William L. Clements Library
University of Michigan
Finding aid for
Finding aid created by
Abraham Schenck Orderly Book, 1776-1777
Shannon Wait, January 2011
Abraham Schenck orderly book
Schenck, Abraham, 1720-1790
The Abraham Schenck orderly book contains orders at the brigade, division, regiment, and company level, recorded by Captain Schenck of the Duchess County Minute Man militia for 1776-1777.
The material is in English
William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Web Site: www.clements.umich.edu
Access and Use
The collection is open for research.
Copyright status is unknown
Cataloging funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the "We the People" project.
Abraham Schenck Orderly Book, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan
Abraham Schenck was born August 6, 1720, in Flatbush, Brooklyn, New York. He was the son of Johannes Schenck, a Dutch immigrant who worked as town clerk of Flatbush, and his wife, Maria Lott; like his father, Abraham worked in local government. Around 1740, he married Elsie Vandervoort. After the outbreak of the American Revolution, Schenck enlisted in Colonel Jacobus Swartout's Regiment of Minute Men in Duchess County, New York, primarily recruited from the Fishkill area. Because of his age, he served as a captain in the Associated Exempts. The regiment formed part of General George Clinton's brigade, which was in General William Heath's Division beginning October 15, 1776. Schenck likely saw action at the battles of Long Island, White Plains, and Trenton. He died in Queens County, New York, in 1790.
Collection Scope and Content Note
The Abraham Schenck orderly book contains approximately 100 pages of orders and 15 pages of records, spanning September 26, 1776-January 1777. Though it is written in three different hands, with varying levels of spelling mastery, Schenck seems to have written most of it. The accounts in the back of the book relate primarily to his military-related financial transactions. The book accounts for daily orders, given variously at the brigade, division, regiment, and company level to the Duchess County Minute Man militia. It provides information on the movements and activities of the troops, as well as on the larger logistical and disciplinary problems experienced by the militia early in the war. The records include a company roster and documents concerning supplies and payments received by Schenck.
The orders shed light on many of the disciplinary problems that arose in the employment of a largely untrained force of militia, as well as other, more general issues. An order of October 7, 1776, urges officers to "prevent the Irregular and Promiscus [sic] Placing of huts," while another attempts to crack down on the plundering of "Fields Gardens Hens Roots and Even Beehives" (October 24, 1776), which it calls a "Disgrace." One order, dated October 9, 1776, addresses the proper use of tents, and forbids covering the floors with dirt. Alcohol was also a problem, and an order of October 5, 1776, addresses the problem of sutlers "crouding into" the camp and selling without permission or restraint, by allowing just one appointed supplier. Orders also mandated that scouting parties travel with advanced or flanking parties on all occasions, in order to provide for their "Safty and Sucsess [sic]." The orderly book records a number of courts martial for crimes such as robbery, cursing, desertion, and the plundering.
Orders reference engagements with the enemy and preparations for marching and fighting. On October 20, 1776, eight days before the Battle of White Plains, orders require that soldiers receive "4 Days provisions ready Cook" in order to be ready to march at any time. An entry in the book dated October 27, 1776, encourages the militia to attack mounted British soldiers by hiding behind stone walls and offered cash for "every trooper and his horse and acutriments [sic] which shall be brought in." Although the orders do not directly reference the Battle of White Plains, several entries incidentally praise militia conduct there. An item in the book entitled "Extract of a Letter to the President of the Convention of New York," which is dated December 30, 1776, contains a description of the Battle of Trenton, which states that General Washington "totaly [sic] Routed them About 50 where Left Dead in the Streets 919 taken Prisoners with Trophies." Included is a list of the spoils, some of which were pieces of Brass Cannon, 12 drums, 4 regimental standards, 1200 small arms, 6 wagons, swords, caps, trumpets, clarions, and about 40 horses. The orderly book closes with 15 pages of records pertaining to the militia, including a roster, several provision returns for January 1777, records of ordnance distributed by Schenck, and several documents of financial transactions.
- Dutch Americans.
- Military discipline.
- New York (State)--History--1775-1865.
- New York (State)--History--Revolution, 1775-1783.
- New York (State) Militia.
- Trenton, Battle of, Trenton, N.J., 1776.
- United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783.
- White Plains, Battle of, White Plains, N.Y., 1776.
Additional Descriptive Data
Roberts, James A, and Frederic Gregory Mather. New York In the Revolution As Colony And State. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1996.