"Zouave" regiments of the Union Army adopted uniforms inspired by the zouaves of the French Army. Following the extensive publicity given to Duryea's and Ellsworth's zouaves (5th and 11th New York Volunteer Infantry units respectively) early in the war, several states accepted zouave units into their ranks.
One of these units, the Lancaster (or First City) Zouaves, was initially organized in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, during the winter of 1861-62, in response to the national crisis. Drilling throughout the early months of 1862, the regiment held a benefit ball at Fulton Hall, Lancaster, on April 8 to assist in the purchase of uniforms. With the proceeds, the unit outfitted themselves in blue uniforms with red trim and leggings. Through the influence of state senator, Gen. Bartram A. Schaeffer, the company was outfitted during the summer with rifles and were reorganized (and thus sometimes called Schaeffer's Zouaves), becoming the nucleus for a Lancaster County Regiment, the 122nd Pennsylvania Infantry, a one year regiment. As Company K, the Lancaster Zouaves served under Amiel W. Whipple in the 3rd Division of the 3rd Corps, Army of the Potomac. They were present at Fredericksburg and engaged at Chancellorsville, before being mustered out of the service in May, 1863.