Manuscripts Division
William L. Clements Library
University of Michigan

Finding aid for
Aplin Family Papers, 1859-1960

James S. Schoff Civil War Collection

Finding aid created by
Susan Swasta, March 1995

Summary Information
Title: Aplin family papers
Creator: Aplin family
Inclusive dates: 1859-1960
Bulk dates: 1862-1865
Extent: 270 items (1 linear foot)
Abstract:
The Aplin family papers consists mostly of letters to and from the three Aplin sons during their service in the Civil War.

Language: The material is in English
Repository: William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Phone: 734-764-2347
Web Site: www.clements.umich.edu


Access and Use
Acquisition Information:

Donated 1987. M-2380.

Access Restrictions:

The collection is open for research.

Copyright:

Copyright status is unknown.

Preferred Citation:

Aplin family papers, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan


Biography

The three sons of the Aplin family of Genessee County, Michigan all volunteered for service in the Civil War and remained in the army until death or war's end. Apparently the Aplin family circle offered little in the way of warmth or security, and in fact teen-aged Arthur, or "Tommy," had run away from home to escape the unhappy situation there. Writing to his sister Sarah in 1859, Tommy denies running away, but says that in any case "I do not think I done wrong for it was not Home..." The collection reveals nothing of family life, but the parents separated a few years later, and mother Elvira Aplin never made reference to her husband or his family without bitterness and criticism. To the Aplin boys, joining the army probably seemed like an improvement on their present lot. But they were not to have an easy time of it there, either.

Henry, known as Tip, served with the Army of the Potomac in Fitz John Porter's 1st division. The 16th Michigan started its service with the ill-fated Peninsula campaign, then fought at second Bull Run in August, 1862, taking heavy casualties at Gaines Mills, Malvern Hill, and Bull Run. In the Maryland campaign the regiment supported the line of artillery at Antietam and afterward participated in the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Middleburg, and Gettysburg, coming out of the fight for Little Round Top with 55 killed or wounded. Moving back into Virginia, the regiment saw action at Kelly's Ford and Mine Run and then, reforming after reenlistment and furlough, rejoined the same brigade, division, and corps of the Army of the Potomac. It remained in Virginia for the rest of the war, participating in various engagements and in the siege of Petersburg, and was mustered out in July 1865.

Henry Aplin was captured at Savage Station, Va. on July 30, 1862, but spent only a couple of weeks in a Richmond prison before parole to Annapolis. His exchange took some months, so Tip profited from the enforced free time by running a small-scale sutler's business. Meanwhile, his company sustained heavy losses, and by the time he returned in late 1862 only 27 of the original 96 remained. Now assigned to the Quartermaster's department, Henry Aplin continued to sell goods on the side up until being made a sergeant in the spring of 1865, at which point he decided that speculating was unbecoming an officer. Although he was never wounded, and managed to endure his short prison stint well because he had money to buy extra food, Tip did suffer a seriously debilitating case of diarrhea in the summer of 1864. He was able to recover thanks to a cousin who took pains to get him proper food and understanding officers who relieved him of duty so that he could regain strength.

After the war Henry Aplin married and ran a news and stationery business in West Bay City, Michigan and, becoming a leading Michigan Republican, served in a number of local, state, and national political offices. He was, at various times, postmaster of West Bay City, township clerk and treasurer, chairman of the 10th district Republican Congressional Committee, state auditor general, state representative, and Congressman. He had been elected to fill a vacancy in 1901, but was not re-nominated for Congress.

George Aplin had been a schoolteacher before the war, and also owned some land and livestock which he hastily left in the care of his uncle upon joining the army. His 10th Michigan regiment served with the western Army; ranging from Tennessee to Georgia, Alabama, and the Carolinas. It was first assigned to General Pope's division, taking part in the siege of Corinth and then acting as provost guard at Tuscumbia, Alabama. Marching to Nashville in September 1862, the 10th was assigned to the Army of the Cumberland and spent the winter guarding trains and doing reconnaissance. In the fall of 1863 the regiment moved into Georgia to occupy towns around Chickamauga, and in February 1864 took part in fighting at Buzzard's Roost, near Dalton, Ga. After a furlough the men returned to Chattanooga to begin the Georgia campaign with General Sherman's Army. The 10th disbanded on August 1, 1865.

George Aplin covered a lot of ground in hard marches, but did not take part in the kind of grueling, bloody campaigns experienced by Tip in the Army of the Potomac. Like his brother, he did some minor speculating in goods acquired from home, but George's real amateur avocation was journalism -- he wrote long letters to the Flint Citizen, whose editor praised his detailed accounts of army life. He also had the time and energy for minor romantic pursuits during his extended stay in Nashville, and considered settling there after the war. Other than bouts of ague and bowel complaints, George Aplin weathered military service well, and attained the rank of first lieutenant shortly before his regiment disbanded. Afterward he returned home, married, and unsuccessfully tried his hand at farming. Debts forced foreclosure on his property and, in poverty, he managed to get a political patronage appointment through the influence of his brother Tip. He tried, evidently unsuccessfully, to collect on military service claims. Until the end of his life George Aplin faithfully attended 10th Regiment reunions and kept in touch with fellow veterans.

Youngest brother Arthur [Tommy] Aplin enlisted after running away from home. His 35th Illinois infantry regiment, part of the Army of the Cumberland, saw action at Pea Ridge, then remained mostly in Tennessee, with forays into Mississippi and Kentucky. In late 1862 and early 1863 it participated in the fighting at Perryville, Kentucky. and Stone's River, Tennessee Tommy was wounded at Pea Ridge, suffered complications from ague and recovered slowly. For his bold participation in raids and skirmishes in the vicinity of Murfeesboro, Tennessee he was cited for bravery and made corporal in the spring of 1863, but by May, for unknown reasons, had been demoted to private. Part of the 35th regiment was placed on guard duty at Lunette Thomas, a convalescent camp near Murfeesboro, in July 1863. Tommy soon tired of this "easy duty" and petitioned to rejoin his comrades at the front, but was not permitted to do so until March of 1864. Shortly thereafter he was wounded, and in July died in a military hospital after being moved several times and developing complications.

Tommy was the temperamental, rebellious Aplin brother, and he accused his mother and relatives at home of criticizing and abandoning him. At one point he vowed never to return to Michigan. After he died his mother was overcome by guilt to learn that her son had had no money to acquire things he needed while in the hospital, and blamed herself for his death. She became obsessed with having the body returned home, which evidently was accomplished, as the collection includes a receipt for his zinc coffin.

At home, mother Elvira Aplin shifted for herself with the help of money sent home by her sons, especially Tip, whose sutler's business prospered. In July 1863 she left her home and husband, taking "only my clothes and bed" and began living with various relatives. During this period she tried to look out for George's business affairs, but as he had given her no legal power to do so, she could mostly only report on how things were being mismanaged by his Uncle Wilson. Elvira frequently sent packages of foods, medicine, and stationery to her sons, both for their own use and for Tip and George to resell. She wrote to all of them (although only the letters to George survive), passing on information from one to the other, giving news of home, offering commentary on the war as she heard about it from them and from the newspapers, advising them on conduct and morality. After the war she made her home with George and his family.

A daughter, Sarah Louisa Aplin, supported herself meagerly as a schoolteacher during the war, and like her mother, awaited her brothers' return in hopes of having a settled home once again. Another daughter, Mary, also called Helen, was married to George Wheeler and lived in Bay City, Michigan. The Wheelers took in Elvira Aplin for extended periods after her separation from her husband.


Collection Scope and Content Note

The Aplin papers are most valuable not as a record of military service, for the news of battle and camp is meager and often second-hand, but as an expression of life on the home front, largely from a woman's point of view. Most of the letters (78) are from mother Elvira Aplin to son George. They are lengthy, colorful, and highly opinionated statements of her views on southerners, Copperheads, Union officers, the economic and political scene at home, the draft, war strategy, religion, and -- above all -- the behavior of her sons. On June 11, 1863 she writes, "I feel as tho I could bear any other trouble better than to hear my children have lost their good names," and admonishes George that "[y]our patriotism is all right, but you are apt to be a little tardy, and do not always render that obedience to superior officers that your oath requires." Of his journalistic efforts, she remarked that it was not proper to write "how many die there every week, and how the dead are buried after battle. I don't doubt the both of them, but it does no good to tell it, and it makes the friends of the sick and of those who die in battle feel very bad to read such accounts, while they cannot do anything to make it better." (1863 March 16) Elvira found fault with Tommy and George for not saving any of their money, as Tip did, and provoked her youngest son's fiery temper with such criticism.

Mrs. Aplin's disapproval focused on larger targets as well; as the war dragged on, she lost all patience with Union officers and developed a simmering hatred of Confederate leaders and sympathizers. A letter of March 28, 1865 tells of her fervent wish to hear that "the officers of the Southern empire army and navy have been suspended from the trees. Hunt the gurillas like wolves till the land is rid of them. Then I want the soldiers to come home and punish the northern Copperheads till they will never dare to sympathize with the south again." Southern culture also failed to impress; Elvira remarked of a magazine George had sent home "[i]f that is a specimen of southern literature I think almost any of our northern blockheads could write for periodicals in that country. ... They need a little more larnin as bad as I do." Behind Elvira's ornery criticisms lay a deep sadness and unease as she yearned for "this butchering of human beings be done away ... while there is a few left alive." She came to see herself and Sarah as perpetual wanderers who would "spend the rest of our lives alone, in this dreary world alone, without home or friend."

14 letters from Sarah Aplin to George also offer commentary on the home front, but are less detailed and expressive. School-teacher Sarah was clearly of milder temperament than her mother, but did indulge in good-natured teasing about her brother's southern girlfriends. Two brief comments in letters of her mother and of friend Ellen Johnson refer to Sarah being left a "grass widder." Since there are no references to a child being born, presumably this means she had been spurned by a suitor -- another of the many trials she and Elvira had to bear during these years.

Sister Helen [Aplin] Wheeler's 7 letters to George offer a contrast to Sarah's articulate and grammatical writing, revealing her prejudices and lack of education. Expressing the opinion that blacks are better off enslaved, she asks whether her brother went to war "to liberate them paltry slaves or for the constitution..." Helen teasingly requests that he send her "some collard girl that knows how to work," carefully noting that she prefers "a darkey girl ... that was quite good looking not one of the real black ones..." (1863 February 9, March 16)

An interesting subset of correspondence consists of 20 letters to George from Ellen Johnson, whom he later married. Some of the letters feature coy references to their courtship, while others remark on more substantive matters. "There is to be another draft and I hope they will take all the cowards and runaways that is in the country. And those that have gone to Canada have got to be branded so that we will know them in after days if they ever return," she writes on February 15, 1863. As the war drags on Ellen bitterly remarks that "some of our nigger loving friends say that the war will be ended in two months. I don't see what reason they have for thinking so." (1863 March 23)

23 letters to George and Sarah from brothers Tip and Tommy include some information on their war experiences and attitudes. Tommy's letters are particularly revealing, as he expresses resentment of his mother's criticisms, chafes with impatience to get back in the fighting, boasts that he does not fear death and has had a premonition of dying, and shows his disregard for military rules and regulations. On August 1, 1862 he writes of his dislike for guard duty: "I tell you this kind of guarding goes against the grain with me & when I am guarding a secesh orchard or cornfield I never see anything that is a going on if I can help it I never see any of the boys till they get their haversacks full & they always outrun me I never catched one yet..."

The collection contains just 8 wartime letters by George Aplin, who shows his journalistic bent in a long July 5, 1862 missive to "James" which chronicles his regiment's journey south and initial war experiences around Corinth, Mississippi, including colorful opinions on the people, houses, and landscape. One of 4 letters from George to Sarah Aplin includes a description and pencil sketch of Iuka, Mississippi, a watering place with mineral springs. (1862 July 27)

Although the bulk of the Aplin Family Papers date from the Civil War years, there is enough post-war material to round out the family saga. Tip fared reasonably well in business and politics, while George struggled. Elvira had a home once more, with George's family, but must have shared in the hardships. Post-war correspondence with lawyers, creditors, the War Dept., and Tip offers a sad picture of George's financial difficulties and failures, as he lost his farm and had to rely on his brother for money and help in getting work. His war experience was to be the highlight of George Aplin's life. The collection includes a photograph of him in military uniform at the age of 77, reliving past glories.

Subject Terms

    Subjects:
    • Bay City (Mich)
    • Copperhead movement.
    • Draft--Michigan.
    • Morale.
    • Real property--Michigan.
    • Soldiers--Conduct of life.
    • Sutlers.
    • United States. Army. Illinois Infantry Regiment, 36th (1861-1865)
    • United States. Army. Michigan Infantry Regiment, 10th (1861-1865)
    • United States. Army. Michigan Infantry Regiment, 16th (1861-1865)
    • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
    • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Veterans.
    Contributors:
    • Aplin, Ellen Johnson.
    • Aplin, Elvira.
    • Aplin, George, 1838-1923.
    • Aplin, Henry Harrison.
    • Aplin, Sarah.
    • Aplin, Thomas Author, d. 1864.
    • Wheeler, Helen.
    Contents List
       Container / Location    Title
     
    Aplin family papers,  1859 December 20–1960 August 9 [series]:
    Box   61, Schoff Civil War Soldiers' Letters  
     1859-1863
    Box   62  
     1863-1864
    Box   63  
     1864-1865
    Box   64  
     1866-1960
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Bibliography

    Biographical Directory of the American Congress (Washington, D.C., 1928)

    Record of Service of Michigan Volunteers in the Civil War, 1861-1865 . Vol. 10 (Lansing, 1905)

    Robertson, John. Michigan in the War, 1861-1865 (Lansing, 1882)

    Partial Subject Index
    Abolitionists
    • 1865 January 2
    Absence without leave
    • 1862 June 17
    Adjustment (Psychology)
    • 1865 August 22
    • 1865 August 27
    African-American soldiers
    • 1863 March 16
    African-Americans
    • 1863 March 23
    • 1863 June 21
    Agriculture--Alabama
    • 1862 July 27
    • 1862 July 5, 23
    Agriculture--Illinois
    • 1861 June 17
    Agriculture--Michigan
    • 1863 August 27
    • 1863 November 8
    • 1863 December 3
    Agriculture--Mississippi
    • 1862 July 27
    • 1862 July 5, 23
    Alcohol
    • 1864 May 1
    American Tract Society
    • 1865 May 7
    • 1861
    Apprentices--Michigan
    • 1859? December 20
    Architecture, Domestic-- Alabama, Mississippi
    • 1862 July 27
    Armistices--North Carolina
    • 1865 May 1
    Atlanta Campaign, 1864
    • 1864 July 20
    Bags
    • 1862 December 28
    Banks and banking
    • 1863 March 16
    Bay City (Mich)--Economic conditions
    • 1865 May 1
    Belle Isle (Va.) Military Prison
    • 1863 December 31
    Bereavement
    • 1864 August 14, 30
    • 1864 August 30
    • 1873 November 4
    Bible
    • 1862 May 18
    • 1863 January 7-10
    Bounties, Military
    • 1863 May 21
    • 1863 September 20
    • 1864 January 10
    • 1866 July 5
    • 1866 July 20
    • 1888
    Bridges--Design and construction
    • 1864 March 8
    Brothers
    • 1862 June 17
    • 1882 December 12
    Brothers and sisters
    • 1865 June 8
    Camps (Military)
    • 1863 April 27
    Camps (Military)--Missouri
    • 1862 January 3
    Camps (Military)--Tennessee
    • 1863 February 4
    Camps (Military)--Virginia
    • 1862 May
    • 1864 March 13
    Canada--Economic conditions
    • 1863 March 16
    Cemeteries--Michigan
    • 1878 March, June, July
    • 1890 April 27
    • 1890 June 14
    • 1902 October 24
    Charity
    • 1863 April 1
    • 1864 August 24
    Chattanooga Campaign, 1863
    • 1863 October 21
    • 1863 October 26
    Chickamauga, Battle of, 1863
    • 1864 February 14
    Children--Death
    • 1863 February 5
    • 1873 November 4
    Childrens' letters
    • 1864 November 13
    • 1864 October 9
    Cholera
    • 1862 June 22
    Christmas
    • 1864 January 1
    Civilians-- Mississippi--Civil War, 1861-1865
    • 1862 July 5
    Civilians--St. Louis (Mo.)--Civil War, 1861-1865
    • 1862 July 5
    Civilians--Virginia--Civil War, 1861-1865
    • 1863 August 21
    Coffins
    • 1865 November 13
    Confederate States of America. Army--Cavalry
    • 1863 March 26
    Confederate States of America. Army--Equipment and supplies
    • 1862 March 15
    Congress--Petitory actions
    • 1888
    Conspiracies--Ohio
    • 1864 September 26
    Contracts
    • 1878 June 26
    • 1878 July 4
    Copperhead (Nickname)
    • 1863 April 27
    • 1864 October 15
    • 1864 December 4
    • 1865 March 28
    • 1865 April 18
    Copperhead (Nickname)--Michigan
    • 1862 September 15
    • 1863 April 13
    • 1863 August 21
    • 1864 August 14
    • 1864 September 26
    Corinth Campaign, 1862
    • 1862 July 5
    Cotton
    • 1863 March 16
    Courage
    • 1862 January 18
    • 1863 March 23
    • 1864 February 15
    Courtship
    • 1862 June 17
    • 1862 July 30
    • 1863 May 9
    • 1863 September 4
    • 1864 February 14
    • 1865 May 23
    • 1865 June 8
    • 1865 June 23
    • 1865 July 16
    Courtship--Poetry
    • 1862 August 19
    Criticism, Personal
    • 1862 September 20
    Cruelty
    • 1864 February 14
    Dance parties
    • 1864 March 13
    Davis, Jefferson, 1808-1889--Poetry
    • 1862 September 28
    Death
    • 1864 April 28
    Debt
    • 1876 October 24
    • 1877 April 6
    Deeds--Michigan
    • 1866 December 12
    • 1871 March 30
    Democratic Party--Michigan
    • 1885 January 15
    Deserters, Military
    • 1863 March 16
    • 1863 March 15
    • 1864 May 1
    • 1863 May 21
    • 1864 May 29
    • 1864 June 7
    • 1865 March 28
    Diarrhea
    • 1862 May 25
    • 1862 January 18
    • 1864 October 22
    • 1864 November 11
    • 1864 November 13
    • 1864 October
    Diseases
    • 1863 February 4
    Draft resisters--Michigan
    • 1864 July 29
    • 1864 August 14
    • 1865 January 14
    Draft--Exemption--Michigan
    • 1863 November 22
    Draft--Michigan
    • 1862 July 30
    • 1862 August 19
    • 1862 October 12
    • 1862 December
    • 1863 February 12
    • 1863 March 15
    • 1863 June 11
    • 1863 October 19
    • 1863 November 8, 22
    • 1864 August 14
    • 1864 October 9
    • 1864 November 20
    • 1865 January 18
    • 1865 March 28
    Dreams
    • 1864 April 28
    Drill and minor tactics
    • 1864 April 28
    Drought
    • 1864 June 26
    • 1864 July 28
    Elections--Michigan--Genessee County
    • 1885 January 15
    Emancipation Proclamation
    • 1863 February 5
    Employment--Michigan
    • 1865 May 1
    Enemy--Relations
    • 1862 July 5
    Estates (Law)
    • 1863 March 23
    • 1864 October 22
    • 1865 February 9
    • 1865 March 9
    • 1865 June 10
    • 1865 July 3
    Executions and executioners
    • 1863 May 21
    Explosions--Virginia
    • 1864 August 14
    Fairs--Michigan
    • 1864 October 9
    Family
    • 1863 October 21
    • 1863 December 7
    • 1865 July 16
    • 1882 November 27
    • 1960 August 9
    Farming--Michigan
    • 1862 May 25
    Farms--Illinois
    • 1861 June 17
    Fast days
    • 1865 April 18
    Fathers--Death
    • 1864 September 26
    Fever
    • 1860 January 30
    • 1863 March 23
    Finance, Personal
    • 1862 July 10, 14, 23
    • 1882 November 27
    • 1882 December 12
    Flint Citizen
    • 1862 September 20
    • 1863 May 21
    • 1865 January 26
    Food
    • 1862 April 18
    • 1862 July 22
    • 1862 May
    Foraging--Mississippi
    • 1862 July 5
    Foraging--Virginia
    • 1863 August 21
    Foreclosure--Michigan
    • 1876 January 25
    • 1876 January 28
    • 1876 February 3
    • 1876 March 25
    • 1876 April 14
    • 1877 April 6
    • 1877 April 23
    • 1877 May 19
    Foreign public opinion
    • 1865 January 9
    Fourth of July celebrations--Michigan
    • 1862 July 10
    • 1862 July 23
    Franklin and Nashville Campaign, 1864
    • 1864 October 15, 22
    Fredericksburg, Battle of, 1862
    • 1862 December
    Friendship
    • 1865 August 22
    Funeral rites and ceremonies
    • 1864 November 13, 20
    Georgia--Climate
    • 1865 January 2
    Greenbacks
    • 1863 February 26
    • 1863 April 13
    Guard duty--Mississippi
    • 1862 August 1
    Guerrillas--Alabama
    • 1862 July 27
    Guerrillas--Mississippi
    • 1862 July 27
    Guerrillas--Virginia
    • 1864 March 13
    • 1865 January 9
    Health resorts, watering-places, etc.--Mississippi
    • 1862 July 27
    Homeless women
    • 1863 July 26
    • 1863 October 11
    • 1864 August 30
    Homesickness
    • 1859? December 20
    Hospitals, Convalescent
    • 1862 October 2
    Hospitals, Convalescent--Tennessee--Murfeesboro
    • 1863 July 11
    • 1863 August 31
    • 1863 September 8
    • 1864 January 12
    • 1863 June 30
    Indians of North America--Michigan
    • 1862 September 10
    Inflation (Finance)
    • 1863 February 26
    • 1863 March 16
    • 1878 May 9
    Insubordination
    • 1864 May 1, 29
    • 1864 June 7
    Invective
    • 1876 January 28
    • 1876 February 3
    Iuka (Miss.)-- Description
    • 1862 July 27
    Iuka (Miss.)--Drawings
    • 1862 July 27
    Jewelry
    • 1864 February 14
    Johnsons Island (Ohio) Military Prison
    • 1864 September 26
    Journalism
    • 1862 September 20
    • 1863 April 1
    Journalism-- Confederate States of America
    • 1862 July 10
    Kelly's Ford, (Va.), Battle of, 1863
    • 1863 December 7
    Ladies Aid Society (Flint, Mich.)
    • 1863 February 1
    • 1863 March 16
    Lawyers--Michigan
    • 1876 January 28
    • 1876 February 3
    Letters
    • 1862 May 6, 18
    • 1960 August 9
    Letter-writing
    • 1863 December
    Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865-- Assassination
    • 1865 April 18, 23
    Loyalty
    • 1863 August 31
    • 1864 December 4
    Lunette Thomas (Tenn.)
    • 1863 July 11
    • 1863 August 31
    • 1863 September 8
    • 1864 January 12
    Malaria
    • 1862 May 25
    • 1863 January 7-10
    Manuscript maps--Mississippi
    • 1862 August 22
    Maps--Michigan
    • 1889 April 26
    Marches--Alabama
    • 1862 July 27
    Marches--Mississippi
    • 1862 July 27
    Marches--Tennessee
    • 1864 April 28
    Marches--Virginia
    • 1862 March 18
    Marching
    • 1864 May 3
    Marriage
    • 1862 July 30
    • 1862 October 12
    • 1863 February 26
    • 1863 March 15
    • 1863 June 11
    • 1863 October 19
    • 1864 July 29
    • 1864 October 15
    • 1864 November 20
    • 1865 January 2
    Medical fees
    • 1860 February 8
    Medicine
    • 1862 September 20
    • 1862 January 18
    Men--Societies and clubs
    • 1860 July 23
    • 1862 August 25
    Michigan
    • 1863 August 21
    • 1865 January 2
    Michigan. Congress. House
    • 1878 May 9
    Michigan--Economic conditions
    • 1863 February 26
    Michigan--History--Civil War, 1861-1865
    • 1881 July 9
    Michigan--Officials and employees
    • 1890 December 26
    Military discharge
    • 1880 March 25
    • 1880 March 23
    • ca. 1887
    • 1865 June 2
    • 1865 July 1
    Monetary policy
    • 1878 May 9
    Money--Confederate States of America
    • ca. 1863
    Morale
    • 1862 October 12
    • 1862 December 11
    • 1862 December 28
    • 1862 January 18
    • 1863 February 1, 4
    • 1863 March 16
    • 1863 April 27
    • 1863 July 26
    • 1864 December 4
    • 1865 March 9
    Mortgages--Michigan
    • 1867 June 22
    Mothers and sons
    • 1863 December 7
    • 1863 December 31
    • 1864 May 29
    • 1864 June 7
    Murfeesboro (Tenn.), Battle 0f, 1862-2863
    • 1862 January 18
    • 1863 February 4, 9
    National Greenback Party
    • 1882 August 29
    • 1884 March 20
    • 1886 April 22
    Nephews
    • 1862 July 13
    New Year
    • 1862 January 3
    Newspapers
    • 1865 January 26
    Order of Good Templars
    • 1862 July 21
    • 1865 February 26
    Packages from home
    • 1862 May 6
    • 1862 June 22
    • 1862 January 18
    • 1864 October
    Parole
    • 1862 August 17
    • 1862 September 10
    • 1862 November 23
    Passports
    • 1865 January 14
    Patriotic covers
    • 1861 December 10
    • 1862 March 18, 26
    • 1862 April 18
    • 1862 July 14, 28
    • 1862 August 19, 25
    • 1863 January 7-10
    • 1863 February 1, 4
    • 1863 March 26
    • 1863 May 9, 30
    Patriotic letterheads
    • 1861 December 10
    • 1862 January 3
    • 1862 March 15
    • 1862 April 18
    • 1862 May 18
    • 1862 July 27
    • 1862 August 1, 22, 25
    • 1863 February 25
    Patriotism
    • 1865 January 26
    • n.d.
    Pea Ridge, Battle of, 1862
    • 1862 March 15, 26
    Peninsular Campaign, 1862
    • 1862 May 18
    • 1862 May 25
    • 1862 June 22
    • 1862 July 10
    Pensions, Military--United States--Civil War, 1861-1865
    • 1884
    • 1888 April 25, 26
    • 1888 September 20
    • 1890 October 20
    Perryville (Ky.), Battle of, 1862
    • 1862 November 23
    Personal property
    • 1864 October 13
    • 1864 October 23
    Petersburg Campaign, 1864-1865
    • 1864 June 26
    • 1864 July 20
    Photography, Panoramic
    • 1863 November 22
    Picket duty
    • 1861 December 10
    • 1862 April 18
    • 1863 March 26
    • 1863 May 30
    Pillage--Michigan
    • 1864 May 1
    Pillage--Mississippi
    • 1862 August 1, 22
    Pillage--Virginia
    • 1865 January 9
    Pittsburg Landing (Tenn.)
    • 1862 May 6
    • 1862 May 18
    Plants--Collection and preservation
    • 1865 February 5
    • 1865 May 23
    Poetry
    • 1862 March 26
    • 1862 July 20
    • 1862 July 28
    • 1863 February
    • 1865 January 9
    • n.d.
    Politicians
    • 1864 October 9
    • 1864 October 22
    Postage stamps
    • ca. 1863
    Poverty--Religious aspects--Christianity
    • 1878 March 20
    Prayer
    • 1865 February 23
    Presidents--United States--Election--1864
    • 1864 July 20
    • 1864 October 9
    • 1864 October 15
    • 1864 October 22
    • 1864 November 20
    Prices--Michigan
    • 1865 April 4
    Prisoners of war
    • 1862 August 1, 17
    • 1863 February 25
    • 1863 December 31
    • 1865 March 28
    Prisoners of War-- Confederate States of America
    • 1864 September 26
    Promissory notes
    • 1867-1900
    Quilts
    • 1862 June 17
    Racism
    • 1863 March 23
    • 1863 June 21
    Raids (Military Science)
    • 1864 December 27
    • 1865 January 9
    Railroads--Destruction
    • 1864 December 27
    Real property--Michigan
    • 1864 January 27
    • 1866 December 12
    • 1871 March 30
    • 1876 January 25, 28
    • 1876 February 3
    • 1876 March 25
    • 1876 April 14, 23
    • 1877 May 19
    • 1883 November 3, 12
    • 1886 March 2
    Receipts
    • 1865-1875
    • 1867 April 17
    Recreation
    • 1864 March 13
    Religion
    • 1862 July 22
    • 1863 April 27
    Republican party--Michigan
    • 1882 April 11
    • 1882 November 16
    • 1882 December 12
    • 1890 December 26
    Reunions
    • 1883 October 2
    • 1883 September 24
    • 1885 August 31
    • 1885 September 7
    • 1887 September 1
    • 1888 August 17
    • 1905 August
    • 1907 September
    Revenge
    • 1864 February 14
    • 1864 August 30
    • 1865 April 18
    • 1865 May 17
    Richmond (Va.)--Capture, 1865
    • 1865 April 4
    Runaway children--Michigan
    • 1859? December 20
    Sabbath
    • 1861
    Salt mines and mining--Michigan
    • 1862 December 11
    Salvation
    • 1863 April 27
    • 1863 October 11
    • 1864 June 26
    • 1864 July 28
    • 1864 August 30
    Santa Claus
    • 1864 January 1
    Savings and thrift
    • 1862 May
    • 1862 June 22
    • 1863 August 27
    • 1863 December
    Scorched-earth policy
    • 1864 December 27
    Seven Days' Battles, 1862
    • 1862 July 10
    • 1862 August 1
    Sexual ethics
    • 1862 December
    Sharpshooters
    • 1862 July 5
    Sherman's March through the Carolinas
    • 1865 February 23
    • 1865 March 9
    Sherman's March to the Sea
    • 1864 December 4, 18, 27
    Sin
    • 1865 January 2
    Skirmishes
    • 1862 April 18
    • 1862 July 5
    • 1863 February 25
    • 1864 March 8
    Slavery--Public opinion
    • 1863 February 5
    Slaves
    • 1862 October 3
    Slaves--Mississippi
    • 1862 July 5
    Smallpox
    • 1863 December 7
    Smoking
    • 1863 January 7-10
    Soldiers
    • 1864 March 13
    • 1864 May 1
    • 1864 October 22
    Soldiers' bodies, Disposition of
    • 1864 August 14
    • 1864 October 22
    • 1864 November 11, 13
    • 1865 January 26
    • 1865 June 8, 11, 15
    Soldiers, convalescent
    • 1864 June 26
    Soldiers--Alcohol use
    • 1865 January 9
    Soldiers--Caricatures and cartoons
    • ca. 1863
    Soldiers--Conduct of life
    • 1862 August 22
    • 1862 September 20
    • 1862 December 11
    • 1863 January 7-10
    • 1863 March 23
    • 1863 April 1, 27
    • 1863 December 3
    • 1864 May 1
    • 1864 October
    • 1864 November 20
    • 1865 February 23
    • 1865 April 4
    • 1865 July 16
    Soldiers--Death
    • 1863 March 16
    • 1864 July 28
    • 1864 August 14, 30
    • 1864 November 11, 13
    • 1865 June 15
    Soldiers--Health and hygiene
    • 1862 May 25
    • 1862 August 17
    • 1862 October 2
    Soldiers--Mental health
    • 1863 October 11
    Soldiers--Photographs
    • 1862 July 28, 30
    • 1863 May 21
    • 1864 February 14
    • 1864 March 8
    • 1865 February 5
    • 1865 September 16, 28
    • 1860's, 1915
    Soldiers--Religious life
    • 1863 January 7-10
    • 1863 May 21
    • 1864 June 26
    • 1864 July 28
    • 1864 August 30
    • 1865 February 23
    • 1865 March 9
    • 1865 May 7
    Soldiers--Transport
    • 1862 July 5
    • 1864 November 11
    Solidarity
    • 1863 December 31
    • 1864 February 15
    Songs
    • n.d.
    Souvenirs (Keepsakes)
    • 1860 February 8
    • 1865 February 5
    • 1865 April 23
    Souvenirs (Keepsakes)--Confederate States of America
    • 1863 November 22
    Spotsylvania Campaign, 1864
    • 1864 May 22
    Steamboat travel--Mississippi River
    • 1862 July 5
    Students newspapers and periodicals
    • 1865 February 5
    Supply trains
    • 1864 October 15
    Sutlers
    • 1862 November 23
    • 1863 January 7-10
    • 1863 February 26
    • 1863 June 11
    • 1864 January 20, 27
    • 1865 March 28
    Taxation
    • 1865 January 2
    Tea
    • 1862 June 22
    Temper
    • 1863 December 31
    Temperance
    • 1863 February 12
    • 1863 April 27
    • 1865 February 26
    • 1865 May 1
    • 1878 March 20
    Temperance--Societies, etc.
    • 1862 July 21
    Toasts
    • 1862 September 28
    Tracts
    • 1865 February 23
    • 1865 March 9
    • 1865 March
    Treason
    • 1862 September 15
    • 1863 October 26
    • 1865 April 18
    • n.d.
    United States. Army-- Enlistment
    • 1862 August 25
    • 1862 September 28
    • 1864 July 20
    United States. Army-- Leaves and furloughs
    • 1862 March 26
    • 1862 September 10
    United States. Army of the Cumberland
    • 1864 June 26
    United States. Army of the Potomac
    • 1863 April 8
    • 1863 May 9
    • 1863 August 27
    • 1864 June 26
    • 1864 December 4
    • 1865 February 23
    United States. Army of the Potomac--Officers
    • 1862 December 11
    United States. Army--Appointments and retirements
    • ca. 1887
    United States. Army--Barracks and quarters
    • 1864 March 13
    United States. Army--Chaplains
    • 1864 June 26
    United States. Army--Enlistment
    • 1860, December 15
    • 1862 August 19
    • 1863 May 21
    • 1864 February 14
    United States. Army--Inspection
    • 1863 April 8
    United States. Army--Leaves and furloughs
    • 1862 May 25
    • 1863 May 9
    • 1864 January 10, 20, 27
    • 1864 February 14
    United States. Army--Musicians
    • 1862 January 3
    United States. Army--Officers
    • 1862 August 17
    • 1862 January 18
    • 1863 May 9
    • 1863 October 26
    • 1863 December 3
    • 1865 February 9
    • 1865 March 28
    • 1865 June 15
    • 1865 July 16
    United States. Army--Pay, allowances, etc.
    • 1865 June 2
    • 1865 July 1
    United States. Army--Promotions
    • 1863 April 14, 27
    • 1863 December 3
    • 1864 May 1
    • 1865 April 4, 28
    • 1865 May 1, 11, 30
    • 1865 June 1, 10
    United States. Army--Quartermasters
    • 1863 February 26
    United States. Army--Reenlistment
    • 1863 September 13
    • 1863 October 11, 21, 26
    • 1863 December 7
    • 1864 January 10
    • 1864 February 10, 14, 15
    • 1864 March 8
    • 1864 May 1
    United States. Congress. House
    • 1888 September 20
    United States. Post Office Dept.--Officials and employees--Selection and appointment
    • 1882 April 11
    United States--Foreign relations--Canada
    • 1865 January 14
    United States--History-- Civil War, 1861-1865--Casualties (Statistics, etc.)
    • 1864 June 26
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Hospitals
    • 1862 March 26
    • 1862 July 25
    • 1862 December 11
    • 1863 April 1
    • 1864 June 26, 28
    • 1864 November 11, 13
    • 1865 February 9
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Medical care
    • 1864 July 28
    • 1864 November 11
    • 1865 February 9
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Peace
    • 1865 February 9
    • 1865 May 7
    • 1865 May 17
    • 1865 July 16
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Veterans
    • 1866 July 5
    • 1883 September 24
    • 1883 October 2
    • 1884 June
    • 1884 October 30
    • 1884
    • 1885 August 31
    • 1885 September 7
    • 1886 April 22
    • 1887 September 1
    • 1888 April 1, 25, 26
    • 1888 August 17, 24
    • 1888 September 20
    • 1888 October 8, 10
    • 1905 July 6
    • 1906 August
    • 1907 September
    Valentines
    • 1863 February
    Veterans, Disabled
    • 1864 July 29
    Veterans--Law and legislation
    • 1884 October 30
    • 1884
    • 1884 June
    Washington (D.C.)
    • 1861 December 10
    Weather--Virginia
    • 1865 January 2
    Wills
    • 1863 March 23
    • 1863 April 1
    • 1863 April 14
    Women
    • 1865 May 1
    Women-- Education
    • 1863 October 19
    Women pen-pals
    • 1862 July 20, 28, 30
    • 1862 September 15
    • 1862 October 12
    • 1862 December 28
    • 1863 February 12
    • 1863 March 15, 23
    • 1863 June 21
    • 1863 September 4
    • 1863 October 19
    • 1864 May 1
    • 1864 June 21, 29
    • 1864 August 14
    • 1864 October 15
    • 1864 November 20
    • 1864 December 18
    • 1865 January 18
    • 1865 February 26
    • 1865 April 23
    • 1865 May 23
    • 1865 June 23
    Women teachers
    • 1862 May 25
    • 1864 February 14
    • 1864 November 13
    • 1865 February 5
    Women--Conduct of life
    • 1863 October 19
    Women--Confederate States of America
    • 1863 February 26
    • 1863 September 20
    • 1865 June 8
    Women--Economic conditions
    • 1862 August 17
    Women--Employment
    • 1864 August 24
    Women--Mississippi
    • 1862 July 5
    Yorktown (Va.)--History--Siege, 1862
    • 1862 April 18
    Zouaves
    • ca. 1863