Manuscripts Division
William L. Clements Library
University of Michigan

Finding aid for
George Martin Trowbridge Papers, 1863-1865

James S. Schoff Civil War Collection

Finding aid created by
Rob Cox, 1992, and Shannon Wait, 2011

Summary Information
Title: George Martin Trowbridge papers
Creator: Trowbridge, Lesbia, b. 1837
Inclusive dates: 1863-1865
Extent: 238 letters
The George Martin Trowbridge papers contain Trowbridge's description of his military service with the 19th Michigan Infantry during the Civil War, including religious, medical, and social aspects of soldier life.
Language: The material is in English
Repository: William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Phone: 734-764-2347
Web Site:

Access and Use
Acquisition Information:

The Trowbridge papers were donated to the Clements Library in April, 1984, by Dr. Trowbridge's granddaughter, Virginia Trowbridge Thomas. M-2139.

Access Restrictions:

The collection is open for research.


Copyright status is unknown

Processing Information:

Cataloging funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the "We the People" project.

Alternate Format:

The collection has been microfilmed.

Preferred Citation:

George Martin Trowbridge Papers, James S. Schoff Civil War Collection, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan


The letters are arranged chronologically.


George M. Trowbridge was born April 6, 1833, at Houseville, Lewis County, New York, the son of Alanson Trowbridge and Mary ("Polly") Deming. In 1836, he moved with his parents to Delta, Ohio, where they worked as farmers. At the age of 16, George entered school in Perrysburg, Ohio. In 1859, he received his A.B. from Kalamazoo College, followed by his M.D. from the University of Michigan in 1862. On May 17 of that year he married Lesbia ("Lebbie") E. Fox (b. Nov. 26, 1837), the daughter of Daniel Fox and Sarah Dean, of Kalamazoo, Michigan. They had six children, including May (b. 1863), Perry (b. 1866), Lena (1866-1882), James (b. ca. 1870), D. Hector (1873-1950), and Hugh (1878-1880).

After graduation, Trowbridge began his medical practice in partnership with Dr. John Bennett (later Dean of the Cleveland Medical College) in Centreville, Michigan, but both men soon quit their civilian practices to respond to the call for volunteers to fight in the Civil War. Trowbridge entered the service as a contract surgeon in January 1863, and was commissioned in August as assistant surgeon of the 19th Michigan Infantry, remaining with the regiment through the end of the war. In the absence of a regimental chaplain, Trowbridge also unofficially filled this post for several months.

Trowbridge joined the 19th Michigan while they were stationed in east Tennessee. In the spring of 1864, however, the comparative calm of occupation duty was broken when the regiment was ordered into the Atlanta Campaign. At the Battle of Resaca, the regiment suffered heavily and lost their colonel, Henry C. Gilbert, but they continued under Sherman's command throughout the campaign, through the March to the Sea and the March through the Carolinas. Gilbert, the physician and caretaker, was deeply affected by the carnage and destruction of Sherman's campaigns, but, like many soldiers, argued that military necessity compelled their course of action. After the Battle of Goldsboro in March 1865, the regiment took part in the Grand Review of the Armies in Washington in May, and, a few weeks later, Trowbridge returned to civilian life. He and his wife settled first in Three Rivers, Michigan, but did not remain long, returning to Centreville early in 1867. He lived there until his death from illness on February 7, 1885, at the age of 51.

Collection Scope and Content Note

The George Martin Trowbridge papers contain a total of 238 letters, 47 of which are written on earlier letters in order to conserve paper. Trowbridge wrote 191 of the letters to his wife, Lesbia ("Lebbie") during his Civil War service with the 19th Michigan Infantry. When his supply of stationery ran low, he reused incoming letters, interlining them with his own writings, and thus 42 letters from Lebbie and 5 from George's friends are also preserved with the collection. The letters span October 9, 1863, to June 22, 1865. Trowbridge apparently intended his wife to preserve these letters for posterity, because he wrote exceptionally detained accounts of the latter part of the Civil War, totaling 1,089 pages of correspondence.

Early letters in the collection describe camp life in McMinnville, Tennessee, which the 19th Michigan occupied for six months from October 1863 to April 1864, with very little to do. Trowbridge was considerably anguished at being separated from his wife, and his long answers to her letters included attempts to govern his household from a distance of several hundred miles. Trowbridge's relationship with his wife emerges with great complexity in their correspondence. George repeatedly discussed the place of women and proper parenting, and he appears to have harbored a nagging suspicion during the first several months of his service that his wife might have been unfaithful to him. His frequent condemnations of adultery, pointed comments concerning infidelity on the part of soldiers' wives, and assertions that he would personally drop a wife who was guilty of infidelity, eventually brought Lebbie to exasperated protests; by the opening of the Atlanta Campaign, references to the subject ceased completely. An evangelical Christian, Trowbridge wrote letters during the occupation period that revealed his interest in the spiritual lives of his fellow soldiers; he described prayer meetings and theological debates. He also frequently criticized the military's secular treatment of the Sabbath, especially in a letter of November 22, 1863.

After the spring of 1864, the unit began its participation in the Atlanta Campaign and in his letters, Trowbridge increasingly discussed military engagements, medical work, duties, and the places and people that the regiment encountered. Of particular note is Trowbridge's 36-page account (November 11-December 17, 1864) of Sherman's March to the Sea, detailing the Union army's destruction of plantations, railroad tracks, and cotton storage facilities. It also provides an excellent description of slavery in Georgia, including working conditions of half-clothed young slaves, the sexual advantage that masters took with their female slaves ("there is white blood in most"), and the illegality of slave literacy. Other topics mentioned include the historical significance of the march, Confederate resistance near Savannah, and the production of "Sherman ties" made by winding heated railroad track pieces around trees. Trowbridge also wrote a 56-page narrative of the March through the Carolinas, dated February 2-March 26, 1865. In this, he gave an account of further destruction of homes, cotton, and infrastructure; of Sherman's reputation as a fighter; of the capture of bank safes in Charleston and Camden; and of the battles of Averasboro and Bentonville.

Toward the end of the war, when stationery got scarce, Trowbridge began writing on letters which Lebbie and others had written to him. Thus over 40 of her letters are preserved. Lebbie's letters, which are still largely legible in spite of the fact that George wrote between the lines of her letters, provide ample family news and many details of life on the homefront. Of particular interest is her description of reactions to Lincoln's assassination in Michigan (on George's letter of May 23, 1865), as well as her discussion of alcohol use by her neighbors (August 28, 1864). Both George and Lebbie comment upon the failed love life of Lebbie's sister, Gertrude A. Fox (b. 1843), who for a time was engaged to her first cousin.

Subject Terms

    • Adultery.
    • African Americans.
    • Atlanta Campaign, 1864.
    • Averasboro (N.C.)
    • McMinnville (Tenn.)
    • Military chaplains--United States.
    • Resaca, Battle of, Resaca, Ga., 1864.
    • Sherman's March through the Carolinas.
    • Sherman's March to the Sea.
    • Surgery, military.
    • Three Rivers (Mich.)
    • United States. Army. Michigan Infantry Regiment, 19th (1862-1865)
    • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Medical care.
    • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Religious aspects.
    • Trowbridge, George Martin, 1833-1885.
    Genre Terms:
    • Letters (correspondence)
    Contents List
    Container / Location Title
    George Martin Trowbridge papers [series]
    Box   25, Schoff Civil War Collection  
     October 9, 1863-July 12, 1864
    Box   26, Schoff Civil War Collection  
     July 15, 1864-April 16, 1865
    Box   27, Schoff Civil War Collection  
     April 19-June 22, 1865
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Related Materials

    The Clements Library also has the Henry C. Gilbert papers, which concern another member of the Michigan 19th Infantry.