Manuscripts Division
William L. Clements Library
University of Michigan

Finding aid for
John Marshall Autobiography, 1827

Finding aid created by
Shannon Wait, May 2010

Summary Information
Title: John Marshall autobiography
Creator: Marshall, John, 1755-1835
Inclusive dates: 1827
Extent: 2 items
Abstract:
The John Marshall autobiography is a 16-page autobiography written in 1827 by Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Marshall.

Language: The material is in English
Repository: William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Phone: 734-764-2347
Web Site: www.clements.umich.edu


Access and Use
Acquisition Information:

1932. M-179.1.

Access Restrictions:

The collection is open for research.

Copyright:

Copyright status is unknown

Processing Information:

Cataloging funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the "We the People" project.

Alternate Format:

This manuscript has been published as "The Events of My Life": An Autobiographical Sketch

Preferred Citation:

John Marshall autobiography, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan


Arrangement

The John Marshall autobiography contains Marshall's manuscript autobiography, with an additional letter and an engraving of Marshall laid into the volume.


Biography

John Marshall was born to Thomas Marshall and Mary Randolph Keith on September 24, 1755, near Germantown, Virginia. Thomas Marshall was a foremost a planter, but also held roles as surveyor, justice of the peace, and sheriff. The eldest of 15 children, John Marshall was primarily educated by his father, who taught him poetry, history, and other subjects.

During the Revolutionary War, Marshall served first as a lieutenant in the Culpeper Minute Men (1775-1776), then as a lieutenant in the 11th Virginia Continental Regiment (1776-1780). He fought in the battles of Brandywine Creek, Germantown, Monmouth, and Stony Point, and was present at Valley Forge during the winter of 1777-1778. In 1780, he interrupted his military service in order to acquire some rudiments of a formal legal education from George Wythe at the College of William and Mary, and was admitted to the bar in the same year. He married Mary "Polly" Willis Ambler in 1783, and they had ten children, six of whom survived to maturity.

Marshall was elected to the House of Delegates in 1782 and served as a delegate to Virginia's ratifying convention in 1788. During this time, he maintained his lucrative law practice in Richmond, Virginia. After turning down several federal positions, in 1797, he accepted an appointment by John Adams to a commission formed to smooth over relations with France. His dispatches describing the corruptness of the French foreign minister gained him great popularity, which helped him secure a seat in the 6th Congress (1799-1800). In 1800, John Adams appointed Marshall Secretary of State, followed by an appointment as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court on January 27, 1801. During his long tenure, the court decided over 1,100 cases, and Marshall authored the opinions in 519 of these. Among the numerous influential cases that Marshall helped to decide were Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, Cohens v. Virginia, Worcester v. Georgia, and Gibbons v. Ogden. Marshall died July 6, 1835, at the age of 79.


Collection Scope and Content Note

The John Marshall autobiography consists of a 16-page autobiographical letter, written by John Marshall to Joseph Story, at the latter's urging, in 1827. Also included is an additional letter from Marshall to Story, expressing his approval of Story's biography of him, and an undated engraved portrait of Marshall.

The autobiography begins with a description of Marshall's happy childhood and the many sources of his education, both formal and informal. Marshall then moved to the topic of the Revolutionary War, first describing his service, and then the impact it had on him: "When I recollect the wild and enthusiastic democracy with which my political opinions of that day were tinctured, I am disposed to ascribe my devotion to the union, and to a government competent to its preservation, at least as much to casual circumstances as to judgment" (p. 4). Also covered in some detail is Marshall's legal practice, which he expressed a great reluctance to leave, and his role in the XYZ Affair, including the decision "to bring the controversy before the American People and convince them of the earnestness with which the American government sought a reconciliation with France" (p. 13).

Marshall also described the process of his selection for Chief Justice, which he portrayed as surprisingly casual: "[Adams] said thoughtfully 'Who shall I nominate now'? I replied that I could not tell….After a moment's hesitation he said 'I believe I must nominate you" (p. 15). Unfortunately, Marshall ended the letter without any discussion of his work on the Supreme Court.

Subject Terms

    Subjects:
    • College of William and Mary.
    • Education.
    • Fauquier County (Va.)
    • France--Foreign relations--United States.
    • Madison, James, 1751-1836.
    • Practice of law--Virginia.
    • Richmond (Va.)
    • Story, Joseph, 1779-1845.
    • Supreme Court justices.
    • United States. Constitution.
    • United States. Continental Army.
    • United States--Foreign relations--France.
    • United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783.
    • United States--Politics and Government--1783-1809.
    • United States. Supreme Court.
    • Virginia--History--Revolution, 1775-1883.
    • Washington, George, 1732-1799.
    • Wythe, George, 1726-1806.
    • XYZ Affair, 1797-1798.
    Genre Terms:
    • Autobiographies.
    • Correspondence.
    Contents List
       Container / Location    Title
    Volume   1  
    John Marshall autobiography,  1827 [series]: (2 items)
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Related Materials

    The Clements Library holds additional materials related to John Marshall:

    • The Manuscripts Division has papers of Joseph Story, the recipient of the autobiography.
    • Thomas Rutland letterbook contains a letter to Marshall, dated March 28, 1788.
    • The Schoff Revolutionary War collection includes a letter from John Marshall to M. Marshall, dated September 2, 1828.
    • The Weld-Grimke papers contain an item related to John Marshall, dated August 7, 1827.
    • The Graphics Division holds several portraits of John Marshall.
    • The Book Division has a selection of works by John Marshall.

    The College of William and Mary has an autograph draft of the letter from John Marshall to Joseph Story that accompanies the autobiography.