    North Carolina--Politics and government--Revolution, 1775-1783.
    • 15
    Nurseries (Horticulture)--Great Britain.
    • 129
    • 145
    • 148
    • 149
    • 151
    • 168
    Nurseries (Horticulture)--Pennsylvania.
    • 80
    • 117
    Nurseries (Horticulture)--South Carolina.
    • 74
    • 93
    Nymphaea.
    • 255
    • 257
    Nyssa.
    • 64
    • 75
    • 79
    • 81
    • 93
    • 99
    • 107
    • 113
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    O'Neill, John, 1740-1798.
    • 16
    Oil nut.
    • 182
    Olea.
    • 64
    • 93
    • 99
    • 106
    • 113
    • 168
    Opium.
    • 50
    Orchids.
    • 256
    Ornamental horticulture--Pennsylvania.
    • 153
    Owls.
    • 250
    • 258
    Panax.
    • 69
    • 137
    • 145
    • 168
    • 291
    • 306
    • 307
    Parke, Joseph.
    • 36
    • 37
    Parke, Thomas, 1749-1835.
    • 62
    • 175
    • 256
    • 289
    • 319
    Paul, James.
    • 21
    Peach.
    • 279
    Peirce, Joshua.
    • 172
    Peirce, Samuel.
    • 191
    Pelargonium.
    • 294
    Pemberton, Israel, 1715-1779.
    • 37
    Pemberton, James, 1723-1809.
    • 37
    Pemberton, John, 1727-1795.
    • 37
    • 285
    Penington, Edward, 1726-1796.
    • 37
    Penn, John, 1740-1788.
    • 37
    Penn, William, 1644-1718.
    • 256
    Pennock, Alice.
    • 58
    Pennsylvania Hospital.
    • 50
    Pennsylvania--Description and travel.
    • 4
    • 8
    • 9
    • 55
    Pennsylvania--History--Revolution, 1775-1783.
    • 37
    Pennsylvania--Politics and government--1775-1783.
    • 35
    • 36
    • 37
    Pennsylvania--Politics and government--1789-1797.
    • 92
    Pennsylvania--Politics and government--1860-1864.
    • 224
    Pennsylvania. Congress.
    • 128
    Pennsylvania. General Assembly.
    • 32
    • 33
    • 35
    Pennsylvania. General Loan Office.
    • 20
    • 24
    • 32
    • 33
    • 35
    • 36
    Pennsylvania. General Loan Office. Trustees.
    • 36
    Peters, Richard, 1744-1828.
    • 185
    Phaseolus.
    • 34
    Philadelphia (Pa.)--Economic conditions.
    • 281
    Philadelphia Alms House.
    • 96
    Philadelphia Museum.
    • 223
    Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture.
    • 131
    • 298
    • 300
    • 304
    • 305
    Philadelphus.
    • 64
    • 206
    Picea.
    • 82
    • 180
    Pim, John.
    • 191
    Pinus.
    • 12
    • 41
    • 79
    • 81
    • 94
    • 99
    • 106
    • 113
    • 116
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    • 206
    • 251
    Pitcairn, David, 1749-1809.
    • 108
    Plant collectors--Delaware.
    • 51
    Plant collectors--France.
    • 38
    • 39
    • 40
    • 41
    • 42
    • 43
    • 45
    • 64
    • 77
    • 78
    • 79
    • 81
    • 101
    • 116
    • 125
    • 126
    Plant collectors--Georgia.
    • 110
    • 111
    Plant collectors--Germany.
    • 99
    • 100
    • 140
    • 143
    • 144
    • 162
    Plant collectors--Great Britain.
    • 67
    • 101
    • 161
    Plant collectors--Ireland.
    • 16
    • 22
    • 25
    • 53
    • 57
    • 58
    • 59
    • 61
    • 72
    • 89
    • 94
    • 98
    • 115
    • 127
    • 136
    • 139
    • 154
    Plant collectors--Italy.
    • 56
    Plant collectors--Netherlands.
    • 136
    Plant collectors--Pennsylvania.
    • 42
    • 43
    • 45
    • 60
    • 70
    • 109
    • 110
    • 248
    • 249
    • 250
    • 251
    • 252
    • 253
    • 254
    • 255
    • 256
    • 257
    • 258
    Plant collectors--Scotland.
    • 106
    • 121
    Plant collectors--South Carolina.
    • 109
    • 234
    • 235
    Plant collectors--Virginia.
    • 111
    Plant propagation.
    • 182
    • 248
    • 250
    Plants--Packaging.
    • 12
    • 64
    • 72
    • 79
    • 81
    • 248
    • 250
    • 253
    Platanus.
    • 64
    • 73
    • 79
    • 99
    • 106
    • 145
    • 168
    Pleurisy.
    • 215
    Plovers.
    • 8
    Plum.
    • 74
    • 98
    Podophyllum.
    • 123
    • 311
    • 318
    • 319
    Poetry.
    • 159
    • 233
    • 236
    • 237
    • 241
    • 242
    • 244
    • 245
    Poland--History--Revolution of 1794.
    • 244
    Polk, James K., 1795-1849.
    • 197
    Polyanthers.
    • 75
    Polygala.
    • 233
    • 290
    • 291
    • 292
    • 308
    • 318
    Polygamia.
    • 316
    Polymnia.
    • 318
    Ponticum.
    • 234
    Populus.
    • 41
    • 64
    • 79
    • 81
    • 106
    Portulaca.
    • 84
    • 290
    • 308
    Postoperative care--Nutritional aspects.
    • 167
    Potentilla.
    • 106
    • 318
    Power of attourney--Pennsylvania.
    • 52
    Preoperative care--Nutritional aspects.
    • 164
    Preston, Jonas.
    • 195
    Primula auricular.
    • 75
    Prince, William, 1766-1842.
    • 173
    Prinos.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 99
    Privateers--West Indies.
    • 29
    Prunus.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 106
    • 145
    • 162
    • 168
    Ptelea.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 206
    Publishers and publishing--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia.
    • 301
    • 302
    Pyrola.
    • 4
    • 8
    • 64
    • 72
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    Pyrus.
    • 98
    • 106
    • 279
    Quaker Poetry.
    • 238
    • 239
    • 240
    Quakers--Conduct of life.
    • 240
    Quakers--Great Britain.
    • 3
    • 6
    • 7
    • 17
    • 18
    • 146
    Quakers--Ireland.
    • 59
    Quakers--Pennsylvania.
    • 4
    • 11
    • 37
    Quakers--Pennsylvania--Chester County.
    • 194
    Quakers--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia.
    • 44
    Quercus.
    • 41
    • 55
    • 64
    • 72
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 105
    • 106
    • 108
    • 113
    • 129
    • 145
    • 162
    • 168
    • 180
    • 206
    • 250
    • 251
    • 255
    • 287
    • 318
    Rabies--Prevention.
    • 175
    • 320
    Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel.
    • 1783-1840
    • 186
    Railroads--Delaware.
    • 231
    Railroads--Pennsylvania.
    • 231
    Rawle, William, 1759-1836.
    • 130
    Real property--Pennsylvania.
    • 193
    • 196
    • 200
    • 203
    • 205
    • 209
    • 210
    • 211
    • 212
    • 213
    • 214
    • 216
    • 220
    Real property--Pennsylvania--Chester County.
    • 2
    Recipes.
    • 320
    Reichert, Jean.
    • 100
    Rent--Pennsylvania.
    • 203
    • 205
    • 216
    Repossession--Pennsylvania.
    • 220
    Reptiles--Collection and preservation.
    • 248
    Republican Party.
    • 226
    Rhamnus.
    • 129
    Rhixia.
    • 129
    • 145
    Rhoads, Edward.
    • 223
    Rhododendron.
    • 55
    • 64
    • 72
    • 79
    • 82
    • 94
    • 99
    • 105
    • 106
    • 129
    • 142
    • 145
    • 148
    • 151
    • 153
    • 162
    • 168
    • 234
    • 251
    Rhodora.
    • 129
    Rhus.
    • 79
    • 81
    • 82
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 136
    • 145
    • 168
    • 180
    Ribes.
    • 8
    • 34
    • 65
    Rittenhouse, David, 1732-1796.
    • 36
    Roads--Pennsylvania.
    • 128
    Roads--Pennsylvania--Chester County.
    • 19
    • 183
    Robinia.
    • 64
    • 65
    • 66
    • 79
    • 81
    • 94
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 148
    • 153
    • 162
    • 168
    • 255
    Rock laurel.
    • 12
    Rogers, Thomas.
    • 30
    Romans Family.
    • 171
    Romans, David, b. 1808.
    • 171
    Romans, Ephraim, b. 1810.
    • 171
    Romans, Hannah, b. 1804.
    • 171
    Romans, Kezia, b. 1812.
    • 171
    Romans, Moses, b. 1802.
    • 171
    Romans, Phebe, b. 1805.
    • 171
    Rosa.
    • 79
    Rowan, Archibald Hamilton, 1751-1834.
    • 154
    • 156
    Rubia.
    • 175
    • 177
    • 182
    • 186
    • 318
    Rubus.
    • 55
    • 76
    • 79
    • 94
    • 99
    • 106
    • 152
    Rudbeckia.
    • 145
    • 148
    • 150
    • 151
    • 153
    • 168
    Saint Eustatius--History.
    • 31
    Salix.
    • 79
    • 168
    Sambucus.
    • 55
    • 64
    • 79
    • 106
    Sanguinaria.
    • 129
    Sanicula.
    • 129
    Sarracenia.
    • 129
    • 142
    • 145
    • 151
    • 168
    Sassafras.
    • 79
    • 81
    • 149
    • 253
    Schrankia.
    • 319
    Scientific expeditions.
    • 69
    • 267
    • 272
    Scientific expeditions--Appalachian mountains.
    • 110
    • 111
    Scientific expeditions--Pennsylvania.
    • 4
    • 8
    • 9
    Scientific expeditions--United States.
    • 133
    Secession--Public opinion--Pennsylvania.
    • 224
    Sedum.
    • 84
    • 151
    • 290
    • 316
    • 318
    Seed industry and trade--Great Britain.
    • 148
    • 168
    • 255
    • 293
    Seed industry and trade--Ireland.
    • 25
    Seed industry and trade--Pennsylvania.
    • 64
    • 72
    • 73
    • 79
    • 81
    • 139
    • 140
    • 142
    • 143
    • 144
    • 148
    • 151
    • 154
    • 156
    • 157
    • 162
    • 273
    • 278
    • 279
    Seeds--Packaging.
    • 72
    • 79
    • 81
    Serratula.
    • 129
    Shells--Saint Eustatius.
    • 28
    Shoemakers--Pennsylvania.
    • 187
    Sick--Psychology.
    • 23
    Sideroxylon.
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    Silhouettes--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia.
    • 223
    Slavery--Emancipation.
    • 224
    • 225
    Slavery--Public opinion.
    • 226
    Slavery-Anti-slavery movements--Public opinion.
    • 226
    Smallpox--Pennsylvania--Lancaster County.
    • 215
    Smallpox--Preventative inoculation.
    • 215
    Smilax.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 82
    • 99
    • 113
    • 129
    Snakes.
    • 255
    Society of Friends.
    • 239
    Society of Friends--Doctrinal and controversial works.
    • 1
    Society of Friends--History--Revolution, 1775-1783.
    • 37
    Society of Friends--Missions.
    • 6
    Society of Friends--Pennsylvania.
    • 49
    Solanum.
    • 321
    Solidago.
    • 251
    • 308
    Sorbus.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 106
    • 145
    Sorrel.
    • 4
    Spigelia.
    • 129
    • 145
    • 153
    • 168
    • 318
    Spirea.
    • 65
    • 79
    • 99
    • 106
    • 142
    • 315
    • 318
    Staphylea.
    • 64
    • 65
    • 79
    • 206
    Steam-engines.
    • 232
    Stewardson, Thomas.
    • 169
    Storrs, Joseph.
    • 17
    Strettell, Amos, 1720-1780.
    • 24
    • 32
    • 36
    • 37
    Strychnos nux-vomica.
    • 9
    Stuartia.
    • 64
    • 65
    • 79
    • 81
    • 91
    • 93
    • 99
    • 106
    • 113
    • 116
    • 129
    • 142
    • 145
    • 148
    • 151
    • 168
    • 206
    • 234
    • 319
    Styrax.
    • 99
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    • 206
    Sun-spots.
    • 263
    • 264
    Swayne, Samuel.
    • 177
    Tabernamontana.
    • 129
    Talinum.
    • 84
    • 318
    Tatnall, Joseph, 1740-1813.
    • 71
    Taxation, Protests and appeals.
    • 44
    Taxodium.
    • 72
    Taxus.
    • 8
    • 106
    • 153
    • 206
    Tea.
    • 256
    • 258
    Tetragonotheca.
    • 145
    • 168
    • 255
    Thevetia.
    • 75
    Threshing machines--Pennsylvania.
    • 186
    Thuja.
    • 64
    • 65
    • 79
    • 94
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    Ticks--North Carolina.
    • 90
    Tilia.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 99
    • 106
    • 129
    • 145
    • 206
    Tillandsia.
    • 66
    • 99
    • 106
    Todd, John.
    • 44
    Trifolium.
    • 8
    • 9
    Trillium.
    • 129
    • 168
    Triosteum.
    • 129
    • 145
    Tsuga.
    • 180
    Turnips.
    • 46
    Turtles.
    • 251
    • 258
    • 289
    • 291
    Turtles--Collection and preservation.
    • 84
    • 288
    • 290
    Turtles--Pennsylvania.
    • 84
    • 252
    • 288
    Tussilago.
    • 318
    Ulmus.
    • 99
    • 106
    • 162
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
    • 222
    • 223
    • 224
    • 225
    • 226
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Medical and sanitary affairs.
    • 223
    United States--History--Colonial period, ca.1600-1775.
    • 260
    United States--History--French and Indian War, 1755-1763.
    • 9
    United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783.
    • 50
    • 241
    • 258
    • 266
    • 280
    • 281
    • 282
    United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783--Afro-Americans.
    • 30
    United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783--Conscientious objectors.
    • 37
    • 44
    • 49
    United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783--Finance, commerce, confiscations, etc.
    • 30
    • 31
    • 32
    • 33
    • 35
    • 36
    United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783--Participation, French.
    • 50
    United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783--Reparations.
    • 52
    United States--History--War with Mexico, 1845-1848.
    • 197
    Updegrove, Harman.
    • 163
    Urtica.
    • 129
    Uvularia.
    • 318
    Vaccinium.
    • 64
    • 99
    • 113
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    • 277
    Valeriana.
    • 153
    Vaughan, Samuel, 1720-1802.
    • 275
    • 297
    • 298
    • 299
    • 304
    Verdigris.
    • 12
    Veronica.
    • 84
    • 290
    Viburnum.
    • 64
    • 79
    • 81
    • 99
    • 129
    • 315
    Vinus.
    • 168
    Viola.
    • 9
    • 129
    • 308
    • 309
    Viscum.
    • 106
    Vitis arborea.
    • 113
    Vitis.
    • 79
    Walteriana.
    • 151
    Washington, George, 1732-1799.
    • 237
    • 281
    • 282
    Watson, James M.
    • 120
    Wayne, Anthony, 1745-1796.
    • 237
    Webb, Anne Massey.
    • 191
    Webb, William.
    • 191
    West--Discovery and exploration.
    • 133
    Wheat--Diseases and pests.
    • 131
    Wilcocks, Alexander, 1742-1801.
    • 20
    Wilcocks, John.
    • 36
    Williams, Samuel.
    • 303
    Wills--Pennsylvania.
    • 26
    • 103
    • 114
    • 174
    • 195
    Wilson, Alexander, 1714-1786.
    • 263
    Wilson, Hannah.
    • 58
    Wilson, James.
    • 100
    Wilson, Sarah Marshall.
    • 18
    Wistar, Caspar, 1761-1818.
    • 186
    • 221
    Woodward, George Washington, 1809-1875.
    • 224
    Woodward, William.
    • 68
    Yellow Fever--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia.
    • 138
    • 142
    • 143
    Yorktown, Va.--Siege, 1781.
    • 50
    Young, William.
    • 253
    • 255
    Yucca.
    • 129
    • 145
    • 168
    Zanthorhiza.
    • 99
    • 105
    • 106
    • 153
    Zanthoxylum.
    • 79
    • 99
    • 106
    • 206