Manuscripts Division
William L. Clements Library
University of Michigan

Finding aid for
Hacker Brothers Papers, 1861-1988

James S. Schoff Civil War Collection

Finding aid created by
Rob S. Cox, July 1991, and Meg Hixon, 2013

Summary Information
Title: Hacker Brothers papers
Creator: Hacker family
Inclusive dates: 1861-1988
Bulk dates: 1861-1880
Extent: 0.75 linear feet
Abstract:
This collection consists primarily of letters that Rohloff and Philip Hacker wrote to their parents and siblings while serving in the 2nd and 5th Michigan Infantry Regiments during the Civil War. Also included are two of Rohloff Hacker's diaries, letters by additional Michigan soldiers and a female aid worker, and letters that William Hacker received from his brother Karl in Neustrelitz, Germany, from 1877-1880.

Language: The material is in English and German
Repository: William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Phone: 734-764-2347
Web Site: www.clements.umich.edu


Access and Use
Acquisition Information:

Donated by the estate of George F. Hacker, 1988; Donated by Deborah Oakley, M-2405, M-4932.

Access Restrictions:

The collection is open for research.

Copyright:

Copyright status is unknown.

Processing Information:

Cataloging partly funded by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC).

Preferred Citation:

Hacker Brothers papers, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan


Arrangement

The collection is arranged chronologically.


Biography

Hacker, Philip W., 1835-1863

Rank : Private, Corporal

Regiment : 5th Michigan Infantry Regiment. Co. I (1861-1865)

Service : 1861 August 6-1863 February 26

Hacker, Rohloff Charles, d. 1863

Rank : Private, Corporal

Regiment : 2nd Michigan Infantry Regiment. Co. G (1861-1865)

Service : 1861 May 17-1863 November 24

In the 1860s and 1870s, German immigrants William and Barbara Hacker lived in and near Brighton, Michigan, with their several children. William's brother Karl remained in Germany, living in Neustrelitz in the late 1870s. William and Barbara's sons Rohloff (d. 1863) and Philip (1842-1863) were early and enthusiastic volunteers for the Union Army. In 1861, Rohloff worked as a mill laborer in Brighton, Michigan, and he joined the 2nd Michigan Infantry Regiment, Company G, soon after its formation. Philip joined for the 5th Michigan Infantry Regiment, Company I, in August 1861.

In early June, 1861, the 2nd Michigan Regiment was rushed to the ring of forts surrounding Washington and posted near Alexandria, Va. During the summer, they were involved in some minor skirmishes and the first Battle of Bull Run. The Bull Run experience deeply affected Rohloff, who claimed to have witnessed Confederate troops bayoneting wounded Union soldiers and remarked that they refused to allow the dead to be removed from the field, but he refused to admit that the Union had been defeated. Throughout the year, despite the lack of clear military success, the poor equipment, sporadic pay, and despite the threat of Confederate troops posted close enough that the pickets could converse, and, as he put it, close enough "that we will save the travelling expenses," Rohloff's morale remained high. He developed a keen animosity toward Confederate soldiers, promising his mother that he would help "heal the wounds of rebellion with blue pills and black powder." His lack of hesitation in firing on Confederates attested to the sincerity of his sentiments.

Once Philip Hacker's regiment arrived in Washington, Rohloff applied for transfer to the 5th Michigan so that the two could serve together. Although he was unsuccessful, the 2nd and 5th Michigan Regiments were often posted in close enough proximity that the brothers were able to visit, and they occasionally wrote joint letters home. Both remained passionately committed Unionists, avid soldiers, and devout Christians throughout their service; and their close relationship with each other and their family members clearly helped to sustain them under difficult circumstances.

After a comparatively calm winter, the Hackers' regiments took part in the Peninsular Campaign, where they were engaged during the Siege of Yorktown, the Battle of Williamsburg, and the Seven Days' Battles. The Campaign seems to have removed not so much the willingness to fight from both Philip and Rohloff, as the pleasure in doing so. In July 1862, Rohloff admitted "Harvesting Rebels is not a very nice job after all."

The 2nd and 5th Michigan regiments remained posted near Washington until called to Fredericksburg in November. Philip, who had been slightly wounded in September, 1862, was severely wounded in the groin at the Battle of Fredericksburg, affecting his left leg. During his hospitalization, Philip wrote home to describe his wounding and his thoughts on war (believing it was an honor to his mother for him to be wounded). He also wrote, "This cursed war has blighted hopes of being anybody. I look on this war as a wreatched [sic] consern" (1863 February 1). After being transferred to hospital in Alexandria, Philip contracted dysentery and died of the disease and complications from his wound on February 22nd.

The 5th Michigan was transferred to Kentucky in March, 1863, and in May, they joined Grant's Army for the final phase of the siege of Vicksburg. Rohloff was briefly but acutely ill in late June and July, and it is unclear whether he was present with his regiment at the Battle of Jackson. In August, the regiment was withdrawn to Crab Orchard, Ky., and in September, to Knoxville, Tenn. In November, Rohloff was killed in action after falling behind Confederate lines. When the area was retaken, Rohloff's body was reclaimed from its Confederate grave by friends, and re-interred in the cemetery of the 1st Division, 9th A.C. at Knoxville.


Collection Scope and Content Note

This collection consists of letters that Rohloff and Philip Hacker wrote while serving in the 2nd and 5th Michigan Infantry Regiments during the Civil War. The collection also includes two of Rohloff Hacker's diaries, letters by additional Michigan soldiers and a female aid worker, and letters that William Hacker received from his brother Karl in Neustrelitz, Germany, from 1877-1880.

Among the most valuable letters in the collection are Rohloff's written during the summer of 1861. These provide an excellent sense of life in the camps defending Washington, going beyond descriptions of the routine of camp life to discussions of morale, officers, and the preparedness of soldiers on both sides. Rohloff describes the equipment and uniforms issued to his Regiment -- late and in poor condition -- in great detail, and their involvement in skirmishes and in the 1st Battle of Bull Run. He displayed an unusual zeal in soldiering, remarking that he did not hesitate in firing at Confederate soldiers, even the first time, and making a number of caustic remarks about Confederate soldiers. The amusing rivalry he and Philip carried on through their correspondence with home over their regiments and relations with friends and women decreased after the First Battle of Bull Run, and seems to have ended altogether after the Peninsular Campaign, when both their moods turned darker and more serious. The brothers both wrote informative letters during the Peninsular Campaign, particularly during the siege of Yorktown, the Battle of Williamsburg, and the Seven Days' Battles. The letters describing the Battle of Fredericksburg are also absorbing, particularly Philip's account of his own wounding. Somehow, through their experiences, which included a number of disastrous defeats at the hand of the enemy, both brothers unwaveringly maintained their faith in their country and their religion.

Rohloff and Philip wrote clearly and succinctly, and both were sensitive to the larger issues of the conflict and to the effect of war on the participants and civilians. Both commented occasionally on strategy and the leadership of the Union Army. Philip's letters are somewhat more polished than Rohloff's. The majority of the brothers' letters were written to family members, with most addressed to their father and mother, William and Barbara Woll Hacker, their younger siblings, Serena and Theodore, or their sister and brother-in-law Augusta and Alpheus Macomber in various combinations. Rohloff also wrote more than 30 letters to his former employers, E.F. Albright and C. Thomson, or Mrs. Albright.

The collection contains letters of several other Michigan soldiers, most of who served with the Hackers, or were friends of the Hacker family from Brighton. Among these are four letters from Peter Smith (Co. G, 2nd Michigan), reminiscing about his friendship with Rohloff and describing visits to his grave; five from Newton J. Kirk (Co. E, 26th Michigan Infantry); four from Capt. John C. Boughton (Co. G, 2nd Michigan), two letters of Edward R. Bliss (4th Michigan Infantry), and six letters written in February and March, 1863, by W. H. Pratt, a Sergeant in the hospital in which Philip Hacker was dying (probably William H. Pratt, Co. E, 26th Michigan Infantry). Another group of additional correspondence consists of 16 letters that Julia Susan Wheelock wrote about her work for the Michigan Soldiers' Relief Association in Washington, D.C., and northern Virginia between 1863 and 1866. Wheelock is also mentioned in several of the soldier's letters. In 1870, Wheelock published a memoir of her war-time experiences, The Boys in White; the Experience of a Hospital Agent in and around Washington.

The collection also contains a group of 5 letters that Karl Hacker wrote to William Hacker, his brother, from Neustrelitz, Germany, between September 16, 1877, and February 12, 1880. The letters are written in German schrift. Hacker's correspondence concerns local news and events, including several festivals; changes in Neustrelitz and Germany since William left for the United States; and his work as a construction supervisor. He provided updates about his health, and also discussed news of family members and friends in the United States and Germany.

The collection also contains The Congregational Psalmist: A Collection of Psalm Tunes, three soldier's bibles, two belonging Rohloff C. Hacker and one from Alexander Reuben that also has Philip W. Hacker's name in it, a leather wallet with Philip Hacker and William A. Ferguson's name on it, and a sewn cloth case. Miscellaneous items such as newspaper clippings, stamps, hunting licenses, currency, 4 photographs, and photographic negatives are also included. A small selection of 20th century family correspondence about the Hacker brothers supplement the collection.

Subject Terms

    Subjects:
    • Bull Run, 1st Battle of, Va., 1861.
    • Burnside, Ambrose Everett, 1824-1881.
    • Virginia--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
    • Cookery, Military.
    • Firearms.
    • German Americans.
    • Guard duty.
    • McClellan, George Brinton, 1826-1885.
    • Military camps.
    • Poe, O. M. (Orlando Metcalfe), 1832-1895.
    • Slavery.
    • Soldiers--Confederate States of America.
    • Soldiers--Religious life.
    • United States. Army. Michigan Infantry Regiment, 2nd (1861-1865)
    • United States. Army. Michigan Infantry Regiment, 5th (1861-1865)
    • United States. Army--Military life.
    • United States. Army--Officers.
    • United States. Army--Supplies and stores.
    • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Hospitals.
    • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Scouts and scouting.
    • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--War work.
    • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Women.
    • War wounds.
    • Yorktown (Va.)--History--Siege, 1862.
    Genre Terms:
    • Clippings (information artifacts)
    • Diaries.
    • Ephemera.
    • Negatives (photographic)
    • Photographs.
    • Realia.
    Contents List
       Container / Location    Title
      37-39 Schoff Civil War Soldiers Letters  
    Hacker Brothers papers,  1861 May 30-1988 [series]:
      10 Schoff Civil War Diaries and Journals  
    Rohloff Hacker journals,  1861-1862 [series]:
     
    Printed material and objects [series]:
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Alternate Locations

    Perrine’s New Military Map Illustrating the Seat of War is located in the Clements Library's Map Division.

    Partial Subject Index
    Abel (Biblical character)
    • 1864 February 13
    Absence without leave.
    • 1862 December 1
    Ackerman, Conrad.
    • 1862 November 8
    Advertising.
    • n.d. [1872?]
    African-Americans.
    • 1861 September 4
    • 1862 February 1
    • 1862 February 18
    Agriculture--Virginia.
    • 1862 May 30
    Albright, Egbert F.
    • n.d.
    Albright, S. Cornelia.
    • 1861
    Alexander, Reuben.
    • 1862
    Amicicide (Military Science)
    • [Winter 1862?]
    Ann Arbor (Mich.)
    • 1865 January
    Arlington (Va.)
    • 1861 July 28
    Arlington (Va.)--Maps.
    • 1861 September 2
    Armistices.
    • 1861 September 19
    • 1861 September 21-23
    • 1861 September 24-29
    • 1862 June 1
    Arson.
    • 1862 November 20
    • n.d.
    Art work.
    • 1862
    Bacheler, Benjamin.
    • 1864 April 11
    Bachelors.
    • [1862 June?]
    Balloons.
    • 1861 September 8
    • 1861 September 30-October 6
    • 1861 October 6
    • 1862 May 4
    Baltimore (Md.)--Description.
    • [1861 June]
    Baptists.
    • 1865 December 20
    Battle-cries.
    • 1863 April 26
    Bayonets.
    • 1862 May 7
    • 1862 July 10
    Beauregard, Pierre G. T., 1818-1893.
    • 1862 May 16
    Bedding.
    • 1861 November 10
    Berry, Hiram Gregory, 1824-1863.
    • 1862 May 12
    • 1862 May 14
    Bible. N.T.
    • 1862
    • 1854
    • 1861
    Bible. N.T. Matthew.
    • n.d.
    Big Bethel (Va.)
    • 1862 April 7
    Blankets.
    • 1861 November 18-24
    Blue Springs (Tenn.), Skirmish near, 1863.
    • 1863 October 18
    Bombardment.
    • 1862 January 12
    • 1862 April 18
    • 1862 April 25
    Booth, John Wilkes, 1838-1865.
    • 1865 June 26
    Brigading of Regiments.
    • 1861 September 7
    Brothers--Death.
    • 1863 October 18
    Bull Run, 1st Battle of, Va., 1861.
    • 1861 July 28
    • 1861 July 28
    • 1861 July 30
    • 1861 July 31
    • 1861 August 2, 3
    • [1861 August]
    • 1861 September 3
    Burial.
    • 1862 June 7
    • 1862 June 9
    Burlington and Missouri River Rail Road Company.
    • n.d. [1872?]
    Burns, William Wallach, 1825-1892.
    • 1862 November 23
    Burnside, Ambrose Everett, 1824-1881.
    • 1862 November 29
    • 1863 January 3
    • 1863 March 27
    • 1864 February 13
    • 1864 May 3
    Camp followers.
    • 1861 August 6
    Camp life.
    • 1861 December 25-26
    • [1862 June 7]
    Camp Mansfield (D.C.)
    • 1861 June 23
    Camps (Military)--Michigan.
    • 1861 May 30
    • 1861 June 4
    Camps (Military)--Virginia.
    • 1861 September 8-10
    • 1861 November 16-17
    • 1861 November 29-December 5
    Cemeteries--Virginia.
    • 1862 March 2
    Censorship.
    • 1861 July 25
    Chandler, Zachariah, 1813-1879.
    • 1861 November 18-24
    • 1861 December 8
    Christmas.
    • 1861 December 25
    Church.
    • 1862 November 29
    Cigarettes.
    • n.d.
    Civilians--Kentucky--Civil War, 1861-1865.
    • 1863 March 27
    Civilians--Maryland--Civil War, 1861-1865.
    • 1861 June 12
    Civilians--Virginia--Civil War, 1861-1865.
    • 1861 October 5
    • 1861 November 4-5
    • 1862 January 22
    • 1862 November 20
    • 1864 February 13
    Columbia (Ky.)
    • 1863 May 15
    Confederate States of America. Army--Officers.
    • 1861 August 11
    Confederate States of America. Army--Supplies and stores.
    • 1861 July 28
    • 1861 September 3
    Cookery.
    • [1862 June?]
    Cookery, Military.
    • 1861 October 6
    • [1861 October]
    • 1861 November 10
    • 1862 May 20
    Copperhead (Nickname)
    • 1862 February 11
    • 1863 April 5
    • 1863 April 18
    Corn fields--Louisiana.
    • 1863 June 27
    Courtship.
    • [1862 June 7]
    Currency.
    • 1862 April 2
    • 1862 November 4
    Dead.
    • 1861 August 20
    • 1862 June 7
    • 1863 November 27
    Death.
    • 1861 September 28
    Death--Poetry.
    • n.d.
    • n.d.
    • n.d.
    Debates and debating--Societies, etc.
    • 1862 January 5
    Deserters, Military--Confederate States of America.
    • 1862 March 28
    Douglas, Stephen A., 1813-1861.
    • 1861 June 4
    Draft.
    • 1862 July 14
    • 1863 February 26
    • 1863 March 13
    Draft Riot, New York, N.Y., 1863.
    • 1864 April 20
    Dreams.
    • 1861 November 30-December 1
    Drill and minor tactics.
    • 1861 December 25
    • n.d.
    Dysentery.
    • 1863 February 9
    Dysentery--Treatment.
    • 1862 May 20
    Education.
    • n.d.
    Emancipation Proclamation.
    • 1862 September 27
    • 1862 November 8
    English language--Dialects--Southern states.
    • 1862 February 1
    Executions and executioners.
    • 1861 September 8
    • 1861 September 29
    Explosives, Military--Accidents.
    • 1863 June 10
    Farming.
    • 1862 September 26
    • 1862 October 24
    Fatalism.
    • 1863 January 5
    Fighting.
    • 1864 May 25
    Finances.
    • 1863 April 26
    • n.d.
    Firearms.
    • 1861 December 13-16
    • 1861 December 22
    • 1862 January 17
    • 1862 January 22
    • 1862 February 11
    • 1862 February 15
    • 1862 March 2
    • 1862 June 21
    • n.d.
    Food.
    • 1861 November 25-29
    • 1861 December 28
    Foraging--Virginia.
    • 1861 November 9
    • n.d.
    Fort Albany (Va.)
    • n.d.
    Fort Lyon (Va.)
    • 1861 October 26
    • 1863 June 10
    Fort Monroe (Va.)
    • 1862 March 17
    Fort Washington (Va.)
    • 1862 March 17
    Fortifications.
    • 1861 September 8
    Fourth of July.
    • 1861 July 5, 10
    Fredericksburg, Battle of, 1862.
    • 1862 December 18
    • 1862 December 18
    • 1863 January 3
    Fremont, John, ca., 1813-1890.
    • 1861 September 3
    • 1861 September 24-29
    Funeral rites and ceremonies.
    • 1861 September 4
    • 1861 November 25-29
    • 1863 August 21
    Gettysburg, Battle of, 1863.
    • 1863 August 10
    Gettysburg Campaign, 1863.
    • 1863 June 10
    Grant, Ulysses S., 1822-1885.
    • 1864 May 25
    Greene, George Sears, 1801-1899.
    • n.d.
    Greenville (Tenn.), Skirmish near, 1863.
    • 1863 October 18
    Guerrillas--Kentucky.
    • 1863 May 31
    Hacker, Barbara Woll.
    • 1863 February 26
    • 1863 March 4
    • 1863 March 6
    Hacker, Frank.
    • n.d.
    Hacker, George.
    • 1865 June 26
    Hacker, Philip W., 1835-1863--Death.
    • 1863 February 26
    Hacker, Philip W., 1835-1863.
    • 1861 October 17
    • 1863 January 14
    • 1863 February 9, 22
    • 1863 February 12-13
    • 1863 February 16
    • 1863 February 26
    • 1863 February 27
    • 1863 March 23
    • 1863 October 18
    • 1864 January 26
    • 1864 February 18
    • 1864 April 11
    • n.d.
    • 1862? May 6
    • [1862 June?]
    • [after October 1862]
    • n.d.
    • 1862
    Hacker, Rohloff C., ca.1843-1863.
    • 1863 April 29
    • 1864 February 13
    • 1864 March 21
    • 1864 April 4
    • 1864 May 3
    • 1864 July 25
    • n.d.
    • 1854
    • 1856
    • 1861
    Hacker, Rohloff C., ca.1843-1863--Death.
    • 1863 December 18
    Hacker, William.
    • 1864 May 5
    Hampton (Va.)
    • 1862 March 17
    Hathaway, Dwight.
    • 1863 January 13
    Heintzelman, Samuel Peter, 1805-1880.
    • 1861 December 17-22
    • 1862 February 15
    • 1862 June 21
    • 1862 July 14
    Homesickness.
    • 1861 October 26
    Hooker, Joseph, 1814-1879.
    • 1863 February 5
    Hunting.
    • 1863 October 18
    Johnson, Andrew, 1808-1875.
    • 1866 September 13
    • 1865 December 20
    Kearny, Philip, 1815-1862.
    • 1862 May 12
    Kirk, Newton T.
    • 1864 May 10
    • 1864 August 30
    Knoxville Campaign, 1863.
    • 1863 September 29
    • 1863 October 18
    • 1863 October 18
    Letters.
    • 1861 December 19
    Letters--Psychological aspects.
    • 1861 December 25-26
    Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865.
    • 1861 July 25
    • 1861 November 24
    • 1864 May 3
    Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Assassination.
    • 1865 April 23
    • 1865 June 26
    Louisville Journal (Newspaper)
    • 1863 April 26
    Lowe, Thaddeus, 1832-1913.
    • 1861 September 8
    Macomber, Dexter.
    • n.d.
    Marches--Kentucky.
    • 1863 June 1-21
    Marches--Virginia.
    • 1862 April 7
    Married people.
    • 1862 October 24
    Martial law--Maryland--Baltimore.
    • [1861 June]
    Maryland--Description and travel.
    • [1861 June]
    • 1863 April 18
    McClellan, George Brinton, 1826-1885.
    • 1861 September 21-23
    • 1861 September 24-29
    • 1861 November 18-24
    • 1861 November 24
    • 1861 December 14
    • 1862 April 7
    • 1862 April 16
    • 1862 April 18
    • 1862 April 21
    • 1862 April 21
    • 1862 April 25
    • 1862 May 4
    • 1862 May 12
    • 1862 May 16
    • 1862 June 5
    • 1862 November 29
    • [1862?] May 28
    • 1864 October 24
    • n.d.
    McDowell, Irvin, 1818-1885.
    • 1861 September 30-October 6
    Measles.
    • 1862 February 11
    • 1862 February 24
    Methodists.
    • 1865 December 20
    Mexicans.
    • [1865] September 24
    Military discipline.
    • 1861 October 6
    Mississippi River--Description and travel.
    • 1863 June 1-21
    Monitor (Ironclad)
    • 1862 March 22
    Morale.
    • 1861 September 3
    • 1862 May 4
    • 1862 July 6
    Mothers and sons.
    • 1861 September 28
    Mount Vernon (Va.: Estate)--Description.
    • 1861 December 13-16
    • 1862 January 12
    Mulligan, James Albert, 1830-1864.
    • 1861 September 3
    Munsons' Hill (Va.)
    • 1861 September 28
    • 1861 November 18-24
    Munson's Hill (Va.)--Description.
    • 1861 September 2
    Murder.
    • 1861 August 30
    Nelson, William, 1823-1862.
    • 1863 August 21
    Neustrelitz (Germany)
    • 1877 September 16
    • 1877 October 20
    • 1879 March 31
    • 1879 September 25
    • 1880 February 12
    • Undated
    Newspapers.
    • 1863 April 26
    • 1863 May 10
    Ohio--Description and travel.
    • [1861 June]
    Pain.
    • 1863 February 1
    Parks--District of Columbia.
    • [1861 June]
    Peace.
    • 1861 October 27-November 3
    Peninsular Campaign, 1862.
    • 1862 April 16
    • 1862 April 18
    • 1862 June 13
    Pennsylvania--Description and travel.
    • [1861 June]
    Pensions, Military--Civil War, 1861-1865.
    • 1864 May 5
    • 1864 July 25
    Photographers.
    • 1862 March 4
    Picket duty.
    • 1861 September 4
    • 1861 September 8-10
    • 1861 September 14
    • 1861 November 10
    • 1861 November 29-December 5
    • 1861 November 30-December 1
    • 1863 January 6
    Pillage.
    • 1861 July 28
    Pillage--Virginia.
    • n.d.
    Poe, Orlando Metcalfe, 1832-1895.
    • 1861 December 23-24
    • 1862 November 23
    • 1863 February 26
    • 1863 April 11
    • 1863 May 27
    Poetry.
    • [1862 June 7]
    Pohick Church (Va.), Skirmish at, 1862.
    • 1862 January 5
    Politicians.
    • 1863 January 6
    Porter, Fitz-John, 1822-1901.
    • 1862 June 26
    Potatoes.
    • 1861 August 11
    Presbyterians.
    • 1865 December 20
    Presidents--Election--1864.
    • 1864 December 26
    Presidents--United States--Election--1864.
    • 1864 November 16
    Price, Sterling, 1809-1867.
    • 1861 September 3
    Prisoners of War--Confederate States of America.
    • 1862 April 28
    • 1862 May 12
    • 1862 May 14
    Psalms.
    • 1856
    Punishment.
    • 1862 November 20
    Real property--Iowa.
    • n.d. [1872?]
    Real Property--Nebraska.
    • n.d. [1872?]
    Reinterrment.
    • 1863 April 26
    Religion.
    • 1863 October 28
    Reporters and reporting.
    • 1861 July 28
    • 1861 July 30
    Richardson, Israel Bush, 1815-1862.
    • [1861 August]
    • 1861 October 6
    • 1861 December 23-24
    • n.d.
    Richmond (Va.)--Capture, 1865.
    • 1865 April 23
    Road building.
    • 1862 April 21
    Rumors.
    • 1862 March 13
    Sabotage.
    • 1861 June 12
    • 1861 July 28
    Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906.
    • 1864 February 13
    Sermons.
    • n.d.
    Seven Days Battles, 1862.
    • 1862 June 26
    • 1862 July 4
    • 1862 July 6
    Sharpshooters.
    • 1863 September 9
    Sheep.
    • 1862 October 24
    • 1862 October 30
    Skirmishes.
    • 1862 December 12
    Slang.
    • 1863 January 14
    Slaughtering.
    • 1862 November 8
    • 1862 November 20
    Slavery.
    • 1862 February 18
    • 1862 March 15-16
    • 1865 April 1
    Slavery--Emancipation.
    • 1862 February 18
    Slavery--Louisiana.
    • 1863 June 27
    Slaves.
    • 1861 August 11
    Smallpox.
    • 1862 February 8
    • 1863 April 15
    • 1864 April 11
    Soldiers' bodies, Disposition of.
    • 1863 December 18
    Soldiers--Alcohol.
    • 1861 December 17-22
    • 1861 December 25
    • 1863 June 1-21
    Soldiers--Attitudes.
    • 1861 December 23-24
    • 1862 January 16
    Soldiers--Confederate States of America.
    • [1861 August]
    • 1861 September 3
    • 1861 September 4
    • 1862 May 12
    • 1862 May 14
    • 1862 June 26
    • 1862 July 21
    • 1862 November 23
    • 1863 January 6
    • 1863 May 1
    Soldiers--Death.
    • [1861 August]
    • 1862 April 7
    • 1862 April 25
    • 1863 February 1
    • 1863 December 18
    Soldiers--Education.
    • 1861 December 28
    Soldiers--Michigan.
    • 1862 June 13
    Soldiers--Relations.
    • 1861 November 10
    Soldiers--Religious life.
    • 1861 August 6
    • 1861 August 16
    • 1861 October 5
    • 1861 October 11
    • 1861 October 13
    • 1861 November 9
    • 1861 December 25-26
    • 1862 March 13
    • 1862 April 2
    • 1862 April 16
    • 1862 September 27
    • 1862 October 22
    • 1862 December 31
    • 1863 January 18
    • n.d.
    Sons--Death.
    • 1864 May 10
    • 1864 August 30
    • n.d.
    Spelling--Poetry.
    • n.d.
    Spies.
    • 1861 July 25
    State Teachers' Institute (Brighton, Mich.)
    • 1863 April 26
    Stealing.
    • 1861 December 25-26
    • 1862 June 5
    • 1863 January 14
    • n.d.
    Steam batteries.
    • 1863 February 16
    Storms--Virginia.
    • 1861 November 3
    Strategy.
    • [1862?] May 28
    • n.d.
    Talon, John.
    • n.d.
    Temperance.
    • 1861 August 20
    Tents.
    • 1861 November 3
    Terry, Henry Dwight, 1812-1869.
    • 1862 February 15
    • 1862 April 1
    Texas--Description and travel.
    • [1865] September 24
    Thanksgiving Day.
    • 1861 November 25-29
    Tobacco.
    • n.d.
    Tonsilectomy.
    • 1861 October 22-27
    • 1861 October 25
    Typhus Fever.
    • 1866 September 13
    Uniforms.
    • [1861 October]
    United States. Army--Bands.
    • 1861 December 17-22
    • 1862 January 17
    United States. Army--Barracks and quarters.
    • 1863 November 10
    United States. Army--Chaplains.
    • 1861 December 25-26
    United States. Army--Corrupt practices.
    • 1862 February 24
    United States. Army--Enlistment.
    • 1861 September 28
    United States. Army--Michigan Infantry Regiment, 15th.
    • 1864 May 25
    United States. Army--Michigan Infantry Regiment, 5th--Uniforms.
    • 1861 December 13-16
    United States. Army--Michigan troops--Relations.
    • 1862 January 17
    • 1862 February 11
    • 1862 February 11
    United States. Army--Military life.
    • 1861 July 28
    • 1861 December 25-26
    • 1861 December 28
    • 1862 August 5
    United States. Army--New York Infantry Regiment, 37th.
    • 1861 August 23
    United States. Army--Officers.
    • 1861 August 6
    • 1861 September 3
    • 1861 September 9
    • 1862 February 11
    • 1862 February 15
    • 1862 June 13
    • 1863 July 26
    • 1863 August 31
    United States. Army--Officers quarters.
    • 1862 November 4
    United States. Army--Promotions.
    • 1863 May 23
    United States. Army--Regiments--Relations.
    • 1863 March 13
    United States. Army--Supplies and stores.
    • 1861 July 5, 10
    • 1861 July 31
    • 1861 September 3
    • 1861 September 8
    • [1861 October]
    United States. Army--Uniforms.
    • 1862 February 2
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
    • 1862 February 18
    • 1864 April 20
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--African-Americans.
    • 1861 September 3
    • 1862 February 20
    • 1862 April 17
    • 1863 June 16
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Casualties (Statistics, etc.)
    • 1862 July 4
    • [1862 December?]
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Communications.
    • 1861 August 27
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Desertions.
    • 1865 April 1
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Health aspects.
    • 1862 February 8
    • 1862 February 11
    • 1863 July 26
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Hospitals.
    • 1861 November 24
    • 1862 September 16
    • 1862 September 23
    • 1862 December 31
    • 1863 January 13
    • 1863 May 1
    • 1863 September 5
    • 1863 December 19
    • [1866?] November 2
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Medical care.
    • 1861 October 21
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Participation, Afro-American.
    • 1863 June 16
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Participation, German-American.
    • 1861 November 24
    • 1861 December 14
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Participation, Juvenile.
    • 1862 April 2
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Prisoners and prisons.
    • 1864 May 25
    • 1865 April 1
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Reconnaisance operations.
    • n.d.
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Refugees.
    • 1861 August 27
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Scouts and scouting.
    • 1861 August 26
    • 1861 August 29
    • 1862 February 19
    • 1862 March 4
    • 1862 June 21
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Songs and music.
    • 1863 October 18
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--War work.
    • 1863 April 15
    • 1863 November 27
    • 1864 December 26
    • 1865 January
    • 1865 June 26
    • 1865 January 28
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Women.
    • 1861 August 2, 3
    • 1863 April 15
    • 1863 September 5
    • 1864 April 4
    • 1864 May 10
    • 1864 August 30
    • 1864 October 24
    • 1864 December 26
    • 1865 January
    • 1865 June 26
    • 1865 January 28
    • 1866 September 13
    • 1865 December 20
    • [1866?] November 2
    Untied States. Army--Military life.
    • 1861 December 8
    Vicksburg Campaign, 1863.
    • 1863 June 1-21
    • 1863 June 16
    • 1863 June 27
    Vidette.
    • 1863 April 26
    Virginia.
    • 1862 February 20
    Virginia--Description and travel.
    • 1862 May 20
    • 1862 November 4
    War.
    • 1861 December 23-24
    • 1862 May 16
    • 1862 August 5
    • 1863 February 1
    War crimes.
    • 1861 August 2, 3
    • [1862 June?]
    War damage.
    • 1861 September 8
    War wounds.
    • 1862 May 14
    • 1862 May 30
    • 1862 December 31
    • 1862 December 31
    • 1863 January 13
    • 1863 January 14
    • 1863 January 26
    • 1864 February 13
    War--Poetry.
    • n.d.
    Warships.
    • 1862 March 22
    Washington (D.C)
    • 1861 July 5, 10
    Weekly, John.
    • 1862 December 1
    Wells, George.
    • [1862 June 7]
    Wheelock, Julia Susan, b. 1833.
    • 1863 April 18
    • 1864 April 20
    • 1864 October 24
    • 1865 April 23
    Wilderness, Battle of, 1864.
    • 1864 May 25
    Williamsburg, Battle of, 1862.
    • 1862 May 7
    • 1862 May 12
    • 1863 May 5
    Williamsburg (Va.)
    • 1862 May 14
    Williamsburg (Va.) Battlefield.
    • 1862 May 12
    Wine--Prices.
    • n.d.
    Wise, Henry Alexander, 1806-1876.
    • 1862 March 17
    Woll, Chester.
    • n.d.
    Woll, Martin.
    • 1863 January 13
    Woll, Mary.
    • n.d.
    Women--Michigan.
    • 1862 February 1
    Women--Virginia.
    • 1862 February 1
    Wool, John E., 1784-1869.
    • 1862 March 17
    • 1862 March 22
    Yorktown (Va.)--History--Siege, 1862.
    • 1862 April 21
    • 1862 April 21
    • 1862 April 23
    • 1862 April 25
    • 1862 April 27
    • 1862 May 4
    • 1862 May 4