Clarke Historical Library
Central Michigan University

Finding aid for
Calvin W. Enders Michigan Ku Klux Klan Research Papers

Finding aid created by
Marian Matyn

Summary Information
Title: Calvin W. Enders Michigan Ku Klux Klan Research Papers,
Creator: Enders, Calvin W, 1926-1997.
Inclusive dates: 1917-1997, and undated
Extent: 6 cubic feet (in 3 boxes, 13 card boxes)
Abstract:
The collection includes Enders' research papers documenting the Ku Klux Klan, mostly the Michigan Klan. Papers include demographics, articles he wrote or published, articles (copies) from various sources, membership cards, photographic materials, and memorabilia.

Call number: MSS.
Language: The material is in English
Repository: Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University
250 East Preston Street
Mount Pleasant, MI 48859
Phone: 989-774-3352
Fax: 989-774-2160
Email: clarke@cmich.edu
Website: http://clarke.cmich.edu


Access and Use
Acquisition Information:

Acc# none

Access Restrictions:

Calvin W. Enders Michigan Ku Klux Klan Research Papers are open for research.

Copyright:

Copyright is held by the Enders family. Materials MAY NOT BE COPIED without the request being discussed with the Director of the Clarke, who will contact Mrs. Enders.

Preferred Citation:

Calvin W. Enders Michigan Ku Klux Klan Research Papers, Folder # , Box #, Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University


Arrangement

Arrangement is alphabetical and chronological.


History

Biography:

Calvin W. Enders was born April 20, 1926, the son of Leonard and Louise (Reinhart) Enders, in Adrian, Michigan. On November 17, 1946 he married Betty Hilts at the First Methodist Church in Adrian. They moved to Mount Pleasant, Michigan, in 1966.

During World War II, Cal served on a Destroyer Escort. In 1949 he received his B.A. from Adrian College. Cal then spent several years teaching in public schools. By 1952 he earned a M.A. in history from the University of Michigan. Cal received his Ph.D. from Michigan State in 1970.

Cal joined the Central Michigan University History Department in 1965. He taught there until his retirement in 1993. Cal taught military history and surveys in American and Michigan history. His “The Roaring Twenties” course was famous. Frequently, Cal would receive a standing ovation at the end of a semester. Also, he was the co-founder and sponsor of the Phi Alpha Theta CMU chapter with Professor Dennis Thavenet.

Cal joined the Central Michigan University History Department in 1965. He taught there until his retirement in 1993. Cal taught military history and surveys in American and Michigan history. His “The Roaring Twenties” course was famous. Frequently, Cal would receive a standing ovation at the end of a semester. Also, he was the co-founder and sponsor of the Phi Alpha Theta CMU chapter with Professor Dennis Thavenet.Towards the end of his life Cal began to research the Ku Klux Klan in Michigan. He published an article on the Mecosta Klan entitled, “White Sheets in Mecosta: The Anatomy of a Michigan Klan.” Cal was writing a book on the Klan in Michigan when he died on August 21, 1997. He was survived by his wife of 50 years, Betty, and four children, Laura Mikus, Robert, James, and Maurice Enders, five grandchildren, and three sisters. (This information is from the collection.)


Collection Scope and Content Note

The papers consists mostly of demographics and articles about the Michigan Klan, including chapters for Cal’s intended book; newspaper articles copied from microfilm and lists of the articles from Michigan and Klan newspapers; and membership information cards. The cards are disorganized and may contain census or local election information, marital status, type of employment, children, and address information. There is a nice variety of black and white and colored photographs and slides of Michigan Klan parades, meetings, a funeral, and the Chicora KKK quilt with members names embroidered on it. Also included are a sheeted figurine and Klan publications, including songbooks and copied articles about the Klan in Indiana and the U.S.

Most of the collection has been photocopied onto acid-free paper.

The collection is unique and valuable for the research of white supremacists in Michigan. It is particularly valuable for the study of average Michiganders, including men and women who joined the Klan up to 1924. There is substantial documentation of the activities of local Klans.

The problems leading to the failures of the 1924 attempt to elect a Detroit mayor and ban private schools are well documented, as are the financial problems and the high profile murders committed by Klan officials.

More Lewis D. Capen material may be found in the Ku Klux Klan (Mecosta County, Mich.) collection and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Millbrook Level Lodge No. 219 (Millbrook, Mich.) organizational records.

Subject Terms

    Subjects:
    • Enders, Calvin W., 1926-1997.
    • Central Michigan University--Faculty.
    • Ku Klux Klan (1915-)--Michigan.
    • Ku Klux Klan (1915-)--Michigan--Periodicals.
    • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Michigan.
    • White Supremacy Movements--United States.
    • Newaygo County (Mich.)--History.
    • Mecosta County (Mich.)--History.
    • Grand Haven (Mich.)--History.
    Contents List
       Container / Location    Title
     
    Calvin W. Enders Michigan Ku Klux Klan Research Papers. [series]:
    Box   1 F   1
    Biographical Material, 1970, undated
    Box   1 F   2
    Correspondence of Dr. Calvin W. "Cal" Enders, 1980-1993, undated
    Box   1 F   3
    "Men / Women Statistics" Papers, 1995
    Box   1 F   4
    Catholic Families Notes, undated
    Box   1 F   5
    Newspaper article on 1924 Cross Burning in Front of City Hall (Adrian KKK), 1995
    Box   1 F   6
    Alleged Bloody Oath of the Knights of Columbus in the Congressional Record, 1913
    Box   1 F   7
    Baldwin Ku Klux Klan (KKK), Statistics, 1993
    Box   1 F   8
    Barrington KKK, Newspaper Clippings, 1924, Note, 1982, 1924, 1982
    Box   1 F   9
    Big Rapids, KKK, Notes, undated
    Box   1 F   10
    Burden School, 1928-1929
    Box   1 F   11
    Burning of Fiery Crosses and Meetings of KKK, 1923-1925
    Box   1 F   12
    Chicora KKK, Statistics (Men and Women), 1995
    Box   1 F   13
    1st Anniversary of Michigan State Realm, undated
    Box   1 F   14
    "For God, Country and Home": the KKKK in Pekin, by Carl B. Hallberg, 1923-1925
    Box   1 F   15
    Grand Haven KKK, Statistics, Notes, undated
    Box   1 F   16
    Grand Haven Provisional Klan Statistics, Notes, Newspaper Article on Cal's Presentation, undated
    Box   1 F   17
    Grand Have, Street Directory (copy), 1924
    Box   1 F   18
    Grand Haven's Three Dutch Churches, Papers, undated
    Box   1 F   19
    Highlights July 9, 1924 Michigan KKKK Events, September 1, 1992,
    Box   1 F   20
    Indiana Klan 1924-1925, Member Information, undated, 1924-1925, undated
    Box   1 F   21
    Introduction to the KKK, Paper (see also KKK in North), 1993
    Box   1 F   22
    Kalamazoo KKK, Notes, undated
    Box   1 F   23
    KKK in Mount Pleasant...in September 1923, Paper, undated
    Box   1 F   24
    KKK in the North: Michigan's 1920s Experience, book Outline and Chapters, undated
    Box   1 F   25
    KKK in Tillamook, Oregon, by William Toll, Publication, 1978
    Box   1 F   26
    KKK in Tillamook, by Eckard V. Toy, Jr., Publication, 1962
    Box   1 F   27
    KKK in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan, by Norma Weaver (Partial Ph.D. Thesis, See Also Review of Thesis in Box 3), 1954
    Box   1 F   28
    KKK Publications (copies): Constitution of the Women of the KKK, 1923; with Songs; Scriptural Points on Romanism, by Rev. H. H. Grodin; KKK Songbook, undated, 1923, undated
    Box   1 F   29
    KKK Publications, Some of the Accomplishments of the KKK, undated; and Postcard, 1951, undated; 1951
    Box   1 F   30
    KKK Publications, Notes, undated
    Box   1 F   31
    ...Klan Filled...October 1993...Grand Haven, Spring Lake Newspaper, undated, 1993, undated
    Box   1 F   32
    Klan #30 Mancelona Paper, undated
    Box   1 F   33
    Klan Presentation Paper undated
    Box   1 F   34
    Klan Presentation Paper, September 14, 1993
    Box   1 F   35
    Mancelona KKK, Male Statistics, March 11, 1996
    Box   1 F   36
    Mecosta (Chapter 7) Paper, September 11, 1993
    Box   1 F   37
    Mecosta County KKK, Correspondence of Lewis D. Capen, October 1924-November 1931
    Box   1 F   38
    Mecosta County KKK Statistics and Notes, 1980, 1993, undated; Interview with John Rand, Niles, Michigan, 1980, 1980, 1993, undated
    Box   1 F   39
    Mecosta County Plat Map, 1920s; Notes, undated, 1920s; undated
    Box   1 F   40
    Mecosta County Plat Map, 1920s; Notes, undated, 1920s; undated
    Box   1 F   41
    Mecosta County KKK, Statistics and Demographics Overheads, undated
    Box   1 F   42
    Michigan Bible Study League (MBSL) Papers, July 12, 1993
    Box   1 F   43
    Michigan County Officers, Lists of, 1920-1924
    Box   1 F   44
    Michigan KKK Charter, July 16, 1993
    Box   1 F   45
    Michigan KKK, Recruitment, Paper, undated
    Box   1 F   46
    Michigan KKK, General Overheads, undated
    Box   1 F   47
    Michigan KKK, Interviews, Notes, 1980-1982
    Box   1 F   48
    Michigan KKK, Lists by Counties (for Members of Klaverns), undated
    Box   1 F   49
    Michigan KKK, Membership Cards and Introduction, undated
    Box   1 F   50
    Michigan KKK, Members Information (no Location), 1991-1994, undated
    Box   1 F   51
    Michigan KKK, Numbers and Klan Location Demographics, undated
    Box   1 F   52
    Michigan KKK, State Officers (Probable), 1926-1928
    Box   1 F   53
    Michigan (State), Demographics, from 1910 Census, undated
    Box   1 F   54
    Michigan (State), Demographics, from 1920 Census, undated
    Box   1 F   55
    Michigan (State), Demographics, from 1930 Census, undated
    Box   1 F   56
    Michigan (State), Religious Affiliations, 1971
    Box   1 F   57
    Michigan State University, Special Collection, KKK Articles Index, 1920
    Box   1 F   58
    Miscellaneous KKK Notes, 1994, undated
    Box   1 F   59
    Mount Pleasant KKK, 1923
    Box   1 F   60
    Newaygo KKK, Attic Find, undated
    Box   1 F   61
    Newaygo KKK, Auction List, 1992
    Box   1 F   62
    Newaygo KKK, Correspondence, 1923
    Box   1 F   63
    Newaygo KKK, "Is There a Place in Our Economy for the KKK?"...Paper, undated
    Box   1 F   64
    Newaygo KKK, Statistics and Notes, 1993-1994, 1996, undated
    Box   1 F   65
    Newaygo Maps, 1922, undated
    Box   1 F   66
    1924 Michigan Election and Klan (Chapter 8), 1924
    Box   1 F   66
    1924 Michigan Election Notes, 1993, undated
    Box   1 F   67
    Notes from Wyn Craig Wade's The Fiery Cross, Paper, undated
    Box   1 F   68
    One of the First Indications of Renewed KKK...In Michigan, Paper, undated
    Box   1 F   69
    Rev. Dr. F. H. Lewis, Adrian, the KKK and its Political Influence, Paper, undated
    Box   1 F   70
    Today from the Detroit Free Press, (General Klan history), 1993
    Box   1 F   71
    "Under Grand Haven's White Sheets: The Holland Dutch" (Chapter 5), Paper, undated
    Box   1 F   72
    "White Sheets in Mecosta: The Anatomy of a Michigan Klan," Paper and Review, undated
    Box   1 F   73
    "White Sheets in Mecosta," Overheads, undated
    Box   1 F   74
    Wives of the KKK, Statistics, 1995
    Box   1 F   75
    Women of the KKK, Book Reviews, 1993
    Box   1 F   76
    Women of the KKK, Notes, undated
    Box   1 F   77
    Women of the KKK, Correspondence, 1924-1925
    Box   2 F   1
    Newspaper Clippings (Second or third generation copies), Dr. F. H. Lewis, Plymouth Methodist Protestant (M.P.) Church, Lenawee, 1924-1925, 1924-1925
    Box   2 F   2
    Newspaper Clippings (Second or third generation copies), Harry B. Procter and Edna Fullager Disappearance Case, Spring Lake, 1923
    Box   2 F   3
    Newspaper Clippings (Second or third generation copies), Hate groups, not Michigan, 1993
    Box   2 F   3
    Newspaper Clippings (Second or third generation copies), KKK, not Michigan, 1981-1997
    Box   2 F   4
    Newspaper Clippings (Second or third generation copies), Michigan KKK, 1923
    Box   2 F   5
    Newspaper Clippings (Second or third generation copies), Michigan KKK, 1923-1924
    Box   2 F   6
    Newspaper Clippings (Second or third generation copies), Michigan KKK, 1925-1993
    Box   2 F   7
    Newspaper Clippings (Second or third generation copies), Fiery Cross, 1923
    Box   2 F   8
    Michigan Newspapers Names, Abbreviation Key, 1993
    Box   2 F   9
    Articles, Index, Typed: Michigan Newspapers KKK, Chronological, 1924-1989
    Box   2 F   10
    Articles, Index, Typed: Michigan Newspapers KKK, Chronological, 1907-1923
    Box   2 F   10
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Adrian Daily Telegram, 1919, 1921, 1936
    Box   2 F   11
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Albion Evening Record, 1923, 1943
    Box   2 F   12
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Alma Record, 1924, 1926
    Box   2 F   13
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Belding Banner News, 1923-1924
    Box   2 F   14
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Clinton County Republican, 1924-1925
    Box   2 F   15
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Detroit Free Press, 1922-1929
    Box   2 F   16
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Detroit News, 1923
    Box   2 F   17
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Flint Daily Journal, 1923-1925
    Box   2 F   18
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Flushing Observer, 1922
    Box   2 F   19
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Fowlerville Review, 1923
    Box   2 F   20
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Fremont Times Indicator, 1917-1918, 1920, 1922-1931, 1944, 1946
    Box   2 F   21
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Grand Haven Daily Tribune, 1923-1924
    Box   2 F   22
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Grand Rapids Press, 1923-1925, 1929
    Box   2 F   23
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Gratiot County Herald, 1923-1924, 1926
    Box   2 F   24
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Holland City News, 1923-1924
    Box   2 F   25
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Hudson Post Gazette [Ohio], 1923
    Box   2 F   26
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Ionia Sentinel Standard / Ionia County News, 1923-1924, 1926-1927
    Box   2 F   27
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Iron Mountain News, 1923-1924
    Box   2 F   28
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Isabella County Enterprise, 1924
    Box   2 F   29
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Jackson Citizen Patriot, 1923-1925, 1928
    Box   2 F   30
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Jackson News, 1923-1924
    Box   2 F   31
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Jackson Saturday Evening Star, 1923
    Box   2 F   32
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Kalamazoo Gazette, 1923-1927
    Box   2 F   33
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Lansing Capitol News, 1923-1925; Lansing State Journal, 1921-1930, 1923-1925; 1921-1930
    Box   2 F   34
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Lapeer County Clarion, 1923
    Box   2 F   35
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Leslie Local Republican, 1924
    Box   2 F   36
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Manchester Enterprise, 1923
    Box   2 F   37
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Marshall Evening Chronicle, 1923-1924
    Box   2 F   38
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Mount Pleasant Times, 1923-1924
    Box   2 F   39
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Muskegon Chronicle, 1926
    Box   2 F   40
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Nashville, Michigan Receiving News, 1923
    Box   2 F   41
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Newaygo Republican, 1923-1937
    Box   2 F   42
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Osceola County Herald, 1923
    Box   2 F   43
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Otsego Union, 1924
    Box   2 F   44
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Owosso Newspaper, 1922-1932
    Box   2 F   45
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Owosso Argus Press, 1922-1927, 1932
    Box   2 F   46
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Paw Paw Courier-Northerner, 1923
    Box   2 F   47
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Pontiac Daily Press, 1924
    Box   2 F   48
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Saginaw Evening Star, 1923-1924
    Box   2 F   49
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Saginaw News Courier, 1924
    Box   2 F   50
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, St. Ignace Enterprise, 1923
    Box   2 F   51
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, St. Louis Leader, 1923
    Box   2 F   52
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Sault Saint Marie News, 1923
    Box   2 F   53
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Tecumseh Herald, 1924
    Box   2 F   54
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Three Rivers Newspaper, 1923
    Box   2 F   55
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, Traverse City Record Eagle, 1924
    Box   2 F   56
    KKK Articles, Indices, Handwritten, White Cloud Eagle, 1923
    Box   2 F   57
    KKK Periodicals, Fellowship Forum, Typed Index and Articles, 1922-1929, 1994
    Box   2 F   58
    KKK Periodicals, Fellowship Forum, 1924-1925, 1927
    Box   2 F   59
    KKK Periodicals, Fiery Cross, Indiana and Michigan KKK, Index to Articles, 1922-1925
    Box   2 F   60
    KKK Periodicals, Kourier Magazine, Index to Articles, 1924-1933
    Box   2 F   61
    KKK Periodicals, National Kourier Magazine, Index to Articles and Articles, 1925
    Box   2 F   62
    Photographs, Chicora KKK Quilt, undated
    Box   2 F   63
    Photographs, Klan Funeral for Charles Rice, Hesperia, Michigan (copy), May 3, 1925
    Box   2 F   64
    Photographs, Klansman Standing by Car, 1920s
    Box   2 F   65
    Photographs, Shiawassee County KKK Parade, Float and Band, 1920s
    Box   2 F   66
    Photographs, Wayne County KKK in Parade, 1920s
    Box   3 F   1
    (Original copies) Newspaper Clippings, KKK (Michigan, folder 1 of 2), 1923
    Box   3 F   2
    (Original copies) Newspaper Clippings, KKK (Michigan, folder 2 of 2), 1923
    Box   3 F   3
    (Original copies) Newspaper Clippings, KKK (Michigan),, 1924
    Box   3 F   4
    (Original copies) Newspaper Clippings, KKK (Michigan), KKK Activity, 1923-1928
    Box   3 F   5
    (Original copies) Newspaper Clippings, KKK (Michigan), KKK Elections, 1924
    Box   3 F   6
    Grand Haven, Street Directory (copy), 1924
    Box   3 F   7
    "Historical Patterns of American Violence," Part of Book and Bibliography, undated
    Box   3 F   8
    KKK Book (unidentified, portion of), undated
    Box   3 F   9
    KKK Book Membership Notes 1921-1925
    Box   3 F   10
    "(the) Klan as an Electoral Movement," Article by Kenneth D. Wald (copy) 1980
    Box   3 F   11
    "(the) Klan Resurrected," Portion of Book, undated
    Box   3 F   12
    Membership Lists of KKK, 1925
    Box   3 F   13
    Thesis review of "The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan," by Norman Frederic Weaver (Ph.D. Thesis), 1954
    Box   4  
    Small Card Box, Personal Klan Member Information Cards, 1920s
    Box   5  
    Small Card Box, Personal Klan Member Information Cards, 1920s
    Box   6  
    Small Card Box, Personal Klan Member Information Cards, 1920s
    Box   7  
    Small Card Box, Personal Klan Member Information Cards, 1920s
    Box   8  
    Small Card Box, Personal Klan Member Information Cards, 1920s
    Box   9  
    Small Card Box, Personal Klan Member Information Cards, 1920s
    Box   10  
    Small Card Box, Personal Klan Member Information Cards, 1920s
    Box   11  
    Small Card Box, Personal Klan Member Information Cards, 1920s
    Box   12  
    Small Card Box, Personal Klan Member Information Cards, 1920s
    Box   13  
    Small Card Box, Personal Klan Member Information Cards, 1920s
    Box   14  
    Small Card Box, Personal Klan Member Information Cards, 1920s
    Box   15  
    Small Card Box, Michigan Klan Slides, undated
    Box   16  
    Small Card Box, Michigan Klan Slides, Klan Sheeted Figurine, and Rolled Photographs of Ionia Klan at Mount Pleasant, Michigan, 1926, 1926, undated