William L. Clements Library
University of Michigan
Finding aid for
Union Intelligence Officer's Notebook, 1864-1865
James S. Schoff Civil War CollectionFinding aid created by
Rob S. Cox, November 1997
Union intelligence officer's notebook
During the Civil War, intelligence on enemy forces was gathered from a variety of sources. This notebook includes meticulously recorded information on Confederate emplacements, strength, troop movements, and morale, gathered from debriefings of deserters, prisoners of war, civilians, and refugees.
Language: The material is in English.
William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Web Site: www.clements.umich.edu
Access and Use
The collection is open to research.
Copyright status is unknown.
Donated to the Clements Library in 1979 by Dr. John C. Dann.
Union intelligence officer's notebook, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan
During the Civil War, intelligence on enemy forces was gathered from a variety of sources, from refugees, deserters, prisoners of war, and covert observation, to name just a few. The length and massive scale of the operations during the Petersburg Campaign of 1864-65 made intelligence gathering of vital importance.
Collection Scope and Content Note
The name of the intelligence officer who kept the "Union Intelligence Officer's" journal is unknown, as it probably should be. To use the term "spy" would probably be somewhat misleading, for the notebook consists of information culled largely from debriefings of deserters, prisoners of war, civilians, and refugees, rather than from the sorts of covert operations typically associated with spies. But it is clear that the man who kept the notebook was charged with obtaining, recording, and analyzing the immense volume of randomly scattered facts
The notebook includes meticulously recorded information on Confederate emplacements, strength, troop movements, and morale, and is made more valuable in that every informant is named and identified as to regiment and location. In many cases, the intelligence officer provided sketch maps of positions which, while skeletal, can be highly informative. At the end of the journal, perhaps in idle moments, he sketched out caricatures of a soldier, a civilian (?), and a Union shield.
- Spies--United States.
- United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Secret service.
- United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Military intelligence.
- Virginia--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
- Military deserters--Confederate States of America.
- Petersburg (Va.)--History--Siege, 1864-1865.
| Container / Location
|Box 3.1 Schoff Civil War Diaries & Journals
Union intelligence officer's notebook, 1864 November 02-1865 March 30 [series]: