Japanese geography : a guide to Japanese reference and research materials
Hall, Robert B. (Robert Burnett), 1896-

Frontmatter


pp. N/A

Page  [unnumbered] CENTER FOR JAPANESE STUDIES BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SERIES NUMBER 6 (REVISED EDITION) JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY: A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered] JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY: A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS (REVISED EDITION) BY ROBERT B. HALL AND TOSHIO NOH ANN ARBOR/THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PRESS/1970 PUBLISHED FOR THE CENTER FOR JAPANESE STUDIES

Page  [unnumbered] Copyright ( by The University of Michigan 1970 All rights reserved Published in the United States of America by The University of Michigan Press and simultaneously in Toronto, Canada, by Ambassador Books Limited Manufactured in the United States of America

Page  I Foreword It has now been fourteen years since the publication of the first edition of this bibliography. During this period the number of American scholars and students using Japanese-language materials has constantly expanded, the appearance of studies in Japanese geography has increased significantly, and the strength and distribution of major Jananese-language collections in the libraries of this country has grown enormously. The purpose of this second edition is to bring up to date the listing and evaluation of Japanese works pertaining to the geography of Japan. The compilation of this edition, as in the case of the original edition, is a product of the collaboration of two distinguished geographers of Japan: Professor Robert B. Hall of the University of Michigan and Professor Toshio Noh of Tohoku University. The research for this bibliography extends over a number of years and the bulk of the work was done in Japan by Professor Noh and his assistants. This bibliography becomes the tenth volume in the Bibliographical Series of the Center for Japanese Studies which has aimed to bring to the attention of Western scholars major Japanese works in the humanities and social sciences. They are intended to serve as an introduction to Japanese research materials in the several disciplines and hence as an aid to research for teachers and students. Previous bibliographies in this series have covered the fields of Political Science, Japanese Dialects, Archaeology and Ethnology, History, Economics, Geography, Religion and Philosophy, and Literature of the Showa Period. Each bibliography is selective; each item is believed to be of some value or interest to the scholarly user and is described or evaluated to provide guidance in its use. The format is uniform within each volume. In general, the name of the author or compiler is given both in romanization and character. The surnames are given first and the given names next. The names of corporate authors, such as government authors, are given in romanization and characters; they are then translated. Similarly, the sequence of romanization followed by characters is followed in listing the title of each book or article. However, journal titles, the place of publication and the name of the publishers are given only in romanization. The present edition on Japanese Geography follows the classification system used in the 1956 edition, with the single exception of the elimination of a previous section on "Areas of the Former Japanese Empire." In addition to up-dating the bibliography by the exclusion of out-of-date items in the first edition and the inclusion of a large percentage of new entries, the total number of 1254 entries in the first edition has been increased to 1486 in this revised edition. The scope of each section of the bibliography is defined by the compilers and the organizing principles used in producing this edition are well expressed in their introduction to the first edition, of which the following excerpts are pertinent: The intent in compiling this bibliography has been to bring to the attention of Western geographers and other interested scholars those geographical writings of the Japanese which have appeared in the Twentieth Century and which are regarded by the compilers as significant contributions. Thus, only materials which fall within the scope of geography as a modern science have been included. An exception to this rule, which seems a valid one, is the inclusion of the more important anthologies of pre-Meiji geographical writings published since 1900. The problem of selection has been a difficult one as a truly vast quantity of published research is involved. The Japanese are an unusually geographicallyminded people. This is particularly true in terms of local and regional interest - an attitude which has pertained in most periods of Japanese history, as evidenced by the enormous production of local and regional descriptions and maps. More recently, studies of national scope have become increasinglV more numerous. Conversely, there has been relatively little interest shown by Japanese geographers in areas other than Japan or in the compilation of systematic and exhaustive bibliographies of their own geographical materials. This general lack of standard bibliographies and guides to Japanese geographical literature has compelled the present compilers to place heavy reliance upon direct observation and upon the advice of Japanese experts. Direct observation would have been used, in any event where feasible, but neither compiler can claim expertness in all fields of geography. Furthermore, in this postwar period, Japanese scholarship has been rather sharply divided into different schools of interpretation and so it has not always been possible to secure impartial judgment. The standard for selection has been twofold: (1) which titles would prove most valuable to the general geographer, and (2) which would best bring to the attention of the Western scholar the extent and quality of Japanese geographical research? The authors have used their best judgment in selection but do not anticipate that this will be universally accepted as the wisest. i

Page  II The problems of organization and balance have also proved to be difficult ones, as there is little precedent, especially in light of the standard for selection employed. It was decided to allow the categories to develop as the materials selected took form and to make no attempt to balance categories but rather to let them assume proportion as the materials selected indicated. Much of the material, valuable to geographers, in Japan as elsewhere, is not geography in the strictest sense of the word or at least is hidden in the writings of other social and physical scientists. For this reason, reference to bibliographies in other disciplines is essential. Particularly is this true of the Bibliographical Series of the University of Michigan's Center for Japanese Studies and especially: No. 1, A Guide to Japanese Reference and Research Materials in the Field of Political Science, (Revised EditionT, by Robert E. Ward; No. 4, Japanese History: A Guide to Japanese Reference and Research Materials, by John W. Hall; and No. 5, Japanese Economics: A Guide to Japanese Reference and Research Materials, by Charles F. Remer and Sabur5 Kawai. As has been previously mentioned, the vast store of pre-Meiji and early Meiji geographical writings has been excluded. This is in part because of the limitations of space in this single volume. Even more important have been the problems of interpretation, evaluation, availability, and specialized emphases. The earlier material has great geographical value and should be covered in another volume, but the task will require the close cooperation of scholars of early Japanese literature and history. Again, much of this earlier material is not geography in the strictest sense. Rather it is commonly made up of general treatises with emphasis upon local and regional history, local customs and legends, local productions, and the lore and treasures of local shrines and temples. Nevertheless, it does contain much highly important geographical data not otherwise available. Such are the oft-cited fudoki, the compilation of which began when the first court order pertaining to them was issued in 713 A.D. and ended about 925 A.D. Unfortunately, most of these priceless documents were lost but, later, remnants were recovered, as in the case of the fudoki of Izumo, Hitachi, Harima, Hizen and Bungo. Others are known today only as fragments and through references in other writings. Travel diaries also contributed valuable materials. Among these is the Tosa nikki of Kino-Tsurayuki. The Engishiki, 905 A.D., was in the tradition of the early fudoki and encompassed all of the area then under control of the central government. There is nothing to take its place for this critical period. In the middle of the Eleventh Century, another great travel diary was written. This is the Sarachina nikki by a daughter of Sugawara Takasue. Mention, too, should be made of the preservation of original documents in temple and private collection through these and the following centuries. The Tokugawa era accounts for the enormous Edo period (1603-1868). A bibliography or rather book listing of some 70,000 titles has been compiled by Mr. Yasui Yoshitaro of Ojimachi, Nara prefecture. There are several significant collections of this material extant in Japan but only one has even a sizable part of the whole. This is to be found at the Tenrikyo library at Tambaichi. Very little Edo period material is to be found abroad. Not to entirely neglect these valuable pre-Meiji contributions which are so important a part of the modern Japanese geographer's tradition, the authors have included certain transcribed compilations of these early materials, published since 1900, such as the Dai-Nihon chishi taikei. In the period covered by the bibliography, both the quantity and quality of publications in physical geography have exceeded those in cultural or human geography. This is understandable in the light of the interests and training of the founders of modern geography in Japan and in the light of the security regulations and atmosphere which long prevailed. Until World War II, studies in cultural geography were largely morphological and/or purely descriptive. Currently, better interpretive studies in the cultural area are being produced and at an accelerated rate. The Center for Japanese Studies is deeply indebted to Professor Noh for the care and patience shown in the compilation of this bibliography and to Professor Hall for his sustained support in its completion. Special thanks are due to Miss Susan Dawkins for her painstaking typing of the manuscript and to Mrs. Chizuko Taeusch who wrote the characters. Roger F. Hackett Director, Center for Japanese Studies ii

Page  III TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword Entries Page I. BIBLIOGRAPHIES 1-13 1 II. ENCYCLOPEDIAS, DICTIONARIES AND GAZETTEERS, AND TRAVEL GUIDES 14 3 A. General 15-18 3 B. Place Name Dictionaries 19-20 4 C. Travel Guides 21-31 4 III. YEARBOOKS, COLLECTIONS OF STATISTICS, AND CENSUSES 32-59 5 IV. SETS AND COLLECTIONS 60-72 10 V. PERIODICALS 73-112 12 VI. ATLASES, MAPS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND AIR-PHOTO COVERAGE 118-207 19 VII. HISTORY OF JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 33 A. History of Japanese Geographical Thought 208-212 34 B. History of Japanese Cartography 213 34 C. History of Exploration by Japanese 214 34 VIII. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 35 A. Geomorphology and Geonostics 215-376 35 B. Volcanism and Seismology 377-390 E1 C. Drainage 391-401 63 D. Groundwater 402-417 64 E. Flora 418-432 67 F. Fauna 433-437 69 G. Soils 438-453 70 H. Climate and Weather 454-563 73 I. Destruction by physical forces 564-589 89 J. Oceanography 590-609 93 K. Limnology 610-620 96 IX. HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY 99 A. Historical Geography 621-688 99 B. Political Geography 689-695 109 C. Population 696-747 110 D. Transportation and Communications 748-771 118 E. Settlement Geography 772-775 122 F. 1. Rural 776-827 123 2. Urban 828-871 131 F. Linguistic Geography 137 1. Dialects 872 137 2. Place Name Studies 873-879 137 G. Religious Geography 880-883 138 H. Geography of Folk Lore and Folk Songs 884 139 I. Cultural Traits and Other Cultural Distributions 885-888 139 1. General 889-892 140 2. Specific 893-896 140 X. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY 142 A. General 897-935 142 B. Land Use 936-961 148 C. Forestry 962-969 152 D. Agriculture 970-978 153 1. Crops and Crop Systems 155 a. General 979-1021 1]5 b. Specific 1022-1050 161 2. Irrigation 1051-1071 166 3. Reclamation 1072-1083 170 4. Animals 1084-1089 172 E. Fishing 1090-1110 173 F. Mining and Minerals 1111-1115 176 G. Industry 1116-1182 177 H. Recreation and Tourism 1183-1192 188 iii

Page  IV Entries Page I. Trade Areas 1185-1192 188 XI. REGIONAL DESCRIPTIVE GEOGRAPHY 1193-1208 191 A. General 1193-1208 101 B. Traditional Regions: do and kuni 1209-1219 193 C. Political Regions: ken, gun, machi, shi, fu, to 1220-1458 195 D. The "Geographical" Regions 1459-1484 229 E. Other Regions 1485-1486 232 iv

Bibliographies


pp. 1-2

Page  1 BIBLIOGRAPHIES 1 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS CHAPTER I BIBLIOGRAPHIES Bibliographical and reference work was long the main part of scholarly labor in preMeiji Japan. Although the tradition was thus very strong for the listing of previous written materials and the recitation of former works, the idea and the system of listing the materials was very different from modern bibliography in the Western sense. Few bibliographies of the pre-Meiji period could survive after the tests based on new standards, and the tradition in Japan has not been strong enough to produce many bibliographic publications since Meiji. Geographical bibliographies are very scarce and those which have appeared at all have had very narrow circulation. This is no cause for wonder, since the circle of professional geographers who are concerned with purely geographical bibliographies has never been large, and their scope of interest was not confined within the limits of geography in its strictest sense. 1. Hoyanagi Mutsumi ~t, S, Nihon no gakusha ni yoru Chugoku-hondo ni kansuru chirigakuteki kenkyu chosho shiryo rombun mokurok-u g~ )-:: t l' t^.......... (A bibliography of geographical books, research" materials and articles on Mainland China by Japanese scholars), Tokyo, Tokyo Chigaku Kyokai, 1964, 109 pp. Research carried out mainly during the war by Japanese scholars on the geography of Mainland China is gradually being forgotten and is going to be lost. Hoyanagi is interested in discovering and preserving these studies in a bibliography, and selects the period from 1935 to 1950. The contents are classified into original books, translations, and articles; the books and the articles are classified by region: Mainland China as a whole, North China, Central and South China, Mongolia and the Frontiers. All the works listed here are acknowledged by the editor and are available in Japan. Lists of contents are attached to the original books. 2. Jimbun Chiri Gakkai /A i~ X'A (Society of Human Geography),ed., Chirigaku bunken mokuroku dainishu C (Bibliography of geography, volume 2), Ky7to, Yanagiwara Shoten, 1957, 378 pp. This is a sequence of the Bibliography of geography published in 1953 which covered the period 1945-51. The publications which appeared from 1952 to 1956 are listed not only by sub-field of geography but also by related fields. Yearbooks, statistical works, etc., are also given. Quantitatively, a large percentage of items relate to economic geography and historical geography, a fact which reflects trends in geographical study in Japan. The increase of proceedings from universities is anotheaspect worthy of note. A list of periodicals is included. 3. Kagaku Gijutsucho Shigenkyoku 'f, (Bureau of Resources, Board of Science and Technology), Nihon shigen bunken mokuroku Bu X/^^' \ ^ (Bibliography on natural resources in Japan), Tokyo, Kagaku Gijutsucho Shigenkyoku, 5 vols., 1953 -1957, v. 1, 450 pp.; v. 2, 440 pp.; v. 3, 240 pp.; v. 4, 250 pp.; Index, 180 pp. About 220,000 publications are classified by the international decimal system. In this book "natural resources" is used in the broadest sense of the term. Consequently, the bibliography covers virtually all fields of knowledge. Geography is especially relevant to problems in natural resources, and is often referred to. 4. Keio Gijuku Daigaku Bunkachiri Kenkyukai_ ' ~ tb fsi ^^ ^, (Society for the Study of Cultural Geography, Keio lijuku University), ed., Nihon kenbetsu chishi mokuroku _19 N1i^^ (Bibliography of Japanese regional geography by prefecture), Tokyo, Kogakusha, 1955, 244 pp. This work gives a listing of some 5000 books published since the Meiji era which are related to historical background, economy, industry, folklore, tourism and historical places. The topics are classified by prefecture which, in turn, are further subdivided. This collection is most helpful for regional studies.

Page  2 2 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 5 Kiko Danwakai Jfl, t (Symposium on Climate), Kikogaku kankei bunken mokuroku |,l~tfx *i'K (Bibliography of climatological publications), Kiko Danwakai, 1954, 46 pp. This work provides a listing of all publications related to climatology published in Japan in 1951 and 1952. The list is classified into Japanese and Western languages and subdivided into general climatology and regional climatological descriptions. 6. Kik5 Danwakai 4t'1 0 I (Symposium on Climate) Kikogaku kankei bunken shoroku tilt 1 f\,t 4K ) (Abstracts of climatological publications), Kik5 Danwakai, 1955, 69 pp. A listing of papers published in 1953 and books published from 1943to1953is given. Part I deals with books, Part II with general climatology and Part III with regional climatology. 7. Kisho Gakkai A (The Meteorological Society of Japan), Kishoshushi no bunken mokuroku, t (Index to the Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 1923-1956), Nihon Kisho Gakkai, 1959, 193 pp. This is a listing of articles and reports published in the Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, arranged in accordance with the U. D. C. system. For 1923 to 1956, 2837 papers are listed. 8. Mombusho Daigaku Gakujutsukyoku X^^A $'[^., Gakujutsu tosho sogomokuroku, jimbunchirigaku Obunhen,t^^ [,^-^/k^,g ^ E..AT (Bibliography of human geography in Western languages), Tokyo, Nihon Gakujutsu Shinkokai, 1961, 326 pp. This work is a complete list of Western books in human geography in the libraries of 81 universities in Japan, which is arranged in alphabetical order by author, location of university, library, and department. 9. Mombusho Gakujutsukyoku ~. f~,ed., Ajia chiiki sogo kenkyu bunken mokuroku dai yonkan rsI V Ad,^ +X t^ t X ^ M (Union catalogue of Asian studies, vol. 4), Tokyo, Nihon Gakujutsu Shinkokai, 1962, 153 pp. Since 1957 the Research Program of Asian Studies has been collecting publications related to Asia. The Program is supported by the Science Research Fund and the Ministry of Education. Vol. 4 is the bibliography for the year of 1961. In it are contained sections on political science, economics, sociology, language and religion, and geography. The geographical areas covered are East Asia, Southeast Asia, India, West Asia, North Africa, and Soviet Asia. 10. Nihon Chirigakaif 1/]~ ~~ (Association of Japanese Geographers), Kike henka ni kansuru bunken gaiyo shoyaku shu. i& o (Abstracts of papers on climatic changes) Tokyo, Nihon Chiri Gakkai, 1962, 240 pp. Abstracts of 831 articles on climatic changes in Western languages are collected here. The dates of publication range from 1800 to recent years. An index of authors is attached. 11. Nihon Chiri Gakkai Toshika Kenkyu Iinkai Bpl~ f, F T^ ~ [-MA (Committee for the Study of Urbanization, Association of Japanese Geographers), Toshika kenkyu shiryo j~If t t (Materials for the study of urbanization), Tokyo, Nihon Chiri Gakkai, 1959, 65 pp. A committee was organized from the Association of Japanese Geographers for the study of urbanization. This booklet was compiled for geographers interested in urban geography. The contents include a bibliography, a short summary of the opinions of Western urban geographers, and a list of research problems of Association membeds. 12. Norin Suisan Gijutsu Kaigi Kiko Bunkakai K/S4$' Shokiko chosani kansuru gaikoku bunken mokuroku [t ^ ]] < (A bibliography of foreign publications on micro-climate), Norin Suisan Gijutsu Kaigi, 1958, 39 PP. The Technological Council of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has been interested in obtaining an analysis method on climate as a standard for the evaluation of agricultural land. This bibliography was compiled by a subcommittee on climate. Publications in the field of micro-climate published abroad are classified by the names of the authors. 13. Suimon Chishitsu Kenkyukai A e Mitt s (Society for Hydrology and Geology ), ed., Chikasui onsen bunken mokuroku t (Bibliography of ground water and hot springs), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1958, 124 pp. This is a bibliography of papers published by Japanese on ground water and hot springs through the end of 1955. The listings are classified by item and by region, As related fields, geography, geology, chemistry, biology, and agriculture are included. At the end of the volume there is a list of books on these fields published both in Japan and abroad.

Encyclopedias, Dictionaries and Gazetteers, and Travel Guides


pp. 3-4

Page  3 ENCYCLOPEDIAS, DICTIONARIES AND GAZETTEERS, AND TRAVEL GUIDES 3 CHAPTER II ENCYCLOPEDIAS, DICTIONARIES AND GAZETTEERS, AND TRAVEL GUIDES Almost all Japanese encyclopedias, dictionaries, and gazeteers contain some data of interest to the geographer. It is impractical to attempt to list them all here. Only those with a definite geographical emphasis are included. In the case of specialized studies, reference should be made to the appropriate categories in the other bibliographies of this series, e. g., those listed in the section on historical geography in John W. Hall's Japanese history: a guide to Japanese reference and research materials. The Western geographer in his studies of Japan will find constant need for these types of reference material. This is particularly true as regards place names, local terminology, and the scholarly terminology in use at any one period. The Japanese, fortunately, have a strong tradition as compilers of such reference materials, and aids can be found in almost all areas of interest to the geographer. The Japanese have also long been prolific producers of travel guides, items alsays of interest to the geographer. Many are but slightly modified copies of previous publications. Many were designed for limited and short-time circulation and are not especially useful. The attempt has been made here to select tne most important ones for listing and comment. 14. Sokuryo Jiten Henshu Iinkai la, C~ t (The Compilation Committee for a Dictionary of Surveying), Sokuryo Jiten 'Bit (Dictionary of surveying), Tokyo, Morikita Shuppan, 1965, 185 pp. The Compilation Committee consists of the members of the Geographical Survey Institute, the Bureau of Land Survey, and the School of Engineering at Chuo University. In this dictionary, about 2,500 items are arranged in the order of the Japanese alphabet, and comments averaging 200 words are given. The items are indicated first in kana, then in Chinese characters, finally in English. Indexes in Japanese and in English are attached at the end of this volume. Recent developments in photogrammetry and in the use of electric and magnetic waves are treated with care. A. General 15. Heibonsha Ts, ed., Sekai daihyakka jiten is Lk (World encyclopedia), Tokyo, Heibonsha, 1955-1958, 32 v. This is the largest and most comprehensive of the modern Japanese encyclopedias. Volume 31 includes 264 pages of supplements and 134 pages of appendices consisting of historical and geographical tables. Volume 32 is a complete index. Geography is the largest of the classified divisions of contents. Continents, countries, and cities are handled in detail, and five color maps are attached to the more important of them. Many topics other than geography also contain geographical or semi-geographical information, especially those on natural history, population, industry, etc. The contents have been partially revised, and later editions appear in different numbers of volumes. 16. Iimoto Nobuyuki j ~ '4t 4 ed., Nihon chiri jiten (A dictionary of Japaneese geography), Tokyo, Seibundo Shinkosha, 1957,414 pp. This regional geography of Japan is written by 16 contributors for the purpose of compiling a reference book for teachers of social studies. Systematic descriptions and a detailed index enable the use of this volume as a dictionary. 17. Kishogaku Handobukku Henshu Iinkai 1 j\'^7 \ T7AtA (Committee for the Compilation of a Handbook on Meteorology), ed., Kishogaku handobukku\ p \ 7-.y 7 (Handbook of meteorology), Gishodo, 1959, 1374 pp. This work consists of four parts: Part one is a general outline text of meteorology; part two deals with weather forecasting; part three is on applied meteorology and climatology with abundant reference to the climate of Jpaan; part four consists of climatic and mathematical tables. 18. Minami Ryosaburo, et al., f,9-, Jinko daijiten A nK ~ (A dictionary of population), Tokyo, Heibonsha, 1 7, 940 pp. This dictionary on population and population problems is edited by twenty authors. The contents are classified into four fields: statistics, economics, sociology, and biology. Each of the twelve chapters consists of 10 to 20 sections based on a problematic approach. At the end of the volume are a detailed index, statistical tables, population maps, and a list of reference materials.

Page  4 4 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY B. Place Name Dictionaries 19. Kagami Kanji ~ 1, Nihon chimeigaku (kagaku-hen) 3c [( %tX (The study of Japanese place names: scientific section), Nihon Chimeigaku Kenkyujo, 1957, 406 pp. The author has found out that there are regional characteristics in the distribution of place names and that linguistic changes of pronunciation are associated with chronological changes of place names. From an analysis of root forms of place names, 20 fossil names are obtained, and five culture regions based on place names are defined. The phenomena of diffusion, shrinking, splitting and agglomeration of place names are left to be clarified by future study. 20. Nihon Hoso Kyokai, 13/ ~am- (Japan Broadcasting Corporation), Gaikoku chimei hatsuon jiten M15 - Ahvkl A (Dictionary of the pronunciation of foreign place names), Tokyo, Nihon Hoso Kyokai, 1956, 522 pp. An enlarged revision of the 1950 edition. 18,000 place names are listed, excluding Japan, China and Korea. The representation of pronunciation in kana as closely as possible to pronunciation in the respective country is the objective. Customary pronunciations are also adopted. Names of countries, states, cities with populations of more than 5,000, mountains, rivers, lakes, capes, islands, etc. are included. Generally speaking, however, emphasis is this connection falls on the former items. C. Travel Guides 21. Haga Hideo f,, Hikyo ryoko A a X (A guide to little-known countrysides), Akimoto Shobo, 1963, 255 pp. This is a guide for tourists who are interested in visiting the countryside not yet spoiled by crowding. Seventeen places are chosen from Nosappu and Abashiri districts in Hokkaido and Osorezan in the Shimokita Peninsula in the north, to Okino-erabu and Kutaka Islands in the south. History, geography, peculiar local customs, and legends are described with maps and illustrations. 22. Hokkaido Rimmubu t L ' ^i? (Branch of Forestry, Hokkaido Prefectural Government), ed., Doritsu koen J ] (Prefectural Parks in Hokkaido), Kanko Hokkaidosha, 1958, 130 pp. There are seven prefectural parks in Hokkaido: Onuma, Niseko, Furano-Ashibetsu, Erimo, Abashiri, Akkeshi, and Rishiri-Rebun Islands. For each of the areas, there are chapters on landforms and geology, plants and animals, weather, archeology, and legends. The contents are scientifically based on new research. Descriptions of plant landscape are especially detailed. 23. Ishida Tatsujiro i ~ t v I and Wakamori Taro ~UX, ed., Hokkaidosen (The Hokkaido line), Tokyo, Shudosha, 1961, 346 pp. This is a guide-book with many illustrations including color pictures. The island is divided into four regions: southern, central, northern, and eastern Hokkaido which are described respectively. Seasons in Hokkaido, natural life, and characteristic patterns of human life are described in essay style. 24. Ito Shoichi j --, Kurobe keikoku to Kumonotaira l ^T5 Xv'/ (The Kurobe Valley and Kumonotaira), T5ky5, Yamato Keikokusha, 1962, 158 pp. A guide-book mainly for the upper valley of the Kurobe. The contents cover the natural history of this area including landforms and climate. The descriptions are accurate and scientific. The work is illustrated with many photos. 25. Kaji Reiki A X, Okutama to Daibosatsu no tabi!, (Trips to Okutama and Daibosatsu), TOkyo, Yamato Keikokusha, 192, 222 pp. This is a guide-book for trips to the upper Tama Valley and the Daibosatsu Pass in Tokyo and Yamanashi Prefectures. The contents include systematic and accurate descriptions of the natural history and physical geography of this area. 26. Koda Kiyoki _ -, Nihon no dammen: Tokaido no tabi (A trip on the Tokaido Line: a cross-section of Japan), Tokyo, Koshunkaku, 1959, 108 pp. This is a travel guide written bya geographer. Landscapes observed from a train window on the Tokaido line from Tokyo to Osaka, including Kyoto and Nara, are explained. Route maps and photos are inserted. 27. Nihon Shugaku Ryoko Kyokai g/j (Jaoan Society for School Excursions), Shaso gakushu: Tokaido-sen (Studies from a train window: Tokaido line), Nihon Shugaku Ryoko Kyokai, 1963, 150 pp. This is a guide-book for school excursions. For each of the railroad stations on the Tokaido line from Tokyo to Kobe the geography and the history of adjacent areas are described. Descriotions cover the nature, production, society, culture and liter

Page  5 YEARBOOKS, COLLECTIONS OF STATISTICS, AND CENSUSES 5 ature related to the areas. 28. Oide Kyoichi af-, Sanriku to Shimokita ~ t 9T, (The Sanriku Coast and the Shimokita Peninsula), T5kyo, Jitsugyo no Nihonsha, 1962, 184 pp. The rias coast of Sanriku and the northern peninsula of Shimokita are chosen as less-known areas in Tohoku. This is a guidebook for the two regions and Hiraizumi with its ancient temple, Chusonji. Besides a general description of the areas, travel plans and an estimate of expenses are included. 29. Sangyo Shimbunsha Shakaibu X| 1|^ gfc2j2 (Editorial Section, The Industrial News), ed., Tokyo fudozu yon t,_~L- ) (A guidebook to suburban Tokyo, v. 4) Tokyo, Shakai Shiso Kenkyukai, 1962, 436 pp. This work is a guidebook in essay style on Tokyo Prefecture outside the metropolitan area. There are descriptions of the outskirts of urban Tokyo and the Izu Islands. The regional material was collected by teachers of elementary schools. 30. Tanioka Takeo Ad]3, ed., Kyoto p (Kyoto), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1961, 216 pp. This is a geographical guidebook of Kyoto. In a comparison of Kyoto with Paris, the city plan and specific areas in the city are described by means of geographical analysis of the citizens' daily life, festivals, shops and traditional industry, and the modernization of the city. The analysis also covers the suburbs of Kyoto. 31. Watanabe Kohei, Shinano no tabi a ~ (Trips in Shinano Province), Tokyo, Shakai Shisosha, 1962, 272 pp. A collection of travel records in Shinano Province, Nagano Prefecture, is given in this work. Topics cover history, legends, industry, tourism, and transportation. Descriptions are given by region, such as the foothills of the Asama Volcano, the area along the Chikuma River, the Shiga Plateau, and the Ina and Kiso Valleys. The work is illustrated with many photos.

Yearbooks, Collections of Statistics, and Censuses


pp. 5-9

Page  5 CHAPTER III YEARBOOKS, COLLECTIONS OF STATISTICS, AND CENSUSES The geographer most frequently turns to yearbooks and to statistical and census publications for his quantitative data. The breadth of geography is such that almost all publications of this sort contain some data pertinent to the subject. The selection of items here listed was based upon availability and largest value to the geographer. The Japanese are energetic collectors of this type of quantitative data. As in other countries, the practical problems of publication compel the grouping of local statistics into larger political wholes. This is seldom satisfactory to the geographer. Fortunately, local government units usually preserve these materials and they are available for field study. This is often true at the buraku level, and almost always so in the mura offices. One troublesome problem is that the categories for collection change very frequently and it is difficult to make comparative studies. Another is that the statistical services were interrupted or stopped by pre-war security regulations, by war time curtailment, and by change and adjustment during the occupation. If possible one should find the answer to the question, "Why and for whom were these particular statistics produced?" Changes in minor political divisions have been so numerous in recent years that the use of local statistics have become very different in many areas. 32. G_ yosei Kanricho \ t A I X (Administrative Management Agency), Nihon hyojun sangyo bunrui Ad ft t11 A (Japanese standard classification of industries), Tokyo, Gyosei Kanricho, 1964, vol. 1, 472 pp. In this study industries are classified according to their various economic activities. The object of this classification is to define the nature of the respective industry and use the information as a statistic. The decimal system is adopted and there are four stages of classification: major, medium, minor, and subdivisions. The classification of industries in Japan was first carried out in 1930, and was revised in 1940. The system was perfected after the war in 1949, in association with international statistical activities. Minor revisions were made in 1951, 1953, 1954, 1957, and 1963.

Page  6 6 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 33. Hitotsubashi Daigaku Keizai Kenkyujo 1 (The Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University), Kaisetsu Nihon keizai tokei S h o ^Tni^ e (Japanese economic statistics with commentary), Toky5, Iwanami Shoten no. 1, 1953, 207 pp.; no. 2, 1961, 192 pp. The first edition was published in 1953. This is a revised and enlarged edition. Economic statistics since 1929 are included with annotations and suggestions for their use. Items included are: income, labor, production, commerce, foreign trade, transportation wages, household economy, money circulation, and national treasury. For each of the statistics suggestions for its use and comments on the statistics and literature are attached. 34. Hitotsubashi Daigaku Keizai Kenkyujo - t T (The Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University), Kaisetsu Nihon keizai tokei v X jy -W ~ (Japanese economic statistics with commentary), Toky5, Iwanami Shoten, 1961, 192 pp. This is a continuation of a book published in 1953 under the same title. The 1953 edition gave statistics before and during World War II. This edition gives the postwar statistics. There are thirteen chapters: 1) national income and wealth, 2) population and labor, 3) agriculture, forestry and fishery, 4) mining and manufacturing, 5) commerce, 6) enterprises and business institutions, 7) international trade and trade balance, 8) transportation, 9) prices, 10) employment and wages, 11) consumption and household economy, 12) currency and circulation, and 13) treasury. Each chapter contains statistics with explanatory comments. 35. Kiuchi Shinzo ~]~,, Takeuchi Jogyo Yyt, Nakano Takamasa If )', and Yazawa Taiji K _, ed., Chiri nempyo i (A year-book of geography), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1958, 286 pp. Part one deals with physical geography, including the earth, the oceans, mountains, rivers, etc., as well as vegetation, soils and climate. Part two deals with human geography, including agriculture, animal husbandry, fishery, mining, manufacturing, nations, cities, population, international trades, and traffic. Statistics and other important information are given in 111 tables and 70 figures. Information about Japan is usually given by prefecture. 36 Kiuchi Shinzo tt${,:, Takeuchi Jogyo ^^ d, Nakano Takamasa ~ t [, and Yazawa Taiji j., ed., Chiri nempyo $ Ot;> (A dictionary ofgeography ), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1958, 1960, 264 pp. Statistics useful for geographical study and education are collected. There are two parts. Part one covers physical geography and is divided into sections on the globe, oceans, mountains, glaciers, lowlands, rivers, lakes, vegetation, climates, and natural disasters. Part two, human geography, is subdivided into agriculture, stock farming, fishery, forestry, mining, industry, electricity, countries, cities, population, trade, and traffic. 37. Kokumin Jichi Nenkan Henshu Iinkai (Committee for the Compilation of a Yearbook of Self-government), Kokumin jichi nenkan 1]93 6 (Yearbook of self-government), Tokyo, Nihon Shakaito Kikanshikyoku, 1963, 3 60 pp. Information about policies and activities of the central government, prefectures and municipalities, and various local organizations are compiled in the form of a yearbook. In part one, the problems of local autonomous bodies are classified according to their relationship to the central government. Part two deals with the policies and problems of individual local governments. Part three consists of tables, directories and a list of publications related to local governments. 38. K~oseisho Tokei Chosabu X ^^^lit P (Welfare Ministry Statistical Investigation Department), Jinko dotai tokei nempo A, L (Annual reports of vital statistics), 1872-, irregular; 1949-, annual; not for sale. Population census of births and deaths has been carried on since 1872. Later, divorces and still-births were added, and by 1922 a basis for vital statistics was established. In 1947 the supervision of this matter was transferred from the Bureau of Statistics in the Office of the Prime Minister to the Ministry of Public Welfare. All reports of births, deaths, etc. are sent to the Ministry of Public Welfare and the statistics are published as monthly reports of vital statistics. The annual report is the summary of these reports. 39. Kotsu Kyoryokukai - - (Cooperative Society for Traffic), Kotsu nenkan I j AA4t (The traffic yearbook), Tokyo, Kotsu Kyoryokukai Shuppambu, 1947- annual; 1-58 ed., 628 pp. This is the only existing yearbook in Japan concerning traffic and transportation. Statistics and basic data concerning the national railroads, private railroads, automobiles, airlines, marine transportation, and tourism are given.

Page  7 YEARBOOKS, COLLECTIONS OF STATISTICS, AND CENSUSES 7 40. Minobe Ryokichi -yft ' and Matsukawa Shichiro ~1)1lt_, Tokeichosa soran ^<iSth+s Q, (A comprehensive glossary of statistics), Tokyo, TBy5 Keizai Shimposha, 1956, 466 pp. A comprehensive explanation of general statistics prepared by government offices and labor unions during the period 1951-55. The contents include not only the information about the statistics but also an explanation of background, method, ways in which the statistics were published, etc. There is an attached appendix of statistics authorized by the government. This is a sequence to a guide book of statistical research published by Toyo Keizai Shimposha in 1951 which contained statistics prepared from 1945 to 1950. 41. Nihon Kogyo Ritchi Senta A t (Japanese Industrial Sites Center), Chiiki kaihatsu kankei shiryoshu o _' s (Data on regional development), T5ky5 Nihon Kogyo Ritchi Senta, 1962, 193 pp. Regional development became one of the most important policies in postwar Japan. It is related to various aspects of economy, industry, administration, society, etc. The purpose of this book is to supply basic material for the study of problems of regional development. The contents include an explanation of governmental programs for regional development, for example, appropriate arrangement of the manufacturing industry (Ministry of Commerce and Industry), regional planning of national land (Economic Planning Board), new industrial city acts, etc. 42. Nihon Tokei Kenkyujo 9^ lf (Japan Institute of Statistics), Nihon keizai tokeishu: Meiji, Taisho, Showa. ) -tf- B ' (Economic statistics of Japan from the Meiji to the Showa era), Tokyo, Nihon Hyoron Shinsha, 1958, 407 pp. All kinds of statistics on modern Japan from the Meiji Era until 1956 are listed with annotations. They are classified into land, population, branches of industry, transportation, labor, income, etc. Statistics on former colonies are discussed in an independent chapter. A bibliography of statistics for 1867 to 1957 arranged chronologically is attached as an appendix. 43. Norinsho Norin Keizai-kyoku Tokeichosa-bu XA A' A ^W (Statistics and Survey Division, Agricultural Economics Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry), Dai sanji gyogyo sensasu shichoson betsu hokokusho - _ 11MVJ 4 (The report of the third fishery census by city, town and village), Tokyo, Norin Tokei Kyokai, 1964, 9 vols. Unlike former censuses, in which the main emphasis was on fish production, the third fishery census in 1958 included both production and the circulation of products. This is the most important source of information about the fisheries of Japan and their areal structures. Main survey items include the kinds of fisheries, statistics on fishing boats, fishing seasons, working days and hours, kinds of catches, working and selling of fishing products, and the physical, social and economic structures of fishing areas. 44. Norinsho Norin Keizaikyoku Tokei Chosabu tg ^ I^ '-^H (Statistics and Survey Division, Agricultural Economics Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry), 1960 nen sekai noringyo sansasu hokokusho /_/o 1sttts->ff ^ (Reports on the 1960 world census of agriculture and forestry), Tokyo, Norin Tokei Kyokai, 1950-, 46 vols,, about 600 pp. each. In accordance with the recommendation of the FAO, the first world census of agriculture and forestry was carried out in 1950. In Japan this was done in conjunction with a basic survey of agriculture which is carried out every five years. In the second census forestry and agricultural settlements are included. The report is divided into 1) preparatory survey, 2) agricultural households, 3) agricultural settlements, and 4) forestry. Based on this survey, reports were published on agricultural households, agricultural settlements, forest regions, agricultural regions by economic district, and agricultural statistics by administrative unit. A report was also published in English. 45. No Norinsho Tokei Chosabu 4 (Statistics and Survey Division, Ministry of Agriculture), ed., Suito chitai betsu seisanryoku zusetsu If hX~lJ (Graphic summary of rice productivity by region), Nosei Chosa Iinkai, 1963, 188 pp. Although rice farming is found all over Japan, there are specific regional variations. A survey was made on the percentage of rice fields to the total arable land, acreage of cropped fields, the seasons of transplantation and harvest, number of plants ina tsubo, yield per tsubo, number of households, labor, animals, power, conditions of seed-beds, etc. Japan is divided into several regions based on the results of the survey, and the rice farming in each region is described with the help of many tables and statistics.

Page  8 8 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 46. Eato Shinlichi 4t*4 Todofuken minryoku sokutei shiryoshu W[R'% y(kj*fiv^x~ (Statistical data and indexes for estimating wealth by prefecture), Tokyo, Asahi Shuppan Kabushiki Kaisha, 1960-, annual. From the statistics of Japanese population, land, industry, culture, economy, transportation and correspondence, 48 items are chosen and figures and coefficients per mile of the total of the nation are listed for the forty-six prefectures. From a manipulation of these figures, each prefecture is represented by figures which are percentages of the total of the nation. 47. Sekai Keizai Chosakai A ~g a (World Economy Research Institute), Sekai shigen nenkan, 1959 nemban ~ [)~ /9&7V (A yearbook of world resources, 1959 edition), Sekai Keizai Chosakai. The most recent statistics available in 1958 in Japan are listed with annotations and explanations. The contents are classified into the following ten categories: energy, metal mining, non-metal mining, agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishery, oils and fats, fiber, and others. For each of the ten categories a general remark is given. Generally speaking, the remarks are based on the economy in 1958, but the statistics used are for 1956-57. As an appendix, general statistics concerning the population, area, international trade, etc. are attached. 48. Semmon Toshokan Kyogikaj;-~ A1e~n ~Jra (Council of Specialized Libraries), Nihon tokei sosakuin ';$ kl^Tf| (A general index for Japanese statistics), Tokyo, Toyo Keizai Shimposha, 1959, 14b3 pp. Statistics published by government offices, private enterprises, and institutions are listed with annotations. The form used is: 1) the name of the statistic, 2) the date of or the interval of the survey, 3) outline of the contents, 4) name of the survey, 5) name of the institution which carried out the survey, and 6) sources. This is one of the largest and most useful reference books for information about Japanese statistics. 49. Sorifu Tokeikyoku (Statistical Bureau of the Prime Minister's Office), Jigyosho Tokeichosa hokoku 0tt t (Establish:lent census of Japan), Tokyo, Nihon Tokei Kyokai, 1947,1951-, (every third year); 1960 ed., v. 1, 625 pp.; v. 2, 367 pp.; v. 3, in 46 volumes of about 50 pp. each; v. 5, 348 pp.; v. 6, 378 pp. An establishment census is carried out once every three years; its purpose is to record the distribution and activity of all kinds of establishments as a unit of social and economic activity. The first census was in 1947, the second in 1951, and since then one has been carried out regularly every three years. Establishments of agriculture, forestry, fishery, and government are not included. The management system, the nature of the activity, capital, and the number of employees are listed f-.r establishments of economic activity. The reports consist of five to six volumes, and are divided into volumes covering all of Japan, i. e., prefectures, services, commentary, etc. After 1957 the volume on commentary includes a section of regional analysis dealing with the nature and activity of establishments. 50. Sorifu Tokeikyoku - j? (Statistical Bureau of the Prime Minister's Office), Kokusei chosa hokoku A4 -EX (Population census of Japan), Tokyo, Nihon Tokei Kyokai, 1920, 1925, 1930, 1940, 1947, 1950-, every five years thereafter; 1950 census, v. 1 370 pp.; v. 2, 192+476+458 pp.; v. 3, 280+430 pp.; v. 4, 760+592 pp.; v. 5, 46 books of about 300 pp. each; v. 6, 604 pp. This is the report on the national census which has been carried out since 1920. The main objectives of the census are to clarify the distribution of population, age structure, and industrial structure. The items surveyed in the 1960 census were: name, sex, date of birth, marriage, employment, industry, occupation, address, etc. The records are classified into volumes on Japan as a whole, on prefectures, and on explanations. After 1955 the explanatory volumes are entitled Population of Japan, and the contents are a very detailed analysis of the trends of population changes in Japan. 51. Sorifu Tokeikyoku j. ~ l t (Statistical Bureau of the Prime Minister's Office), Nihon tokei nenkan 1^ tt (Japan statistical yearbook), Tokyo, Nihon Tokei Kyokai and Mainichi Shimbunsha, 1950-, annual. All official statistics between 1882 and 1940 were published as the Nippon Teikoku Tokei Nenkan (The Japanese Empire Statistical Yearbook). In 1949 it was reinaugurated under the present title and a supplement of statistics which were not published during the war was added. The first issue after the reinauguration contained sta.tistics on war destruction. They were discussed under five headings: area, population, economy, society, and culture. All items are listed in both Japanese and English.

Page  9 YEARBOOKS, COLLECTIONS OF STATISTICS, AND CENSUSES 9 52. Sorifu Tokeikyoku 11r T okk A (Statistical Bureau of the Prime Minister's Office), Rodoryoku chosa hokoku YP * P t 1 ((Monthly report on the labor force survey), Tokyo, Nihon Tokei Kyokai, September 1946-, monthly; 40 pp. each, not for sale. The survey has been continued since 1946 by the Prime Minister's Office. In 1950 the Bureau of Statistics was established and has taken over the survey. The method is one of a sampling survey. In the survey of December 1963, the ratio of sampling was 1:750. The survey is made on household members above fifteen years of age and concerns their working hours, position, occupation, kind of industry, system, and scale of management of employer. Office), Shugyo kozo kihon chosa hokoku 'a l (The report on the basic survey of employment status), T5kyo, Nihon Tokei Kyokai, 1956-, every third year. A basic survey of employment has been carried out every three years since 1956. The national census and a survey of labor are used for determining the labor census. In this survey area emphasis is made to determine the status of imperfect employment and the migration of labor. By the sampling method, members of households in the survey area who were above fifteen years of age were considered as objects for the study. The rate of sampling was 1:100. Main items in the survey were occupation, industry, employment position, the system and scale of the enterprise, and the location and length of the management. 54. Tokyo Temmondai ~)A, (Tokyo Astronomical Observatory), Rika nempyo f (A yearbook of science), Tokyo, Maruzen Kabushiki Kaisha, 1928-, annual; 1964 ed., 700 pp. Recent editions with over 700 pages consist of five sections: 1) the calendar, 2) astronomy, 3) meteorology, 4) physics and chemistry, and 5) earth sciences. Leading specialists contribute the various parts. For sections one and two, data from the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory, and for section three, data from the Japan Meteorological Agency is used. This is a physical sciences publication intended for students and teachers. It summarizes standard information and covers recent developments in the respective fields. The articles on the earth sciences pertain to earth magnetism, gravity, seismology, mineralogy, physical geography, and other phases of geology and geophysics. 55. Tsusho Sangyosho Chosa Tokeibu,XX Ate (Research and Statistical Division, Ministry of International Trade and Industry), Kogyo tokei gojunen shi t19K 'I^-Vt (History of censuses of manufacturing industries for 1909-1958), v. 1 (1961), 866 pp.; v. 2 (1962), 437 pp.; v. 3 (1963), 219 pp. Statistics of the Japanese manufacturing industry for the period of 1909 to 1958 are compiled in three volumes. Volumes one and two consist of statistics on the division of industry and on the kind of goods produced. Volume three is an explanation in which the half-century is classified into eight periods. Descriptions of the changes in the industrial and regional structure of Japanese manufacturing are also given. 56. Tsusho Sangyosho Chosa Tokeibu ~ __ _ (Research and Statistical Division, Ministry of International Trade and Industry), Kogyo tokeihyo 1,t (The report of the census of manufacturing), Okurasho Insatsukyoku, 1909, 1914, 1919,1920-; 1962 ed., 2v., 360+338 pp. In this report, all the factories in Japan, their total output, the amount of raw materials used, and added values are surveyed and summarized by region and by type of manufacture. The census was first carried out in 1909, then in 1914, 1919, and annualy thereafter. The items surveyed are: the amount of capital, management, number of employees by month and by sex, raw materials, fuel consumed and in stock, production output and stock. 57. Tsusho Sangyosho Chosa Tokeibu if t (Research and Statistical Division, Ministry of International Trade and Industry), Shogyo tokei hyo i/ (Report on the census of commerce), Okurasho Insatsukyoku, 1952-, every other year; 1958 ed., 3 v., 393+601+465 pp. This report has been published every other year since 1952. It deals with the distribution of merchants and the activities of commercial institutions with a special emphasis on the amount of sale. The main items of the survey are: the number of shops, management systems, the number of employees, the place of purchase, the amount of sale, and the amount of stock. The work consists of three volumes, one for the branches of industry and two for merchandise.

Page  10 10 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 58. Yano Tsuneta Kinenkai ~t (Yano Tsuneta Memorial Association), Nihon kokusei zue fi (Statistical explanation of conditions in Japan), Tokyo, Kokuseisha, 1927-1954, every two or three years; 1955-, annual; 1963 ed., 526 pp. A useful reference work, this is a general statistical yearbook compiled first by Yano Tsuneta, and, after his death, by an editorial committee. Data is derived largely from official sources. It differs from governmental statistical publications in providing a textual and graphic summary of each table or set of figures. The volume covers domestic and foreign trade, industrial production, resources and agriculture, finance, transportation and communication, education and sanitation, labor and social conditions, geographical facts, etc. Comparative statistics for foreign countries are often included. Recent issues are a little over 500 pages long. 59. Zenkoku Shchokai 2V -&k (Japan Association of City Mayors), Nihon toshi nenkan ], ppt (Municipal yearbook of Japan), Tokyo, Inoue Shobo, 1955-, annual; 1962 ed., 58 pp. When the first issue appeared in 1931 there were 110 shi in Japan, but in 1962 the number was 557. Most of the increase was the result of amalgamation of municipalities since 1953. In the yearbook, statistics are arranged by municipality, and they cover various items such as population, industry, economy, traffic, education, residence, society, and public enterprises. Due to the increase of cities, the content has become less detailed than in earlier issues, but this is still a useful reference in understanding Japanese cities.

Sets and Collections


pp. 10-12

Page  10 CHAPTER IV SETS AND COLLECTIONS The decade of 1930-40 was a highly accelerated period for geographical research and publication in Japan. Many sets of books appeared in this period covering the geography of Japan as a whole. It would seem that enough local and regional studies had been made in the preceding years to allow broader generalization to be valid. There were also sets covering the world or large parts thereof. Some were by single authors, others by several authors. These sets on Japan are still the basic sources of material for the general geography of Japan. Some new sets have appeared since the war but for the most part they show no fundamental improvement over the older ones in either quality or amount of information, except that statistical and like data are more up to date. This category also includes sets and single volumes of collections of scholarly lectures and essays. Some are entirely by professional geographers while others include the work of other scholars whose interests penetrate or at least touch upon the field of geography. They contain some excellent work. In general these publications are not too well organized and rarely has there been any attempt at integration. 60. Arisawa Hiromi ~t x, Gendai Nihon sangyo koza \1JA$ WA*A (Series on the industries of modern Japan), Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1959-60, 8 v. This work consists of eight volumes contributed by thirty-six economists. All aspects of the Japanese mining and manufacturing industry are discussed. In volume one, the growth of Japanese industry from the 1860's to World War II is summarized, and the reconstruction and growth after the war are explained in detail. In volumes two to seven, various branches of industry are dealt with: steel and non-ferric metals (vol. 2); electricity, coal, and petroleum (vol. 3); chemical industry (vol. 4); machine industry (vols. 5 and 6); and textile industry (vol. 7). Volume eight is a summary in which problems of Japanese industry such as technology, capital, labor, market, and industrial structure are analyzed. 61. Chihoshi Kenkyu Kyogikai K tM t i iA, Nihon sangyoshi taikei SA ^ (Series on history of Japanese local industries), Tokyo, Toky5 Daigaku Shuppankai, 1959-1961, 8 v. Traditional industries other than agriculture carried on in Japan before the establishment of modern industries are discussed. Although many such local industries originated in ancient and medieval ages, emphasis is placed on the modern age and the early Meiji era when those industries were most prosperous. Volume one is a general text, and the othervolumes deal with Hokkaido,Tohoku, Kanto, Chubu, kinki, Chugoku and Shikoku, and Kyushu respectively.

Page  11 SETS AND COLLECTIONS 11 62. Fujioka Kenjiro f t - and others, ed., Nihon chishi seminaru V "ItIJ (seminar on regional geography of Japan), Tokyo, TaimeidO, 1960-1963, 8 v. Regional geography of Japan is described in an orthodox style. The districts of Japan are described by ten to twenty authors, each covering important problems in the respective regions. Volume one covers all Japan and Tokyo; volume two, Tohoku and Hokkaido; volume three, the Kanto district; Volume four, Chubu's Japan Sea coast and Nagano prefecture; volume five, the Pacific coast of Chubu; volume six, the Kinki district; volume seven, the Chugoku and Shikoku districts; and volume eight, Kyushu. 63. Iwanami Shoten Henshubu ~}^%^^, ed., Nihon no chiri ~~)~~ (Geography of Japan), Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1961-62, 8 v. The compilation of this series was carried out through the cooperation of about one hundred authors including geographers, sociologists, economists, and engineers. The approach is problem-centered and somewhat journalistic. Volumes are abundantly illustrated and include air photos and colored pictures. Contents of the set are as follows: volume one, Hokkaido; volume two, Tohoku; volume three, Kanto; volume four, Chubu; volume five, Kinki; volume six, Chugoku and Shikoku; volume seven, Kyushu; and volume eight, general. 6 4. Kiuchi Shinzo %0A 14 t ', Fujioka Kenjiro X -X, and Yajima Jinkichi 1M_ d, ed., Shuraku chiri koza ~; ~.~. (Lectures on settlement geography), Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1957-59, 4 v. Volumes one and two are on methodology and general principles of settlement geography, and volumes three and four are regional descriptions of settlements in Japan and the world, respectively. The articles deal with both rural settlements and urban geography, and show the influence of recent trends in settlement geography. 65. Mori Shikaz~o - and Oda Takeo ~M _ 4t, ed., Rekishichiri koza t AikAS-/~. (Lectures on historical geography), Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1959-1960, 3 v. Historical geography is here considered as a study of historical changes in the relationship between environment and men, or as the historical development of cultural landscape. Volume one covers general material and Europe. Volume two is on Asia and the New World. Volume three is on Japan. There are some noteworthy studies on Japan and on some parts of East Asia. The treatments of other regions are superficial. 66. Nihon Kaiyo Gakkai A_ A t ^\ (Oceanographical Society of Japan), ed., Nihon Kaiyo Gakkai soritsu nijusshunen kinen rombunshu f t -t g $ N (Commemorative volume for the twentieth anniversary of the Oceanographical Society of Japan), Nihon Kaiyo Gakkai, 1962, 742 pp. The Oceanographical Society of Japan was founded in 1941, and today the number of its members surpasses five hundred. This is a volume to commemorate its twentieth anniversary. About sixty papers concerning various fields of oceanography are included. There are papers on marine trenches and other submarine topography related to geography. 67. Sorifu Tokeikyoku DiX (Statistical Bureau of the Prime Minister's Office), Showa 35nen kokusei-chosa ni yoru Nihon jinko chizu 3 D 4Z; A/< i_ (Population maps of Japan by the 1960 population census), Tokyo, Nihon Tokei Kyokai, 1963-1964, 9 sheets. After the national census of 1955, the Bureau of Statistics started to prepare population maps based on the results of the census. The contents of the maps are almost the same for the two censuses in 1955 and 1960. They consist of three sets of three sheets for all of Japan. The sets are: 1) Population density by shi, ku, machi, and mura, 2) Population changes by the same unit, and 3) Population density and densely populated areas. The scale of the maps is 1:1,000,000 for all sets. A text ex — plaining the procedures of making these maps and a list of densely populated areas are attached to set 1). 68. Tada Fumio 9 g and Ishida Ryujiro X?, ed., Gendai chiri koza,j)~tjp^ (Lectures on modern geography), Tokyo, Kawade Shobo, 1956-57, 7 v. Unlike former works of this kind, the problem approach was adopted in the compilation of this set. Each volume has a topical problem about which there are several articles by different authors. The merits and also the weakness of this program resulted in the elimination of the last volume, due to the insolvency of the publisher. The titles of the volumes are as follows: volume one, nature and society; volume two, geography of the mountain lands; volume three, geography of the plains; volume four, geography of cities and villages; volume five, geography of the ocean and ground water; volume six, geography of tropics, arctic zones, and inland areas; and volume seven, geography of production.

Page  12 12 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 69. Tada Fumio IVEX, Watanabe Akira, Oda Takeo m A', Ishida Ryujiro J ex >f, Yazawa Taiji ~ }k-, and Irie Toshio \:L \ ed., Gendai sekai chirigaku taikei -' ~ 3 \P (Modern universal geography), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1958-, 21 v. This three-part set is designed to systematize the knowledge of modern geography. Part one (six volumes) deals with physical and applied geography; part two (seven volumes) with history of geography and human geography; and part three (eight volumes) with regional geography. By the end of 1965, nine volumes (geomorphology, climatology, and seven volumes of regional geography) were published. The quality is fairly high, but the profusion of articles written by too many contributors reveals the deficiency of the approach. 70. Tomita Yoshiro Sensei Taikan Kinen Rombunshu Kanko Iinkai WAA XY-L a, W'X 41|]4.4..., ed., Kaihatsu ni kansuru chirigakuteki shomondai t) Mw rI4t f l X t (Geographical problems on regional development), Tkyo, Kokon Shoin, 1959, 232 pp. This is a commemorative volume on the retirement of Professor Yoshiro Tomita from Tohoku University. Twenty-four papers contributed mainly by his students and geographers in Tohoku are included. The problems of regional development or economic geography are emphasized. They are divided into four sections: methods and development in historical periods, environment and land development, industrial development, and cities and population. 71. Tsujimura Taro Sensei Koki Kinen Jigyo Kai ].''X^iJ.X ed., Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshou L l A1A. \ i VS4poXfe (Geographic papers to commemorate the seventieth birthday of Professor Taro Tsujimura), Kokon Shoin, 1961, 650 pp. Professor emeritus of Tokyo University, Taro Tsujimura celebrated his seventieth birthday in 1960; this is a commemorative volume contributed by his students. Fortysix papers are included of which twenty are on geomorphology, seven on climatology, and nineteen in human geography. Areas involved cover not only Japan and Asia but also other parts of the world. 72. Watanabe Akira \x 2I and others, ed., Shin-sekai chiri n ~ *1 (New world geography), Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1954-57, 12 v. In volume one of the set, different regional divisions are discussed, making this volume a kind of methodology of regional geography. Contents of the following volumes are as follows: volume two, Asia as a whole; volume three, China and its environs; volume four, Southeast Asia; volume five, India and Western Asia; volume six, the Soviet realm; volume seven, Europe I; volume eight, Europe II; volume nine, Africa; volume ten, Anglo America; volume eleven, Latin America; and volume twelve, Oceania and the Polar regions.

Periodicals


pp. 12-19

Page  12 CHAPTER V PERIODICALS Japan ranks high among the nations of the world in the number and excellence of its scientific periodicals. A very considerable part of the nation's scientific writing appears in them. Most of these journals are so highly specialized that they have the support of only a limited number of subscribers. As a result they are often short-lived. The material which appears in them is generally not reproduced elsewhere so libraries are compelled to keep many fragmentary sets of now-defunct periodicals. In the field of geography, the journals associated with the foremost academic departments of geography are the most important. Chirigaku hyoron (Geographical review) is now the journal of the Nihon Chiri Gakkai or Association of Japanese Geographers, but it started as the house organ of the Geographical Institute of Tokyo University in 1925. Its publication continues to date and it is still closely bound to Tokyo University. The geographers of Kyoto University launched their journal, Chikyu (The globe), in 1924. Unfortunately, this excellent journal went out of existence in the late 1930s. Since the war Kyoto University has acquired a new geography staff which started a new journal called Jimbun chiri (Human geography) in 1948. Departments of geography in some other universities also have their own journals, notably Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku (formerly Tokyo Bunrika Daigaku) and Tohoku Daigaku. An exception to the rule of university affiliation for research level journals is the Chigaku zasshi or Journal of geography of the Tokyo Geographical Society.

Page  13 PERIODICALS 13 There were a number of other geographical journals before the war which served the needs primarily of grade school teachers. These had large subscription lists and ran over a good many years until the war brought them to an end. These journals cannot be overlooked by the research geographer, for a good many excellent studies appeared in them. 73. Chiba Daigaku Engeigakubu gakujutsu hokoku 'IttP Af?K^ (The technical bulletin of the Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University), Matsudo, Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, 1953-, annual. Papers included are mainly specialized studies in horticulture covering such topics as landscaping, agricultural chemistry, and agriculture as a whole. Some of the papers, especially those dealing with regional problems, are geographical in nature and are valuable sources of geographic information. 74. Chiri J J (Geography), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1956-, monthly. This is the successor to the periodical Chirigaku (entry 106) by the same publisher. The nature of the periodical closely resembles that of its predecessor. Efforts have been made to raise the scientific standard of the content. Besides original studies, current topics of interest to both Japanese and foreign subscribers are included. Issues are abundantly illustrated with photos and maps. 75. Chirigaku kenkyu ~ A 1?/tnM (Geographic studies), Takamatsu, Chirigaku Kenkyukai, 1952-, annual. Takamatsu Chirigaku Kenkyukai, The Takamatsu Geographical Society, was established by geographers attached to Kagawa University. Every year, the members of the Department of Geography select an area as a field of their cooperative study. Results of their study are published in this periodical. Areas selected in the past are Kannonji City, Sakaide City, and an island in the Inland Sea. 76. Chizu ~-jA& ("Map," Journal of the Japan Cartographers' Association), Tokyo, Nihon Kokusai Chizu Gakkai, 1963-, quarterly. This is the journal of the Japan Cartographers' Association. The staff and activities of the Association are closely related to Kokudo Chiriin (Geographical Survey Institute), a fact which more or less weakens the academic nature of this publication. However, it meets academic standards of map representation and projection, and also treats technical problems of cartography. The main papers are supplemented by English abstracts. Current topics and information about new maps are included. Sheets of up-to-date topical maps are attached, most of which are published by the Geographical Survey Institute. 77. Daiyonki kenkyu KSogZ t (Quaternary Research), Tokyo, Nippon Daiyonki Gakkai, 1957-, irregular. The subcommittee of Quaternary Research was organized in 1952 under the Science Council of Japan as a national committee attached to the International Quaternary Research Association. Since 1957 it has been publishing Quaternary Research for the purpose of the exchange of information. The nature of the journal gradually became that of a scientific magazine, but at the same time the publication became less regular. Recently, two special numbers were published. These are on volcanoes and on paleosoils, respectively. Many of the papers are related to Quaternary geology, pedology, paleontology, anthropology, and archeology. 78. Ehime Daigaku kiyo, Shakai Kagaku A. r (Memoirs of the Faculty of Literature and Science of Ehime University: Social Sciences), Matsuyama, Ehime Daigaku, 1959-, annual. In Shakai Kagaku, papers on geography are published in a separate number of their own, and usually fairly long papers are included. They are mostly in agricultural geography and population geography. The papers have English abstracts. 79. Gakujutsu kenkyu I X (Scientific research), Tokyo, Waseda Daigaku Kyoikugakubu (The School of Education, Waseda University), 1952-, annual. Papers are contributed by the Waseda University staff specializing in the human, social, and natural sciences. Each number is about 300 pages long, and consists of twenty to thirty papers, including one or two papers in geography. A list of contents in English is attached. 80 Gifu Daigaku Gakugei Gakubu kenkyu hokoku -~ ~. T 4 tX (Reports of the Faculty of Science, Literature, and General Arts, Gifu University), Gifu, Gifu Daigaku Gakugei Gakubu, 1953-, annual. The reports are published in two parts, the natural sciences and the humanities. One volume is published for each of the two, each being about 150 pages in length and including fifteen to twenty articles. Usually a paper in geography is published in

Page  14 14 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY each of the volumes; namely a paper in physical geography in the natural sciences volume, and another paper in the humanities volume. Papers do not have English abstracts. 81. Hikaku Bunka KenkyHu jltt F t (Annual reports of comparative studies of culture), Tokyo, Department of Humanities, College of General Education, University of Tokyo, 1960-, annual. The College of General Education, Tokyo University, is aiming at the development of inter-disciplinary studies in which scholars in different fields are encouraged to cooperate in studies of common problems. The geographers belonging to the College contribute to this journal, and so far the papers mainly contain discussions of the problems and methods of comparative studies in relation to geography. 82. Hiroshima Daigaku Bungakubu kiyo ^ t t (The Hiroshima University studies, Literature Department), Hiroshima, Hiroshima Daigaku, 1945-, annual. This is a publication contributed by the staff of the Faculty of Literature, Hiroshima University. It is divided into three branches: history, philosophy, and literature. Papers in geography are included as part of the history branch, and they cover mainly physical and historical geography. 83. Hitotsubashi ronso -,ir (The Hitotsubashi review), Tokyo, Hitotsubashi Gakkai, 1938-, monthly. This publication is the organ of the Hfitotsubashi Gakkai, an organization which consists of the staff of Hitotsubashi University. The contents cover almost all fields of the social sciences, but, reflecting the character of the University, most deal with economics. Geographical papers are published only occasionally. 84. Hokkaido Gakugei Daigaku kiyo ~.~A?$ ' (Journal of Hokkaido Gakugei University), Sapporo, Hokkaido Gakugei Daigaku, 1949-, semiannually. Papers by the staff of five campuses scattered around Hokkaido are collected in this journal. In 1949 the journal was started under the name Gakugei, and it was divided into Section A (humanities) and Section B (natural sciences) after volume three in 1951. The name was again changed in 1951 to the present title. Papers on geography are included in Section A. 85. Jimbun kenky-u Vfi (Studies in the humanities; The journal of the Literary Association of Osaka City University), Osaka, The Literary Association of Osaka City Unisity, 1950-, monthly. The Literary Association of Osaka City University was established by members of the University, with members of the Faculty of Literature as the core. This is a monthly publication, and usually there is one issue a year which deals with geography. The papers deal mostly with human geography, and the standard of the contents is high. 86. Jinrui kagaku A j e f (Anthropological science), Tokyo, Kyu Gakkai Rengo, 1948-, annual. Kyu gakkai rengo, or the union of nine scientific associations, consists of the Japan Linguistic Society, the Japan Archeological Society, the Japan Sociological Society, the Japanese Society of Science of Religions, the Japan Psychological Society, the Japan Anthropological Society, the Association of Japanese Geographers, the Japanese Association of Folklore, and the Japanese Association of Ethnology. Every year the union chooses a common topic and an area of common research on which the member associations cooperate. Hitherto, four areas have been chosen as the field of common research. They are Amami Oshima, Noto Peninsula, Sado Island, and Shimokita Peninsula. The results of the research related to the activities of the union are published in this journal. 87. Kaiyo Chishitsu X X 1LK (Journal of marine geology), Tokyo, Kaiyo Chishitsu Kenkyukai, 1962-, semiyearly. Kaiyo Chishitsu Kenkyukai started from a subcommittee of the National Committee of Seology, which is attached to the Science Council of Japan. Leading members are stratigraphers and specialists on sedimentary rocks, including biologists and marine geomorphologists. Papers are mainly on sea bottom deposits, bottom topography, and marine biology. Reviews, abstracts, and news of oceanography are also included. 88. Kanazawa Daigaku Hobungakubu ronshU J\ 'it )t \x ' 4t V at (Studies and essays by the Faculty of Law and Literature, Kanazawa University), Kanazawa, Kanazawa Daigaku Hobungakubu, 1953-, annual. The publication consists of three parts: Law and Economics, Philosophy and History, and Literature. Geography is included in the part on philosophy and history, and papers in geography are published every year or so.

Page  15 PERIODICALS 15 89. Kasen Suion Chosakai, Suion no kenkyu )/i (Study on the water temperature of rivers), Tokyo, Kasen Suion Chosakai, 1957-, bimonthly. Kasen Suion Chosakai, the Association for Research on the Water Temperature of Rivers, aims at the study and the propagation of knowledge about water temperature, which is especially important for agriculture. Papers in this journal, particularly in volumes one to three, have been articles on scientific investigations of water temperature. From volume four, more emphasis has been given to promoting understanding of this problem for rice farming. The temperature of irrigation water has much to do with the yield of rice, and the relation between water temperature and the yields, devices to raise the temperature, influence of the construction of dams, and various related problems are discussed. 90. Keizai Chirigaku nempo i * t (annals of the Association of Economic Geographers), Tokyo, Keizai Chiri Gakkai, 1954, annual. The Association of Economic Geographers was established in 1951, and the Annals have been published since 1954. Papers in the earlier numbers were mainly abstract discussions, but recently more substantial and positive studies have been published. Contents are original papers, book reviews, and news. 91. Kenkyu jiho ^iff f, (Journal of meteorological research), Tokyo, Kisho-cho(Japan Meteorological Agency), 19 9-, monthly. This is a scientific journal created for the purpose of publishing the results of research by the staff of the Japan Meteorological Agency. The papers consist of articles and reports, the latter being shorter papers. Both of them are accompanied by English abstracts. The papers are mainly positive studies rather than theoretical. There are many studies in which the meteorological characteristics of various regions are analyzed, and hence they are of much geographical value as materials for the study of climatology. 92. Kisho shushi t, (Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan), Tokyo, Nihon Kisho Gakkai, 18 2-, bimonthly. This is Japan's representative journal of meteorology, and most of the results of theoretical research and work dealing with large areas are published here. Besides meteorology in its narrowest sense, papers in some fields of geophysics and climatology are published. Many of the papers, especially recently, are written in English. There are also short papers classified as reports, and these are mostly written in Japanese. 93. Kisho to tokei (Applied statistics in meteorology), Tokyo, Kisho Tokei Kondankai, 1951-1963, irregular. Kisho Tokei Kodankai, the Conversazione of Meteorological Statistics, was established by some meteorologists and climatologists who were stimulated by the rapid development of statistics applicable to meteorology. This is its organ paper. It contains articles, reports, digests, news, and lectures. Papers are mainly on climatology, applied meteorology, industrial meteorology, and long-term weather forecasting. Because the emphasis is on a statistical treatment, the contents are strongly climatological. After volume eleven, this journal was suspended in 1963. 94. Nagoya Daigaku Bungakubu kenkyu ronshu 7Xtp ti (The journal of the Faculty of Literature, Nagoya University), Nagoya, Nagoya Daigaku Bungakubu, 1954-, annual. Each number of the annual publication consists of three parts: literature, history, and philosophy. Geography is included in the part on history. At Nagoya University, the Faculty of Literature was established in 1949 and the Institute of Geography belongs to it. The papers are mostly in human and historical geography. 95. Nihon Seiji Chiri Gakkai * Z\S t (The Japanese Association of Political Geograpters), Seiji Chiri n j. (Annals of the Japanese Association of Political Geographers), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, v. 1(1960), 238 pp.; v. 2(1963), 236 pp. This is an official publication of the Japanese Association of Political Geographers. After the collapse of geopolitics, the study of political geography also started to decline in Japan. Recently some geographers have been interested in the study of national and international political affairs. Volume one contains eleven papers and two short papers, and volume two, nine and three respectively. There are also pages of research materials. 96. Nihon Seitai Gakkai-shi t tf^ik (Japanese Journal of Ecology), Sendai, Nihon Seitai Gakkai, 1951-, bimonthly. A' Nihon Seitai Gakkai is an association of ecologists, including botanists, zoologists, and forestry specialists established at the Institute of Biology of Tohoku University.

Page  16 16 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY The contents of the journal comprise original papers, summaries, abstracts, and news. Recently, original papers are more and more frequently being written in English. English abstracts are attached to the papers which are in Japanese. Summaries do not always deal with theoretical works, but sometimes with reviews and explanation of recent trends as well. 97. Nogyo Gijutsu Kenkyusho hokoku _ff (Bulletin of the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences), T5kyo, Nogyo Gijutsu Kenkyusho, 1947-. The National Institute of Agricultural Sciences belongs to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and consists of five departments, each of which publishes a series of bulletins. In Series H, pacers in agricultural geography are occasionally published. English titles and abstracts are attached. 98. No gy kisho %KAI (Journal of agricultural meteorology), Tokyo, Nihon Nogyo Kisho Gakkai(Association of Agricultural Meteorology of Japan), 1941-, quarterly. Nogyo kisho is the organ paper of the Association of Agricultural Meteorology of Japan, which consists of agronomists, meteorologists, and climatologists. The contents are original papers, digests, and reviews. The papers mainly deal with meteorology in relation to agriculture: there are also studies on windbreaks and other artificial measures used to protect crops from meteorological influences. Often there are papers on the history and the trends of meteorological research. Generally speaking, the nature of the papers in this journal is practical and regional rather than theoretical. 99. Nogyo Sogo kenkyu tu r (Studies in agricultural sciences), T5kyo, Norinsho Nogyo Sog5 Kenkyusho, 19 7-, quarterly. This is the organ paper of Nogyo Sogo Kenkyusho, the Institute of Agronomy, belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The Institute is mainly interested in agricultural economics and policies, and most of the papers in this journal deal with those fields. 100. Pedorojisuto /oj M '}- (Pedologist), Tokyo, Pedorojisuto Kondankai, 1957-, semiyearly. Pedorojisuto Kondankai, the deliberatory organ of pedologists, was established in 1957 with its office at the Institute of Agricultural Technology of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Its members are mainly specialists in pedology and edaphology, as well as agricultural engineers. Geologists, ecologists, geographers, and archeologists also take part. Articles are mainly on the classification of Japanese soils. Single issues are often devoted to a special topic, such as red soils, volcanic ash, soils of irrigated rice fields, etc. 101. Rekishi chirigaku kiyo e -^ f IAt- (Proceedings of historical geography), Tokyo, Nippon Rekishi Chirigaku Kenkyukai, 1959-, annual. This is the organ paper of Nihon Rekishi Chiri Gakkai, the Japan Historical Geography Association. Every year a research problem is given and papers are collected and published on that problem. Such problems are: substance and method (1959), changes of regions (1960), historical geography of circulation (1961), historical geography of Asia (1962), archeological geography (1963), and historical geography before and after the industrial revolution (1964). There are no abstracts in Western languages. 102. Rissho Daigaku Bungakubu ronso Ad~. fi X ff (The journal of the Department of Literature, Rissh5 University), Tokyo, Rissho Daigaku Bungakubu, 1953-, annual. The journal includes papers from various fields. Papers in geography number two or three in each issue. The contributors are on the staff of the University. The topics hitherto handled include rural and urban settlements, horticulture, ground water, alluvial fan deposits, etc. The geographers associated with this university founded an association of Rissho geographers and are publishing a paper of their own. 103. Ritsumeikan bungaku p t /a t (The monthly journal of Culture Sciences of Ritsumeikan University), Kyoto, Ritsumeikan Daigaku Jimbun Gakkai, 1934-, monthly. Jimbun Gakkai, the Society of Humanities, was established by the staff and graduates of Ritsumeikan University. The Faculty of Humanities consists of philosophy, history, and literature. Geography belongs to history, and every year a couple of geographic papers are published in this journal. They deal mainly with historical geography. 104. Seiji chiri -i ~ jV (The political geography), Tokyo, Nippon Seiji Chiri Gakkai, 1960-, irregular. This is the journal of the Association of Political Geography. Two volumes have

Page  17 PERIODICALS 17 been published, Volume one in 1960 and Volume two in 1963. Each volume contains about ten articles on methodology, administrative boundaries especially in their relation to amalgamation, electoral regions, etc. 105. Seitaigaku kenkyu ) YU,~ (Ecological review), Sendai, The Mt. Hakkoda Botanical Laboratory, Biological Institute, Tohoku University, 1935-, v. 1-9, quarterly; v. 10 -12, semiannual: since v. 13 (1951) annual. This is the organ paper of the Botanical Laboratory at Hakkoda volcano, Aomori Prefecture, attached to the Biological Institute of Tohoku University. Each volume, averaging about three hundred pages in length, contains fifty to fifty-five papers. In recent issues, most of the papers are in Western languages, predominantly in English but also in German. All fields of ecology are covered, but recently those on plant associations and on pollen analyses have been preponderant. The Review is making a valuable contribution to the study of Quaternary geology and paleo-climatology. 106. Shashin sokury-o { t&Y (Journal of the Japan Society of Photogrammetry), Tokyo, Nippon Shashin Sokuryo Gakkai, 1962-, quarterly. The Society is interested in the exchange of information concerning survey by photogrammetry and air photo interpretation, and maintains close relations with the International Society of Photogrammetry. Papers published in this journal deal mainly with the instruments and the survey methods of photogrammetry. Members consist of geographers, geologists, engineers, botanists, archeologists, and also those interested in the production of survey instruments. 107. Shirin _ ~ (Journal of history), Kyoto, Shigaku Kenkyukai, 1915-, every other month. This is the organ paper of Shigaku Kenkyukai, the Historical Research Society, which consists of the historians and geographers related to Kyoto University. The papers are on Japanese history, Oriental history, Western History, archeology, and geography. Only a few numbers every year contain Dapers in geography, and such are mostly on historical geography. 108. Sogo kaiyo kagaku fi@ _ (Bulletin of marine science), Tokyo, Nippon Daigaku Kaiy5 Kagaku Sog5 Kenkyukai, 1959-, annual. This is the organ paper of a research group consisting of the staff of Nippon University interested in the study of the oceans. Papers are in the fields of marine meteorology, submarine land forms, physical and biological oceanography, and geography and marine law. In geography, some papers on reclamation have been published. 109. Sundai shigaku At ( 4 ' (Sundai historical review), Tokyo, Sundai Shigakkai, 1951-, no. 1-no. 14, annual; since no. 15, semiannual. This is the organ paper of Sundai Shigakkai(The Sundai Historical Society), which has offices at Meiji University: in nature, however, it is the organ paper of the departments of history and geography of the University. Each issue contains five to six papers of twenty to thirty pages each, research materials, book reviews, and news. Usually there are two or three papers in geography. At the end of number 15 (1964), there is an index of all the previous issues. English abstracts are attached to original papers. 110. Tenki \ N (Weather), Tokyo, Nihon Kisho Gakkai, 1954-, monthly. This journal and the Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan are the two organ papers of that society. Tenki is aimed at less narrowly specialized readers. Papers do not have abstracts in Western languages. Among the contributors there are meteorologists working at stations all over the country, researchers in agricultural meteorology, applied meteorologists, etc. There is also information concerning meteorological meetings. 111. Tohoku kaihatsu kenkyu n), 3Js (Journal of Tohoku development), Sendai, Tohoku Keizai Kaihatsu Senta, 1962-, quarterly. Tohoku Keizai Kaihatsu Senta, the Tohoku Economic Development Center, aims at the development of Research on the economy of Tohoku. The journal contains articles, survey reports, essays, research materials, and news. Most of the papers are reports of studies subsidized by the Center. They are mainly on regional development plans, the development of the manufacturing industry in Tohoku, and the population problems of Tohoku. 112. Tohoku kenkyu M^? - (Research on northeast Japan), Morioka, Tohoku Kaihatsu KenkyUkai, 1951-1961, bimonthly. Tohoku Kaihatsu Kenkyukai, the Society for Research on the Development of Tohoku, was established for the promotion and support of research. This is its organ paper. Ar

Page  18 18 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY ticles published in the journal vary from history to engineering, but emphasis is given to the problems relating to economic development planning in Tohoku. Every year, a special edition was published in which articles were collected on a given problem, such as the exploitation of iron sand, transportation by ship in Tohoku, etc. After 1962, the activities of the society were absorbed by a newly established Tohoku Keizai Kaihatsu Senta(the Tohoku Economic Development Center) in Sendai, and the journal has been continued under the new title of Tohoku Kaihatsu Kenkyu(Tohoku Development Research). 113. Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku Chirigaku kenkyu hokoku,.At A _ (Tokyo Geography Papers), T5kyo, Toky5 Kyoiku Daigaku igakubu Chirigaku Kyoshitsu, 1957-, annual. Research papers by the staff of Tokyo Kyoiku University are published as an annual report. Each issue contains about ten articles. The topics cover almost all fields of geography. Papers include English abstracts. 114. Toshi mondai A f (Municipal problems), Tokyo, Tokyo shisei Chosakai, 1925-, monthly. Tokyo shisei Chosakai, the Tokyo Institute for Municipal Research, was organized in 1922, concentrating on survey and research on the general policies of municipal administration, after the model of the New York Institute. The journal, Toshi Mondai, has been published as a monthly since 1925, except for the wartime suspension of 1946-49. Papers in this journal are mainly on the administrative and financial problems of cities, but there are also papers on urban sociology, geography, population, history, engineering, and planning. Papers in the latter categories are increasing, especially since the war. At the end of each volume, a bibliography of articles related to urban studies published in journals is attached. 115. Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku kenkyu hokoku,/ ~\ (Bulletin of Tokyo Gakugei University) Toky5, Tokyo Gakugei University, 1950-, annual. Gakugei daigaku are mainly interested in the training of elementary and junior high school teachers. This bulletin is an organ paper of Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku and the results of research by the staff are published here. Geography comprises nine issues of the series, and the papers are of a high standard covering both physical and human geography. 116. Toshi mondai kenkyu y (Journal of municipal problems), Osaka, Toshimondai Kenkyukai, 1949-, month y. Toshi-mondai Kenkyukai, the Association of Municipal Problems, started in 1948 through the cooperation of the Osaka Municipal Office and scholars mainly from the universities in the Kansai district who were interested in municipal problems. The journal was bimonthly from 1949-54, and has been published monthly since 1955. Many of the papers are on municipal administration, but there are also papers on geography, sociology, economics, and history related to urban studies. The Association still maintains close relations with the Osaka Municipal Office. 117. Yokohama Shiritsu Daigaku kiyo A At - l ^ t i (The journal of the Yokohama Municipal University), Yokohama, Yokohama Shiritsu Daigaku, 1957-, irregular. Yokohama Municipal University has been publishing Kiyo, the journal(irregular), Ronso, the collected papers(eight issues a year), and Boeki to Keizai, or Trade and Economy(quarterly). Kiyo and Ronso consist of three series: A, natural sciences; B, humanities: and C, social sciences. Professor Kagose's voluminous works have been published in series A as geographical works. These include a study of the introduction of soil into fields by means of canals in the Kurobe alluvial fan(no. 65 and no. 74, 1957); landform, floods, and land use in the Omono valley(no. 127, 1961); and the Yura-gawa valley, Kyoto Prefecture(no. 134, 1962).

Atlases, Maps, Cartography, and Air-Photo Coverage


pp. 19-33

Page  19 ATLASES, MAPS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND AIR-PHOTO COVERAGE 19 CHAPTER VI ATLASES, MAPS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND AIR-PHOTO COVERAGE Japan has a long and interesting history of man making. Almost countless maps were printed, largely from wood block, before the Restoration and in the early Meiji period. These included maps of the world as Japan knew it, of Japan as a whole, of the great roads and the regions through which they passed, and of cities and towns. These early printed maps are intriguing collectors' items and are fast disappearing. They are generally of limited value for research, except in the history of cartography, as they were essentially pictograms and cannot be compared with the modern, scientifically compiled map. Researchwise, however, this early period produced many detailed manuscript maps of local areas, portraying irrigation systems, political holdings, land reclamation projects, and many other features. These are to be found today in the collections of temples, of great families, and in local governmental offices and are generally available to the field worker for study or reproduction. During the period of Japanese geography as a science, there have been two major lines of cartographic production. The first is the topographical sheets of the Imperial Survey, now being carried forward by the Chiri Chosajo or Geographical Survey institute of the Ministry of Construction. These sheets are in magnificent detail, have long been easily and cheaply available to the public, and cover the entire country. The major series were 1:50,000 and 1:25,000, although sheets of scales to 1:5,000 and even less were made for critical areas of Japan. These top sheets are the greatest single source of geographical data on Japan and have been of tremendous aid to geographers. It is safe to say that these sheets have been practically the sole source of cartographic data for non-government publishers of maps and atlases. The other main line of cartographic production has been in the publication of atlases. Most of these are small and cheap and are revised frequently for the use of school children. These number literally in the hundreds and are all very much alike, so there is little point in attempting to list them. Atlases at a more comprehensive level are few indeed, although since the war this condition has been much improved. Air-photographs originally were under the strict control of the Japanese Army and were not available for ordinary research purposes. SCAP also restricted them, and the current Defense Force seems unlikely to alter this established policy. Immediately after the war some of the old Japanese Army air-Dhoto material became public ana a few books of air-pnotos were printed. However, under conditions existing now this potentially excellent research material is not available. A large number of important mans have appeared since the publication of Volume I of this bibliography. Particularly significant are the publications of the Geographic Survey Institute and the Geological Survey Institute. 118. Aichi-ken Bosai Kaigi o^X' (Natural Disaster Defense Congress, Aichi Prefecture), Aichi-ken suigai kiken chiiki soteizu z ~, i XJo, _ — (A map of assumptive flood disaster in Aichi Prefecture), Aichi-ken, Aichi-ken Bosai Kaigi, 1962, 2 sheets, text, 15 pp. These are two sheets of 1:50,000 color maps of the eastern and western parts of Mikawa Province. Assumptive range of floods, possible outlets, the flow of flood water, and assumed depths are indicated. Available shelters, pumping stations, passable roads in time of flood, and other information are shown on the maps. An attached text explains the assumptions on which the maps were prepared. 119. Aomori-ken 4 * (Aomori Prefecture), Nijuman-bun no ichi Aomori-ken chishitsuzu, do-setsumeisho (2 l- W^^ lS ^- ^ (1:200 000 geological map of Aomori Prefecture with text), Aomori, Aomori-ken, 1962, 92 pp., 1 sheet. The editors are geologists of Tohoku University. In the lower part of the map, a detailed table is given showing the classification of post-Miocene layers correlating twenty-seven divisions of this prefecture, and the sharp contrast between Tsugaru Province to the west and the Shimokita-Hachinohe area to the east is well indicated. The text consists of two Darts, the Tertiary and the Quaternary. 120. Chiri Chosajo 3A /t1 4 (Geographical Survey Institute), Nihon jinko mitsudo X A~URAt (Japanese population density), Chiba, Chiri Chosajo, 1957, 3 sheets.

Page  20 20 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY Using the data of the 1950 census, population density by municipality is classified into eleven grades and is represented by color. The scale of the main map is 1:800, 000. Attached maps are: 1) 1:3.5 million map of population in which every five hundred people are represented by a dot, 2) 1:3.5 million map of population density in seven grades in early Meiji, 3) 1:3.5 million map of population density in four grades indicated by isopleths, and 4) 1:3.5 million map of the urban population. 121. Chiri Chosajo AS 61J' [j (Geographical Survey Institute), Nihon no chisei gEk t (Landforms of Japan), Chiba, Chiri Chosajo, 1958, 3 sheets. This is one of the series of 1:800,000 maps of Japan. Landforms printed in black and blue are indicated in bird's-eye view style. A 1:3.5 million map is inserted showing the division and names of geomorphic regions. 122. Chiri Chosajo. if (Geographical Survey Institute), Tonegawa oyobi Arakawa nq kozui kankeizu Ji)l''.) 11 ~lt K I1K x S (Flood maps of the Tonegawa and Arakawa Rivers), Uhiba, Chiri Chosajo, 1947, 6 sheets. These are six sheets of color maps in the scale of 1:75,000, showing damages from the flood of September, 1947, in the drainage area of the Tone and the Arakawa. They represent changes of the courses of the Tone River, an isopleth map of the inundation of Sakura-tsutsumi, the depths of the inundation of the Tone and the Arakawa Rivers, the lengths of the period of inundation of the Tone and the Arakawa, an isochronological map of the progress of the flood of the Tone and the Arakawa, and that of Sakura-tsutsumi. In the first map, the changes of river courses since the eighth century are shown; and their relation with the outlets of floods at the time of September, 1947, is well indicated. In the maps showing the march of the floods, the flow lines of the inundation are shown together with areas in which the houses were washed away. 123. Chiri Chosajo T and Sorifu Tokeikyoku Gun-shi-choson kai sozu _~?[ ^^ (Gun, shi, machi, and mura boundaries), Tokyo, Chiri Ch5sajo and Sorifu Tokeikyoku, 1958. The boundaries of administrative units, gun, shi, machi, and mura, are shown in three sheets of 1:800,000 maps in two colors. The boundaries are shown as of October 1, 1955, in order to be consistent with the National Census carried out on that day. The legends are the boundaries of prefectures and shicho (in Hokkaido), those of shi and gun, of ku, machi, and mura; and where the boundaries are not decided, areas of double belongings. The boundaries are printed in brown, and the numbers corresponding to those used in the National Census of 1955, volume five, are printed in blue. 124. Chishitsu Chosajo ant (Geological Survey Institute), Gojuman-bun no ichi chishitsuzu _L tz_ _ ~ A (1:500,000 geological map), Kawasaki, Chishitsu Chosajo, 1951-, 17 sheets. Each sheet covers an area of approximately 3~ of longitude and 20 of latitude. The whole country is covered in 17 sheets. Since 1951, ten sheets have been published. Legends and classification of geological periods generally follow those of the 1:2 million geological maps. Tectonic lines and the distribution of important mines are carefully indicated. Classification of igneous rocks is especially detailed. Many colors are used, but none are too dark, as was sometimes the case with earlier geological maps. 125. Chishitsu Chosajo 1 I fT (Geological Survey Institute), Goman-bun no ichi chishitsuzu, do-setsumeisho t@ - - ) A t (1:50,000 geological map of Japan and explanatory text),Kawasaki, Chishitsu Chosajo. In addition to 1:75,000 geological maps, the Geological Survey Institute has been publishing 1:50,000 maps since about 1950. To date, the coverage of maps in these two scales does not overlap. The grids follow those of 1:50,000 topographic sheets by the Geographical Survey Institute. Especially detailed are the representation of geological structure, coal seams, and other mineral resources. Attached texts include about fifty pages, with English abstracts comprising about ten pages. In Hokkaido, the Hokkaido Geological Survey Institute is working on geological maps after the same system as that of the Geological Survey Institute. 126. Chishitsu Chosajo X ' IAXfT (Geological Survey Institute), Hompo onsen bumpuzu ChosaJ'o, (Distribution map of hot springs in Japan), TSkyo, Chishitsu Ch5sajo, 1957. Springs are classified into hot springs (25~ C and above) and mineral springs, and subclassified into eight kinds according to the quality of the water. They are shown together with the distribution of Quaternary and Tertiary volcanoes on a 1:2 million color map. English comments are attached. This was published to commemorate the

Page  21 ATLASES, MPAS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND AIR-PHOTO COVERAGE 21 seventy-fifth anniversary of the Geological Survey Institute. 127. Chishitsu Chosajo At fJ (Geological Survey Institute), Nanaman-gosen-bun no ichi chishitsuzu, do-setsumeisho A_- i at -- _ '- Iil)14 (1:75,000 geological maps of Japan and explanatory texts),'Kawasaki, Chishitsi Chosajo. The publication of 1:75,000 geological maps was started in the 1920's, but in forty years only about seventy sheets were completed covering about 30% of the country. The grids cocer 30' of latitude and 15' of longitude. Classification of layers is usually made by dividing an area of a sheet into two ro three sections. Actual faults and assumptive ones are distinguished. Attached texts are about fifty pages in average length, and English abstracts of seven to eight pages are added. The texts consist of geomorphology, geology, and applied geology. In applied geology, explanation of groundwater was detailed recently together with traditional references to mineral resources znd hot springs. The coverage of maps already published is better in the following areas: Southern Akita Prefecture, East Kanto, Eastern Aichi Prefecture, the area near Okayama City, Southern Shikoku, and Southern Fukuoka Prefecture 128. Chishitsu Chosajo let ]tP Y[T (Geological Survey Institute), Nihon chishitsuzu sakuinzu ~j L_10 Isf (Index to geological maps of Japan), Kawasaki, Chishitsu Chosajo, 1963-65, 5 v. Information on all the geological maps, published and unpublished, prepared from 1900 to 1959 in Japan is collected in this volume. The coverage is shown in 1:400,000 maps. There are five volumes of about 120 pages each, for Hokkaido, Northern Honshu, Western Honshu, Central Honshu, and Shikoku and Kyushu. Areas covered are shown in a 1:400,000 map, and information given pertains to titles, authors, periodicals in which the maps were issued, and dates of publication; for the unpublished naps, the institutions which prepared them are given. 129. Chishitsu Chosajo 1 9L 7^t (Geological Survey Institute), Nihon suiri chishitsuzu Mf,1Kf (Hy rogeological mpas of Japan), Kawasaki, Chishitsu Chosajo, 196b-64, 7 sheets. Since 1951, the Geological Survey Institute has been carrying on a survey of exploitation and conservation of water resources for industrial use. The maps are one result. They are published in the scale of 1:50,000 or 1:100,000, each accompanied by a text of about thirty pages, including an English abstract. Seven pages have already been published: 1) the east side of the Kiso river and the drainage areas of the Yahagi and the Toyokawa (1961), 2) the central part of the Kanto plain (1962), 3) the southwestern part of the Kanto plain (1962), 4) the drainage areas of the Kamanashi and Fuefuki rivers, 5) the drainage areas of the Koto, the Doki, and the Zaida rivers (1963), 6) the drainage areas of the Kinsei, the Kamo, the Nakayama, and the Shigenobu rivers in Ehime Prefecture (1964), and 7) the western part of Chiba (1964). The main items indicated are: the artesian wells, spring zones, flowing directions of groundwater, free and compresssed groundwater, etc. Attached are geological cross-sections and tables of chemical analyses of the water. 130. Chishitsu Chosajo )L t[-t (G ological Survey Institute), Nihyakuman-bun no ichi Nihon chishitsuzu _X - tit (1:2,000,000 geological map of Japan), Kawasaki, Chishitsu Chosajo, 1956, 1964. The 1:2 million geological maps of Japan was published by the Geological Survey Institute in 1956, and revised in 1964. The classification of the ages of sedimentary rocks is more detailed, and igneous rocks are indicated with the ages of intrusion. Many new findings within the last eight years are adopted in this new edition. The map is still weak in the representation of mineral resources as well as in tectonic lines. Main place names are Romanized. 131. Chishitsu Chosajo 3At %?J~ f (Geological Survey Institute), Nihyakuman-bun no ichi Nihon no koshoku J_ ~- S^ (1:2,000,000 mineral province of Japan), Kawasaki, Chishitsu Chosajo, 1957-60, 4 sheets. Contents of the four maps are: 1) Quaternary mineralization, 2) Neo-Tertiary mineralization, 3) Mesozoic-Old Tertiary mineralization, and 4) Paleozoic mineralization. In map 1, effusive rocks related to ore deposits are classified into basic, neutral, and acidic rocks; and ore deposits of sulphur, limonite of volcanic origin, manganese, uranium, bentonite, tin, etc., are shown. Map 4 indicates mainly the distribution of limestone in Japan. Thus classified by geological age, the importance of Tertiary in Japanese mineralization is clearly seen. 132. Chishitsu Chosajo V.tj >a (Geological Survey Institute), Nihvakuman-bun no ichi Nihon suiri chishitsu gaikanzu ~ 4/j ~._B$ u_*k 1:2,000,000 distribution map of groundwater in Japan), Kawasaki, Chishituo Chosajo, 1957."" The present status of the use of groundwater and its future possibilities are shown

Page  22 22 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY in a 1:2 million map. The country is classified into five geomorphical surfaces based on landforms and geology. Those are alluvial lowland, upland and terrace alluvial fans, hills and piedmont steps, foot slopes of volcanoes and gentle slopes, and mountains. The sources of domestic water supply and industrial water are classified by their origins. The distribution and depths of available water are also indicated. Information of selected areas is attached in the margin of the sheet and includes water temperature by depth, cross sections of geology, underground pressure distribution (Nobi plain), distribution of wells for industrial water (Osaka), etc. 134. Chishitsu Chosajo A_ S~ (Geologyical Survey Institute), Nihyakuman-bun no ichi Nihon suiri chishitsuzu - 2 tp - ff i i t i L^_ (1:2,000,000 hydrogeological mad of Japan), Kawasaki, Chishitsu Chosajo, 1964. The national land is classified as follows: 1) coastal plains, flood plains, alluvial fans, and taluses; 2) foot slopes of Quaternary volcanoes; 3) terraces and upland; 4) hills and mountains; and 5) mountians. As legend, geology and hydrology of the geomorphical regions are shown in a table. Indicated on the map are the distribution of compressed groundwater, classified distribution of wells in limestone, lava and taluses, and the distribution of water temperature. A table of twenty selected deep wells is attached showing the quantity, uses, temperature, pH, and chemical components. Annual precipitation at eighteen places is shown in a form of diagrams. All legends are given in English. As compared with the 1:2,000,000 Distribution Map of Groundwater in Japan by the Geological Survey Institute (1957), the items indicated are more selective, and the map is more specialized. 135. Chishitsu Chosajo Ytt ~-.T (Geological Survey Institute), Nihyakuman-bun no ichi Nihon tandenzu _ - -g _ (1:2,000,000 mans of the coal fields of Japan), Kawasaki, Chishitsu Chosajo, 1957. The chief editors are Sugai Kanji and Takai Ycsuaki of the Geological Survey Institute. In a 1:2 million map are represented: the names of coal fields, theoretical reserve, and estimated reserve. Coal fields are shown in different colors classified by their geological age and by kinds of coal. For the theoretical reserve, the depths necessary to obtain coal are indicated. Also attached are diagrams showing the production by fields and its annual changes, as well as those showing coal import and consumption. 136. Chishitsu Chosajo _t_ ~XJL (Geological Survey Institute), Nihyakuman-bun no ichi Nihon yuden gasuden bumpuzu - z f _ Z- -I-. -A, (L:2,000,000 distribution map of oil and gas fields in Japan), Kawasaki, Chishitsu Chosajo, 1959. Geological strata in Japan are classified into Cenozoic, Cretaceous and pre-Cretaceous, plutonic and archaic effusive rocks. Over them, oil and gas reserves are shown. Oil-and-gas-producing areas include where they are presently explioted and where experimental exploitation is being carried on. Sites of exploitation are indicated with symbols. Names of the fields are shown with numbers. The production and its changes, discovery of new fields, and other statistics are attached outside the plate. 137. Chishitsu Chosajo L-_ "A~ q (Geological Survey Institute), Nijuman-bun no ichi chishitsuzu ~ A-_- - i_1-g (1:2,000,000 geological map), Kawasaki, Chishitsu Ch5sajo, 1963-66, 6 maps. Older 1:2,000,000 geological maps by the Geological Survey Institute have long been out of print. The compilation of these new 1:2,000,000 geological maps was started in the early 1950's. By 1965 maps for roughly twenty per cent of the country were published. Each sheet covers an area of 1 degree of longitude and 40' of latitude, using the 1:2,000,000 topographical map as the base. Until 1957, only the names of geological ages and coal semas were given. Later maps are more detailed, giving the names of formation and series, as well as information on the editors, the survey date, reference materials, etc. 138. Chishitsu Chosajo MlI 0t -X (Geological Survey Institue), Nippon no koshoku )g -Tfhi_ (Mineral provinces of Japan), Tokyo, Chishitsu Chosajo, 1957-60. This consists of four sheets of 1:2 million maps in color. Ore deposits are classified according to the age of their formation. Quaternary, Neocene, Mesozoic to Paleocene, and Paleozoic periods are indicated on separate sheets. Kinds of minerals, types of mineralization are indicated, as well as the distinction of related rocks as to whether they are effusive, intrusive, or sedimentary. English comments are attached. 139. Chishitsu Chosajo A 4 _4Ci (Geological Survey Institute), Nippon tandenzu d+Q~J] A (Coal fields of JapanT, Tokyo, Chishitsu Chosajo, 1957. Kinds of coal are classified according to the age of their formation and to their

Page  23 ATLASES, MAPS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND AIR-PHOTO COVERAGE quality, and are shown in a 1:2 million color map. Attached tables include theoretical reserve by field, production by field, import in 1940, 1948, and 1955, use of coal in Japan, etc. A similar map was published in 1953 with English captions under the title of "Coal fields of Japan." 140. Chishitsu Chosajo `t 1 By + (Geological Survey Institute), Nippon yuden gasuden bumpuzu -ffi jl~3 (\'G XAflC (Distribution map of oil and gas fields in Japan), Tokyo, Chishitsu Chosajo, 1959. The following items are shown on a 1:2 million color map: oil fields, natural gas fields, gas fields (carbon dioxide accompanying a small quantity of oil), possible productive areas, and probable productive areas (low-grade underground exploration areas). Dates of discovery of oil fields between 1874 and 1957, changes in production, distribution of production in 1957, etc., are shown in tables in diagrams. English explanations are attached. 141. Fukushima-ken ~M } (Fukushima Prefecture), Nijuman-bun no ichi Fukushima-ken chishitsuzu X ( - -- | (1:200,000 geological map of Fukushima Prefecture), Chiba, Naigai Chizu, 1955. The editors are geologists in universities in the Tohoku district. Fukushima Prefecture is very complicated geologically, consisting of the archaean rocks of the Abukama and Yamizo mountains, new effusive rocks of the central mountains, Tertiary layers in the basins, etc. Generally speaking, the stratigraphical classification is rather simple in comparison with the detailed presentation of volcanic rocks and the elaborate description of mines and ore deposits. 142. Hanshin Toshi Kyogikai V t.Ajt (C nference of the Hanshin Metropolitan Region), Hanshin Toshiken Tochi riyozu t~ &14-YT4 (Land use map of the Osaka-Kobe Metropolitan Area), Osaka, Hanshin Toshi Kyogikai, 1963. The Osaka-Kobe Metropolitan Area consists of Osaka, Kobe, and an adjacent thirty-two shi, twenty-one machi, and two mura with an area of 2,500 square kilometers and a population of 7.7 million. Land use is classified into the following fifteen categories, which are shown in different colors: Commercial areas, heavy industy, light industry, public areas, transportation, green areas, residential areas, villages, rice fields, fields other than rice, orchards, grass lands, forests, waste lands, and water. The scale is 1:50,000. 143. Hidaka Tatsutaro and Kawai Reiko)i) I, "Jinko bumpuzu ni kansuru kenkyu AJ tegll'- Mr (Studies on the representation of population distribution)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 64 (1955), no. 4, 121-134. From a comparison of different methods of representation of population maps and their application in Japan the following conclusions were obtained: 1) When a dot represents the number of population, it is desirable to make it signify less than 500. To show the population of cities the use of spheres is adequate; in this cas, the population of rural areas ought to be shown with dots representing 2,000 each. 2) With respect to density maps, the classification of grades must be considered in relation to the scale of the maps, but for a map of the whole of Japan the classification into ten grades is adequate. If the isopleth is used, the relation of population to landforms should be taken into consideration; otherwise there is a danger that the results will lack validity. 144. Hirai Takeshi f I B, "Kokudo kihonzu kuchu shashin no kensa ni tsuite gj.%' S m \d) ]$ a7 ET '(Results of the examination on aerial photography for basic large-scale mapping)," Shashin sokuryo, v. 1 (1962), no. 2, 78-89. The Geographical Survey Institute began an air photo survey of the country on the scale of 1:10,000 as a base for 1:2,500 and locally 1:5,000 basic maps of Japan. Topographical maps of such a large scale comprise basic material for a systematic survey in many fields. The problems in air-photography are discussed and the following technical problems are pointed out. Duplication of photo coverage is too large. The ratio should be reduced to 56 to 57% instead of the former standard of 60%. Under Japanese weather conditions, the use of airplanes with one engine should be avoided. The number of photos of one course should be less than thirty. 145 Hiroshima-ken 7A X (Hiroshima Prefecture), Nijuman-bun no ichi Hiroshima-ken chishitsuzu, do-setsumeisho - h 3 - AcB B (1:200,000 geological map of Hiroshima Prefecture with text), Hiroshima, Hiroshima-ken, 1964, 182 pp., 1 sheet. For the compilation of this map, a committee consisting of about thirty geologists belonging to Hiroshima and Yamaguchi Universities, the Geological Survey Institute, etc., was established. Due to the geological structure of this prefecture, the classification of strata is more detailed concerning Paleozoic and Mesozoic and rather simple for the more recent layers. The text is divided into landforms, strat igraphy, geotectonics, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, plutonic rocks, Cenozoic, etc. Applied

Page  24 24 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY geology such as ore deposits, groundwater, and hot springs are also included. A bibliography is attached. 146. Hokkaido Chika Shigen Chosajo gt.b F (Hokkaido Geological Survey Institute), Juman-bun no ichi Hokkaido suiri chishitsuzu, do-setsumeisho t~ t iC %w} W TN$tN$G ~ (1:100,000 hydrogeological map of Hokkaido and explanatory yext, Saporo, Hokkaido Chika Shigen Chosajo, 1963-. Hokkaido will be covered by fifteen sheets, two of which were published in 1964. They are no. 8 (Sapporo) and no. 13 (Tomakomai-Muroran). The contents are an ordinary geological map with the following information added: distribution of deep ground water reservoir, contour lines of the lower limit of volcanic detritus from the Shikotsu volcano, isopleths of silt percentage, various survey points, etc. Texts average about seventy pages, and in addition to geological explanation, there are references to hydrology and problems of the subsidence of the ground. 147. Hokkaido Chikashigen Chosajo ] ^AXl, ~ (Hokkaido Geological Survey Institute), Nijuman-bun no ichi Hokkaido chishitsuzu -T 7_ k= P~~~ (1:200,000 geological map of Hokkaid5), Sapporo, Hokkaido Chikashigen Chosajo, 1957, 6 sheets. The editorial Committee consists of twelve geologists with Professor Sasa as its chairman. Hokkaido is divided into six regions, and each region is represented with its stratigraphy and description of rocks, volcanic rocks, minerals of economic value, etc. The regions represented on the six sheets are: western Hokkaido, north-central Hokkaido, central Hokkaido, south-central Hokkaido, northeastern Hokkaido, and southeastern Hokkaido. 148. Hokkaido Sogokaihatsu Iinkai ^ (Committee for. ~te Re ional Development of Hokkaido), Rokujuman-bun no ichi Hokkado chishitsuzu A (1:600,000 geological map of Hokkaid5), Sapporo, Hokkaido Sogokaihatsu Iinkai Jimukyoku, 1951. The editors are Professor Sasa of Hokkaido University and three other geologists. Bedides already published data, many unpublished materials collected by the Institute of Geology of Hokkaido University, the Hokkaido Geological Survey Institute, and various mining companies were used to make this map. Classification of strata is mainly based on sedimentary rocks. Hokkaido is divided into nine geological regions: Western Hokkaido (1), Central Hokkaido (5), and Eastern Hokkaido (3). Especially detailed is the description of Central Hokkaido with its coal-producing area. At tached ore a 1:2 million distribution map of mines and a 1:1 million map of coal fields. 149. Iwate-ken Dobokubu %. ' (Division of Civil Engineering, Iwate Prefecture), Juman-bun no ichi Iwate-ken chishitsuzu, 5 j~t (1:100,000 geological map of Iwate Prefecture), Chiba, Naigai Chizu Kabushiki Kaisha, 1954, 8 sheets. The geological survey was carried out by the geologists of Tohoku University and the Sendai branch of the Geological Survey Institute. Iwate Prefecture is represented on eight sheets of 1:100,000 maps, using the landform maps by the Geographical Survey Institute as the basis. Geology of this prefecture is, roughly: the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Kitakami mountains, the Tertiary Kitakami valley, and new volcanic rocks of the central mountains of Tohoku. Particularly, the Kitakami mountain area is typical of Paleozoic rocks in Japan, and both the classification and the representation of Paleozoic systems are very detailed. 150. Jimmonsha fr,~f, Nihon toshi chizu zenshu ~I5 ttl (Atlas of cities in Japan), 1957-1959, v. 1, 49 pp; v. 2, 60 pp.; v. 3, 70 pp. This is a part of a plan to publish maps of more than 500 cities in Japan. In the first three volumes there are maps of 118 cities. The scale varies according to the size of the city. Four colors are used: brown for residential areas, green for arable land, dark green for forested areas, black for railroads, and red for bus roads. The names of government offices, schools, banks, hospitals, presses, and libraries are indicated in the maps. Statistics of population, number of households, area, and an index of place names are attached. 151. Kagaku Gijutsucho Shigenkyoku $ t~JS t (Resources Bureau, Science and,Technology Agency), Isahaya-shi shuhen suigai chikei bunruizu, do setsumeisho ' )1/Ja _y.... Ir(Landform classification map of the flood in areas around Isahaya City, with text), Tokyo, Kagaku Gijutsucho Shigenkyoku, 1959, 3 maps. On July 25, 1957, there was a heavy rainfall in the central part of Nagasaki Prefecture, and enormous destruction was brought about in an area surrounding the city of Isahaya. Immediately after the disaster, in response to the request of Nagasaki Prefecture, the Resources Bureau carried out a survey of flood damages and land use. Contents of the maps consist of the classification of landforms in their relation to

Page  25 ATLASES, MAPS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND AIR-PHOTO COVERAGE 25 floods, and the actual aspects of the last flood. The principles and methods of map representation are the same as in former maps of this category, such as those of the drainage areas of the Kitakami, the Watarase, the Joganji. In this area, particularly numerous landslides were caused by the heavy rain: and in this text, there is a detailed analysis of their relation with land use, geology, etc. 152. Kagaku Gijutsucho Shipenkvoku je (Resources Bureau, Science and Technology Agency), Yoshinogawa ryuiki suigai chikei bunruizu, do-setsumeisho )1 ^ Atl t jAfXt f o-tMi' ((Landform classification mans of floods in the drainage area of the Yoshino River, with text), Tokyo, Kagaku Gijutsucho Shigenkyoku, 1963, 125 pp., 2 sheets. These maps were precared under the same principles as those of already published maps of the drainage areas of the Kitakami, Watarase, Joganji, Kiso, Ishikari, and Chikugo rivers. Landforms are classified first into mountains, uplands, and lowlands; and then subdivided into alluvial fans, natural levees, back marshes, deltas, etc. In the drainage area of the Yoshino River, there are various landforms of steep and gentle slopes formed by frequent landslides. The relocation of these landforms with floods and other natural disasters is well indicated on the maps. An attached text of 125 pages gives a detailed analysis of the distribution of landforms due to the landslides, the changes in the river bed, the characteristics of floods in this valley, etc. 153. Kaijo Hoancho Suirobu 41 aft AK _ f (Hydrographic Bureau, Maritime Safety Agency), Kaizu m (Charts), Tokyo, Kaiio Hoancho Suirobu. The first chart surveyed and printed by Japanese appeared in 1870, and by the end of the Meiji era, about 800 sheets were published. By 1923, about 2,500 sheets were published, and during World War II, some 4,500 sheets were printed. At present, about 1,650 sheets are in print. They can be classified into charts for navigation and special charts for miscellaneous purposes. The former include about 1,540 sheets, consisting of small-scale charts showing oceans, charts of Japanese coasts in the scale of 1:200,000 and 1:250,000, and charts of ports in scales larger than 1:50,000. Special charts are about 200 in number, and include charts of sea depths for some ports, charts for the use of fishing, charts of magnetic declivity, bottom deposits, charts for great-circle navigation, etc. Mercator projection is used for charts in scales smaller than 1:50,000; projections are varied for other charts. Landforms are in brown and depths are in black. The size of the sheets is varied, but 1:50,000 charts usually are the same size as that of the 1:50,000 topographic sheets by the Geographical Survey Institute. 154. Kaji Teruzo ^ 4., "Nankyoku ni okeru kuchu shashin sokuryo M X Ae x e i X J (Report on the aerial surveying of a Japanese Antarctic research expedition)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 66 (1957), no. 3, 181-202. From January 14 to February 1, 1957 a reconnaisance survey of landforms in the area around the Showa base, Antarctica, was carried out by hydroplane. 791 vertical photos and 463 oblique photos were taken in 9 flights. Selected examples of the photos showing continental glacier, iceberg, toung-glacier, ice-pack, paddle, moraine, and lakes on bare rocks are represented as well as a 1:75,000 map of East Ongul Island prepared from air photos. 155. Kawai Reiko P\M~ ~, "Sekisetsushin kubunzu no sakusei ni tsuite f^ X'\ f.)s^vo Aq (The making of a distribution map of accumulated snow depth)," Shashin sokuryo, v. 2 (1963), no. 3, 127-133. After a heavy snow fall in January, 1963 in the Hokuriku Region, a 1:200,000 map of snow depth was prepared by the Geographical Survey Institute. This is a description of that work. An area of 25,000 square kilometers was covered by 12,383 air photos. The depth of the snow was measured by means of the cracks on the snow surface. The contour interval is 1 m. A final test involving an actual survey at selected spots proved that this man is of practical value. 156. Keizai Kikakucho VtLt-4 /X (Board of E onomic Planning), Goman-bun no ichi tochi bunrui kihon chosazu (Kokudo chosa)X i) (1:50,000 mans of land classification), T5kyo, Keizai kikakucho, 1957-. Based on the national land survey law of 1951, surveys have been carried on concerning landforms, surface geology, and soils. 1:50,000 topographic mans have been utilized as base maps. Surveys were carried out by the members of the Geographical Survey Institute, various universities, and research institutes. In the earlier stage, texts of about 150 pages were published, and mans were attached, including those of landforms, surface geology, soils, hydrology, and distribution of inclination. Since 1965, the texts have not been published, and general explanations are printed in the margins of the maps. About twenty sheets have been published including Kumamoto, Mizusawa, Yokkaichi, and Maebashi.

Page  26 26 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 157. Keizai Kikakucho ~AF _ (Board of Economic Planning), Tochi bunrui kihon chosa: chikei, hyosochishitsu, dojo chosa A' X I t -, r ^. (Basic survey of land classification: landforms, surface geology, and soils), Keizai Kikakucho, 1957-. This is a basic survey of national land and aims at its conservation through greater and more rational land use. From an analysis of landforms, surface geology, and soils, the capacity of land is classified and indicated in 1:50,000 maps. For each sheet about 150 pages of text are attached, and maps of land classification, hydrology, surface inclination, geology, and soils are also included. Among the sheets already published there are: Tomioka, Kumamoto, Yokkaichi, Shirakawa, Utsunomiya, Mizusawa, etc. Others will follow. 158. Kensetsusho Keikakukyoku t (Planning Bureau, Ministry of Construction), Shi-cho-son-betsu dainiji sangyo oyobi daisanji sangyo shugyoritsuzu I Xi-J x (Map of the percentage of secondary and Tertiary industries), Tokyo, Kensetsusho, 1965. The proportion of the population engaged in secondary and Tertiary industries to the total working population is classified into five categories which are shown on 1:2,050,000 color maps. The data is as of October 1, 1960, and the size of the population is indicated by circles classified into the six largest cities, other shi, machi, and mura. The five categories employed are: 10-30%; 30-50%; 50-70%; 70-90%; and above 90%. 159. Kensetsusho Keikakukyoku iUs (Planning Bureau, Ministry of Construction), Shi-cho-son-betsu kogyo kibozu (Map of the scale of industry by municipality), T5ky5, Kensetsusho, 1965. The total amount of products manufactured in factories with more than four employees is shown by municipality on 1:2,050,000 maps. Municipalities are classified into the six largest cities, other shi, machi, and mura. The amount is classified into nine classes which are indicated by varying sizes of circles. The classes are: above 500,000; 150,000-500,000: 50,000-150,000; 15,000-50,000; 5,000-15,000; 1,500 -5,000; 500-1,500; 150-500, and below 150 (million yen). Statistics used here are from the 1960 census of manufacturing industries prepared by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. 160. Kensetsusho Keikakukyoku ' X ~ (Planning Bureau, Ministry of Construction), Toshi daisanji sangyozu (A map of the Tertiary industries in cities), T5ky5, Kensetsusho, 1965. The size of population engaged in Tertiary occupations in 556 cities is calculated as of October 1, 1960. The number calculated is for daytime population, and the 556 cities are classified into the following six classes and are shown on a 1:2,050, 000 map. The classes are: above 800,000; 250,000-800,000; 80,000-250,000; 25,000 -80,000; 8,000-25,000; and below 8,000. 161. Kensetsusho Keikakukyoku Jl6$ X%,\ (Planning Bureau, Ministry of Construction), Toshi kinozu Aft^Jgf (A map of city functions), Tokyo, Kensetsusho, 1965. The occupational structure of 556 cities in Japan is classified on the basis of the October 1, 1960 census. Cities are classified into the following eight categories: Standard cities A. B., fishery, mining, industrual, commercial, traffic and transportation, government employees, and services. The various classifications are shown by different colors, and the size of the population is shown by six differently sized shperes. The scale used is 1:2,050,000. 162. Kensetsusho Keikakukyoku,I ~ 1~ (Planning Bureau, Ministry of Construction), Tsukin tsugaku jokyo yori mitaru toshikenzu X X %PI9 (A map of urban areas as seen from commuting), Toky5, Kensetsusho, 1965. In Japan there are 293 cities which attract more than 50,000 commuters. The commuting areas of the 293 cities are shown on a 1:2,050,000 map. The definition of commuting area involves towns and villages adjacent to the cities, and any area which sends more than 2% of its working and student population to the city. The total population of the commuting areas is called the scale of the commuting areas. The scale is classified into: 50,000-100,000; 100,000-200,000; 200,000-500,000; 500,000-2 million, and above 2 million. The figures are those of October 1, 1960. 163. Kensetsusho Kokudo Chiriin K flm t (Ministry of Constructio National Land-map Institute), Ariake-kai hokugan teichi suigai chikei bunruizu A RN j AK (A topographical survey map of the the Arlake-kai basin'[Kyushu] showing classification of flood stricken areas), Tokyo, Kokudo Chiriin, 1963. The map was attached to the published report on the area inundated by high tide along the northern coast of the Ariake Bay in 1963. The base map is made on 1:50,000 topographical sheets, and the limits and bounds of inundation at the time of high

Page  27 ATLASES, MAPS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND AIR-PHOTO COVERAGE 27 tide are indicated. An ordinary system of land classification is used, but for the lowland more detailed divisions are made, such as reclaimed land with dates of engineering, tidal beach, beach ridges, tidal lowland, and the sea bottom slope. 164. Kokudo Chiriin ~ j~ l i (Geographical Survey Institute), Goman-bun no ichi Niigata jishin: hisai jokyo to tochi joken zu —Niigata heiya hokubu sono 1-2 ~ _ A W yo f Alj ~1, ' f )-l2 (1:50,000 maps of the Niigata earhquake: destruction and conditions of land —Northern part of Niigata Plain, no. 1 and no. 2, Chiba, Kokudo Chiriin, 1965, 2 sheets, in color. Destruction caused by the Niigata earthquake of June 16, 1964, and its relation to landforms are shown in 1:50,000 maps for the northern part of the Niigata Plain, where damage was the heaviest. As compared with the 1:10,000 maps of the filled-up area of Niigata City, this map representation is much more simplified. Landforms are classified into 20. The places where land upheavals, subsidences, and faultings took place are shown. Destruction of railroads, roads, bridges, buildings, embankments, and farms is indicated, as are inundated and burned areas. 165. Kokudo Chiriin ti-AlR (Geographical Survey Institute), Gojuman-bun no ichi shi-cho-son-kai sozu +1-tA T r f (1:500,000 municipal boundary maps), Tokyo, Kokudo Chiriin, 1948, 7 sheets. Boundaries of shi (cities), machi (towns), and mura (villages) are shown, and names of gun (districts) and shi are indicated on the maps. Machi, mura, and ku (wards) in the six largest cities are identified by numbers which refer to an attached index. These maps are very useful as base maps for geographical work using mura as the smallest unit of analysis. All Japan is covered in seven sheets: 1) Hokkaido, 2) Tohoku, 3) Kanto, 4) Chubu, 5) Kinki, 6) Chugoku and Shikoku, and 8) Kyushu. (Also refer to entry 23.) 166. Kokudo Chiriin jLj fT (Geographical Survey Institute), Goman-bun no ichi shuseizu Xty J_ lfc (1:50,000 composite land form maps), T5kyo, Kokudo Chiriin. These maps are the compilation of 1:50,000 topographical maps with additional information. The maps cover the areas of several sheets put together. The items added are: the boundaries of national parks, bus roads, mountain climbing routes, cabins with care-takers, cabins without occupants, camping places, and springs. These maps are compiled for the use of mountain climbers and hikers, and are published for the areas of interest. Printed in four colors. 167. Kokudo Chiriin 1| j# Hi 9-1t (Geographical Survey Institute), Goman-bun no ichi tochi rnyo zu jt^iKA - iL t | s (1:50,000 land use maps), T5kyo Chiriin, 1953-. 1:50,000 topographic sheets are used as base maps, and land uses are represented by colors and symbols. Classification of land uses are as follows: rice fields (subdivided into four types), unirrigated fields (five types), orchards (six types), forests (nine types), salt fields, bare land, grassland (four types), cities and villages (eight types), roads (five types), peat land, and marsh. The coverage consists of already published sheets of the areas around the main cities and the areas included in the regional development programs. 168. Kokudo Chiriin i Fft (Geographical Survey Institute), Gosen-bun no ichi Echigo Komagadake chiku chikeizu:&' — ''^~)~ ~. t- (1:5,000 topographic maps of Komagadake, Echigo Province), Tokyo, Kokudo Chiriin, 1963, 2 sheets. These maps are prepared as base maps of vegetation maps of this area. One sheet is for the season of accumulated snow, and the other is for the snowless season. They were prepared by means of air photogrammetry, which, for the former,was carried out on May 19, 1963, and for the latter on August 3, 1963. The contour interval is five meters. Contour lines in the former are represented in light blue, and the latter in sepia. On both sheets, about five per cent of the area has been left blank, since photographing was unsuccessful due to clouds. 169. Kokudo Chiriin i-L t (Geographical Survey Institute) Gosen-bun no ichi Echigo Komagadake chiku shokusei bunruizu G og-rapica.N __' (1:5,000 vegetation map of Komagadake, Echigo Province), Tokyo, Kokudo Chiriin, 1963. The map was prepared by photo interpretation, and covers an area of about five kilometers east to west, and three kilometers north to south. The vegetation map is printed on semi-transparent paper so that it can be overlaid on the 1:5,000 topographic sheet of the same area. Limits of vegetation in the snowless season, and those of exposed vegetation in the snow season are shown. Classifications are: grassland, grassland with shrubs, sasa land, copice and shrubs, short broadleaf trees, broadleaf trees and conifers, deforested areas, bare land, and ferns. The Komagadake

Page  28 28 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY is 2,002.7 meters high, and altitudes are shown both for the snowless and snow-covered seasons. 170. Kokudo Chiriin ~ ~ T,..Geo graphical Survey Institute), Gosen-bun no ichi nishi Onguruto chikeizu ^ Z-W'i/'~ktt i@ (1:5,000 topographical map of West Ongul Island, Antarctica), Tokyo, Kokuritsu Kagaku Hakubutsukan, Antarctic Record no. 24, 1964. A trigonometrical survey was carried out in 1957 and 1961, and air photographs were taken on January 15, 1962. Main items represented in the map are: bench-marks, boundaries of snow fields, tide cracks, lakes, icebergs, etc. The contour interval is 2.5 meters. Contour lines are shown in sepia for the areas of bare rocks and in light blue for ice-covered areas. Near Showa Base there are numerous bench-marks and Japanese place names. 171. Kokudo Chiriin jL Ad X (Geographical Survey Institute), Ichiman-bun no ichi chikeizu _-7)jl (1:10,000 topographic maps of Japan), Tokyo, Kokudo Chiriin, u. d. After World War II, compilation of large-scale maps was started for the areas of Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka-Kobe, and other major cities and their surroundings. By 1965, 219 sheets had been published and the coverage is now being extended. Earlier editions have been in 1, 3, 4, and 5 colors; most of the sheets now printed are in five colors. Contours are in brown, railroads in black, water bodies in blue, settlements in red, and land use in green. Contour intervals are 5 meters with 2.5 and 1.25 meter subsidiary contours. 172. Kokudo Chiriin JL $'[t (Geographical Survey Institute), Ichiman-bun no ichi chikeizu _ / A —j (1:10,000 topographic maps of Japan), Tokyo, Kokudo Chiriin. 1:10,000 maps are published for the metropolitan areas of Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Kobe, and other cities. Older maps are in black and white, but those of larger cities are mostly in five colors. Legends are largely the same as those of 1:50,000 maps by the Geographical Survey Institute. The contour interval is five meters. Administrative boundaries, roads, railroads, land use, etc., are shown. These are the largest scale maps except for the 1:5,000 basic maps of national land under preparation and the 1:3,000-1:10,000 maps published by various local municipalities. 173. Kokudo Chiriin 1 l ' - (Geographical Survey Institute), Ichiman-bun no ichi chikeizu — ^ (1:10,000 topographic maps), Tokyo, 1948-. 1:10,000 is the largest scale of topographic maps published by the Geographical Survey Institute. They are published for the areas of large cities and their environs. Besides the six largest cities, there are mans of Sendai, Matsumoto, Matsue, Hiroshima, Toyama, Takamatsu, and Kumamoto. One to five colors are used depending on the edition; the more recent ones are mostly in four or five colors. In urban areas, distinctions in residential, commercial, and factory districts are indicated by shading. 174. Kokudo Chiriin 106-^ _t (Geographical Survey Institute), Ichiman-bun no ichi Niigata jishin: hisai jokyo to tochi jokenzu —Niigata shigaichi sono 1-2 -.Z1- 1 S&t X-3ttR W^^^^^^^^,.s tti/'^ *O/-2 (1:10,000 ma s o0 the iigata earthquake: destruction and conditions of the land. Niigata City, no. 1 and no. 2), Chiba, Kokudo Chiriin, 1965, 2 sheets. The city of Niigata was heavily damaged by the earthquake of June 16, 1964. The distribution of damages, the changes in the ground, and the conditions of the land are shown in two sheets of 1:10,000 maps in color. The conditions of the land, the landforms, surface geology, and the altitudes from sea level are shown. The map classifies this lowland into 32 landforms. Boring data of 129 spots are shown on the maps. Concerning damage, the destruction of buildings, areas burnt by accompanying fire, and the areas inundated are shown. The destruction of roads, pipe-lines, etc., are shown on the attached 1:50,000 maps. 175. Kokudo Chiriin W (Geographical Survey Institute), Jidosha kotsuryo zu -tyjBiW (A man of automobile traffic), Tokyo, Kokudo Chiriin, 1963, 6 sheets. All of the first class and second class national highways and the more important local highways are classified according to the amount of automobile traffic and are shown by different colors on the map. The amount calculated includes light automobiles and bicycles, and excludes motor bicycles, horse carts, etc. The actual survey was made in 1962 during three spring and fall days, and the amount indicated is an average for those six days. The figures are for twelve hours, 7:00 A. M. to 7:00 P. M. The gradings are 0-200, 200-500, 500-1,000, 1,000-2,000, 2,000-5,000, 5,000-10,000, and more than 10,000. The scale is 1:50,000 and the map consists of the following six sheets: 1. Main part of Hokkaido,

Page  29 ATLASES, MAPS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND AIR-PHOTO COVERAGE 29 2. Southern Hokkaido and northern Tohoku. 3. Southern Tohoku and Kanto. 4. Chubu and Kinki. 5. Chugoku and Shikoku. 6. Kyushu. 176. Kokudo Chiriin @J-'i~~ (Geographical Survey Institute), ed., Kokudo kaihatsu no tame no chizu to kuchu shashin ~~M^_r ~ -_ (Maps and air photos for the development of national land), Tokyo, Nihon Sokuryo Kyokai, 1962, 124 pp. Because of progress in regional planning, demand for large scale maps and air photos is increasing. The Geographical Survey Institute is planning to publish Kokudo Kihonzu, including a series of basic maps of national land, in 1:25,000 and 1-5,000, as well as the former 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 topographical sheets. The processes for the production of these maps are explained in detail. How air photos are taken and how they are used to make maps is also explained. 177. Kokudo Chiriin X 9 = $ J t (Geographical Survey Institute), Kokudo kihonzu satsuei kuchu shashin ^ ^iR ^] VI f (Air photos for national base maps), T5ky5, Kokudo Chiriin, 196C-. In 1960 the Geographical Survey Institute began taking air photos of the whole country. The scale of these photos is 1:10,000 per 95,000 square kilometers of urban and agricultural land, and 1:20,000 per 275,000 square kilometers of forest land. Using these photos, Kokudo kihonzu, the basic maps of national land, will be prepared on the scale of 1:3,000 and 1:5,000. 178. Kokudo Chiriin -S 1_ i(Geographical Survey Institute), Kuchu shashin IF -Ae (Air photographs), Tokyo, Nihon Sokuryo kyokai. Air photographs of Japan are published on three kinds of scale: 1) 1:40,000, whole country, 2) 1:20,000, main plains and areas adjacent to them, 3) 1:10,000 large cities and some areas along main railroads, and 4) 1:10,000 air photographs for national land base maps. The coverage of adjoining photographs is 60%, and that of adjoining courses is 30%. Those with the scale of 1:40,000 were originally taken by the U. S. Air Force, and were later transferred to the Geographical Survey Institute. The coverage of 1:20,000 and 1:10,000 photographs is also being expanded. The size of contact prints is 24x24 centimeters. 179. Kokudo Chiriin ~i_ ftJ (Geographical Survey Institute), Nijugoman-bun no ichi Lutzow-Holm wan-Prince Olav kaigan chikeizu J ')- * ]. ' 7- 70")>o a?,7 0F M At3 (1:250,000 topographical map of Lutzow-Holm Bay and Prince Olav Coast), Tokyo, Kokudo Chiriin, 1963, Antarctic Record no. 23, 2 sheets. Land surveys were made in 1957, 1960-62, and air photos were taken in 1957, 1959, and 1960. Lambert conical projection is used with 68~ and 70~ S as basic latitudes. The contour interval is 50 meters, and contour lines are distinguished as accurate, approximate, and assumptive. In the maps indicated are: the stations of astronomical survey, triangulat survey, bench-marks, expedition bases, coastlines of ice and bare rocks, floating ice, snow cliffs, snow melt flows and lakes, etc. Ongul island, where the Showa base of the Japanese expedition is located, is shown in the sheet on Lutzow-Holm Bay. 180. Kokudo Chiriin r I —. n i (Geographical Survey Institute), Nijuman-bun no ichi kokuritsu koen zu (1:20 0z 1 1 / fg(1:200,000 maps of national parks), Tokyo, Kokudo Chiriin. Several sheets of the regular 1:200,000 topographical maps are put together to make a single map of national park areas. As of 1965, such maps have been published for fifteen national parks. Maps are in four colors. Besides the contents of ordinary 1:200,000 maps, the boundaries of national parks are clearly shown. 181. Kokudo Chiriin ~I; (Geographical Survey Institute), Niman gosembun no ichi jibanko oyobi suibo yozu 2, l 4 /t r-o$.3.] 'I' (1:25,000 flood defense maps), Toky5, Kokudo Chiriin, 1963. The set consists of sixteen maps the coverage of which corresponds to the 1:25,000 land classification maps of the area in northern Kanto which is susceptible to floods. the alluvial land in the drainage areas of the Tonegawa, the Kogaigawa and the Kinugawa is represented with a contour interval of 1.0m., and constructions such as sluices, dams, embankments, watch stations, etc., which are related to flood control are indicated. 182. Kokudo Chiriin ~.;- - _t (Geographical Survey Institute), Niman gosen-bun no ichi kozui chikei bunruizu >... i Z — V ] _ _ (1:25,000 land form classification maps for the prevention of flood damage), Tokyo, Kokudo Chiriin, 1961-. Landforms of lowlands susceptible to frequent floods are classified in detail. Classification of landforms is based on their origin, forms, geological composition, the location and circumstances at the time of former floods. Maps of this series have been published for the drainage areas of the Arakawa, the Nakagawa, the Kinu

Page  30 30 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY gawa, the Tonegawa, the Kokaigawa, and the Tamagawa. 183. Kokudo Chiriin I_ j _L (Geographical Survey Institute), Niman gosen-bun no ichi kozui chidei bunruizu _ XJ i 9 - - \7KIP24 (1:25,000 flood maps), Tokyo, Kokudo Chiriin, 1963. This is a collection of sixteen sheets of maps of the areas in the lower reaches of the Tonegawa, the Kinugawa, and the Kogaigawa. In the alluvial plains and adjacent areas susceptible to frequent floods, minute topography is analyzed as a reference for counter methods against flood disasters. Natural forms are classified by origin, structure, relative height, etc. Artificial landforms are classified according to ways of engineering. 184. Kokudo Chiriin i ] -~ t (Geographical Survey Institute), Osaka heiya tochi jokenzu f (M f S_\X (Maps of land conditions of the Osaka Plains), Tokyo, Kokudo Chiriin, 1965. These maps were published as a part of a national survey of land conditions conducted by the Geographical Survey Institute. The Osaka Plain is shown on four sheets of 1:25,000 color maps, covering northeast Osaka, north Osaka, south Osaka, and southwest Osaka. The survey of land conditions was started in 1960 with the purpose of finding defense against floods. The main items represented in these maps are landforms classified in their relation to the floods, ground levels with institutions related to flood defense, and a text. 185. Kokudo Chiriin b (Geographical Survey Institute), Sanjuhachinen ichigatsu gosetsu nadare chijo takuetsu fudo bumpuzu aJ' f] 7ii t- * & ag Ao 140r (Maps of heavy snowfall in January, 1963, and avalanches and predominant surface wind), Tokyo, Kokudo Chiriin, 1963. There was a heavy snowfall in January, 1963, in the Hokuriku region. Maps were prepared on a scale of 1:200,000 for an area from Tsuruga in the west to Niigata in the east using air photos taken in the latter half of February. Avalanches are classified into surface slips, snow fissures, and exposed land surface. The directions of prevailing winds were estimated by determining the relation of accumulation to trees, buildings, etc. 186. Kurita Mototsugu *Tf _AaX, Nippon kohan chizu shusei Qhk ~ - b (Japan, old maps with annotations), Tokyo, Hakata Seishodo, 1932, 90 leaves and 132 pp. Ninety old maps printed or copied in the Edo period are reproduced in black and white photographs, 32 x 25 cm in size. There are 11 world maps, 9 maps of the whole of Japan, 5 maps of parts of Japan, 13 province maps, 34 town maps, 7 maps of traffic routes, 3 maps of river and coastal ship routes, 3 historical maps, and 5 maps of borderland. Annotations consist of the titles, covers, size, and colorings. There are also brief comments on their contents. 187. Kyokuto Chishitsuzu Henshu Iinkai z t t M (Compilation Committee, Geology and Mineral Resources of the Far EastY, Nijugoman-bun no ichi Kyokuto chishitsuzu_ -t -J - * t 1'It_ A (1:250,000 geological map of the Far East), Tokyo, Tokyo Chigaku Kyokai, 1959. Results of numerous geological surveys carried out by Japanese research institutions before and during the War were compiled in the preparation of this map. There are about 180 sheets covering northern China (to the north of Tsinan and Tshingtao), Manchuria, Korea, Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands. The grids of each sheet are 2~ of latitude (1.5~ for northern China and Korea) and 1~ of longitude. On the back of each sheet there are explanations of geology in general and cross sections of geological structure as well as a list of literature (mostly before 1940). Place names and texts are written in English, and Chinese characters are attached for the place names. 188. Nagano-ken Chigakkai I^ -/t (Society of Earth Sciences, Nagano Prefecture), Nijuman-bun no ichi Nagano-ken chishitsuzu, do-setsumeisho - 6 1 Ad 2^ -a^g (1:200,000 geological map of Nagano Prefecture with text), Matsumoto, Nagano-ken Chigakkai, 1962, 78 pp., 1 sheet. The geological map and the text were first published in 1957 to commemorate the tenth anniversary of the Society. This is a revised edition. Nagano Prefecture is located at the cross point of the Fossa Magna and the Median line, and its complicated geological structure contains many problems of geological interest. In comparison to other maps of this kind, this work is characterized by its very detailed classification of geologic strata. The text consists of eight chapters contributed by sixteen authors. The revision includes new information obtained since the publication of the first edition, concerning the Southern Saku district, the Yatsugadake volcanoes, Akaishi and Kiso mountains, etc.

Page  31 ATLASES, MAPS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND AIR-PHOTO COVERAGE 31 189. Naigai Chizu Kabushiki Kaisha ~ ft X ij'~ (Naigai Map Company), Sanjuman-bun no ichi Kanto chiho chishitsuzu, do-setsumeisho ~;t ~-,~t~ ~ (1:300,000 geological map of the Kant5 district with text), Chiba, Naigai Chizu, 1955, 52 pp., 1 sheet. Editors are mainly geologists of Tokyo University. The main objective of the editors was to give a general idea of the geological structure of the Kanto district using a medium scale of 1:300,000. The text is subtitled "the history of geotectonics," and the editors' intention to emphasize the historical geology of Kanto is well represented in the treatment of geological classifications. Geologically well-studied areas such as the Hakone volcanoes and the Abukuma mountains are shown in classifi*cations different from the ordinary classifications of sedimentary and volcanic rocks. 190. Nihon Chizu Kabushiki Kaisha I f Jidosha doro chizucho: Kanto-Koshinsei _9^g.1 k;a &igX^% (Automobile atlas: Kanto and Yamanashi, Nagano, and Shizuoka refectures), Tokyo, Nihon Chizu Kabushiki Kaisha, 1959, 12 pp. This is an automobile atlas for seven prefectures of the Kanto district, plus Yamanashi, Shizuoka, and Nagano Prefectures. The roads are shown with information about their width, paving conditions, and type, i. e., prefectural, national, etc. Scales vary from 1:370,000 to 1:730,000, and are printed for each prefecture. A general map for the whole area is also attached. 191. Nihon Sokuryo K ykai 1334 (Japan Survey Society), Kuchu shashin satsuei kiroku r t _$, (Annual report of air photos), Tokyo, Nihon Sokuryo Kyokai, no. 8, 1963, 35 pp. This is a complete list of air photos taken by 1) the Bureau of Forestry, Road Association, local municipalities, etc., 2) the Geographical Survey Institute, and 3) private institutions. For all these three categories, the date, scale, area, objective, and other necessary information are listed. All the areas of which air photos were taken within the year are indicated in a 1:1.75 million map. From no. 8 onward, the publication of this report has been transferred to the Nihon Sokuryo Kyokai, or Japan Survey Society from the Geographical Survey Institute. 12. Niigata Daigaku Rigakubu Chishitsu Kobutsugaku Kyoshitsu TT t/ffO IIt% (Institute of Geology and Minerology, Faculty f Science, Niigata University), Niigata jishin jiban saigai zu f fi~l. (Niigata earthquake disaster map), Niigata, Niigata Daigaku Rigakubu Chishitsu Kobutsugaku Kyoshitsu, 1964. 6 sheets. Details of damages due to the earthquake of 1964 in Niigata City are mapped in color on six sheets of 1:3,000 maps. The items shown are as follows: cracks in the ground, destroyed wooden and concrete buildings, collapsed gas and petroleum tanks and directions of their tumbling, wave-like distortions of roads, depressions of the ground, horizontal displacements, tottering directions of chimneys, bounds of inundation, mud gushings, etc. 193. _ Nishimura Keiji. i A and Kanazawa Kei iX, Chikei sokuryo chizu henshu aJ 19_ 1 2t4 p (Topographic survey and map-making), Tokyo, Morikita Shuppan, 1961, 2b4 pp. This was compiled as a textbook for specialists in land surveys and contains abundant material of geographic interest. First, general information about topographic maps is given. Then, in the following five chapters, a more detailed explanation of land surveys is given. Practical methods of making maps from air photos, the use of symbols, contour intervals, etc., are also discussed. Further processes of preparing maps, such as those used by the Kokudo Chiriin (Geographical Survey Institute) are explained. 194. Okubo Takehiko 394 'a,"Chizu hyogen hohoron josetsu" lli^ My wj (An introduction to methodology in map representation), Gakujutsu kenkyu, no. 12, (1963), 33-42. After a general discussion in the various fields of cartography, detailed references are made to the meanings and usage of symbols. Through application of principles, the importance of psychological elements is emphasized. 195. Onuki Yoshio \ and Kitamura Nobu ~J/5, Nijuman-bun no ichi Miyagi-ken chishitsuzu. _ _ —j- i (1:200,000 geological map of Miyagi Prefecture), Tokyo, Naigai Chizu Kabushiki Kaisha. The editors are geologists of Tohoku University. They have classified strata into pre-Tertiary, Tertiary, and Quaternary, each of which has been subclassified in detail. The Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous systems are well developed in the Kitakami mountains and the Ojika peninsula, and their classification is made in accordance with the geological development of the Kitakami mountains.

Page  32 32 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 196. Rin'ya-cho f -R (Board of Forestry), Kuchu shashin - qT (Air photographs), Tokyo, Nihon Ringyo Gijutsu Kyokai. Air photographs by the Board of Forestry are taken mainly for the investigation of forests. The sizes of contact prints are 18x18 cm and 23x23 cm; the scale is 1:20, 000 or 1:25,000. The larger scale air photographs by the Geographical Survey Institute are mainly for the areas of the plains, but those by the Board of Forestry are mainly for mountainous areas and for that reason are useful for the study of geomorphology, geology, etc. 197. Sasaki Hisashi, and Kimura Bunsuke 0t, Dai-nihon bunken chizu awasete chimei soran:|Cjb VI- i b (Atlas of Japan by prefecture and gazetteer of place names), Tokyo, Kokusai Chigaku Kyokai, 1963, 800 pp. For each of the forty-six prefectures of Japan a major map, a road map, and a map showing municipal amalgamations are given. Names of old provinces, prefectures, gun, shi, mura, oaza, and koaza are indicated with the pronunciation shown in kana. There are about 200 maps altogether, and the scale of the maps is varied according to the kind of map and the shape of the prefecture, but most of them are between 1:300,000 and 1:800,000. A list of governmental and public institutions is attached to the map of each prefecture. 198. Shutoken Seibi Iinkai_ iv k 4 (Committee of the organization of the capital, Metropolitan Tokyo), Shutoken tochi riyozu V i t (1:20,000 land use map of metropolitan Tokyo) T5ky5, Committee for The organization of the capital, Metropolitan Tokyo, 1964. A 1:30,000 land use map of Tokyo was published in 1960. This map gave the general aspects of Tokyo in 1964 as basic material of the master plan for Tokyo, and efforts were made to show changes since 1960. Classification of land use used here are urban commercial area, urban residential area, urban industrial area, rural settlement, rice field, unirrigated field, orchard, mulberry field, tea garden, grass land, sandy land, forest, lake, river, and marsh. 199. Sorifu Tokeikyoku *e- 0*X ^y (Bureau of Statistics, Office of the Prime Minister), Showa sanjugonen kokusei chosa shi-ku-cho-son kai sozu w]33e~t __ (1960 population census —shi, ku, machi, and mura boundaries), Tokyo, Sorifu Tokeikyoku, 1962. Administrative boundaries as of October 1, 1960, are shown in three sheets of 1:800,000 maps in black and white. Distinction of the boundaries is made for prefectural boundaries, and of boundaries of shi, gun, shicho, machi, and mura. Each of the administrative units is numbered according to the number used in volumes one and four of the Reports of the 1960 National Census. These maps are very useful as base maps to show the distribution by administrative unit. 200. Tada Fumio fee X^ and Watanabe Akira ^2 _, Nihon koku shashin chiri +gtStXM^^f (Geographical air photos of Japan), Tokyo, Kawade Shobo, 1954, 176 pp. One hundred seventy air photos of geographical interest are selected and arranged by district. There are pictures of landforms, city and rural settlements, and agriculture. Annotations and short English summaries are attached. At the end of the volume there is a brief description of Japanese geography. 201. Takagi Kikusaburo ] 1 _ -, Chikeizu-gaku gaiyo o t/ (Outline of topographic cartography), Tokyo, Yamaichi Shob5, 1940, 2+35+417 pp. Early chapters are on the history of maps in Japan starting in the period of early pictograms. Descriptions of the introduction of Western cartography and cartographic knowledge into Japan in the late Edo period and in early Meiji are very detailed. The development of cartography and land survey in Japan based on Takagi's long experience in the Imoerial Survey is then explained. Later parts of the book are general texts of cartography and survey based mainly on the systems used in the former Imperial Survey. As a text of cartography, this is not very systematic, but it is full of interesting information concerning the early history of cartography in modern Japan. 202. Tokyo Chigaku Kyokai Bosai Chigaku Kenkyu Iinkai o$ky^o Ch -k A, Shizuoka-ken Bosai taisaku tochi joken yozu w stJ^ ^^^^a a (Shizuoka Prefecture, land condition map for the defense against national disasters), Shizuoka-ken, April, 1963, 1 sheet. Landform classification maps of the Geographical Survey Institute are used as base maps, and information related to the defense against national disasters is provided. Shizuoka Prefecture is divided into eastern and western parts. For each of them the landforms are classified into lowlands, uplands and hills, mountains and hills, mountains, and volcanic lands. They are subdivided by geology. Also shown on the map are the locations of landslides, dam sites, routes of inundation flows in case of

Page  33 HISTORY OF JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 33 tsunami or high tides, etc. 203. Tokyo-to Shuto Seibikyoku ~' t(Bureau for Tokyo Metropolitan Development), Tokyo teichi bosai kihonzu 0 ^ R l - (Basic maps of lowland Tokyo for the prevention of disasters), Tokyo, Tokyo-to, 1962. For the lowlands of Tokyo, which suffer from frequent flooding, related information is represented in sixteen sheets of 1:3,000 maps with a contour interval of 50 cm. The location of borings with kinds of sediments and depths of alluvium, heights of embankments, sluiced, pumping stations, and places for emergency shelter such as solid buildings and vacant ground are indicated. 204. Tokyo-to Shuto Seibikyoku X (Bureau for Tokyo Metropolitan Development), Tokyo teichi bosai kihonzu i(Basic maps for flood defense of the lowland areas of Tokyo), Tokyo, Tokyo-to Shuto Seibikyoku, 1963, 6 sheets. Areas of forty square kilometers are covered by 1:3,000 maps. They are mainly in the Koto Delta between the River Sumida and the Arakawa drainage channel, in which there is a large area lower than sea level. This being a densely populated area, the menace of floods is serious. In the maps, contour lines are drawn with intervals of 50 cm. Main items shown on the maps are the facilities for the defense against floods, shelters in time of emergency, medical institutions, etc. The text to these maps is published separately as "Land classification research in relation to flood defense." 205. Tokyo-to Shuto Seibikyoku t~.. (Bureau for Tokyo Metropolitan Development), Tokyo-to tochi riyo genkyozu U jgyj^^g] ([1:30,000] land use map of metropolitan Toky5), Tokyo, Tokyo-to Shuto Seibikyoku, 1960. This is a very detailed land use map of the metropolitan area of Tokyo. Classification of land use is as follows: buildings for agriculture, buildings for fisheries, ordinary dwellings, dormitories, public buildings (schools, government offices, temples, hospitals, etc.), buildings for commercial use, civil institutions (markets, crematoria, etc.), and buildings for manufacturing and industry. Commercial buildings are subclassified into retail shops and light restaurants, theaters-restaurantshotels and department stores, business offices and banks. They are represented by different colors on the map. 206. Yamagata-ken Kogyoka - @X) (Section of Mining, Yamagata Prefecture), Nijuman-bun no ichi Yamagata-ken chishitsuzu 7i - - f ^ (1:200,000 geological map of Yamagata Prefecture), Yamagata, Yamagata-ken Shoko Rodobu Kogyoka, 1960. Lower and upper Tertiary and Quaternary layers are classified in detail. The ages of intrusion and kinds of both volcanic and metamorphosed rocks are indicated. The central mountains of Tohoku consist mainly of upper Tertiary and volcanic rocks, while the Asahi-Iide mountains consist of granitic rocks. Chokai and Gassan volcanoes resemble the central mountains in structure, but are located separately. The Central Basin is surrounded by these mountains and is bounded by structural lines of N-S direction. The Basin consists of upper Tertiary hills, newer terraces, and alluvial land. 207. Z nkoku Kyoiku Tosho X t I (National Educational Books), Hyojun sekai chizu o X (The standard atlas of the world), Tokyo, Zenkoku Ky5iku Tosho, 1952, 64 plates. This is the first atlas of the world of its size to be prepared in Japan. Materials were collected with the aid of the Geographical Survey Institute and geographers of many foreign countries. Included are more than 36,000 place names. There are general regional maps as well as specialized maps showing physical geography, economy, and traffic routes.

History of Japanese Geography


pp. 33-35

Page  33 CHAPTER VII HISTORY OF JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY Surprisingly little has been published on the history of Japanese geography. The probable reasons for this are (1) there is relatively little in common between pre- and postMeiji geography, or at least little has as yet been identified and the modern geographer finds little interest in the earlier period, and (2) modern geography is so new that there is little history involved. There are some good studies of early Japanese map makers such as Fujita Motoharu's Kaitei zoho Nihon chirigakushi (History of geography in Japan, revised and enlarged)

Page  34 34 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY and thoughtful interpretations of data contained in such works as the Engishiki have been made. In general it has been the practice of those few concerned with early geography to completely ignore the modern period. The task of identifying traditional attitudes and inherited knowledge in modern geography is still to be done. A. History of Japanese Geographical Thought 208. Aono Hisao~ f tj, Kiuchi Shinzo ~ X Tsujimura Taro Lt4 Tt, Birukawa Shohei yL }'J}E', and Fukui Eiichiro tat-, p, ed., Saikin no chirigaku jl _ ) EL~ (Recent geography)[=v. 8 of Asakura Shotens Shin-chirigaku koza] Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1956, 360 pp. Much emphasis is given to the development of applied geography. Seventeen geographers contributed articles on selected topics, such as climatic disasters, land planning and regional planning, international politics and international economy, oceanographic surveys, natural resources, and geographical education. A bibliography of articles published in eleven selected journals is attached. 209. Ayuzawa Shintaro A, At%, Toyo chiri shisoshi kenkyu + it t (A study of the history of geographical thought in Eastern Asia), Toky5, Nippon Daigaku Daisan Futsubu, 1940, 305 pp., 2 illus. The history of the development of geographical thought in China and Japan is followed by discussions on representative geography and maps prepared in different historical periods. Especially detailed is the discussion of the meaning of Matteo Ricci's world map. The derivation of Ricci's map from Europe, as well as Chinese and Japanese maps developed under its influence are studied with care. 210. Mino (Ishikawa) Yokichi -,(QIj).4, "Kagaku bunrui ni okeru chiri gaku no chii to chirigaku no kenkyu hohot $ t @ )^ A L t e X (Position of geography among the sciences and methods of geographical study), Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 3 (1959), 16l-184. First, Mino makes a distinction between geography and the science of geography. To him geography is an area of study of spatial phenomena comparable to the history of chronological phenomena. The science of geography is a branch of science with methods aiming at the understanding of distribution and areal expanse. The distinction between physical and human geography is rooted in the difference of objects, and, accordingly, they ought to be classified in natural and cultural sciences respectively. Both regional geography and topic geography share a common object of clarifying distribution and areal expanse, and in that sense both are united in the science of geography. 211. Noh Toshio "Chirigaku kenkyu ni okeru hasseironteki apurochi to keitaigakuteki apurochi" 74 )t tat ),g, A, A, "-aft t Ati -X'. _ (Genetic approach and morphological approach in geographical research), Tohoku chiri, v. 6, (1954), no. 3, 73-77. In the so-called genetic approach to geography, mere juxtaposition of chronological succession is often asserted too strongly in explanation of causality. Unless geographers look into causality in its true sense, a superficial genetic approach is far inferior to the positive merits of the morphological approach. 212. Noma Saburo IT - l, Matsuda Makoto, and Unno Kazutaka A —, Chirigaku no rekishi to hohob if ) L (History and methods of geography), Tokyo, Taimeid5, 1959, 233 pp. The history of geography is described both for East Asia and for the West; the former especially is an outstanding feature of this book. The substance and method of geography are then discussed. Explanations follow on practical matters in geography, such as excursions, the use of photography, how to write articles, etc. B. History of Japanese Cartography 213. Akioka Takejiro _i4 t, Nippon chizushiL 1 t (The history of maps of Japan), Tokyo, Kawade Shobo, 1955, 217 pp., 112 illus. This is an elaborate and systematic study of maps of Japan before its modernization. The contents, the characteristics, the dates, and the relationships of the maps are discussed in detail. Seventy-two representative maps are selected and shown as photographic reproductions. Present owners of the maps are also listed. C. History of Exploration by Japanese 214. Ayuzawa Shintaro, Hyoryu: Sakoku jidai no kaigai hatten vt 1]l 9tA e Wl (Ship-drifitings: an overseas contact during the days of national isolation) [=Sakamoto, ed., Nippon rekishi shinshol Tokyo, Shibundo, 1957, 205 pp.

Page  35 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 35 9 illus. During the days of national isolation in the Edo period, information on the external world was provided by Chinese and Dutch through the port of Nagasaki. Stories of the experiences of Japanese shipwrecked sailors also provided actual knowledge of current situations abroad. Ayuzawa collected such stories and discusses the influence of such information on politicians. A chronological table of ship-drift cases and a bibliography are attached.

Physical Geography


pp. 35-99

Page  35 CHAPTER VIII PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY It is in the fields of physical geography that Japanese geographers have made the greatest and best contributions. In Japan, as has been commonly true elsewhere, modern geography developed out of two sources, geology and history. The former exerted much the stronger influence, and "converted" geologists played the leading part in establishing geography. Their heirs still comprise the dominant majority in Japan. The proportion of studies in geomorphology is very high indeed. The quality of these studies is also high. Studies in volcanism and in seismology are also comparatively important, both in volume and quality, as might be expected in a land where these forces are so significant. Studies in climatology and in ground water, although a later development, are likewise relatively important —particularly as they pertain to agriculture. Studies in climatology and in destruction by physical forces have shown a remarkable increase in very recent years. Studies in cultural geography are now rapidly increasing in number and in value, but it is still in the area of physical geography that Japanese geography is most eminent. A. Geomorphology and Geognostics 215. Akagi Yokoshiko FI., "Aki sanchi no pedimento K A~J' ~(Pediment morphology in the Aki Mountains)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 35 (1962), no. 11, 570-586. Pediments are defined as erosion surfaces with origins other that fluvia, as extending with gentle slopes, as bounded by a knicked-point from the mountain land. In this sense there are three levels of pediment in the Aki Mountains, the best developed being in the areas of coarse-grained granite and hard rocks. They were formed before the Wuirm ice age by a parallel retreat of the steep back slopes. 216. Akagi Yoshihiko _4A, "Chugoku sanchi no pedimento s Z A fs (Pediment morphology in the Chugoku Mountains [southwestern Japan])," Chirigaku hyoron. v. 34 (1961), no. 2, 55-67. There are three levels of erosion surfaces bounded by three gentle slopes in the Chugoku Mountains. Since these gentle slopes resemble pediment, Akagi classifies them as pediment topography and describes their characteristics. First, they are developed in granite areas5 while the steep slopes at the back are hard rock areas. Second, there is a clear discontinuity between the pediments and the back slopes. Third, the surfaces are covered with deposits of breccia with a matrix of decomposed granite and are not developing. Akagi presumes that the pediments were formed under a climate more arid than at present. 217. Arii Takuma A% ~<, "Inatani seinambu no danso ni tsuite 8 A) O \~-[ (On faults associated with the topographies of the southwestern Ina Valley [Nagano Prefecture, central Japan])," Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku kenkyu hokoku, no. 10 (1959) part 9, 21-34. The Ryusei fault to the S. W. of the Ina Valley is a reversed fault. In the early to middle diluvial, succesive fault movements took place along old fault planes and formed the present topography. According to field observations, a ramp valley structure with a maximum stress of NW-SE, a medium stress of NE-SW, and a vertical minimum stress comprises the present topography. 218. Arii Takuma 'A I X, "Inatani seinambu no kozo chikei ~ ~ y ~ ~ ^,, C~ (Tectonic forms in the southwestern Ina Valley [Nagano Prefecture, central Japan])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 6, 347-362. The Ina Valley in Nagano Prefecture is a typical intramontaine basin of high altitude in Japan, and its landforms are characterized by steep escarpments around the basin, erosional surfaces which once made the basin floor, a series of river terraces recording the revivals or erosion, and deep gorges. The steep scarps of the Kiso and Ina Mountain Ranges bordering the margins of the basin are reverse-fault scarps, and the nature of this basin is that of a fault basin of a kind of ramp valley. This

Page  36 36 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY fault basin was split into three basins and a block, and then underwent peneplation. Thereafter there were stages of deposition and erosion which resulted in the present landforms. 219. Ehara Shingo 'L, "Fossa Magna joran ni tsuite ",/ 7'"- ^'1, ^'n (On the Fossa Magna disturbances)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 1, 1-8. At the time of the Fossa Magna disturbance, great deformation was caused to the Outer zone of Japan to the south of the Median line by the intrusion of the Shichito laccolith with its center near Hachijo Island. Examples of such deformations are the remarkable bending of the Median line to the NE, the convergence of the Nankai marine trench to the line of Suruga Bay, the formation of the Itiogawa-NirasakiHakone line that crosses the main direction of the intrusion, the echelon ranges of Akaishi, Kiso and Hida, and the echelon fissures that cross Hakone and Hachijo Island. 220. Fujiwara Kenzo ~ A, "Yokote bonchi toen hokuhambu no chikei ^ %^, (Recent topographical movement viewed on the north side o the Yokote Basin)," Tohoku chiri, v. 7 (1954), no. 2, 63-69. Along the NE margin of the Yokote Basin of Akita Prefecture there are the Kawaguchi fault scarp with a N-S direction, several levels of hill surfaces, and alluvial fans. The Kawaguchi faulting was followed by other faultings, which resulted in three levels of step faults. After that, older fans were cut by an erosion scarp. The last movement was a splinter fault with a larger fall to the north; this was a degrading movement of the fan surface which affected the arrangement, inclination, and dissection of the fans. 221. Fujiwara Kenzo 4 A "Yoneshirogawa ryuiki no kagan dankyu to Towada kazan funshutsubutsu to n kankei | - \ \ -rp ^ L (On the relationship between the volcanic activity of Towada and the river terraces in the Yoneshiro Valley)," Tohoku chiri, v. 12 (1960), no. 2, 33-40. The pumice flow ejected from the Towada Volcano is very characteristic petrologically, and may well be used for the correlation of geomorphological surfaces in this area. Along the Yoneshino River, it forms an upland in the Hanawa Basin, and river terraces in the Odate and Takanosu Basins. From the conditions of deposits the dynamics of the formation of the surfaces is explained, and the date of the volcanic activity is set by means of the relics of jomon culture strewn over the terraces. 222. Fukai Saburo g, "Hida-sammyaku to sono shuhen chiiki no chikei hattatsu rMA Af 0)1 Lj X! (The geomorphological development of the Hida Maountains and their circumadjacent region)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 5, 247-268. The geomorphological development of the areas surrounding the Hida Mountain Range can be clarified by the study of diluvial volcanism and glaciation. After the formation of the flat surfaces which today exist on the tops of the mountains, the mountain range was formed by a continuous crustal movement, which later changed to more rapid upheavals and resulted in the development of the Kurobe Gorge and a series of alluvial fans at the foot. The coming of the ice age caused a drop of the tree lane and resulted in making climatic terraces; the subsequent upheavals on the mountain sides caused the development of rock terraces. 223. Fukai Saburo v^ f --, "Joganjigawa joryu chiiki no chikei hattatsushi '' 2l2lt Fuki^^^)^^^^^' (Geomorphological development of the area along the upper reaches of the Joganj1iRiver)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 7, 428-438. The geomorphological development of the Joganji Valley was strongly influenced at its source by changes in the Tateyama Volcano. After the development of levels of erosion surface, an eruption of Tateyamrra took place, spilling lava and forming the Midagahara Plateau. With the collapse of the crater wall, the river course of the Joganji was laid out. Crustal movements of the Tateyama area and the development of a glacier there affected the changes in the alluvial fans and plains of the lower reaches of this river. 224. Fukai Saburo ef <-s, "Tateyama sanroku no ryuki senjochi l4lJ t}. f )T. (Elevated fans along the foot of Mt. Tateyama, Toyama Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 4, 218-231. Mount Tateyama and its foothills in the northwestern part of the Hida Range are an important field for the study of geomorphological development because of the existence there of landforms of glaciation. volcanism, and many levels of erosion and accumulation surfaces, as well as abundant finds of prehistoric relics. Fukai analyzes the group of elevated fans in this area, their base levels and terraced landforms. Part of his efforts are aimed at establishing a chronology of the geomorphological surfaces developed in this area.

Page  37 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOGNOSTICS 37 225. Fukai Saburo 3v $-~, "Toyama heiya to sono chikei hattatsu $%.JA l 0)ya (The Toyama Plain and its geomorphological developments)," Chirigaku hyoron, v- 31 (1958), no. 7, 416-429. Fukai presents a geomorphological division of the Toyama Plain. The changes of the coastline are discussed on the basis of abundant data pertaining to shell mounds, submarine canyons, and submerged forests discovered in this area. It is concluded that the date of the maximum transgression was in or prior to the early jomon period. Furthermore, the borings in the plain indicate that its basinlike structure is due to the relative upheaval of the Hida Mountains together with the Kureha faulting. 226. Hanai Shigeji I 4 J X, "Okinawa-to no chikei no mondaiten ni tsuite I t) j 0^^^^) ^ l 9\^ (Problems of the geomorphology of Okinawa Island)," Tsujimura aro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 159-173. Okinawa Island may be divided into the northern Kunigami Area and the southern Shimajiri Area, each of which is subdivided into three geomorphic regions. Northern Okinawa is characterized by island-like mountains of Permian rocks and coastal terraces. Southern Okinawa consists mainly of Oligocene deposits covered by early diluvial limestone. 227. Hase Hiroaki "jv\, "Tsugaru-hanto no kaigan dankyu ni tsuite "),4~ olJ ^ l-8(L( V^(Marine terraces of the Tsugaru Peninsula [Aomori Prefecture])," Tohoku chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 4, 146-152. The Tsugaru Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture consists of the Tsugaru Plain along the Sea of Japan and the upland to the east. Terrace landforms cover the areas of both geomorphological surfaces. Including both fluvial and marine terraces, they can be classified into eight levels. The Tsugaru Plain includes the lowest two terraces, the eighth and the seventh. The lake group of Tsugaru-Jusanko was not formed by damming by sand dunes as had been thought, but the lakes existed when the seventh terraces were under formation. The boundary between the plain and the upland was originally a fault line. The higher terraces in the upland are dislocated in various ways. 228. Horie Shoji fti'i S, "Akan-ko shuhen no ko an dankyu chikei: Hokkaido kazanko engan no chikeigakuteki kenkyu (daiippo) fX ^ -- ) 4'. " - ^^], - _ _ (The lacustrine terraces and diatom fossils around Lake Akan, Hokkaido: topographic studies on the lacustrine terraces around volcanic lakes in Hokkaido [part 1])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 2, 59-68. Lake Akan is one of the caldera lakes in the eastern part of Hokkaido. The rivers flowing into the lake run across the lacustrine terraces and make extended reaches. The processes of the formation of the lake and the development of the lacustrine terraces are discussed on the basis of fossils of diatoms collected from the cliffs of the extended rivers. 229. Hotta Hosei, "Hokkaido hokubu kasen no jiyu kyokuryu ~' L^ )a1 ~jvvt 1 (Free meanders of major rivers in northern Hokkaido)," Tohoku chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 3, 107-111. According to measurements of the relationship of the amount of water to the meandering of the rivers of northern Hokkaido, an increased amount of water does not always strengthen the meandering; less inclination is favorable to the development of meanders. No correlation was found between the meander belt and inclination or between meander cycle and inclination. 230. Hotta Hosei V, "Tohoku chiho kaku kasen no jiyu kyokuryu JtaI^P) 2 l 62 A.2 (Free meander of major rivers in the Tohoku region)," Tohoku chiri, v. 14 (1962), no. 2, 65-72. From measurements on air photo2 and maps, a formula is proposed to show the coefficient of meander ( ) = -L -. L, the length of meander, W, the width of meander. The coefficient was calculated for the five major rivers of Tohoku. In the upper and lower streams, the figures are larger than 0.8, while in the middle stream the figures are smaller, indicating a good development of meanders. At these places there are cut-off meanders whose points of confluence serve as nodal points. Ichikawa Masami ')I| --, "Atsumi hanto ni okeru sankai no Hypsometric Analysis ni tsuite R'-*t2~ ]4 ' ) y/'.o/e-nc.,4J1c$/Si5 )A S ' ' (On the hypsometric analysis of mountain lands in the Atsumi Peninsula [Aichi Prefecture])," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 5 (1961), 110-138. Ichikawa chose the mountains in the Atsumi Peninsula as the subject for a morphometric analysis of mountains. The relations among mountain base areas, areas surrounded by contour lines, and relative heights are used to draw hypsometric curves. Of the slopes in this district, 71.4% show concave-straight profiles.

Page  38

Page  39 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOGNOSTICS 39 236. Ichikawa Masami 1 Ij -j "Watarasegawa joryu no kohaichi to shamen kyokyu busshitsu ni kansuru kenkyu 7 1 |t t h Me t) tNfr 7e (A study on the waste land and the detritu supply rom e bar and slopes in the upper drainage area of the Watarase River)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 1, 38-52. For the past 350 years the drainage area of the Watarase River has suffered heavy destruction from the smoke of the Ashio Copper Mine. Badlands are widely distributed due to the destruction. From geological and geomorphological research, Ichikawa explains the processes of transportation of wastes from the slopes, the influence of the wastes upon the areas in the lower reaches, and its relation to floods. 237. Ichinose Yoshimi, "Heiya no keisei to kaigan sakyu ' sX n, 0,~ (The building of lowlands in connection with the development of coasta sand unes, Shigen Kagaku Kenkyusho iho, nos. 56 and 57 (1962), 56-61. There are four periods in the development of coastal dunes in relation to the formation of dunes and alluvial plains. The first period, when the sea level was a little higher and the vegetation grew better to fix the dunes, was in or earlier than the latter half of the early jomon period. The second period is the postjomon of the fifth and sixth centuries, and dunes equivalent to those found in the first period are also found in the plains covering the natural levees. The third and fourth periods vary by region, and some of the dunes are the result of wind redisposition. Dunes were also formed in the diluvial before the first period. 238. Ichinose Yoshimi i, "Shcslin handoku ni yoru jisuberichi no chikeigakuteki kenkyu: Ynshinogawa ryulki no baai ) ') }, L;, } tjtf --- - / ' '1 ) (A geohrtphical study of landslip areas through photo interpretation: the case of the Yoshino Valley)," Shigengaku Kenkyusho iho, no. 62 (1964), 13-22. Large-scale landslips in Japan occur more frequently in the Outer Zone than in the mountains of the Inner Zone. They are frequent on slopes above steep valley walls caused by the erosion of the present cycle, and on the back slopes of cuestas. Ichinose conducted a preliminary survey by means of air photographs and confirmed it in the field. 239. Ida Kazuyoshi 4I -4'-, "Shizuoka-ken Yaizu-shi chika no daiyonkei Lc A f jF 4 Ma (Subsurface Quaternary geology in Yaizu, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan)," Daiyonkei kenkyu, v. 1 (1959), no. 4, 129-135. As a result of borings in search of natural gas near the city of Numazu, a'dendritic system of underground valleys as well as submerged uplands and hills which are thought to be fragments of former wave-cut terraces were found at the depth of 60-100 m. below the surface. Hitherto, this district was considered to be the paleo-delta of the Oigawa, but it was found that the distribution of delta deposits is too limited to support this view. 240. Imai Toshinobu 2 "Erimo kazansa ni tsuite n o, 245 (Erimo volcanic sand [in Hokkaido])," Tohoku chiri, v. 12 (1960), no., 42-45. Along the Hitaka Coast of Hokkaido Erimo volcanic ash is widely spread and covers the coastal and river terraces. It is used as a key bed for the correlation of geomorphic surfaces. A thickness distribution shows that the source of this ash is the Shikotsu volcano to the west, and according to carbon dating, the eruption occurred about 20,000 years ago. 241. Imai Toshinobu e / 4, "Hitaka engan no chikei hattatsu g~ E ~ft t (Geomorphological evelopment of the Hitaka Coast)," Tohoku chiri. v. 13 (1961), no. 2, 57-65 Along the coast of Hitaka there are three flat surfaces of erosion partly covered with rounded gravel at the heights of 120-340 m., the higher coastal terraces at the heights of 40-80 m., and the lower coastal and river terraces between 15 and 35 m. Erimo Volcanic Ash of the diluvial period extensively covers these surfaces, making a key bed. Geomorphological development of this area is as follows. After the formation of higher surfaces of erosion and higher coastal terraces, there was a transgression and an upheaval of the land resulting in the making of lower terraces. After that, at the time of the last ice age of the Hitaka Mountains, there was a regression and the base level below the alluvial deposits was formed; then the deposition of Erimo Volcanic Ash took place. At that point there was another transgression, the valleys were drowned, and the present landforms took shape. 242. Imai Toshinobu / /;, "Tokachi heiya no chikei hattatsushi ~~, 4) /, ~lo (Geomorphic development of Tokachi Plain, southeastern Hokkaido)," Tohoku chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 1, 29-34.

Page  40 40O JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY Using the volcanic ash from the paleo Shikotsu Lake as the key bed, geomorphology of the the Tokaichi Plain is analyzed. There are four geomorphic surfaces in this plain, and they were formed during four different ice ages. The crustal movements associated with the formation of the plain were explained as general upheavals with a relative depression in the central part of the plain. 243. Inokuchi Masao M., "Makinohara rekiso ni kansuru nisan no mondai ) J4J^ l^^f? 2-5 3) ^ Sq t(Problems associated with the Makinohara gravel beds)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 5, 184-192. This work concerns the gravel layers of the Makinohara Upland on the right side of the 5igawa, Shizuoka Prefecture; the grain size of the gravel, their roundness, and the distribution of the diameters are measured. It was discovered that after the deposition of a large layer of gravel, a tilting toward the east occured. The author concludes by trying to locate the coastline prior to the tilting. 244. Inokuchi Masao 4 g t t, "Makinohara rekiso no taiseki ni kansuru kosatsu < 24)4. Ino kuc Mao:h, (On the deposition of the Makinohara gravel beds)," Shigen Kagaki Kenkyusho iho, no. 39 (1955), 32-38. The following conclusions are obtained from a grain analysis of Makinohara gravel: Three present ridges in the Makinohara Upland were made by the deposition of the branches of the paleo-5igawa. Throughout the period of deposition there was only one upward warning. Such an unusual deposition was not caused by down-warping along the margin of the mountainland as it has been thought byt by a movement forward in the early part of the diluvial. Makinohara gravel was deposited in the valleys that dissected the Tertiary layers. 245. Inoue Haruo ~~J; t f, "Fossa Magna shukyokutai toen no kozo bonchi Fos&$b TVH v7 A^^|( S +L, 3^. (The tectonic basins along the eastern margin of the Fossa Magna)," Tsujima Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 88-99. Kokon Shoin, 648 pp. A series of crustal movements such as the Fossa Magna in the Oligocene can be analyzed from the study of river terraces in the Saikawa Hills and in the Nagano, Iiyama, and Tokamachi Basins in Nagano Prefecture. The folding, accompanied by faulting, shifted from the west to the east, and the shatter belt against the eastern mountains of older rocks made a relative subsidence, forming the series of basins in this district. 246. Inoue Shuji M J \., Okayama Toshio i a, Watanabe Akira ^0Z Tada Fumio 9g 3, and Hanai Shigeji, Shizen chirigaku: chikei hen < f^ it W T^ ^ (Physical geography: Geomorphology), Tokyo, Chijin Shokan, 1961, 328 pp. Although there are short chapters on mathematical geography and map projection, eighty percent of the book is on geomorphology, thus making this a general text of geomorphology. Besides the general textbook-like content, there are chapters in which geomorphometry and geomorphic regions are explained in special detail. 247. Iseki Hirotaro t A% X, "Chuseki heiya kenkyu no kisoteki mondaiten,k )yff T^G^H X.rISX^ >t(Fundamental problems concerning- recent alluvial plains)," Nagoya Daigaku Bungakubu kenkyu ronshu 26, Shigaku 9, 1962, 51-74. Iseki prefers the definition that an alluvial plain is one composed in the alluvial age by fluvial deposition rather than the definition that it is a plain resulting from alluvial action as has been generally accepted. Thus the importance of its.meaning as the recorder of glacial eustacy is emphasized. 248. Iseki Hirotaro -.%,h "Jomon soki goro no kaimen to sono sotaiteki henka k<, I A '-OZf to 4 tj p6 (The sea level and its relative changes in the early Jomon period), Nagoya Daigaku Bungakubu kenkyu ronshu 16, Shigaku 6, 1957, 145-183. The existence of shell mounds from the early Jomon period in the area near Kojima Bay proves that the level of marsh land in those days was 15-16 m. below the sea level of today. The borings also show that there is a layer of humus of marine origin at -16 m. At -30 m., an alluvial gravel layer is found, showing that the early Jomon period was that of a temporary regression within the period of transgression. The conclusions are valid concerning the Hiroshima, Nobi, and Kanto Plains. 249. Iseki Hirotaro tf T $AA and Kojima Sohachiro J\ "Nagoyako fukin ni okeru chusekiso kateimen no chikei -t f t 'attl) r,^' - Fd) V^t)^ (Topographic features of the base of the recent alluvum near the port of Nagoya)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 9, 457-468. Geomorphic development of the area under the present sea level is analyzed through the use of boring data. After the formation of the diluvial upland, there was a stage of low sea level in the latter half of the diluvial. At the level of 30-40 m.

Page  41 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOGNOSTICS 41 below sea level, the lowering was stagnant for a while and caused an erosional surface below the sea. Then it went to the depth of 40-45 m. from where the valley bottom developed. This level is the base of alluvial deposits, and from that point the transgression took place. 250. Ishikawa Kenzo /I -[ _j, "Ojika hanto no kaisei dankyu to chikei hattatsu;t? fli c ) i t g Z (Coastal terraces and geomorphological development of the Ojika Peninsula),' Tohoku chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 1, 126-129. The Ojika Peninsula is part of the Kitakami Mountains. After it was peneplanized and subsequently dissected, there took place a submergence resulting in the development of a rias-type coast. Thereafter, there were four upheavals, making four levels of coastal terraces. The present landforms of this peninsula were thus formed by the combination of river dissection after the upheavals and marine erosions along the coast. 251. Ishikawa Masami ~'I1 _ and Mino Yokichi:- "Kagawa-ken Dokigaw/a karyu no teishitsu to heiko kobai ni tsuite )i| sl,t ) t (The bottom ma erials and grade in the lower part of the Dokigawa, Kagawa Prefecture)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 2 (1958), 1-16. The Dokigawa is a river in an expanding alluvial fan, and is in the process of depositing much waste. From an analysis of the materials deposited in the lower part, the inclination of the grade is calculated, and is compared with the actual value. It is pointed out that the size and amount of the deposits at the lower part of this river remarkable surpass the transport capacity of the river. Accordingly, to make the actual inclination closer to the grade curve, it is necessary to cut the supply of wastes from the sandstone area in the upper stream. 252. Ishikawa (mino) Yokichi,i1|j (- t)-4, "Toyohashi-shi Tempaku daichi no chikei _ 212 f\\ I L E l' _(Geomorphology of the Tempaku Upland, Toyohashi-shi)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirrigaku kunkyu hokoku, v. 1 (1957), 21-34. The Tempaku Upland in Toyohashi consists of new deposts of sand and gravel and is 60-80 m. high. The area is bounded by the tectonic lines of Toyokawa and OkasakiToyohashi. The present surface form is the result of a minor upheaval of an eroded surface and later by the dissection of consequent rivers. Selective erosion exists because of different permeability of sand and gravel layers. Unlike ordinary cuestas, the inclination of surfaces cutting the deposit is greater than the dips of the layers and Ishikawa proposes that this be called a 'reversal cuesta'. 253. Iwatsuka Shuko ) At Add, "Nihon ni okeru nisan no kiko chikeigakuteki shoken OAt I-h^ AI1 rId T) DI j% T1t (A study of certain climatic topographies in Japan)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 189-200. Eroded surfaces in the western part of the Hizen Peninsula in Nagasaki Prefecture and under the steep cliffs of andesite at the foot of Omine in Gumma Prefecture are compared to other resembling landforms. Iwatsuka asserts that factors working to form such surfaces were the retreat of steep cliffs and the decomposition of cliffs into waste, and that this must have resulted from climatic causes. Large boulders resulted from frost action. The movement of the waste to form gentle slopes is now causing landslides. 254. Iwatsuka Shuko 0 W YT/", "Zenkoku no kokutetsu ensen ni hassei shita shamen hokai no shizen chirigakuteki kenkyu @ XvT I' i1 V44 X (A physiographical study on landslides and landcreeps occurring in the area along the Japanese National Railways)," Tokyo Daigaku chiri kenkyu, no. 3 (1954), 97-114. Based on the survery of landslides and landcreeps that occured along the lines of of the National Railroad during 1945 to 1952, the landforms, geology, rainfall preceding the occurrences, conditions of melting snow, etc. were studied. Conclusions obtained are as follows: They occur frequently at the ends of terraced cliffs and in Tertiary hills especially when the dip coincides with surface slopes. Foothills and uplands consisting of new volcanic eruptive material, granite and crystalline schist slopes and edges of steep sea cliffs are other examples of conditions that cause them. They are more frequent in the typhoon seasons, and baiu and, in Northeast Japan, in the season of melting snow. 255. Juen Shingo, "Tama kyuryo no chikei to chishitsu ~/;v ^ M / (Geomorphology and geology of the Tama Hills)," Sakyuchi nogyo kenkyusho ho, no. 1 (1958), 27-45. The base of the Tama Hills consists of slightly folded oligocene layers with a dip to the SE. After a transgression resulting in the fall of Kanto loam which covered the whole area, upheavals shifted from West to East at the end of the Tertiary. Another transgression, the Shimo-sueyoshi, the followed, and resulted in the fall of

Page  42 42 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY volcanic ash. 256. Kaizuka Sohei, "Kanto heiya no chikei hattatsushi P t^ J U I t t(Landform evolution of the Kanto Plain)," Chirigaku hyoron v. 1 (1958), no. 2, 59-85. Former studies of geomoprhic chronology and evolution in the later part of Quaternary are arranged and summarized. Kaizuka classifies five geomorphic surfaces, and arranges them in sequence by information on coastlines, on hydrolic systems, depositions, and on crustal movements which took place in each respective period. Main factors in the geomorphic development of the Kanto Plain are repeated progressions and regressions, and regional crustal movements. 257. Kaizuka Sohei ~ X, "Kanto heiya hokutobu no koseki daichi Xt | i itr V e) i 6 t ^ (The diluvial terraces in the northeastern Kanto Plain [of central Japan])," Chigaku zasshi, v. 66 (1957), no. 4, 217-230. Kanto loam is a key bed for the correlation of landforms in Kanto. It is also distributed in NE Kanto, which is separated from the main part of the Kanto Plain by the Yamizo Mountains. Based on the development of Kanto loam, therefore, the characteristics and the development of diluvial uplands in the drainage area of the Kinuawa and the Naka Upland on the Pacific Coast are analyzed. River terraces develop and the windblown deposit of loam partly covers the terraces in the drainage area of the Kinugawa. There is a coastal plain with river terraces cutting it on the Pacific Coast. There surfaces are correlated with the geomorphic surfaces in southern Kanto which are also covered with loam. 258. Kaizuka Sohei j I l, "Kanto nangan no rikudana keisei jidai ni kansuru ichi kosatsu f% f A r(On the age of submarine shelves of southern Kanto),' Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 1, 15-26. There are two levels on the sea bottom to the south of the Kanto Region, one at 0-20 m. and one at 80-100 m. Kaizuka discusses the meaning of these levels in terms of geomorphological development. He reserves his opinion concerning the absolute dating of the formation of these levels. 259. Kaizuka Sohei ), "Musashino-daichi o chikei hen'_ to sono Kanto-zobonchi undo ni okeru igi 'Tft0) rZ y f t 9X,^,. (Deformation of the Musashino diluvial upland and its significance on the movement of Kanto Tectonic Basins)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 1 (1957), no. 1, 22-30. The Musashino Upland is an alluvial fan constructed by the Tamgawa, and is classified into the Shimosueyoshi Surface, the Musashino Surface, the Tachikawa Surface, and the lower terraces. From an analysis of the profile and contour distribution, the following conclusions are obtained concerning geomorphic development of the upland. The northern part of the upland warped towards the NE, and the older the surfaces, the more deformed. At the end of the diluvial there was a crustal movement with an E-W line as an axis from the southern part of the upland to the Shimosa Upland in the east. To the north of this line there was basin-making movement towards the center of the Kanto Plain. To the south of the line there was a depression forming the lowland of the bay of Tokyo. 260. Kaizuka Sohei:t 1, "Nihon no shinki koseki dankyu ni mirareru hajo no henkei |( y,4 ~^jJ? 1t ct it V h ^ #j 1 7 k(Undulatory crustal deformations of upper Pleistocene terraces in Japan)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 119-131 Kokon Shoin, 648 pp. Ten examples of diluvial terraces modified by the later crustal movements are classified according to the proces,s and grade of deformation. 1) folding type; caused by wavy crustal movements with wave lengths of severalkilometers; the structures conform with those of underlying Tertiary and diluvial strata; eg. the Ishikari Plain. 2) intermediate type; oval upheavals 20-30 km. wide and less than 100 km. long; caused by movements in the later part of Quaternary; eg. the northern part of Boso Peninsula. 3) warping type; due to continuous movements since later tertiary; lengths are 100-500 km.; eg. the Musashino Upland, Tokai coast, etc. 261. Kaizuka Sohei X't<., "Tokachi heiya no chikei ni kansuru jakkan no shiryo 4-ff I? $ )'L y nfitT t ft (Preliminary report on the geomorphology df Tokaichi Plain, Hokkaido)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 4, 232-239. Importance is attributed to the study of landform in the area around the Kitaka Mountains, Hokkaido, from the viewpoint of Quaternary geomorphology. Kaizuka made observations on diluvial volcanic ash, on the 20 m. marine terraces and also on the river terraces correlated to the marine terraces in the Tokachi Plain. The layers of volcanic ash in the Tokachi Plain are analyzed,and from widespread layers use

Page  43 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOGNOSTICS 43 ful key layers are chosen. Low terraces are correlated by means of such key layers. 262. Kaizuka Shoei i, Machida Tadashi I ~ i, Ota Yoko o a hiaw, Sakaguchi Yutaka Tg ', Sugimura Arata )ft and shikawa Torao - II, Nihon chikei ron,(jo) Amf t (tJ) (Studies in geomophology of Japan * Nihon chikei ron,(J5) 4 (: L (Studies in geomophology of Japan Vol. 1) Chigaku Dantai Kenkyukai, 193, 166 pp. This is a collection of articles written by five authors and constitutes a general text in geomorphology with an emphasis on geomorphic development. Main topics covered are 1) the correlation and geomorphic development of lowlands, terraces and hills in the Kanto district. 2) macroscopic description of mountain forms along Nakasendo. 3) the relation between glaciation of mountain tops, volcanism, terraces and coastal changes. 4) the relation between crustal movements and structure in southern Kanto. 5) the development of Hakone Volcano. 263. Kanasaki Hajime gF, "Kanasawa-shi seiho kaigan no teisen no kotai a r 5 A T - (Shoreline retrogression in the western region of Kanazawa)," Tsujumura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 145-158. The Japan Sea Coast to the west of the city of Kanazawa is studied with reference to sanddunes and alluvial fans, submerged forests, relics of the Jomon period, and the results of leveling surveys within the last 20 years. There have been theories contradicting one another concerning this coast. Some believe in the upheaval theory based on the development of sea cliffs, while others think that the coast is depressing because of the retreat of sanddunes. Kanasaki denies the former, and tries to modify the latter theory. The depression in 1500 to 2000 years after the deposit of peat is only less than 10 m. Small sea cliffs were cut by the action of waves, causing the retreat of the coastline. 264. Kaneko Shiro a I ats, "Ogiyama shojo danso ni tsuite afjT t A I< (The Ogiyama thrust fault)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 10, 536-547. On the southern slopes of Ogiyama and Hyakuzo-san in the middle reaches of the Katsura Valley, a topography of terminal facets develops, below them there are taluslike deposits containing large gravel. This is the most distinct fault topography to the east of the fossa-magna. The author names the faults bounding the southern margin of the Kanto mountains the Ogiyama thrust fault. He studied the geomorphology and geology of the fault, and came to the conclusion that the shutter-belt is arranged in echelons, and that the thrust is somewhat twisted to the left. 265. Kaneko Shiro a 1 Z, "Sagami-ko shuhen no danso setsuri to chikei S Ati tLX if -^ 1- (Faults and joints in the vicinity of Lake Salami, [Kanagawa Prefecture])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 9, 473-483. Old rocks and Tertiary layers are bounded by thrust faults to the south of Lake Sagami. Joints develop well in the direction perpendicular to the strike of major faults, and they often shift to faults. Apparently these joints were contemporary with faults, and both of them influence the surface topography. 266. aneko Shiro a4t3 as, "Ushiro Tateyama rempo hokubu no hitaisho sanryo 4JXA pl t J ^#Tt (The asymmetrical ridges of the northern Trans-Tateyama Range), hirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 8, 470-484. The Ushiro Tateyama Mountains comprise the NE part of the Hida Mountains. The east side of this mountain range is bounded by the Hojo Basin with a steep slope of large altitude, while its western side falls in a gentle slope toward the Kurobe River. The steep eastern slope has previously been considered a possible fault landform, but according to Kaneko who studied the sturcture of the rocks in this area, the steep slope was caused largely by the influence of the direction of the joints of the rocks. 267. Kanto romu kenkyu gurupu A ' 7/t'7~ (Kanto Loam Research Group), Kanto romu -IF g-i (Kanto loam), Tokyo, Tsukiji Shoten, 1965, 378 pp., 2 maps. The Kanto Loam Research Group was established in 1953 by geologists, geomorphologists, mineralogists, and specialists in soil science and several other fields, aiming at the stratigraphical study of Kanto loam. Tephrochronological study of Kanto loam clarified many problems of Quaternary research using it as a key bed. Diagrams of soil sections and chemical analyses as well as two sheets of geological maps are attached as a separate volume. 268. Kashiwagi Hideji " g f A, "Shimantogawa ruy ni okeru chikei hattatsushi to sono doboku chishitsugakuteki igi ni tsuite ]oi '| 1ijf \; i' I'; at, 1) i iAl~X~s~s~ I v- ( (On the topographic history of the drainage basin of the Shimanto River [Kochi Prefecture] and its significance in engineering geology)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 70 (1961), no. 1., 19-27.

Page  44 44 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY The characteristic development of incised meander in this district is explained as having originated from free meander in the former peneplain which developed in the area of the present Kubokawa Basin, and which later became incised due to upheaval. The distribution of the depths of the deposits and the weathering of the base rocks have been observed from borings. The data is compared with the theory for former peneplanization, and its validity is confirmed. 269. Katabira Jiro ~ ~, "Yamato kogen no danso chikei f\I ) 0 A (The fault topography of the Yamato Plain)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 39-49. Kokon Shoin1 648 pp. There are three fault systems: Kasuga, Yagyu,and Iga in the Yamato Plain with typical developments of kerncol, kernbut, talus, etc. Kasuga faulting is a succession of old crustal movements, and the present fault topography is the product of diluvial movement alone, and their fault topography is fresh and clear. 270. Kiso Toshiyuki la, "Ena bonchi no chikei hattatsu ni tsuite ~..~X ~~^ t 2 t jt'^ -(Geomorphic development of the Ena Basin [Gifu Prefecture])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 7, 365-373. The Ena Basin is located where the Kiso River flows out of the gorge between the North and Central Alps of Japan, across the Atera Fault and onto the Mikawa Plateau. In the basin there are diversified landforms such as river terraces, alluvial fans, and gentle foothills. These landforms were formed in relation to deposition from the Dokigawa and from warpings caused by crustal movement of the Atera Fault. 271. Kiso Toshiyuki t, "Kisogawa ryuiki no chikei hattatsu $ )'| )1A 6 if A^ ^ -(Geomorphic development of the Hida-Mino Highland of central Japan), Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 2, 87-109. The geomorphic development of the upper Kiso Valley is analyzed by correlating the flat surfaces at the top of the mountains, the gentle slopes at the foot of the mountains, and the erosion surfaces cutting the gravel deposits. After the formation of the upper surfaces, the Atera Fault separated Atera Mountain from the Hida-Mino Highland. The old Ena Basin, which is the product of the above mentioned movement, was filled with abundant sediment due to the dissection of the fault scarps. Later crustal movements formed a lake here, and layers of clay and gravel were deposited. By lateral erosion of the Kiso River, a surface was made which cut the gravel deposits. 272. Kobayashi Kunio J14~ ~ _, "Dai yonki M Ad t (The quaternary period)," Chigaku Dantai Kenkyukai, Chigaku sosho 17, 1962, 194 pp. The main achievements in the study of the Quaternary period are reviewed, and an attempt is made to establish a concept and definition of the quaternary. Discusssions on the relation between eustatic changes and coastal landforms are especially detailed. 273. Kobayashi Kunio X, "nihon arupusu no hitaisho sanryo 13 /k7\j~'4t (Assymmetrical ridges in the Japan Alps)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 8, 484-492. Kita Arupusu, the Northern Japan Alps, consists of asymmetrical mountain ridges. Its western slopes are generally inclined 20 degrees, while its eastern side is 40-50 degrees in acclivity. The relation between the solifluction and climatic elements, such as the amount of accumulated snow, snow melting, and wind directions in the area are analyzed. Correlations are discovered concerning the amount of snow, solifluction, and the development of asymmetrical landforms. 274. Kobayashi Kunio ij)W \, "Nippon-arupusu sanroku no dai yonkiso 13 /Z 0) k a? ti t (Quaternary deposits around the Japan Alps)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v.' (159Y, no. 4, 182-184. The Matsumoto Basin was a lake in the fossa-magna after a regression in the early Quaternary. Today a lacustrine layer consisting of clay mixed with gravel and having a depth of up to 150 m. is found below the basin bottom. Above this layer, fan deposits by the Azusa and other rivers are widely distributed, unconformably covering the former. Plant fossils discovered in a horizon correlated to the fan deposits indicate a cold climate. It is assumed that the deposition of the fan gravel was made during the WUrm ice age. 275. Kobayashi Kunio ie At ^i7^, "Nippon no vurm-hyoki ni okeru accumulation terracing no mondai WJ X u^' / ~ J 1i o A t\/z izo tdcA 1J. ( G (Discussions on the possibility of Wurmian accumulation terracing in Japan)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 2 (1962), nos. 2 and 3, 91-99. Glaciated landforms and river and coastal terraces in central Japan are correlated by means of the thickness of volcanic ash deposits. Kobayashi asserts that the thick

Page  45 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOGNOSTICS 45 deposits found in filled-in valleys were formed in the period of Riss-Wurm interglacial transgression, and that accumulations in the WT'rm ice age resulted in rather thin deposits. Although climatic change affected the landforms in Japan, we must also think of other factors that modified the process. 276 Koike Kazuyuki \ ' - j, "Ibaraki-ken Tokai-mura fukin no chikei hattatsu tW;' Xi^^lte0iL yxi (Geomorphic development of Tokai village, Ibaraki Prefecture)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 1, (1960), no. 7, 274-279. In an early stage of regression terraces of a 20 m. level were formed. At the time of maximum regression the valley level of -50 m. was formed, which later was filled in by an upheaval of the sea level and which caused an erosion surface of -15 m. Sand and gravel which covered the -15 m. erosion surface were deposited to a level of 2-3 m. above and below the present sea level. Sand spits were formed in the middle jomon peiod. Sand dunes developed later and covered them. When the sea arrived at its present level, off-shore bars developed along the margin of the dunes and formed an inside lagoon. 277., Koike Kazuyuki;4\ 'L ^Z-^, "Nakagawa ryuiki no chikei hattatsu 17s'1^ 'A, Chirigu -, (Geomorphological developments of the drainage basin of the Naka River)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 9, 498-513. The Naka River flows out of the Kinugawa Graben in the north Kanto, and cuts across the Tertiary hills in a gorge before it flows into the Pacific. Along the river, there are hill lands, upper, middle and lower terraces, post-loam terraces, and flood plains. The geomorphological history of the river is as follows. The present course of the river flowing out of the Kinugawa Graben developed after the formation of Tertiary hills and before that of the upper terrace. After the channel had been fixed, three levels correlative to the terraces were made in the upper reaches as three levels of alluvial fans, and in the lower reaches as a coastal plain with a former shoreline 55 m. above sea level correlative to the upper terrace, and in other terraces cutting into it. 278. Kosugi Kenzlo v|'~/ ~, I, "Hokkaido seibu ni okeru kaigan dankyu taisekiso no seiin ni tsuite }tL - if I? A ^ A i negs' Vt e (On the origin of deposits on the marine terraces n estern Hokkaido)," Hokkaido Gakugei Daigaku kiyo (dai-ni buB), v. 14 (1963), no. 1, 50-58. There are five series of marine terraces on the west coast of Hokkaido. The deposits are classified according to the diameter of the grains of sand and gravel, qua'lity, the grades of flatness, roundness, and assymmetry. The condition of natural enviorment at the time of the terrace formation thus assumed is as follows. The first terrace is an erosion surface. The second terrace is rich in gravel and is underlaid with a clay layer and covered with volcanic ash and old sand dunes. The third terrace consists of marine sand and gravel covered with lacustrine, fluviatile, and presumably periglacialdeposits. The fourth and the fifth terraces consist of marine and fluvial deposits. 279. Kosu i Kenz6 '90 _, "Nishi Tsugaru chiho ni okeru dankyu reki no keitai bunseki; ' \ ^ J a ^ t 4 (Analysis of terrace gravel in western Tsugaru Province), Hokkaido Gakugei Daigaku kiyo (dai-ni bu), v. 13 (1962), no. 1, 120-131. From the measurements of the roundness, asymmetry, and flatness of gravel on the marine terraces developed in the western part of Tsugaru province, the environment of gravel deposition is analyzed. The gravels are well rounded, and are attributed *tothe deposition in the littoral and neritic zones. 280. Kuwabara Masami Zi, "Takefu, Sabae bonchi no chikei ~ ' iti^^. (The topography of the Takefu-Sabae Basin [Fukui Prefecture])," Shigen Kagaku Kenkyusho iho, nos. 56 and 57 (1962), 41-50. The underground structure of buried terraces in the Takefu-Sabae Basin became clear from deep boring data. This is a fault-angle basin with faults on the southern and western sides. During the process of diluvial upland formation, there was a basinforming crustal movement lowering the center. After the development of lower terraces, there was a southward depression and the terraces were buried underground. There is an active fault with a N-S direction a little to the east of the center of the basin. 281. Kuwashiro Isao ' s t, "Seto-naikai no chuseki heiya 4t ~ Hd (Morphological study on alluvial plains in Setouchi district)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 3, 160-168. Kuwashiro calculates the amount of deposits from nine deltas along the northern

Page  46 46 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY coast of the Inland Sea and the configuration of their base rocks. This amount helps determine the size of the drainage basins; the size of the deltas is determined by the amount of deposits and by the original landforms. 282. Kuwashiro Isao 1, "Seto-naikai no kaitei chikei ) (Submarine topography of the Japanese Inland Sea)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 1, 24-35. There is a layer of gravel at the base of the delta deposit along the Inland Sea Coast. If one could trace the submarine topography of the Inland Sea, it would be possible to correlate it to the continental shelves of the other coasts. The occurrence of 120-140 m. surfaces in this area which represents erosional and depositional surfaces corresponding to the base level at the time of low sea level in the last ice age is also evident. 283. Machida Tadashi * j, "Dank u taisekibutsu yori mita Kujigawa churyu no kagan dankyu s g e X4 If \ 7tr A t t^ t o d - (River terraces along the middle stream of the Kujigawa as seen m he deposits)," Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 1, (1957), 113-134. There are four levels of river terraces along the middle stream of the Kujigawa. The environment of the deposition is studied by means of grain analysis of the gravel. The first and the third terraces were depsoited in rather still water, while the second and the fourth terraces were deposited by rivers of an upstream nature. There was an upheaval of land in the middle reaches around Saigane, and the channel assumed the nature of an antecedent river. This explains the present distribution of landforms there; a basin, a gorge and an alluvial fan from upstream to downstream. 284. Machida Tadashi Of { X, Kagan dankyu \ f (River terraces), Kokon Shoin, 1963, 244 pp. Recent development in the geomorphology of river terraces is summarized in this volume. After a general review of previous studies, comments are made concerning special topics such as classification and correlation of terraces, the meaning of terraces in tephrochronology, their relation with crustal movements, climatic changes, and volcanic activities. The results of the study of terraces along the Kujigawa and the Arakawa Rivers are then presented with 1:2.000 maps. 285 Machida Tadashi 3 1, "Kagan dankyu no chikei bunseki i ~ ~ ) v If (Morphological analysis of river terraces)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 3 (1959), 115-142. The method of defining the processes of development and displacement of river terraces by analysis of their cross-seections is applied to the middle parts of the Arakawa and Kujigawa Valleys. In the case of the Kujigawa, the middle stream terraces are more slanted, showing that down-cutting went on because of influence of upward warping, while in the upper and lower parts of the valley, lateral erosion played a dominant role. Parallel relations are also observed in the Arakawa Valley. 286. Machida Tadashi ~ R N "Na no bonchi toen no chikei: tokuni senjochi keisei to kazan katsudo ni tsuite t 4 <, l,. )- a< 1~ t_ J^.'ZL\ (On a morphological study of the foothill region in the eastern part of the Nagano Basin [central Japan]: on the formation of alluvial fans and terraces with reference to volcanic activities)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 5 (1961), 33-52. Volcanic activities affected the erosion and deposition of the rivers running along the eastern margin of the Nagano Basin and directly influenced the development of alluvial fans and other landforms of accumulation in the lower stream. The scale of the activities is well reflected in the development. After a series of volcanisms in the craters of eruption of the eastern mountains area, the upper fans and terraces were formed. After the activities had ceased, there was a rejuvenation and the lower fans were formed. There were also changes in the river courses. 287. Machida Tadashi and Okura Yko, "Toyokawa chukaryu chiiki no dankyu chikei 1)'l| ~o f stlI - F ' (Middle and lower terraces and earth movement along the Toyo River),' Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 11, 551-563. There are three levels of river terraces along the Toyokawa which run along the Median line. It is found from the deposits of the upper terraces that the formation of alluvial fans was active on the side of the Inner-zone. Middle terraces are widely distributed but are thinly covered by gravel, a fact suggesting their erosional origin.

Page  47 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOGNOSTICS 47 288. Machida Tadashi ~ and 5kura Yoko, "Watarase gawa joryu no kagan dankyu taisekibutsu ni tsuite At )l ^ |]V^ (A preliminary report on terrace gravel along the upper course of the Watarase River [Kanto Region])," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 3 (1959), 143-160. The grain size, materials, and roundness of the gravel on the upper and middle terraces of the Watarase are measured. The gravel of the middle terraces is larger than that of the upper terraces. The materials are widely different by region. Paleozoic rocks make smaller gravel and are widely distributed towards downstream. Granite, on the other hand, yields larger boulder within granite areas, but when transported downstream quickly decomposes into sand. 289. Machida Tadashi V - X,, Ota Yoko f ' Tanaka Shingo chjl-, and Shirai Tetsuyuki i TJ ~L, "'Yahagigawa karyuchiiki no chikei hattatsushi <f 1I)i| 'i t ^^ t^%cI) (Geomorphic history of the NishiMikawa Plain situated along the lower course of the Yahagi River [Aichi Prefecture])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 35 (1962), no. 10, 505-524. The source of the Yahagi River is in the Kiso Mountains from where it flows into Chita Bay. Six geomorphic surfaces can be discerned along this river. The highest level is about 200 m. in height, and is the surface of lacustrine deposit of Oligocene. The other five surfaces are terraces. The lowest terrace level was formed at the time of low sea level preceding the alluvial progression. 290. Maeda Shiro '1jT A WT, "Hakusan sammyaku oyobi sono shikin no shinshoku heitammen t; It t. d )1 id)j tP og* (Erosion surfaces on the Hakusan Mountain Range and its adjacent area)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 66 (1957), no. 4, 231-236. In the Hakusan Mountains there is a series of flat surfaces called the Betsuzan Flat Surfaces of Erosion. They are 2200-2300 m. high and cut the Miocene deposits. At Hakusan a part of the surfaces is protected by a 400 m. thick volcanic detritus. In the Shirakawa District of the upper Shogawa Valley to the east, there is the Shirakawa Flat Surface of Erosion, 1700-1900 m. high. Both surfaces were formed after the Miocene and before the eruption of the Hakusan Volcanoes in the diluvial. The time of their formation and their altitudes are not the same. 291. Matsumoto Shigeki Jf*, "Abukuma-sanchi, kakoganrui chiiki no gankaikei To %' j p % Nf tW. (Blockstrom and Felsburgen in thegranitic aree of the Abukuma Mountains)," Tohoku chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 3, 99-106. In the northern part of the Abukuma Mountains, there are characteristic landforms of large scattered boulders in areas of granitic rocks; these forms resemble those reported in other parts of the world as Felsburg or Blockstrom. These were formed in the following three stages: 1) block forming by deep weathering, 2) exposition of Felsburg or core-stones and their mass movement, and 3) washing away of the fine materials filling the gaps. Nothing is known concerning the old climatic conditions that took part in such processes. 292. Matsumoto Shigeki~~ i t, "Ube-fukin no kaigan dankyau -I ~ ~ At i^c^iL (A geomorphological study of marine terraces near Ube City [Yamaguc i Prefecture])." Tohoku chiri, v. 14 (1962), no. 4, 135-140. There are marine terraces along the coast of the Inland Sea, which hitherto have been classified into four levels. Matsumoto tries to reconstruct former landforms on the maps, and classifies the terraces of this district into three levels: namely, 40 m. terraces, 20 m.,terraces, and those below 10 m. 293. Matsumoto Shigeki k'ge, "Ube shi shuhen kaiiki no chusekito kateimen no chikei (A geomorphological study of the basal surface f the recent alluvium in the sea bottom near Ube City in the southwestern Honshu)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 11, 596-609. Submarine topography of the northwestern coast of the Inland Sea is studied using data from more than 200 borings. The ubiquitous gravel layer is assumed to make the base level of the alluvium. Its depth at present river mouths varies from -20 to -35 m., and this is assumed to show the distances from the river mouths in the last glacial age. There are two flat surfaces covered with thick gravel layers at the depths of -6 and -14 m. These were formed by the sea in the ice age and are correlated to the terraces inland. 294. Mii Hideo ~~ f, "Kaishoku to kaisuiJun tono kankei ni tsuite W t~, (On the relationship of shore erosion to ea evel),' Kaiyo-chishitsu, v. 2 (1963), no. 1, 8-17. Along rocky coasts wave-cut platforms are formed below the low-tide line, and sea

Page  48 48 48 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY level platforms are made between the low-tide and high-tide lines. As to the origin of the latter there is no established theory. Mii asserts that sea level platforms are made by weathering and the removal of weathered materials by waves. The slopes of sea level platforms are gentler than those of wave-cut platforms because the higher parts of the former are drier than the lower narts and therefore weathering proceeds faster. 295. Minato Masao ' and Ijiri Shoji ^. -, Nihon retto ls4 iJB (The Japanese Archipelago), Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1958, 206 pp. This is a summary of the geomorphic development of the Japanese islands in the Quaternary and contains abundant references to recent progress in related scientific fields. Main chapters are tephrochronology, changes in natural enviorment based on carbon dating, human relics and plant fossils, influences of diluvial glaciation, eustatic changes, marine terraces and changes of sea level seen from a paleontological viewpoint, glaciation in high mountain areas, etc. 296. Mino Yokichi _ f ~, Chikei nyumon X (An introduction to geomorphology), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1961, 25 pp. An introductory textbook of geomorphology, much emphasis is placed on the discussion of geomorphological agencies. Abundant references are made to soil erosion, and transportation and aggradational capacities of rivers. There are chapters on river systems, valleys, cycles of erosion, plains, plateaus, hill lands, mountains, and volcanos. The author does not include climatic geomorphology, karst topography, fault topography, etc. 297. Mino Yokichi q *, ed., Shizen chirigaku kenkyuho. y XY (Research methods of physical geography), Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1959, 320 pp. Research methods in physical geography are explained with special reference to geomorphology. In Part one, problems are presented and classified into geomorphic surfaces such as plains, uplands, and mountains. In Part two, agents of rivers are analyzed from various viewpoints. Part three is on ground water, climatology, oceanography and plant geography. Research methods are discussed with special emphasis on field survey and quantitative analysis. 298. Mino Yokichi $. tf g^', "Shokifukuchi ni okeru chikei to do jo taisekibutsu tono kankei" junheigenkakiko kaimei no shiryo to shite 1'\Xil^ 1,^. B i.a M XM^ at, d-$ 0,360Y6, It (The realtionship between low relief landforms an soil deposits as material for the explanation of the formation of slopes)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 2 (1958), 65-84. The process of the formation of slopes is studied in low relief landforms where there are cross section changes of a convex to concave nature from hill tops to bottom. It is assumed that the soil deposits on the slopes represent the work of agents continued on the slopes. From this viewpoint, the depths and the colors of soils and their relationship to landforms are surveyed in the mountain lands of Chugoku, Abukuma and Mikawa. There are areas where the A horizon is thick and the B horizon well developed, and in other areas the A horizon is especially thick at the foot of the slope. In the former, chemical weathering was the main agent, whereas in the latter, rainwash lowered the hill tops and deposited the waste at the foot. 299. Mizuno Yutaka Ut x, "Usu, Komagatake ryo- kazanroku no chikei At 'J7 ^X tc IL )^ oj Oc%/y (Geomorphology of volcanic flow deposits in the area aroun thej u and Komagatake volcanoes)," Tohoku chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 2, 49-54. Based on the studies of volcanoes in the Hokkaido and Tohoku regions, Mizuno classifies the landforms of pyroclastic flows and groups their deposits into essential forms and accessory forms. The former is subdivided into nuee ardente and pumice flows. The latter is subdivided into debris flows (flow type and avalanche type) and mud flows. 300. Mogi Akio '2 X,"Enoshima oyobi Tokai-mura fukin engan no chikei e h ' St: gaif Y 4 L 6i PCl 4 l S(A microrelief along the coast of the western part of Enoshima and of Tokai village)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 3, 121-133. In 1957 and 1958 detailed surveys were made by the Coastal Survey of the coast of Enoshima and Tokaimura concerning the landforms and bottom deposits. A periodicity which has a close correlation to the development of longshore bars was found in the development of cusps along these coasts. The breakers formed at the bars give rise to swashes in proportion to the relative heights of the bars. This is the reason for the periodicity in the development of cusps. There are also regional differences in the way the cusps developed.

Page  49 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOGNOSTICS 49 301. Mogi Akio fXH?,"Hokkaido Yufutsu gen'ya oki kaitei no chinsui chikei k^lytfUiAimA 1 -t, (Drowned topographies in the near shore bottom of Yufutsu Plain, Hokkaido)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 3 (1964), no. 3, 141-152. Using new data of sea bottom topography near Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Mogi explains the historical geomorphology of the Yufutsu Plain as follows. At the end of the diluvial, the sea level dropped by -80 m. resulting in the development of a -80 to -110 m. flat surface. Since the alluvial the sea level has been rising with a period of stagnation which resulted in the fomring of a -30 m. surface and the development of sandspits. After the entire plain was submerged, there was a depression of the sea level which brought the present coast line. In the eastern part of the plain, however, there was a submergence which covered the retreat of the coast line. 302. Murakami Kazuyuki 3 —, "Akagi kazan no yamakuzure to chikei to no kankei 4jr4, ^ ^^ ^^, - (Landslips in the Akagi Volcano, Gumma Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 4, 200-217. The landslips in the area of the Akagi Volcano are surveyed, and their distribution is shown on a map. The types of landslips are classified, and their relationship to geology and geomorphology is discussed. Slips are frequent on the slopes of valleys cutting flat surfaces, and especially on the upper part of the slopes. The scale of the slips is small in areas of Paleozonic strata. The direction of the slips is perpendicular to that of the valley. The speed of dissection is slow on the south, west, and north slopes. 303. Naito Hiroo t iljE If, "Akita-ken Takanosu bonchi no chikei hattatsushi 'gX tgt ittt (Geomorphic development of the Takanosu Basin, Akita Prefecture, northeast Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 11, 655-668. The marginal hills of the Takanosu Basin, and four to six river terraces along the Anigawa and the Yoneshiro Rivers are analyzed as a part of a study of geomorphological development in orogenic zones. The Paleo-Takanosu Basin was formed in the late ligocene when the basin-making crustal movement stopped and erosional surfaces (KI) were formed along the margin of the basin. With the revival of the movement came the formation of terraces (K2). There were two pumice flows during the last period resulting in the creation of river terraces in the lower reaches. 3014. Nakagawa Hisao t )l| / 1, "Hokkaido Esan kazan fukin no dankyu Jv'~X),,,q,,q_ nt _ - (Terraces in the vicinity of the Esan Volcano, Hokkaido)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 2 (1961), no. 1, 9-14. Esan is a volcano in the eastern part of the Oshima Peninsula, Hokkaido, and there are three coastal terraces near it. Deposits on the middle terrace originated from ejecta after the lava-flow that made the somma of Esan. 305. Nakagawa Hisao s t1 ^ t, "Nippon no Wuirm hyoki 30) Wurm, AK (The Wurm glacial stage in Japan), Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 2 (1961), nos 2 and 3, 61-68. Coastal terraces in Japan may be classified into five levels. Numbering from lower ones, terraces II and IV are more steeply inclined towards the sea than the others and the fossils contained indicate a colder climate. On the assumption of climatic control and changes of sea level, Nakagawa suggests that terrace II corresponds to the Wurm ice age. 306. Nakagawa Hisao, Sa Kankchi, Ishida Takuji, and Takeuchi (Ogawa) Sadako "S(ena u o daiyonki oyobi chikei '~' ( r g gy and geomorphology of Sendai and its enviorns)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 1 (1960), no. 6, 219 -AobayamaSurface consisting of gravel deposits is represented by the hills to the west of Sendai, and can be classified into four types. The division of the surface is due to intermittent warping with a NE-SW strike which took place during the formation of the surface. There are four layers of volcanic ash covering the terraces. They are different in composition and are used for correlation of the terraces. 307. Nakamura Saburo t r X, "Jisuberi ni yoru shamen hendo no ichi yoso_ X/\II -O,; C Oak.1 (A type of landform due to landslide)," Tohoku ch in, v. 15 9 63),. 3, 94-9 8. Landslides are numerous in regions of Tertiary sandstone and shale. When Tertiary layers are covered by new volcanic materials the movements are slow and intermittent, even when the layers are the direct cause of the landslides. Where there are only Tertiary layers the movements start in the lower part, and then the surface

Page  50 50 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY is involved; the scale is usually large. 308. Nakamura Toshio 7 ~., "Abukuma ryuki junheigen hokubu no chikei hattatsu ^ 1Emat t j^(O^^ _ (Geomorphological developmenh in the northern paft of the Abukuma Plateau)," Tohoku chiri, v. 12 (1960), no. 3, 62-70. There are three levels of flat surfaces of erosion in the Abukuma Plateau. The Upper level is 1,000-800 m. high and is preserved as hill tops, making a kind of monadnock on the lower levels. The middle level is the most extensive. It is about 600oo m. high, and is preserved as interfluvial hills in marginal areas. The lower level is 500-300 m. high, making piedmont surfaces along valleys. 309. Nakamura Yoshio, "Nonodake kyuryo ni okeru koi shinshokukoku to chikei hattatsu. i l- sT$ff. (Geomorphological study of the Nonodake Hill [Miyagi Prefecture])," Tohoku chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 1, 22-28. In the area of the Nonodake Hills there are two erosional surfaces and concave valleys which are discontinuous to the lower V-valleys and to the plain. Geomorphological development is explained as follows. First, the erosional surfaces and the concave valleys were formed. Then, larger tilting to the north took place, which was followed by another depression to the south. As the result of a transgression the marginal area took on the landforms of drowned valleys. Thus, the asymmetrical topography from north to south was formed by the tilting and later by the dissecting which came from the south. 310. Nakano Takamasa ot r, "Chikei bunrui: sono genri to oyo ~ ag/y), lft^y)fp (Landform classification: its principle and its application)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 70 (1961), no. 2, 3-14. The aim of landform classification is to obtain a basic unit for the division of geographic regions. After a short review of former attainments in this problem, the following points are discussed: 1) systematic classification from unit to larger areas, 2) index to indicate the unit area, and 3) relationship to other fields of science. 311. Nakano Takamasa 4 "., "Nihon no heiya: chuseki heiya no kenkyu d)T -^f^S^^^^^ Qt+tSt J(The plains of Japan: a study of alluvial plains)," Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1956, 322 pp. Hitherto, geomorphology has mainly concerned the study of erosion landforms, but for the study of plains it is necessary to combine the study of landforms of deposition with those of7 erosion. The plains in Japan are characterized by their location in an erogenic zone. Geomorphic development of the main plains is explained, and classified into several types by their relation to crustal movements. In later chapters, the concept of landform-types presented by Nakano is explained as a useful method for the study of plains. 312. Nishimura Kasuke,I7 tv a, "Chugoku-sanchi no suikei to sono hattatsu At f)>K(6 j - L X(Fluvial morphology in the Chugoku Mountains)," Hiroshima Daigaku Bungakubu kiyo, no. 21 (1962), 188-206. In the Kibi plateau of the Chugoku Mountains there are many gravel deposits of diluvium which indicate former river channels. Present rivers in this area are mostly gentle and are incapable of extending their drainage areas. They are susceptible to piracy by rivers flowing into the sea, and many landforms due to piracy are observed. Most of the straight N-NE and S-SW valleys characteristic in this area are faultline valleys. Development of river terraces is good in areas of Miocene rocks. River terraces are isolated. Those that continue to the coastal terraces are seen only in the western part of Yamaguchi Prefecture. 313. Nishimura Kasuke ^ ' ], "Hiroshima shuhen no Jori bumpu to chikei ~]~ ~f 4A ~/. X Z A (Distribution of Lori cadastral and plain morphology around Hiiohsima City)," Hiroshima Daigaku Bungakubu kiyo, no. 15 (1959), 112-127. The distribution of the jori system in the environs of Hiroshima is studied, and using the distribution as a key, geomorphic changes in the last 1,000 years are analyzed. The channel of the Otagawa has made three shiftings first to the west, then two shiftings to the east. There was a period of submergence and resulting landforms were buried under alluvium. 314. Nishimura Kasuke o7 e i n, "Jori igo no chikei-henka ^ A e o ~ vF (Landform development on plains in the post- Jori period)," Hirohsima Daigaku Bungakubu kiyo, no. 11 (1957), 132-145. Jori land allotments which originated in the seventh and eighth centuries may be

Page  51 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOGNOSTICS 51 used as keys in analyzing landform changes. Jori allotments are found under the bottom of Sone-numa to the east of Lake Biwa indicating that the submergence of land was larger in the north. In the same way, the development of alluvial fans is analyzed by the fans covering old jori patterns. Examples from the plain to the east of Lake Biwa and from the Takamatsu Plain in Shikoku are used. 315. Nishimura Kasuke ^^^-, "Kaigan ni okeru sabetsu shinshoku j 1%r8ht114Vq ^* GE (Structural englulfment: differential erosion in coastal landforms), Hiroshima Daigaku Bungakubu kiyo, no. 12 (1957), 38B-393. Coastlines with dentation are mainly formed by the submergence of land or from upheavals of the sea level, but sometimes they are formed by differential erosion. The dentated coastline of Nichinan in South Kyushu was formed as the result of selective erosion on the alternative strata of sandstone and shale monoclinal towards the sea. The same structure caused a cuesta topography inland. Another example of landform of the same origin was discovered along the coast of San'in. 316. Nishimura Kasuke ai 8 tZA, "Shogawa senjochi no hattatsu to ningen no kyoju (Surface development and human occupance of the Shogawa Fan [Toyama Prefecture])," Hiroshima Daigaku Bungakubu kiyo, no. 13 (1958), 177-188. The growth of the alluvial fan of the Shogawa has been active in the historical period. The speed of the growth, estimated from the deposition of debris in reservoirs for hydro-electricity, is 5 m. per 1,000 years. Isolated villages characteristic to this district probably worked out flood preventative measures individually. 317. Oka Toshiki g t t, "Osaka heiya nantobu no chikei to chikaku undo AFP 1 *,t ^ f0 Salt J8^ L (The geomorphology and the crustal movements in the southeastern part of the Osaka Plain)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 10, 523 -535. The basin-making movement of the Osaka Plain is explained as having been a complex one involving foldings and warpings, an explanation based on the analysis of river terraces in the SE part of the plain. The geomorphic surfaces in this area are erosional in the hills which suggests upheavals; they are depositional in the lowlands which suggests down warpings. The shiftings and priacies of river courses prove that these basin-making movements are recent. 318. Okayama Toshio X A4 & _, "Nihon no chikei kozo to chishitsu kozo no kankei Z.^ ^ t (Relationships between the geomorphic and geologic structure of the Japanese Islands)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 50-69, Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 648 pp. Japan is divided into the North, West and Central regions. Geotectonically, North and West Japan have many characteristics in common. Namely, they have zones of discontinuous heights concordant to the directions of the submarine trenches of Sanriku and Nankai (the West zone of North Japan and the Outer zone of West Japan) as well as zones discordant to the lines of structure (the East zone of North Japan and the Outer zone of West Japan). Both the Inner and Outer zones of Central Japan. have directions concordant with the line of Suruga Bay, the crossing point of the Honshu and Chichito Arcs. Thus, contrary to the former theory that divided Japan into Northeast and Southwest tectonically, Okayama points out the peculiarity of Central Japan and asserts the necessity of reconsideration of the meaning of the fossa magna. 319. Okayama Toshio pi y, "Yanagase danso to Tsurugawan, Isewan sen Aitf YX. 7 ( 71 (The Yanagase Fault and the Tsuruga Bay: Ise Bay Line)," Sundai shigakuno. 7 (1956), 75-101. The Yanagase Fault forms the northern end of the Tsuruga Bay-Yoro and Ibuki HorstsIse Bay Line. It has been discovered that the fault scarp is a reversed fault dropping to the west. The faulting did not take place in mountainland of a mature stage, but in a stage of a peneplain, and the straight valleys developed into subsequent valleys in accordance with the intermittent block movements. Besides being a fault scarp with a large realtive height, its direction is perpendicular to the direction of the Tsuruga bay system representing Central Japan. The Yanagase Fault forms the boundary between the geomorphological regions of Central Japan and West Japan. 320. Okasaki Yoshio i A. X, "Hokkaido Kushiro heigen no chusekisei no kochiri ^^^At fTt @ At x it~tf ky t t(Paleogeography of the Kushiro Plain, Hokkaido, in the alluvial age)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 1 (1960), no. 7, 255 -262. The peat land of the Kushiro Plain consists of marine deposits shwoing the change of phases from deep to shallow sea. The development of alluvial deposits is associ

Page  52 ~~~~~52 ~~JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY ated with archeological chronology and is summarized as follows: the Paleo-Kushiro Bay was formed in the early jomon period by submergence due to the upheaval of the sea level by 10 m. There was an upheaval of land after 3,000 B.C., and in the middle to late jomon period the bay was changed into Kushiro Lake, which is shut from the sea by a sand bar. In the late jomon, ca. 1,000 B.C., the formation of peat land began. 321. Okazaki Toshio 1 \ 9, "Kushiro heigen to sono shuhen no chikei hattatsushi 4l| ~^ tA^tt L^) L ^'S X n~ - (Topographic development of the Kushiro Moor and its surroundings [Hokkaido])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 9, 462-473. Geomorphic surfaces in the Kushiro Plain are classified into 3 coastal terraces, 4 river terraces, drowned-valley bottom, filled-in valley bottom, and alluvial surface. The basin-making movement of the Kushiro Plain has continued since the early diluvial age. Several transgressions and regressions were repeated. Surface topography was modified by the eruption of the Akan Volcano after the formation of the third river terrace. 322. Okura Yoko a th, "Dankyu taisekibutsu yori mita Kujigawa karyu chiiki no chikei t;4 r;tt j 7 (Terraces and terrace deposits along the lower course of the Kuji River [Ibaraki Prefecture])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 5, 225-237. The Kuji River flows along the southern margin of the Abukuma Mountains. From the distribution and grain analysis of gravel, the geomorphic history of the diluvial hills is studied. After the upper terraces were formed, there was a period of transgression when gravel and sand were laid over the middle terraces as shallow sea deposits. The lower terraces are river terraces, and before erosion reached the upper course, there was a marked upheaval resulting in the cliffs that bound the present upland and alluvium. 323. Omoto Kunio A"M'A^ d, "Miyagi-ken Onikobe bonchi no chikei hattatsushi ITf * ) I X&k 6 t Iflp at (Geomorphic development of the Onikobe Basin, Miyagi Prefecture), Tohoku chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 2, 61-70. In the central mountains of Tohoku, there are numerous former lake basins which were supposedly formed by crustal movements since the Tertiary. Onikobe Basin is one of them. Hitherto this basin has been considered to have originated in a caldera, but Omoto explains its formation by the orogenic movements of surrounding mountainlands during the Miocene-Pliocene period. The lake kept expanding until the diluvial period during which the accumulation of volcanic ejecta continued the lake. Disappearence of the lake took place at the end of the diluvial, after which fluvial terraces and alluvial fans were formed in the previous lake basin. 324. Ono Tadahiro )1\,. H, "Honshu seitan chiho ni okeru kaigan sakyu no keiseiki no kenkyu '}'Jl ) PT ' J 0A eti 6 te (Studies on the coastal dune formation periods in the wetern extremity of Honshu), Chiri gaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 7, 391-411. Using prehistoric relics, the deposits of coastal sand in the western part of Yamaguchi Prefecture are analyzed. Four stages of the deposits are classified from the jomon era to the present day. In this area no deposits are found to prove maximum transgression in the early jomon period. There are six fault blocks in the area which are seemingly still active, and it is necessary to take the crustal movements into account for an analysis of the sand deposits. 325. Ota Yoko AW 1,, "Osando engan no kaigan dankyu Pati:' ' - j (Coastal terraces of the Sado Island, Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 5, 226-242. Along the northern coast of Sado Island, there are six levels of coastal terraces with heights from 5 m. to 220 m. Generally speaking, these terraces are of marine origin in the western part, and are in the nature of elevated fans in the eastern part. Landforms of this district are more gentle to the west and steeper to the east; and while the western coast is exposed to the ocean, the eastern coast is more or less protected. The altitudes of the terraces are different in the northsouth direction, which may be due to an up-warping with an axis in the central part of this district. 326. _ ya Masahiko )itJ,_"Gifu-ke Makita awa ni okeru senkyuten to kagan dankyu:senkyuten keisei ni kansuru ichi kosatsu AX - )i1,3, a ' v - ~ A^ll K ja i X (The relation between a knick-point and river terraces along the Makita River, Gif Prefecture: a view of the formation of knickpoints)," Tokyo Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu, no. 3 (1954), 149-157. There are three levels of river terrraces above and below the gorge that make a

Page  53 53 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOGNOSTICS clear knick-point along the Makita River. The origin of the knick-point, therefore, must be looked for in something other than ordinary crustal movement, difference of rocks, or climatic changes. From the correlation of grade lines of the upper and lower sections, together with terraces, it is asserted that this knick-point did not come after the lower terrace, but had existed before the development of the upper terrace. Inspite of the revival of erosion due to crustal movements, the location of the knick-point was not changed but instead the effects were transmitted upstream. 327. Oya Masahiko. and Ichinose Yoshimi Aft, "Shimokita hanto hokutobu no kaigan chikei -T- ~,X,?at (Topography of the northeastern coast of the Shimokita Peninsula)," Shigen kagaku kenkyusho iho, no. 40 (1956), 16-28. After the formation of the erosion surface (360-270 m.), five levels of coastal terraces were formed which cut the lower diluvial Noheji Horizon. Of these, the first to the third terraces were made by fairly quick intermittent upheavals, and the fourth terrace was made in a long period of standstill. After that there was a fall of volcanic ash and consequently the development of the fifth terrace. Finally came the depression of the Tanabu Lowland which buried part of the fifth terrace. 328. Oya Masahiko ^ff and Ichinose Yoshimi ' i, "Shimokita hanto no kaiganchikei 1;9AQi 6) X ^ 13 (Topography of the coast of the Shimokita Peninsula [in the northeastern part of Japan])," Shigen Kagaku Kenkyusho iho, nos. 43 and 44 (1957), ]]3-]28. In the Shimokita Peninsula there are five levels of coastal terraces. After the development of the third terrace, there was a standstill period. During the formation of the fourth terrace, there was a larger upheaval to the SW, and in the N-NE part of this area there was a tilting. After the development of the fifth terrace, the depression continued in the Tanabu Lowland in the sourthern part of the peninsula. 329. Sakaguchi Yutak,1 "Hokkaido no atarashii chishitsu jidai no chikaku undo) t 1 \ [^ 0<^ _ (The crustal movement of Hokkaido in the latest geologic age)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 8, 401-431. Two terrace surfaces are observed in the environs of Haboro. They are the Chikubetsu Surface (C) 80 m., and the Tomamae Surface (T) 40 m. These surfaces are used as keys, and are extended to the entire coast of Hokkaido. From the relative heights of the C and T surfaces, recent crustal movements in Hokkaido are analyzed. These movements are the succession of Chishima Arc activity started in the middle Miocene period in the Quaternary. They took place differentially, and were especially active after the formation of the T surface. 330. Sakaguchi Yutaka J A i, "Nihon no chikei hattatsushi ni tsuite Xj * AiO -^jjy V\'^ 1f2~ T(On the geomorphic history of the Japanese Islands)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 7, 387-390. Through analysis of the distribution of altitudes in the Japanese islands, the following conclusions were reached concerning their geomo.rphol-.igical development. Epeirogenetic movement is divided into three periods by two upward warpings. Continental shelves are former land surfaces and are related to the landforms, which are now 700 m. below the present sea surface. The maximum glaciation in the Japanese islands took place in the WUrm ice age. The making of coastal plains and lower alluvial plains is an unusual phenomena after the epeirogenetic movements. After the movement there were two periods when the Japanese islands were connected to the continent; namely when the continental shelves were above the sea and in the lUrm ice age. 331. Slikaguchi Yutaka -L t, "Sarobetsu-gengya to sono shuhen no chusekisei no kochiri "/v Ady.4 or 0) At (Palaeogeography of the Sarobetsu moor and its surroundings in alluvial age)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 1 (1957), no. 3, 76-91. The following conclusions concerning vegetation changes are obtained from pollen analysis and from the geomorphological development of this area. An existing peat layer at the depth of 26 m. can be correlated to the basal peat of the Baltic Sea. The sea level was raised by 6.5 m. and two zones of sanddunes were formed in this stagnant period. After that there was a rapid regression of 11.5 m., resulting in the development of the third dunes. The last upheaval of the sea level was about 5 m., at which time the peat layers were deposited. Three periods of drier climate were interspersed.

Page  54 54 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 332. Sakaguchi Yutaka i 1, "Teshio sanchi hokubu no chikeigakuteki kenkyu fA~~AV ~~ PCOW j itt (Geomorphological study of the northern part of the Teshio Mountains [Hokkaido])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 10, 499-511. In the lower reaches of the Sarobetsu River, Teshio, Hokkaido, there is a large peat land called Sarobetsu Gen'ya. This is a plain about 5 m. above the sea level and is largely a marsh due to the incapability of drainage by the Sarobetsu River. In the snow melting season, a large area of this plain is flooded, and the colonizers' villages are isolated. Thus the marsh is a serious problem in the reclamation of this area. Ths morphological development of the northern part of the Teshio Range is discussed. There is a degrading crustal movement, and this, together with the changes that make the drainage difficult, is the cause for the development of the marsh. 333. Sakaguchi Yutaka J r ~, "Tokyo-wan hokubu no deitanchi ni tsuite ^>Y_~) Aft^- 2]\?^~ 4_ _ (On peat lands around the northern part of Tokyo Bay)," Shigen Kagaku Kenkyusho iho, no. 34 (1954), 1-9. There are peat deposits in the dendric valleys dissecting the diluvial upland around Tokyo Bay. They are the top part of alluvial layers and with a few exceptions were not deposited in wide valleys. At the openings of the valleys with peat deposits, there are always sand spits, sand bars or natural levees. The deposits are thicker at valley heads than at valley mouths. 3314. Sato Hiroyuki u j i gi 1 t, Katsui Yoshio fn ', and Kakimi Toshihiro ig 1, A, "Hokkaido Teshikaga fukin no dankyujo chikei ni tsuite ^^^ W ^^t^Y^^. d Am 8ttT~it >t~ 9X?(On the terrace-like topography in the vicinity of Teshikaga, Hokkaido)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 3 (1964), no. 5, 273-283. There are terrace-like landforms along the Kushiro River near Teshikaga, Hokkaido, which have been reported as diluvial river terraces. According to stratigraphic study of Volcano Mashu and C1 datings, these landforms are volcanic uplands consisting of detritus about 7,000 years old. 335. Shiki Masahide ' g, "Akaishi sanchi hokubu no chikei ni tsuite AtAc (On the geomorphological study of the northern part of the Akaishi Mountains)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, (1961), 224-238. In the northern part of the Akaishi Mountins there are four cirques at the height of 2,700-2,800 m., double ridges due to geological structure, and on some slopes there are Felsenmeer. River terraces are in three levels, and the middle terraces have gravel deposits of 40-200 m. thick, a fact attributed to the ice age. 336. Shima Hiroshi J ~, "Danseiha tansa ni yori hammei shita chusekichi no chika kozo ~ 'U IT, & ^) ~' Xt (Some examples of' underground str ctures of alluvial plains discovered by seismic prospecting)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 8, 666-684. The underground structure of alluvial lands has been hard to study because of the difficulty of finding outcrops. By means of seismic prospecting many new facts were discovered in the alluvial fans of Ofunato in Iwate Prefecture, of the Joganjigawa in Toyama Prefecture, and of the Kiso River in Gifu Prefecture by Shima. Some of the discoveries include the shape of base rocks, structure of alluvial layers, buried faults, etc. It has thus been shown that seismic prospecting is a very useful method especially in the study of the geomorphology of alluvial lands. 337. Shima Hiroshi "Kakogan chiiki no fuka to chikei: danseiha tansa no kekka o shu to shite I L Ah g t, --- -. _ )-:. (The relationship between weathering and geomophology in granitic regions with reference to the results of elastic wave test)," Tsujirmnra 'Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 201-214. Granitic rocks are quickly weathered. According to electric sounding surveys, weathered materials in granitic regions are very deep, usually more than 30 m. The upper surface of underground solid rock shows little correlation with surface topography which suggests that weathering had started in previous cycles. 338. Shimomura Hikoichi X,)-, Nishimura Kasuke @ 'a-, and Kuwashiro Isao 36~'/, "Sandankyo.Yawata kogen no chikei - ' \'XJt1 tM (Geomorphological studies of the Sandankyo gorge and the Yawata highland)," Sandankyo to Yawata Kogen, Hiroshima Prefecture Education Committee, Hiroshima, 1959, 23-44. The Yawata Highland represents the upper surface of the staircase topography of the

Page  55 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOGNOSTICS55 Chugoku Mountains. The Sandankyo Gorge makes an incised meander channel and it is inferred that the NE-SW parallel valleys in this district are fault-line valleys. The incised meander itself is controlled by the joints of rocks. 339. Shimomura Hikoichi Af l and Nishimura Kasuke i$ pho "Chugoku sanchi chuobu no chikei ^ - (Geomorphology of the central part of the Chugoku Mountains)," Chugoku sanchi kokutei-koen chosa hokoku, (1959), 2-16. The Chugoku Mountains consist of several flat surfaces of erosion. Descriptions are made of three parts of these mountains: the central part, the Dogoyama-HibayamaSentsusan District, and the Taishakukyo District. The second district has flat surfaces on the mountain tops, making the upper level of the Chugoku a flat one. Part of the top of Dogoyama is covered by basalt making a mesa. The Taishakukyo District represents karst topography and is abundant with limestone caves and natural bridges. On the nearby Taishakudai Plateau there are many karst depressions such as dolines, uvalas, etc. 340. Shirai Tetsuyuki i ~t ~ L, "Noshiro fukin no dankyu chikei rx\\ )-T iV^y~ ~(Terraces topography [in the lower course of the Yoneshiro River] near Noshiro)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 9, 487-497. There are five levels of terraces near Noshiro in the lower reaches of the Yoneshiro River. Conditions at the time of the deposition are classified according to the phases of the deposits. Based on this, geomorphic surfaces in this area are classified into alluvial fan terraces, flood plain terraces, river mouth terraces, marine terraces, and sanddunes. The crustal movements throughout the periods in which the five terraces were made formed terrigenous layers to the north of the Yoneshiro and marine deposits to the south. The influence of the movement that made the basin of the Hachiro-gata lagoon is also seen in the landform of terraces. 341. Tada Fumio;f1^, Shizen Kankyo no hembo i 3 Y0)' A (Metamorphosis of natural regions), Tokyo, Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1964, 282 pp. Changes in the natural enviorments of the plains after the diluvial are explained. In Chapter One the elements influencing the changes, such as the Kanto loam and glacial eustacy, are discussed. Natural disasters are next discussed in their relation to the changes of landforms. The human agency as a factor of geomorphic changes is emphasized. In Chapter two, major plains of the world are described with reference to Quaternary geology. 342. Takahashi Shogo., "Shinano-gawa no ryuro to koshinsei taiseki bonchi iIt~jX g< Y_ q I gg.-(The relationships between the course of the Shinano River and the Pleistocene sedimentary depressions [Niigata Prefecture] )'" Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 1 (1957), no. 4, 125-129. Tertiary deposits in the lowland of the Shinano River are of marine origin and show a syncline. Quaternary layers covering them are terrigenous and sometimes reach to depths of over 1,000 m. According to electric soundings, they are subdivided into small basins and grabens, showing as a whole a synclinal basin with an axis close to the present channel of the Shinano. 343. Takahashi Tatsuro, "Fukushima-ken Nozawa-bonchi fukin no dankyu chikei t 0 7t (Terrace topgraphy in the Nozawa Basin, Fukushima Prefecture and its vicinity)," Tohoku chiri, v. 14 (1962), no. 2, 59-64. River terraces in the drainage area of the Agano for 20 km. from the western margin of the Aizu Basin are studied. These terraces are classified into upper, middle, and lower terraces, but may be further subdivided when minute differences are taken into consideration. The middles terraces consist of oumicelayers originating from the crater lake, Numazawa-numa, beside the Tadami, the largest tributary of the Agano. Although the surfaces of the middle terraces are of two different types, the base of these pumice layers is approximately the same as that of the terrace depo — sits of the lower terraces. 344. Takahashi Tatsuro 1 141, "Niigata-ken Tsugawa bonchi fukin no dankyu 3hikei, 't A t '^qt^ WpS _ Terrace topography in te Nozawa Basin, and its vicinity)," Tohoku chiri, v. 14 (1962), no. 2 59 — L The Tsugawa Basin is located on the Agano River that flows from the Aizu nasin into the Niigata Plain. There are three levels of river terraces along the Agano in this area. For a correlation of the terraces the pumice deposits from the Numazawa Crater on the Tadami, a tributary to the Agano, proved useful. The lower terraces consist of two surfaces, of which the upper one is composed of pumice sand and gravel deposited in a lake formed by damming-up at a narrow downstream reach, and the lower sur

Page  56 56 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY face was formed by sediment washed out of the above mentioned materials. 345. Takani Hisayoshi A4 A /, "Chitairyoku to teishitchi koyu no seishitsu no kankei iAA ^^ yt 't0 ]'ff (The relationship between bearing capacity and other properties of low humid grounds)," Tohoku chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 4, 174-178. Bearing capacity has to do with the passability of heavy vehicles. In this survey the lowlands are classified into alluvial fans, natural levees, and deltas. The elements having much to do with the capacity are the water content in the ground near the surface, characteristics of the soils, conditions of deposits, etc. 346. Tanaka Shingo _ l "H, "Hokai danchi to sono keisei kiko X>i ^^[ A0C^'^^4 (Hokai-danchi [Debris-avalanche concentrated areas] and the dynamics of their occurrence)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 35 (1962), no. 6, 263-271. There are frequent landslides in the Hishi-tanzawa Mountains of Kanagawa Prefecture. Areas susceptible to frequent landslides have common characteristics. They are usually surrounded by steep slopes, and the soils are coarse and thin. When causes for collapse, like heavy rains or earthquakes, occur frequent landslides result. 347. Tanaka Shingo t -, "Nishi Tanzawa no sanchi kyushamen ni okeru yamahida no kenkyu: tokuni kokusho odankei no hairetsu gata no keisei kiko to sono hairetsu gata no hatten keishiki ni tsuite V.fid )AI t )]' t / r t0w9- - </, 4/Tt" (A study on the formation of ravines on steep slopes in the western part of the Tanzawa Mountains [Kanagawa Prefecture]: with special reference to shapes of bottom-cross sections of ravines and their morphological classification)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 6 (1962), 96-151. To analyze the response of soils and rocks to the agents of erosion in mountain lands where they are very active, the texture of landforms is studied. According to cross section forms, mountain ravines are classified into six types. The process of development is discussed for each of the types. 348. Tanaka Shingo @ f, "Setonaikai engan ni okeru tani mitsudo to ganseki to no kankei ] jW ]%,in (The drainage density and ~ocks in the Setouchi sea-coast region [western Japan])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 7, 564-578. The relationships between landforms of the mountain slopes and the physical character of surface layers are analyzed. The Inland Sea area was chosen because of the uniformity of geological and climatic conditions. From the study of two areas, near Okayama and Bofu, it is concluded that compared with the land of Palaeozoic rocks, in the granite land, valleys are more densely developed, smaller valleys disturb the surface, soils are thicker, vegetation is sparser, and the soils are more permeable and contain less water. 349. Toda Fumio ~~ A - -, "Nai Moko Kunshantagh sabaku chitai no skyu chikei ]'A t *i I 4 t t g p ^ It iX A^ f (Sanddunes in the Kun hantagh Desert, inner Mongolia)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 174-188. In the Kunshantagh Desert there are basins of warping which are covered by lacustline layers of Oligocene. Basin bottoms often consist of erosion surfaces which cut archaic rocks and which are covered by basin deposits. Sanddunes are of horse-shoe shape and are classified into those of erosion and deposition. Fine sand is accumulated to a depth of 5 m. and more in the northern foothills, and is comparable to loess in its deposition. In the central region, there are basalt plateaus of early Quaternary which sometimes have volcanic domes on them. 350. Tokuda Teiichi do rs, Kodo: shinshoku chikei 1 -- 1~, (Loess [North China]: land orms of erosion), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1957, 250 pp. Loess in North China is very susceptible to diurnal erosion which causes characteristic changes in landform. The processes of change are described in detail with abundant illustrations. A cycle of erosion is formulated by the author in terms of initial form, loess and wadi, loess canyon, loess butte, etc. 351. Tomita Yoshiro,Y "Hijiori bonchi to sono fukin no chikei hattatsu ni tsuite ^ a fr g J) T V}' iv' (On geomorphological development of the Hijiori Basin and of the adjacent area [in Mogami county, Yamagata Prefecture])," Tsujimura Taro sensi koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 27-38. The Hijiori Basin is located 10 km. to the northeast of the Gassan Volcano in Yamagata Prefecture. The landform originated from the caldera of explosion in a diluvial old-Hijiori Volcano. Pumic flow was depsoited into this crater which formed a lake,

Page  57 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOGNOSTICS 57 when the lake was drained, the bottom was dissected making the present upland in the basin. From the structure of soil development in the pumice, the age of the flow is believed to belong to the alluvial age similar to that of the middle terrace in the Mogami valley. 352. Tomita Yoshiro, "Kasei dankyu no bunrui ni tsuite (On the classification of river terraces)," Tohoku chiri, v. 6 (1953), no. 1 1-6. After comparing the earlier classifications of river terraces based on the cause of origin, materials from which they are constructed, the processes of development, and relative height, Tomita argues that classification based on the ages of terraces in geomorphological development is indispensable. The lapse of time after terrace making will be measured by the progress of weathering on the terrace gravel, and using this principle he classifies the terraces into old, middle, and new. Another classification of key terraces and subordinate terraces is proposed on the basis of their usefulness as indexes of crustal movement. 353. Tomita Yoshiro t, "Kohai kasen to hashoreki no chosa ni tsuite ~ r5)~l~~X &]X\)-v\ (A survey of damaged river beds and their gravel)," Tohoku chiri, v. 9 (1956), no. 2, 35-42. As a basic study for flood control, some damaged rivers in Yamagata Prefecture are surveyed. Discussions are mainly on the measurement of the grain size of gravel in the river beds. From the measurement of three diameters of a gravel an assumptive volume (B) is obtained, which is compared to the real volume (A). From the formula A-B, the roundness of the gravel is measured. A 354. Tomita Yoshiro ~ f ~, ed., Shizen chiri I - t \ -_ (Physical geogrpahy I) [= v. 3 of Asakura Shoten's Shin-chirigaku koza], Tokyo Asakura Shoten, 1956, 374 pp. This book is compiled as a standard text book of geomorphology. First, general principles and the history of geomorphology are given. Then follow chapters on climatic geomorphology, major landforms, growth of mountains and valleys, tectonic geomorphology, etc. Emphasis is not the description of landforms, but the history and changes of landforms. A chapter on map projections is attached at the end of the volume. 355. Torii Eiichiro, "Hokkaido Mukawa no maiseki chikei to fukuryusui ni tsuite on th lo) c i-ty-v<r ( On the groundwater of the Mukawa River Valley with relation to its buried topography)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 72 (1963), no. 3, 115-125. On the right bank of the lower Mukawa Valley, Hokkaido, a survey of groundwater was made by the method of electric prospecting. Many geomorphological findings were made on this occasion. A wide distribution of a terrace surface cutting through tertiary bed rocks was discovered buried 5-8 m. below the surface in this flood plain. There is also a fossil- valley reaching to the depth of 30 m. and covered by alluvial deposits. The amount and the velocity of the ground water in this fossil valley are calculated. 356. Toya Hiroshi, "Koka kazanbai to chikei, so~i F&Ak-tt~Ai(Aeolian tephra deposits as a key to correlation)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 3 (1963), nos. 1 and 2, 9-12. The methods of using volcanic ash in geomorphology are discussed in terms of when the source is within the, when there is more than one source, and when there is no ash cover for the whole area. In the last case, the importance of applying geomorphological, archeological, and pedological methods is pointed out with examples of actual application. 357. Toya Hiroshi I 4, ' Sagamino hokuseibu no chikei ni kansuru ikutsuka no monda i T errac es. A d (Some problems on landform of the northwestern part of the Sagamino upland)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 107-118. Kokon Shoin, 648 pp. Five terrace levels are distinguished in the hills, uplands and river terraces along the middle stream of the Sagamigawa. Those are a) Zama Hills, b) Sagamihara surface, c) Nakatsuhara surface, d) Tanabara surface, and e) Yuhara surface. a) is correlated to Shimoseuyoshi surface near Tokyo, b) and c) to Musashino surface, and d) and e) to Tachikawa Terraces. A tilting and dropping to the SW is assumed, and this is considered to be a part of the crustal movement of the Sagami Basin formation which started in the early diluvial age.

Page  58 58 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 358. Toyoshima Yoshinori j $ X3, "Miura hanto no kaishoku chikei iif')t$ ^fly (On wave-cut benches along the south coast of the Miura Peninsula [Kanagawa Prefecture])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 4, 240-252. Wave-cut benches along the southern coast of the Miura Peninsula are studied indetail. From an analysis of the profiles of the benches, it is concluded that the "roughness of the waves" has a predominant influence on the profile of the cliffs. Although the faulting, joints, stratification of the rocks, and other factors may have strong influence on the plan of the cliffs, "roughness of the waves" has decisive influence on elevation. 359. Tsuchi Ryuichi, "Atsumi hanto shuhen no daiyonkei no chishigakuteki shomondai N\_ Y )ah4 )V*,, t i (Problems of the Quaternary history of the Atsumi Peninsula and its adjacency in the Tokai region)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 1 (1960), no. 6, 193-211. River terraces in the Atsumi Peninsula between the Toyokawa and the Tenryu can be classified into four groups: Tempakuhara surface, 10-80 m. above the sea level; Koshihara surface, 8 m. high; Toyohashi surface, 5-8 m. high; and the surface of the alluvial plain. Tempakuhara is a former delta surface made by the Tenryu in the paleo-Atsumi Bay whereas the Koshihara and Toyohashi surfaces are the result of deposition by thr Toyokawa. 360. Tsuchi Ryuichi 3 l, - "Nihon-daira to sono shuhen no chikei hattatsushi:r$ 6 f to) $L^J7L (Topographic development oft he Nihon-daira and its surroundings [Shizuoka Prefecture])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no 12, 642-652. There are many diluvial uplands in the Tokai district, and Udosan, the top of which is called Nihon-daira, is one of them. Since the early diluvial age, delta-like fans containing sediment transported from the mountains in the back were formed. Intermittent warping with a NE-SW axis and repreated progressions and regressions resulted in the development of various geomorphic surfaces in this area. Sea cliffs along the southern and eastern coasts and the sandspit of Miho were formed in the period of high sea level in the early jomon period. 361. Tsujimura Taro 4t- Jt, "Sandankyo to Hachiman-kogen /_ ~2J?, (The Sandankyo Gorge and the Hachiman-kogen Plateau)," Tokyo Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu, no. 3 (1954), 202-213. The antecedent gorge of Sandankyo in the Chugoku Mountains was formed by the upwarping of Kamuriyama accompanied by faultings. There are numerous straight longitudinal valleys in the Chugoku Mountains. These are fault valleys which originated from the block movement with tilting over the former low relief peneplain, including the plateau of Hachiman-kogen. Many processes, in which very densely distributed networks of faulting were readjusted according to the rearrangement of the drainage systems, including piracy and changes of drainage areas, are explained in regard to the development of fault valleys in this area. 362. Ueji Torajiro I "Kii hanto nambu Okumotori kogen no chikei gaikan t J9fW )W ^(A topographic description o the Okumotori Plateau, a relic peneplain in the Kii Peninsula)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 68 (1959), no. 4, 204-207. There are remnants of an elevated peneplain in the Kii Mountains like 5daigahara, 1300-1500 m., Koya, 850-900 m., and Okumotori, 800-850 m. Unlike the other two which consist of Paleozoic or Mesozoic rocks, Okumotori is made of granoporphyry intruding the Miyai formation of' the middle Miocene, making a key for the dating of peneplanization. On the surface of the plateau there are marshes with peat deposits, and the distribution of flat surfaces untouched by dissection is fairly wide. 363. Wako Tatsuo. 1L-, "Shinshoku kan-shamen no keisei jiki ni tsuite A^i0 fA ^ j~V<t), V\ (On gentle slopes of erosional oJrLign in the valleys [of northeastern Hokkaido])," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 2 (1962), nos. 2 and 3, 104-112. Quaternary chronology of Japan has been based mainly on deposits and the landforms of deposition, but Wako asserts the necessity of also including erosion landforms Some of the terraces along the rivers flowing into the sea of Okhotsk in NE Hokkaido have steep profiles which merge below the levels of lower terraces. These terraces with an aggradational phase, may be said to represent a stage of low sea level, namely the ice age. 364. Wako Tatsuo % ItJ, "Yamagata-ken Mukai-machi Maemorihara-senjochi ni tsuite A ^j ^^^^,^^ ^ ^^ (On the geomor

Page  59 59 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOGNOSTICS phological structure of the Maemorihara Plain, Yamagata Prefecture)," Tohoku chiri, v.13 (1961), no. 314, 89-92. The Maemorihara, Yamagata Prefecture, consists of two surfaces with a fan-like shape. Geomorphologically, they may be called eroded terraces and are not unlike rock fans. It is anticipated that more examples of landforms of this kind may be discovered in the future. 365. Watanabe Akira aX t, Chikeigaku t (Geomorphology), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1961, 384 pp. This is a general text of geomorphology based mainly on Davisian theory. Recent developments in geomorphology are also adopted, especially in chapters on structural and climatic geomorphology. Examples of landforms in Japan are used. The chapter on normal erosion includes all aspects of fluvial erosion in reference to structural, volcanic, and karst topography. 366. Watanabe Akira Yut _t, "Nihon no kaigan danyu to kaigan heiya no seishitsu to sono keisei ni kansuru kosatsu Q ) A i ~ 3, (Considerations on the nature and form of coastal terraces and coastal plains in Japan)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigau rombunshu, 1961, 132-144. It is not very accurate to calculate the extent of crustal movements from the heights of former shorelines found on coastal terraces. The speed of terrace making and the development of sea cliffs are widely different according to the conditions of inland landforms, examples being steep or gentle slopes or the stage of erosion. As a transitional form between terraces and sea cliffs, the existence of marine erosion slopes is asserted. As many of the Japanese coastal plains were formed, they were accompanied by degrading crustal movements, and this favored the development of sea cliffs. 367. Watanabe Akira A X;, "Nihon no shuyo kaiganku A 6 E (Major geomorphological divisions of the coast of Japan)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 66 (1957), no. 1, 1-16. The Japanese island arc is cut into blocks making differential crustal movements. The landform of the coasts is very complex. In terms of uplift and submergence, the coasts of Japan may be classified as follows: A) NE Japan with predominantly uplifted coasts; B) the intermediate region where uplift and submergence coexist; B1) the Pacific coast where the direction of embayments is perpendicular to the general direction of the island arc; B )the Japan Sea coast where the direction of landforms is the same as that of tie arc; and C) SW Japan where a coastline of submergence predominates. 368. Yamana Iwao A, "Tottori sakyu no chikeigakuteki kosatsu ^ i ipylJ^ ^ J iit At t(The Tottori sanddune area: its geonorphological description in regard to evolutional aspects)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 64 (1955), no. 1, 7-10. The Tottori Sanddunes are characterized by numerous conic depressions. Some of the depressions are due tosprings which existed before the dunes were formed, while others are mere depressions between rows of dunes. Below the layer of volcanic ash underlying the dunes there are old sanddunes. Old dunes contain limonite and peat, suggesting that they are the result of a stable stage when they were covered by marsh plants. Old dunes were formed more than 500 m. farther inland than present ones and existed under prevailing winds similar to those of the present. 369. Yamanouchi Hideo J 00t, "Haranomachi-shi Omika kaigan ni okeru kaishokugai no kotai ni tsuite 2 At t he <ac efo d) e\ _ (On the retreat of the sea ciff along the Pacific coast at Haranomachi)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 3, 138-146. Along the 5kima coast of Fukushima Prefecture, there are sea cliffs five to twentyfive meters high. The retreat of the cliffs by marine erosion is faster in its southern part than in its northern part. Although the cliffs on the southern coast are protected by fallen debris, the strikes of the rocks run oblique to the coastline, which helps accelerate the retreat. In spite of the fact that the beaches are generally narrower to the north, the rocks there are harder and the strikes of the rocks are parallel to the coast line. Thus geologic structure is identified as the main factor in producing the different rate of marine erosion. 370. Yasuda Hatsuo la, "Sanchi no yoseki, sono keisoku oyobi chirigakuteki-igi PC^ Tffi tt^ - ^' t (Mountain mass: its measuremeht and geographical singificance)," Tohoku chir, v. 7 (1954), no. 1, 1-7. Considering the importance of mountain m a sses in s i geography, Yasuda presents his

Page  60 ~~6 ~~~~0 ~JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY experimental method for calculating the volume of a mountain mass. Mountain masses in central Japan are calculated by his method, and their relation to the altitude of the upper limit of rice fields is discussed. In the Hida and the Akaishi Ranges, rice fields are distributed at the height of 1,200 m., the highest found in Japan. The average altitude of a unit area represents the mountain mass. In the examples of these two ranges the maximum altitude of rice fields does not coincide with the maximum of the mountain altitude. Climate, soils, and other factors must also be considered. 371. Yatsu EijuA iyf*t j, "Heiko kasen no judammenkei ni tsuite i) _; J^~ (On the ongitudinal profile of the graded river)," Shigen Kagaku Kenkyusho iho, no. 33 (1954), 15-24; no. 34 (1954), 14-21; no. 35 (1954), 1-6. It has generally been accepted that the profile of graded rivers is shown as an exponential curvi, but from the study of the grain size of river bed deposits of 14 rivers in central Japan, a discontinuity is discovered where the size is 2-4 mm. It is presumed that the grains with diameters between those of gravel and sand are developed with difficulty; this explains the existence of the discontinuity. As a result, river profiles consist of two exponential curvi equivalent to the grain size of gravel and sand. 372. Yoshikawa Torao 1 E ii, "Hokkaido seigan Mashike-ko fukin no kaigan narabini kaitei chikei j a, 't 1L tX'fi r 1 \" AX A i (Coastal and submarine topography in the Mashike Harbour on the west coast of Hokkaido)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 7, 353-359. Geomorphic development of this area is analyzed on the basis of coastal topography and soundings of the port. After the development of a 30 m. marine terrace, the sea level dropped to abut 40 m. below the present one. A submarine platform consisting of alluvium and sediments of 40-60 m. in depth was formed at this time, thus raising the sea level to about 7 m. above the present level. At the same time, marine erosion caused the retreat of the coast. Another 7 m. drop of the sea level brought the coast to its present topography. 373. Yoshikawa Torao v )p1|, "Kisogawa no kagan dankyu: Ontake kaza to Nobi heiya to no chikei hattatsu no kanren o chushin to shite 2At 1) v - *V k OVW:%X ^:3scl ttJeto! $gm) t1 (River terraces of the iso River with special reference to the glacial history of the central mountains [of Japan])," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1961, 70-87. Of the river terraces of the Kiso River the middle level terraces are characterized by andesite and tuff breccia are traced to the upstream. These terraces were constructed in the later period of the formation of the Ontake and Marishiten Volcanoes. From the study of the landforms of the Kiso Mountains and the Nobi Plain, the ice age which hitherto has been considred separately in both area has come to be associated. 374. Yoshikawa Tarao ~ 1\i 7~, "Nippon no riasu kaigan) / (On the geomorphic development of rias coasts in the Japanese Islands)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 3 (1964), no. 5, 290-296. Some of the rias coasts of southwestern Japan consist of base rocks, others are covered with more recent sediments. Behind the coasts there are terraces with altitudes of 10 m, 30-40 m, and 60-80 m. The depressions in the coasts with new sediments apparently were formed by Tertiary crustal movements. Submergence of the valleys cutting the three terraces is also seen, and it is likely that the submergence took place at the end of the tertiary. Since the diluvial, the drowned valleys and coastal terraces have been formed by glacial eustacy. 375. Yoshikawa Torao -)~l ]i t, MKaizuka Sohei At A _, and 5ta Yoko ~A'^.,9~s ~ "Tosa-wan hokutogan no kaigan dankyu to chikaku hendo ati Yo kF o y*6~^X'^ CA (Mode of crustal movement in the late Quaternary onthe southeast coast of Shikoku, southeastern Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 12, 627-648. Through analyzing the Muroto surface along the northeastern coast of the Tosa bay, the age of the' surface formation was identified to have been in the Riss-Wurm interglacial. Average speed of upheaval within a seismic cycle was calculated to be 2 mm a year. If one assumes that crustal movement of this speed has continued since that interglacial, the height of the surface would have been 180 meters above the sea level, which approximates the present level. According to historical records, the cycle of large earthquakes with magnitudes above 8 has been approximately 120 years. From the analysis of deposits it is clear that periods of submergence intervened. Thus the Muroto surface was identified to have been formed by both crustal and eustatic movements.

Page  61 61 VOLCANISM AND SEISMOLOGY 376. Yonetani Seiji X 'X t- "Amami- Oshima honto hokubu ni okeru bichi rokku no yosatsuteki kenkyu iA *y - ~ ^'/7 E j r,?, (Preliminary studies on the beach rock of e herthern part of AmamiOshima [southwest Japan])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 9, 519-527. The origin, chemical structure, and processes of dissection of the beach rocks seen in the northern part of Amami-Oshima are discussed. Calcarious sandstone is formed by the chemical changes of groundwater near the beach line, producing a sediment of calcium carbonate as matrix. B. Volcanism and Seismology 377. Isobe Kiyoshi jim ', "Showa sanjushichinen roku gatsu nijuku nichi no Tokachidake funka ni tsui e flVp' 37 V7Ve/p 4t _ X) -:)-7n (The eruption of the volcano, Tokachidake, on June 29, 1962)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 72 (1963), no. 5, 244-256. Tokachidake is a triple volcano belonging to the Tokachi volcanic group. At midnight on June 29, 1962 an eruption suddenly occurred in the atrio of the inner somma. The processes of the activity were as follows. First, fissures were formed, then rocks on the surface were blown up. Eruptions of volcanic bombs, lapilli, and ash followed. The direction of the fissures was mainly perpendicular to that of the arrangement of the volcanic group, suggesting the existence of weak lines perpendicular to one another. 378. Iwatsuka Shuko A~ ) and Machida Hiroshi Kq, "Fujisan Osawa no hattatsu: kazan no tani no hattatsu to shinshoku kiko ni suite no kisoteki kenkyu (The development of Osawa valley, Mt. Fuji: A fundamental study on the development of radial valleys on a volcano)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 71 (1962), no. 4, 143-158. Osawa is a valley on the western slope of Mount Fuji. Formation of the valley goes back about 3000 years; there was a large land collapse about 1000 years ago, accelerating erosion. Upstream, above the collapsed part, a large amount of sand and gravel was deposited in the stream. The amount is estimated at 6.5 x 10 cubic meters within the last 1000 years, 20% of which was supplied to the fan developing at the foot of the mountain. The rest was transported further downstream. 379. Kaizuka Sohei A *$, "Nippon ni okeru daiyonki no tephra no bumpu ITj*j E'X/%j Si^^ Tephrap efS (Distribution of Quaternary tephra in Japan)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 3 (1963), nos. 1 and 2, 7-79. Distribution of Quaternary volcanic ash is shown on a 1:5,000,000 map. Besides the distribution of pyroclastic fall deposits, pyroclastic flow lava and calderas are also indicated. Distinctions are made between the falls of diluvial and alluvial ages. 380. Kuno Hisashi Xfos \ _ _, Kazan oyobi kazangan A t A& -A' (Volcanoes and volcanic rocks), Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1954, 225 pp. In part one, the materials of ejecta and the structure of volcanic rocks are described in detail. Distribution of volcanoes and their types, and the characteristics of volcanism in different geological times are also explained. In part two, the physical and chemical characteristics of volcanic rocks are discussed with reference to their origin. 381. Machida Hiroshi t N 4, "Tephrochronology ni yoru Fujikazan to sono shuhen chiiki no hattatsushi: Daiyonki-makki ni tsuite (sono ichi) Tephrochronology j1;1 $@ _~~rr~t~X ~~~JC — ( 0$-J9 0)1) (Tephrochronolgoical study of the Fuji Volcano and adjacent areas [1])," Chigaku zasshi, v. 73 (1964), no. 5, 292-308; no. 6, 337-350. Machida explains the geomorpholgoical development of Mount Fuji based on the analysis of volcanic ashes as well as petrological studies. Since the late diluvial, there are four periods to be distinguished: Paleo-Fuji period I, in which the volcano was very active, resulting in the accumulation of ashes; Paleo-Fuji period II, in which the eruption of lava was predominant; an inactive period of volcanism in which there were minor activites and erosion started to modify the surface; and the period of Neo-Fuji volcanism, in which there were intermittent but strong eruptions of lava and volcanic detritus. 382. Mizuno Yutaka it { ' u "Chokai-sanroku no kazan funshutsubutsu to sono chikei ni tsuite h A r i Va ]) Py q I' T -v\I (Geomorphology o the alea around Chokai volcano)," Tohoku chiri, v. 14 (1962), no. 3, 103 -106. The foothills of the volcano Chokai on the boundary of Akita and Yamagata prefec

Page  62 62 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY tures consist mainly of volcanic mudflows in the northern part, and of lavaflows elsewhere. The northern slope may be subdivided into the eastern and western parts. The eastern part was formed by two mudflows, while the western part was formed by a newer mudflow. 383. Mizuno Yutaka;d K, "Iwaki kazanroku no chikei ^3A4,,j, ) / (Geomorphology of volcanic mudflows in the area around Iwaki Volcno)," Tohoku chiri, v. 13 (1961), nos. 3 and 4, 85-88. The main body of the Iwaki volcano in the western part of Aomori prefecture consists of diluvial lava and agglomerate. Not much is known about its lower slopes, but they consist of mudflow,s and may be classified into five regions. Predominant facies are waste-flow on the northern slope, volcanic ash-flow on the eastern, and volcanic sand-flow on the southern. The western foot is bounded by Teritary hills. 384. Mizuno Yutaka i f, "Iwate-kazan shuhen chiiki no chikei hattatsu IL$ e ^ ^ i X t t(Geomorphological development around the Iwate Volcano)," Tohoku chiri, v. 12 (1960), no. 3, 71-76. The plains around the Iwate volcano were formed in relation to the activities of the volcano. The geomorphology of the area around the volcano is classified into three regions. In each of the regions one or more stages have existed in which mudflows dammed the streams to form numerous lakes. The levels of the lakes which were later drained, together with the surfaces of the mudflows, play an important role in forming the flat land of this area. 385. Morimoto Ryohei 4_ $, Nihon no kazan, '-6 /* (Volcanoes in Japan), Tokyo, Sogensha, 1958, 224 pp. Types of Japanese volcanoes are described mainly on the basis of Schneider's classification. It is pointed out that some mountains which hitherto have been considered volcanoes are not. Geological development of volcanoes is also discussed, referring to Tertiary volcanoes. 386. Nakamura Kasuaki 04, Aramaki Shigeo X4K /<,q and Murai Isamu ~~, "Kazan no funka to taisekibutsu no seshitsu XA )LYVe tlA (Volcanic eruption and the nature of pyroc astic deposts),", Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 3 (1963), nos. 1 and 2, 13-30. Volcanic materials are classified into pyroclastic fall deposits, pyroclastic flow deposits and lavaflows, based on data from Japan and abroad. Correlations between types of activity and rocks are analyzed. Within a single eruptive cycle, the order of eruptive materials follows the above classification. 387. Sato Hisashi ^ 2 "Chikeigaku ni okeru kazan no nintei to kiban no igi: Hompo kazantai no chikeiga uteki kenkyu (2) i) < a; k t } t t g 4 ' - -2 fX4 T t fL r 4it a (t 2) (Cognizance of a volcano and the significance of its base: a study of volcanic topography in Japan, 2)," Todai chirigaku kenkyu, no. 3 (1954), 14-39. In considering the altitude of the base of a volcano and its height relative to adjacent non-volcanic hills and mountains, it is necessary to view it macroscopically within an orogenic arc or great anticline. Although some geologists and petrologists are skeptical concerning geomorphological cognizance of a volcano, geomorphology plays an important role in the study of volcanoes. 388. Suwa Akira -" > e, "Miyake-jima kazan to 1962-nen no funka _ *i Yv 72 4 fno\it 9-1(Volcano Miyake-jima and the 1962 eruption)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 72 (1963) no. 6, 29-41. The island of Miyake in the Izu island group consists of a double structured, stratified volcano, mainly of basalt. There is proof that this volcano has been intermittently active since prehistoric times. An example of eruption in historic times was the one in 1940, which was noted for its scale and the damages it caused. On August 24, 1962, after 22 years' dormancy, another large eruption occurred. From radial fissures along the weak lines of the mountain body, 5.5 million cubic meters of lava, and 3.5 million cubic meters of volcanic detritus were emitted. There had been presages such as earthquakes, dying vegetation, and raised groundwater temperature. There were no casualties. 389. Suzuki Takasuke a ^\ t/,> "Hakone-kaz n nokutobu ni okeru karuishiryu no taiseki to sore ni tomonatta chikei henka ni tsuite X XAA.Lt )the z,1 X ~Jfk ' 7 >jy L^/Y- meG (The deposition of the pumice flow and accompanying topographic changes in the northeastern part of the Hakone Volcano)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 1, 24-41. The pumice upland in the northeastern part of the Hakone volcano consists of two

Page  63 63 DRAINAGE layers of pumice flows. The upper pumice flowed out of the paleo-crater in the form of nuees ardentes, and makes the initial form of the upland. The changes in the former channels of the rivers can be followed by the distribution of sand and gravel deposits. The size and the number of pumice fragments decrease in proportion to their distance from the source of the flow. 390. Yamada Shinobu A1B, Katsui Yoshio *ta, and Kondo Yuko 1;, "Hokkaido ni okeru daiyonki kazan saisetsubu su no bumpu to sono hennen;j~ rV4 0^^^At^ /| -, t A -, (Distribution and chronology of th' Quaternary pyroclastic depostis in Hokkaido)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 3 (1963), nos. 1 and 2, 80-87. Hitherto the study of volcanic detritus in Hokkaido has been promoted mainly by agronomists concerned with the alluvial age, and by geologists and volcanologists concerned with the diluvial age. Recently scientists in other fields have come to recognize the importance of the study because of its relation to the problems of quaternary research. Included are contribution from geomorpholgists, archeologists, and pedologists as well as a summary of results of recent progress in this field. C. Drainage 391. Aramaki Makoto r,4 "Kozuiji ni okeru k sui no kagaku seibun ni kansuru yosatsuteki kenkyu cI\< )-t o reai o n.i, 4 (A preliminary study on the chemical com ositi n of river water in floods)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 68 (1959), no. 1, 18-25. In the central part of the Arakawa River, samples of river water were collected every hour at flood time. SO4, SiO2, and P04 components show plus correlation with the rise in water level, suggesting that there is a washout of soluble materials from arable land as well as from floating objects. The Cl ion alone shows a reversal correlation. 392. Aramaki Makoto s and Sawano Ryoichi ^t t_, "Kohai sanchi ga kasho taisekibutsu oyobi umpambusshitsu ni ataeru eikyo ZA te n92,T pp OnsetXl^^^^^~~ 424 7Qg ~~~(The sedimentation a transportation f the river-beds of the upper Watarase devastation)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 7, 548-563. Devastation in mountain lands in the upper reaches of rivers have much to do with the floods in the lower reaches. The influence of devastation in the mountain lands on the deposits of the river beds is analyzed in regard to the Watarase in the Northern Kanto. The amount of the transported materials was measured, and the scouring capacity of the river was calculated by analyzing the grain size of the gravel in the river bed. From a comparison of the deposits with the grade of the devastation it is concluded that the more th mountain lands are devastated, the closer the relation is with the materials on the mountain slopes. 393. Arasawa Kameto, Kasen suiri choseiron of m sK n. T. (Control of the uses of iv r water), Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1962, 538 pp. Competiton for river water for electic, urban, industrial, and agricultural purposes must be regulated. Examples of the main rivers are discussed. The possibility of control in the form of regional planning with construction of multi-purpose dams are also discussed. A functional analysis of multi-purpose dams is made, and the economic basis of water rights is discussed in relation to the dams. 394. Kato Takeo VJX A^t, "Karasu-gawa no rikusuigakuteki Kenkyu J )i1 fKX iJ, E-i t (Limnological studies of the Karasu River, Yamagata prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 5, 273-280. The Karasu River in Yamagata prefecture includes in its drainage area the Gassan volcano with its many surrounding hot springs, mineral springs, and mines. The annual change of chemical composition of the river water is observed. The influence of the mines and hot springs is clear, except in the season of melting snows. The amount of chemcial components such as chlorides and sulphates show negative correlation with the rainfall. 395. Kato Takeo u X k^, Zaosan shuhen kasen no rikusuigakuteki kenkyu ~ A y)I|?1 e) Vt IJ g (Limnological Studies of the rivers aroUnd Mt. Zao proper)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 6, 229 -243. The chemical quality of the river water in the area surrounding Zao volcanoes is measured. The relation of the water quality to volcanic activites, precipitation, and the mining industry within the district is discussed.

Page  64 64 ~~~~~64 ~~JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 396. Matsumoto Shigekir K2 + I, Fn, "Abe-kawa karyubu no saikin no kasho teika 3to96.t ^ Matsumoto t^Sh'^ A (The degradation of the river bed in the lower stream of the Abe River in Shizuoka Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron,v. 37 (1964), no. 10, 548-559, The changes in the river bed of the lower stream of the Abe River have been analyzed for the period of 1929-64. Before 1954, the river bed was rising slightly, but since then it has been going down sometimes as much as two meters. The degradation has been especially rapid since 1957. This is due to the exploitation of balast as construction material, and the bounds of degradation shifting upstream. 397. Oya Masahiko y A~/A, "Chikugo-gawa no sanchi, bonchi, kyokoku ni okeru ryusoku ni tsuite 4'iA)1j f A f i~ h->} a A) ll, tfi cs V\at (The velocity of iver flow in mountains, basins, an canyons: the case of the Chikugo River, Kyushu)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 5, 369-382. It is generally believed that river flows are faster when the gradient is larger, and when the gradients are equal, deeper rivers run faster. The relation between gradient and velocity is observed in the case of the Chikugo River in northern Kyushu. Contrary to general assumption, in canyons where the river is deep, the flow speed is slower on the same gradient than it is in the plains, where the river is shallower. 398. Oya Masahiko f/ n, "Kyokoku ni okeru kasen no ryusoku ni tsuite: Sarugaishigawa no baai + A ~ | ^ |\ v -- A )j4 ) j (The velocity of a current in a gorge: the cabs f the Sarugaishi River)," Shiger Kagaku Kenkyusho iho, no. 37 (1955), 19-27. It has been generally believed that the velocity of rivers is greater in the gorges where the inclination is steeper than on flat land. In the Sarugaishi river, however, it has been noticed that except in times of floods the velocity in the gorge was less than in the basin. The ratio of the speed was 1:1.34. 399. Suiri Kagaku Kenkyujo )K 4X| We 71 (j[. (Research Institute for the Science of Water Use), ed., Suiri kasengaku i1 V j )'| )' (Fluviology), Tokyo, Chijin Shokan, 1962, 270 pp. The book deals mainly with water resources from a technological standpoint. There are chapterson river planning, use of water resources, future plans regarding water resources, and administration for the control of rivers. The distribution of water resources in Japan is indicated (with special reference to major rivers like the Tone, Yodo, Kiso, and Onga) and the present-day use of water is described. 400. Takayama Shigemi A 1 t, "Tonegawa honsen churyubu no kasho henka AJA' 'fWfJi A. 23 (Changes of the river bed in the middle reaches of the Tone River)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 8, 486 -494. The middle course of the Tone river for about 100 km. between Hattojima and Toride frequently suffers from floods, and for that reason elaborate surveys have been made here. Using this data, the changes in the river bed are analyzed. All parts of the river bed have undergone aggradation and degradation even within the short period under survey. When degradation starts at some section of the river, the section slowly shifts downstream. Depending on the phase of this change, the river course is subdivided into several sections. 401. Yamaguchi Yaichiro 3 U B- f, "Bonchi-kozui no tokusei to kasenkaishu J t y\;K 4r 0 D1^ V — 1 - I (Character of floods in a basin and conservation of rivers)," Tohoku kenkyu, v. 11 (1961), no. 2, 14-18. According to the records of the Aizu basin, areas with frequent inundation are not always the areas that receive the largest destruction from floods. In relation to the process of geomorphic development, there are two types of floods. One is near the outlet of the basin where fooding is due to the stagnation of water, and the other occurs in areas of dilapidated river channels in the alluvial fans. To counteract the former type, revision of channels is usually undertaken. In regard to the latter, construction of banks and dykes to stop sand-flows is practiced. These methods are not very effective when carried out separately; therefore, a systematic program covering the entire river course is necessary to implement effective control. D. Groundwater 402. Arai Tadashi ^ t and Horiuchi Seiji. MI (I, "Tagokura chosuichi no suion kozo ni tsuite 1T* Tt a ) *,v- 1 L^ 7V)61 (On the thermal structure of the Tagokura reservoir)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 10,

Page  65 GROUNDWATER 65 590-601. When a reservoir of huge capacity is constructed its influence on the water temperature is a very serious problem for the rice fields where the run-off water is used for irrigation. The distribution of water temperature in the Tagokura Reservoir for hydroelectricity in Fukushima Prefecture is surveyed. Near the outlet, a discrepancy in water temperature betweeen upper and lower layers is observed. The temperature of run-in water is raised quickly, yet the difference of the difference of the temperature between run-in and run-out water remains fairly great. Generally speaking, the water temperature of thethis lake is highlaer natural lakesthat of tapproximately the same morphological and climatic conditions. 403. Horiuchi Seiji^tlt_ and Abe Yoshinari M a s, "Miwa chosuichi ni okeru mizu no ryudo to suion r^X t~ A &6 ^y tA-' (The current and the distribution of the temperature of water in the Miwa Reservoir)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 5, 268-279. Compared to natural lakes, artifical lakes are usually narrow and long, and the amount of inflow and outflow is large in proportion to the capacity. The Miwa is a multipurpose reservoir constructed on the Mitsumine, a tributary to the Tenryu River with a capacity of 37.5 100 cubic meters, a level of water 815 m. above the sea, a maximum depth of 60 m., and a water surface of 1.76 106 square meters. At the inlet of the water, the currents de to density were observed. A large amount of inflow results in a more horizontal movement of heat than vertical, and in the making of water temperature stratification. There are two layers of discontinuity. The lower one seems to be produced by the inflows of a large quantity of water, and the upper one is due to the daily changes in the water temperature. 404. Mino (Ishikawa) Yokichi _ t ( and gchikawa Masami su e "Aichi-ken Mito fukin no chikei to chikasui no fuson A Af^ t y X)t Aft e tjKX AtJ (On the landform and the groundwater reservoir in the Mito area, Aichi Prefecture)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 7 (1963), 23-36. Underground structure and geomorphic development are studied by means of electric sounding in the eastern part of Aichi Prefecture. In the alluvial land of the Mito, the Otowa and the Sana Rivers, sand and gravel sediments are predominate at an altitude of over 7.5 m. above the sea level, and at 7.5-2.5 m. there are two fairly thick clay layers supporting the ground water. 405. Mitsui Kazuo - "Tanabu heiya nara ini sono shuhen chiiki ni okeru kangai suion ni tsuite w:jMffik }% \e I4- ]PT (On the temperature of irrigation water in the Tanabu Plain and its surrounding areas, Aomori Prefecture)," Shigenkagaku Kenkyujo iho, nos. 43 and 44 (1957), 128-142. The Tanabu district belongs to an area of low temperature in regard to rice farming, and, accordingly, the temperature of irrigation water causes a serious problem here. There are irrigation ponds, river water, spring water and ground water as sources for irrigation. The water temperature of these sources, in the order that they are listed immediately above, increasingly lowers. The yield of rice per tan also goes down in the same order. A drop of one degree Centrigrade in irrigation water is approximately equivalent to a drop of 0.3 koku per tan in yield. 406. Mitsui Kazuo Gohara Yasuma h sst, and Yokoyama Tokiaki i, "Tanabu heiya no chikasui igaku r v fT (On groundwater in the Tanabu Plain, Aomori Prefecture," Shigenkagaku Kenkyujo iho, no. 40 (1956), 61-77. The most important ground water in the Tanabu Plain is the compressed groundwater of the middle layer, and its water seam is the Tertiary deposits. The boundary between the Tertiary and the diluvial makes a basin-like surface and the depths of the water table are about 100 m. in the middle and 30-40 m. in the hills on both sides. The chemical quality of the water, too, is different in the eastern and western parts of this district. Thus, the groundwater of the Tanabu Plain belongs to two systems, the Osoresan system and the Eastern hill system, and the water flows toward the center of the plain. 407. Murashita Toshio, Chikasuigaku yoron f t (Principles of the science of groundwater), Shok5do, 19 2, 15 pp. This is an attempt to systematize studies on groundwater as a resource. Besides a general discussion on groundwater special emphasis is put on the hydrology of wells, survey methods, and method of estimating the amount of groundwater. 408. Nagasawa Mikio K q "Hatachi kangaichi no chikasui to engai jokyo (Study of groundwater in small fields under irrigation and elimination of chloride pollution)," Chirigaku

Page  66 66 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 8, 465-476. The chemical quality of irrigation water in the southern part of the Osaka plain is surveyed. Salt contents are fairly high, reflecting the influence of sea-water, city refuse, and water from factories. River irrigation water carried by canals is turbid in the lowland, but its chloric contents are not so high as to make it unsatisfactory for agriculture. 409. Nishizawa Toshie iJ t and Namba Masayuki *,- k, "Nihon ni okeru kasen suion no kikogakuteki kenkyu tokuni nenhenka ni tsuite ]'', ' '')t Z&tJ (imatological study of running water temperatures in Japan: with special refernece to annual vairation)," Shigenkagaku Kenkyujo iho, nos. 56 and 57 (1962), 82-96. A formula is presented to calculate annual changes in river water temperatures, and methods of correcting possible errors are discussed. The annual changes in the water temperature of Japanese rivers are studied mainly from the viewpoint of heat economy. 410. Nomura Hiroshi 4 I a, "Iruma-gawa senjochi ni okeru taisekibutsu to chikasui kigen to no kankei ni tsuite ) )!e i a jy,l ~9T.~Kt/ t^,, [ j y t/ (The reationship between the origin of groundwater and the geologic structure of the Irumagawa alluvial fan, Saitama Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 1, 8-21. Based on a survey of 233 wells and the nature of soils in the alluvial fan of the Iruma River, the origin and the quality of the groundwater and the structure of the fan are discussed. From the distribution of materials, the fan is classified into five parts which are structurally different. The distribution and the underground flow of groundwater and other phenomena are described. From the chemical contents of the water, the materials composing the alluvial fan are also assumed. 411. Sasaki Makoto 1 A \ K, Ajisaka Tomio /$ X, and Okamoto Akira T/, "Nasuno-hara no chishitsu to chikasui 2 3~ 6ft TfX (Hydrogeology of the Nasu Plain, Tochigi Prefecture)," Chigaku zasshi, v. b7 (1958), no. 2, 59-73. The Nasu Plain, Tochigi Prefecture, is an alluvial fan consisting of five levels of river terraces. The bed rocks are layers of Paleozoic covered with Miocene and Oligocene sediments. Oligocene tuff-conglomerate and pumice are most extensively distributed under the alluvial fan, and they make the impermeable layers that support the ground water. 412. Sasaki Minoru 4 X 'j21K, "Fujisan seinan roku no chishitsu to shikasui (Geology and the groundwater at the southwest foot of Mount Fuji)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 68 (1959), no. 3, 138-147. The geology near the city of Fujimiya consists of Oligocene ejecta, Diluvial gravels, old Fuji ejecta, Alluvial lava and lapilli, and alluvial deposit. Oligocene ejecta are non-permeable. A diluvial gravel layer spreads widely under the body of Mt. Fuji, and yeilds groundwater under pressure. Fuji lava filled in the valleys, and along the fissures in the lava the groundwater flows, coming out at some places as springs. The spring at Sengen Shrine is an example. 413. Yamamoto Soki A, "Kaigan chikasui tokuni sasu no chikasui ni tsuite jJ ^- Q <I /Fl,/'h[3 ` ",'' (A geohydrological study of coastal groundwater with special reference to sand bar areas)," Chirigaku hyoron,. v. 32 (1959), no. 11, 579-594. The groundwater at three places where sand bars are developed is observed with reference to the possiblity of reclamation of sanddune areas. The places under survey are the west coast of the Hachirogata Lagoon in Akita Prefecture, and Yuminohama and Miho Peninsulas in Tottori Prefecture. In all cases the sandy deposits are thin and are underlain by marine deposits. The boundary between fresh water and salt water is shallow especially where the sand bars are new. In short, the sandbars in these areas were formed by the upheavals of marine deposits and not by the accumulation of drift sand. 414. Yamamoto Soki;, 4t~-f, "Kanto chiho no jiyu chikasui men K R 6~~ O (Groundwater table map of Kanto Region)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 68 (1959), no. 4, 163-174. As material for the effective use of groundwater Yamamoto compiled a 1:200,000 groundwater table map. The inclination of the water table is larger in the upland than in the lowland. The groundwater is discontinuous in the layers of fluvial origin, and continuous in marine layers, not to speak of the discontinuity due to terrace cliffs. This survey will be useful in civil engineering for plans

Page  67 FLORA 67 for collection of water from underground, for buried pipe-lines, for construction of canals and so on. 415. Yamasaki Hisao L 4 O >, "Hatano bonchi no suigen ni tsuite XIt S K -^1-\s' (On the water sources in Hatano Basin)," Tohoku chiri, v. 14 (1962), no. 3, 93-102. In the Hatano Basin the main sources of water are the streams flowing from the surrounding mountains and from the springs along the margin of the basin. Gravel and sand layers comprising the basin floor are too thick to dig wells for daily use. Yamasaki made surveys in search of a water source for irrigation of cultivated fields, and found a large amount of groundwater at the depth of about 70 m. 416. Yoshida Yoshinobu ~ B A l, "Damu kensetsu ni yoru Nogawa no suion teika 'ASf `)- )'J| A 4fi f F (The fall of the water temperature of the Nogawa River cuased by the construction of dams)," Tohoku chiri, vol. 16 (1964), no. 4, 165-170. It has been argued that the construction of a dam for hydro-electircity causes a drop in water temperature down stream. The water temperature of the Nogawa flowing out of Asahi Mountain in Yamagata Prefecture has been surveyed since 1935. Yoshida uses the data and confirms the drop in temperature. From the vertical distribution of water temperature in the reservoir, the middle layer is sucked away by the outlet which causes the termperature drop. 417. Yoshida Yoshinobu, lt t "Yamagata-ken Midaregawa senjochi no chikasui 19Aft t 1U)tXg t fI f I V\X' (Groundwater of the Midare River alluvial fan, Yamagata Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), nos. 7 and 8, 297-310. This is a general report of the survey of ground water in the Midare River alluvial fan district. The water level of wells is shown on a distribution map. The seasonal changes of the water level and the changes after heavy rainfall are discussed. Based on the observations of the water temperatures and PH of the water, the systems of the ground-water flows are inferred. E. Flora 418. Abe Yasuo l 2t~X and Suz ki Tokio ^, "Kyushu chubu kazan chitai no sogen shokusei AI'lt K, _ ~Ad (Prairie vegetation in the volcanic areas oz central Kyushu)," Nihon seitaigakkaishi, v. 11 (1961), no. 1, 10-19. There are grasslands in central Kyushu formed by the intervention of human agents. They are classified into five associations. From an analysis of the associtations it is concluded that temperature and humidity have nothing to do with the formation of the associations. The distribution of three associations with Micanthus as their center was determined by volcanic activity, and they are maintained by the new supply of volcanic ash. Two associations of Zoysia were formed by the use of land as pastures, and the intensity of the use is the predominant factor; landforms are a secondary factor in these associations. 419. Gose Kyuemon_!tA&f, "Gifu-ken Kamioka, Ishikawa-ken Ogoya, Miyagi-ken Hosokura kozan no haisui no kase seibutsu ni oyobosu eikyo IJ4A4, The influence of mine-effluents of the Kamloka Mine, Gifu Prefecture; Ogoya Mine, Ishikawa Prefecture; and Hosokura Mine, Miyagi Prefecture on stream organisms)," Nihon Seitai gakkai shi, v. 11 (1961), no. 3, 111-117. In these places copper and zinc are contained in the water flowing from the mines. Pollution is slightest at Kamioka; no influence on the flora and fauna was found within 19 km. from the outlet. At Ogoya some influence is still to be seen at this distance. At Hosokura the water is most highly polluted, and 20 km. from the outlet therere are vey few aquatic insects. 420._ Gose Kyuemon l i, "Hyogo-ken Ikuno, Okayama-ken Tanahara ryokozan no ha ui no kasen seibutsu ni oyobosu eikyo AAAII, IL At ", ) )I (The influence of mine: effluents of the Ikuno Mine, Hyogo Prefecture and Tanahara Mine, Okayama Prefecture, on stream organisms)," Nihon Seitai gakkai shi, v. 10 (1960), no. 5, 193-198. At Ikuno copper and zinc pollution affects the aquatic life at 10 km. from the outlet, while no influence is observed at Tanahara. It is concluded that copper is more harmful to aquatic life than zinc, and th limits are 10 r/L with copper, and 300 r/L with zinc.

Page  68 68 JAPANE~E GEOGRAPHY 421. Hasegawa JuniT chi ' lt, "Yoteizan ni okeru suichoku shokubutsutai no kenkyu 4 A) ) (Altitudinal zones of vegetation on Mt. Yotei [Shiribeshi, Hokkaido])," Nihon Seitai Gakkai shi, v. 12 (1962), no. 2, 67-72. The verticle distribution of predominant plants is surveyed at the 1850 m. volcano, Yotei, in Hokkaido. For example, there is Pinus pumila at 1700-1850 m., Betula - Ermani at 1050-1700 m., Picea jezoenosis-Betula Ermani at 500-650 m. These predominant trees have very wide distribution within the altitudes; the boundaries are sharp. Thus, vertical botanical zones are clearly shown. Each kind of tree has its own range, and the fact that two or more kinds of threes may or may not appear at the same altitude is not observed. 422. Kitagawa Masanori Jt)I) a, "Chubu Kyushu ni okeru bogan inshi to matsugata shinrin no hattatsu 'if>if 1j-% ),%l ^ '])jt, (Pinus-type forest and petrographic factors in central Kyushu)," Nihon Seitai Gakkai shi, v. 10 (1960), no. 2, 73-82. The influence of petrographic origins on the soils supporting vegetation is analyzed by using the pine forests in Kyushu as an example. A district was chosen where old and new geological structures are in contact, and also where volcanic and non-volcanic lands exist side by side. Although the geology is not decisive, its influence on the distribution of pinus-type forests is clearly observed. There are areas favorable and unfavorable for the development of pine forests and also areas where the growth is stunted by new volcanic eruptions. 423. Kitazawa Yuzo A X - Kimura Makoto i. ft Tezuka Yasuhiko - K Kurasawa Hideo_ ySakamoto Mitsuru, and Yoshino Midori M g ), "Osumi hanto nambu no shokubutsu seitagakuteki kenkyu (Studies of the plant ecology of the southern part o th Osumi Peninsula)," Shigen Kagaku Kenkyujo iho, no. 49, 19-36. On the Osumi Peninsula in Kagoshima Prefecture natural vegetation of temperate zone rainforests is widely preserved. The authors made a climatic and ecological study of the vegetation, especially of the structure of natural forests. Development of associations is explained in realtion to the climate. 424. Kuwabara Yoshiharu t * J, "Kaihin shokubutsu o shu to shita seikatsu kei hyoji hoshiki no kokoromi t \ (An attempt at a new methodology for describing life forms: with special reference to coastal plants)," Nihon Seitai Gakkai shi, v. 10 (1960), no. 3, 112-113. Kuwabara presents a classification of five leaf forms with reference to the classification by Raunkiaer and Dansereau. The author applies his formula combining the life forms and the multiplication form for the diurnal and subterranean parts of the plants, and finds it effective to explain the change of formations as the result of different environments. 425. Maekawa Fumio l]1~, "Dokuutsugi no bumpu to kosekido e ) i ' j )_ (The paleo-equator and its relation to the recent distribution area of Coriaria)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 1 (1957), no. 6, 212-218. Plants of the genus Coriaria are found in New Zealand, New Guinea, Japan, China-Himalaya, Western Mediterranean, Mexico, Chile, Peru, etc. In view of the primitive structure.of their flowers, their fragmentary distribution is striking. When the areas of distribution are arranged in a great circle on the globe, the paleo-equator at the time when the genus originated may be indicated. Their distribution in the New World does not fit in this circle; this may be explained by Wegener's theory of continental drift. 426. Makino Michiyuki T ', "Tobu-Hokkaido no dojo-toketsu to shinrin-keikan 3tF, _ (Soil freezing and vegetation inthe as ern Hokkaido)," Pedologisto, v. 5 (1961), no. 1, 2-12. In eastern Hokkaido, soil freezes even when the surface is covered with snow 60 cm. thick. The freezing maintains the moisture in the soil until the humid season of MayJune when the humidity in the air is low. The distribution of the kinds of trees adapted to humid moderate climate in the coniferous and mixed forests of Hokkaido may be explained from the continuous humidness of the soil. 427. NCh Toshio, "Tonan ajia ni okeru aran'aran no kenkyu Aft, 7T X 7 Oh ~ _ (On the formation of alang-alang, the grassland in Southeastern Asia)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 22 (1949). no. 1, 10-20. The grassland of Imperata cylindrica in Southeastern Asia is called alang-alang by the Malays. The origin of these grasslands varies. They may be formed by forest fires, destruction of forests by typhoons, or by the influence of volcanic ash. Many of them

Page  69 69 FAUNA were once cultivated fields which were later abandoned. They are preserved by natives' custom of peridically burning the grass; in this sense, the grasslands are a part of the cultural landscape. 428. Shimizu Tatemi %J!f t,e"Sekkaigan chitai no shokubutsu gunraku no soseiteki tokucho:Ibukiyama no bai XAR 0 V Tff t Wqf^ 4 C^) Y (Floristic features of the plant community On the clacareous field with special reference to the case of Mt. Ibuki in central Japan)," Nihon Seitai Gakkai shi, v. 9 (1959), no. 3, 128-134. 1377 m. high Mount Ibuki on the boundary of Gifu and Shiga Prefectures consists of Paleozoic limestone up to 900 m. and sandstone above that. From an analysis of forest associations, the vegetation of this mountain is clearly classified into two groups closely related to the geology. 429. Suzuki Tokio nt e, "Nihon no shinrintai zenron 9 f^ n to. (A preliminary note on the forest zones of Japan)," Chiri, v. 6 (1961), no. 9, 1036-1043. Up to this time the forests in Japan have been classified into forest zones of cold climate, moderate climate and warm climate. Suzuki suspects the validity of the identification of the vertical and horizontal distribution of the zones, and suggests the necessity of establishinga system based on the kinds of forests as well as on enviromental factors. Then the conclusion would be based on plant association. 430. Yamanaka Tsugio J 4 -, "Jamongan jono akamatsurin 5^& X]Zj ~ (The pinus densiflora forest on serpentine)," Nihon Seitai Gakkai shi, v. 9 (1959), no. 1, 54-58. Pinus densiflora shows strong adaptability to soil conditions. Areas of serpentine characteristically influence their vegetation; many of the serpentine lowlands in Japan are covered with red pine forests. The association of red pines near Kochi is studied with the following results: 1) red pinesin serpentine land do not grow well, but the association is nevertheless stable; and 2) a difference in the constitution of the association is found. 431. Yoshino Midorii t5 1 I), "Kuchu shashin handoku ni yoru Osumi hanto nambu no shokuseizu mt -e s hiri X n A kb?,, ix (A vegetation map interpreted From aerial potograps in the southern part of 5sumi peninsula)," Shigen Kagaku Kenkyusho iho, nos. 52 and 53 (1960), 17-23. The southern part of Osumi peninsula is noted for its natural forests of temperature zone broad leaf trees. Distribution of the forests and areal changes of forest landscape are a nalyzed by means of air-photo interpetationl. A detailed map of vegetation, and a diagram of the vertical distribution of evergreen broadleaf forests are given. 432. Yoshioka Kuniji i l, "Fukushima-ken shinrinku no kubun igi A s~enf f)t e ubef (Ecological division of forests in Fukushima Prefecture)," Tohoku kenkyu, v. 4 (1954), no. 6, 11-16. The forests in Fukushima Prefecture are classified by enviormental factors and by the facies of the forests. The division into six regions obtained through classification according to landform coincides with a division by climate. Division by the facies of forests also coincides well with other divisions. Little regional difference, however, is found in the distribution of secondary forests; therefore, it is hard to use them as an indicator of forest classification. F. Fauna 433. Chiba Tokuji 4 r, "Inoshishi shika no hakakuryo no chiriteki igi th abejpeiosf ts Plt to aiml el (The geographical significance of the number of deer and wild boar hunted in the Okayama district of western Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 8, 464-480. Using the Ikeda documents of Okayama, Chiba estimate the population of deer and wild boar from game records in this district at several periods during the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. Changes in theenvironment for natural life are analyzed. Chiba aims at a thorough understanding of human habitation in the above periods by means of its relation to animal ecology. 434. Chiba Tokuji 4 1, "Kyushuto hokubu no yasei ogatahonyurui bumpu y|I'' 4 hb Tokuji A t (The distrbution of large wild mammals in northern Kyushu)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 9, 468-480.

Page  70 70 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY In the Kunisaki peninsula of northeastern Kyushu wild deer still survive, while wild boar have been exterminated in spite of their prolificacy. Because of the introduction of efficient hunting tools, boars and other wild animals living near human settlements are susceptible to attacks by men. Animals that live in deep and steep mountain land have greater chances for survival. 435. Chiba Tokuji 4 _, Nippon retto ni okeru Inoshishi Shika no seisoku jotai to sono hendo WA7 T\ h'4 3M A[. )~XJt K (Geographic distribution of wild boars and deer in the Japanese Islands and their areal and quantitative fluctuations)," Chirigaku hyoron, vol. 37 (1964), no. 11, 575-592. The number of wild boar, Sus mystaxleucomystax, and deer, Cervus nippo and nippon centralis has been rapidly decreasing in Japan since Meiji. Chiba analyzes their distribution, changes in number, and areal capacity. A factor favoring their distribution is the existence of evergreen borad leaf trees; the accumulated snow in winter is a factor working against them. Human beings are the most important factor in causing the number of these animals to decrease. 2.5/km and 4.5/km are the figures for the areal capacity of boar and deer respectively. The figures were obtained from an analysis in the area near Ise Shrine where hunting has long been prohibited. 436. Horikoshi Masuoki ), "Nippon shuhen no senkaikei keiiki ni okeru teisei-seibutsu no kaiyo seibutsu chiri nl 4. ) A, X1~~ ) ~i t (The marine bio-geography of the shallow sea system in the warm temperature region and coastal-water area around the Japanese islands)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 2 (1962), nob. 2 and 3, 117-124. On the Pacific coast of Japan a subtropical and a temperate region of shallow sea bottom fauna extend to the cape of Inubosaki in Chiba prefecture. This is where the Oyashio and Kuroshio currents contact in winter. A warm temperate region of intermediate nature is distributed extensively in the embayments and arms of the surrounding sea. The Inland Sea is a typical example. The southern part of the Sea of Japan belongs to the warm temperate region, but there is no distinct boundary as on the Pacific coast. 437. Ueno Masuzo tja. -, "Gensei dobutsu no bumpu kara niga Nippon-retto to Ajia-tairiku to no kankei 4L) ~ y J' 7 T A" (Zoolgoical indications of the problem concering past land connection between the Asiatic continent and the Japanese islands)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 2 (1962), nos. 4 and 5, 139-145. On the presumption that all Japanese animals originated on the Asian continent, their arrival on the islands and their isolation from the continent are associated with changes in the relations of land and sea in geologic, periods. From such viewpoints, the common butterfly, Pieris rapae, is a newcomer, while Oeneis asamana in the central mountains and Oeneis daisetsuzan in Hokkaido immigrated in the diluvial period and were isolated in the mountain areas. Cyprinus auratus in Japan can be classified into three distinct subspecies; therefore, their immigration must have been before the diluvial period. G. Soils 438. Ichikawa Masami f )., "Dojo no shinshokudo to shamen keisha to no kankei: shamenkei keisei no kiko ni kansuru kenkyu josetsu:t- `t/ `11ttf ft — he relation between soil erosion and slope gradient)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 1 (1957), 35-56. From the survey in the northern part of the Tama Hills on the relation between soil erosion and slope gradient, the grade of erosion is presented in the formula; a-b E= --- 100 (%)when b is the thickness of the surface soil of unirrigated fields, a and a is the thickness in land with the same gradient of the slope covered with natural vegetation. The value of E increases rapidly up to 7~, becomes stagnant between 7~-15~, and increases again above 200. It is assumed that there is a discontinuity of the effects of agents working on slopes at about the gradient of 10~. 439. Kamoshita Yutaka r, Nihon no doj5 Y) - (Soils in Japan), Miscell. Publ. B. No. 5, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Japan, 1958, 56 pp. First, the history of soil science in Japan is described briefly. Then the importance of the study of soil sections is asserted, and the methods of soil classifi

Page  71 71 SOILS cation are discussed referring to materials, climate, ground water, landforms and human activities. Kamoshita divides Japanese soils into three major groups, stratified, intermediate, and unstratified. These groups are subclassified into numerous soil types. The detail of the classification is described with figures and tables, and the relation with agriculture and the distribution of the types are given. 440. Kamoshita YuVaka ~ t, "Nihon zenkoku dojogata zu H/^^ JFjA (General map of soil types in Japan (1:800,000))," Nogyo Gijutsu Kenkyujo hokoku, 13 (kagaku), no. 7 (1957), 213-216. Soil types in Japan are classified into the following fifteen categories, and are shown in eight sheets of 1:800,000 maps. 1) podzol, 2) grayish brown forest soil, 3) rust-colored forest soil, 4) brown forest soil, 5) brown forest soil with A horizon of less humus, 6) prairie-like brown forest soil, 7) prairie-like brown fDrest soil with A horizon of less humus, 8) reddish brown soil, 9) red soil, 10) terra rossa, 11) recent volcanic ash soil, 12) bog soil association, 13) meadow soil association, 14) lowland soil association, 15) mountain soil. 441. Kanno Ichiro f,ed., Nippon no dojogata Bg (Soil types of Japan), Tokyo, Nosangyoson Bunka Kyokai, 1964, 496 pp. This is a tentative symmary of the research by a group of pedologists who emphasize the origin of soils. In Chapter one, a classification of zonal soils in Japan is presented with reference to I. P. Gerasimov's classification. Chapter two discusses the origin and research techniques of clay minerals and organic materials in the soils. Chapter three describes the survey methods and some examples of the results. 442. Kato Yoshiro 4 ite l, "Fushoku ni tomu dojo ("kuroboku dojo) no seisei ni kansuru mondaiten m &.&Ytt 3 (I % 1 7 ) 7J 1X-~ (Some probelms on the genesi of 'kuroboku" soils), Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 3 (1964), no. 4, 212-222. Black soils in Japan have hitherto been explained as Ando soils of volcanic origin. However, there are also black soils with much humus but different in their chemical and physical characteristics. These soils are named Kuroboku soils, and they developed in the post-glacial period when the climate became very much like that of today, due to the removal of forests and the growth of steppes as the result of human activities since the Jomon period. 443. Matsui Takeshi 44,t, "Aomori-ken Tanabu-machi no dojo chos hokoku: Shimokita-hanto no dojogata, dai ni ho -~[ W _j uqe - -X'tt (A report of the detailed reconnaissance soil survey in Tanabu-machi, Aomori Prefecture: Pedogenesis in Shimokita Peninsula, no. 2)," Shigenkagaku Kern.yusho iho, nos. 43 and 44 (1957), 55-79. The area of Tanabu-machi in the Shimokita Peninsula is classified as Tertiary hills to the east, a foot slope of Osoresan Volcano to the west, and central lowland. The soil types in this area are classified according to the USDA system into 7 great soil grpus, 19 soil series and 24 soil types. The soils in irrigated rice fields are classified into 5 groups equivalent to the great soil groups, The results are shown in a color distribution map. The accuracy of the survey will be compared to USDA detailed reconnaissance survey. 444. Matsui Takeshi, "Chikugo-heiya shuhen no sekishokudo no sanjo to seisei-jiki re p o 6A ton (A preliminary report on modes of occurrences and paleopedology of red soils around Chikugo Plain)," Shigenkagaku Kenkyusho iho, no. 60 (1963), 1-12. In North KyUshU near Fukuoka and Kurume, there are three levels of terraces, and cursts of red soil are developed only in the upper terraces (35-65 m.). Upper terraces are covered with volcanic ash, but where the volcanic ash is missing the red crust is exposed making red soil deposits. Hitherto these red crusts have been considered the product of present climatic conditions, but like the red soils in Northeast Japan, that in Kyushu also are fossil soils made under a different climate. 445. Matsui Takeshi / VA and Kato Yoshiro 1D ', Nippon no sekishoku dojo no sesei jiki, seiseie kankyo ni kansuru nisan no kosatsu $~ ip\ o (Notes on paleopedology of red soils in Japan)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 2 (1960), nos. 4 and 5, 161-179. From chemical and physical analysis of red soil collected at various places in

Page  72 72 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY Tohoku, it is concluded that the red soils in Tohoku is the product of lateritization in its wider sense. From topography and stratigraphical observations, it is considered that red soil represents paleosoil. The red soil in southwest Japan has hitherto been cosidered the product of processes under present climatic conditions. It is concluded that all of these are paleosoil under warm climate, and that there were four periods in which lateritization proceeded before and after the Shimosueyoshi (Riss/WUrm) era. 44 6. Matsui Takeshi J^ ~, Kurobe Takashi -b _, Hamada Ryunosuke no do 2 and Kuwano Yoshiko ~ E, "Shimokita-hanto seibu no noko tekichi no dojo ch os a) (Soil and survey of the arable land i eth western part of Shimokita Peninsula at the northeastern end of Honshu in Japan)," Shigenkagaku Kenkyusho iho, no. 60 (1963), 105-114; no. 61 (1963), 25-37. The soils in the area around the Osoresan Volcano are classified into thirty-two soil genera and their distribution in shown. Brown forest soils are predominant. In the sand-dune area, bog soils and groundwater podzolic soils are widely distributed, and on the coastal terraces there are kuroboku soils originated from diluvial volcanic ash. 447. Matsui Takeshi $;, Kurobe Takashi, and Kato Yoshiro j'M X, "Kazanbai ni kansuru dojogakuteki sho mondai X Ka ) i ^a ty "W'I^ - t (Pedological problems concerning volcanic ash in Japan), Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 3 (1963), nos. 1 and 2, 40-58. Various proposals are made for the names of soils originating from volcanic ash in Japan, such as ando soil by R. E. Ritchie, and humid allopane soils by I. Kanno. On the other hand, black soils of non-volcanic origin are widely distributed in Japan and resemble volcanic blacksoils in chemical components and in the accumulation of humus. Therefore, the authors propose the tentative use of the term kuroboku for the soils of both origins until the distinction between the genesis of these soils is made clear. 448. Matsui Takeshi ~ M, Kuwano Toshiko, and Hirano Takeshi ^P i a, "Iwaki sanroku Morita-mura no nokochi dojo chosa A 1 f Nvo (Soil survey of arable land in Morita village at the nort fhot of Iwaki cano)," Shigenkagaku kenkyusho iho, nos. 56 and 57 (1962), 12-32. The area of Morita village is 2,700 has. of which about half is farmland. There are 770 ha. of rice fields, 330 ha. of unirrigated fields, and 180 has. of apple orchards. The soils are classified in descending order. There are no zonal soils in the hills, where intrazonal soils such as the typical and wet kuroboku are found. In winter only 30% of the rice fields are drained where the soils is mainly peat, and where the soils is strongly affected by volcanic materials transported from the slopes of the volcano. The distribution of soils is shown in a 1:25,000 soil map. 449. Sakaguchi Yutaka A1 4 X, "Ozegahara koki deitanso banhyoki (Spatglazialzeit) no taisekibutsu k a 'o7# 4a AJ — ~J ^f 0) A (Old oeat layers occuring in the OzeEahara Basin)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v, 1 (1959), no. 5, 155-164. Ozegahara in Tochigi Prefecture is located 1400 m. above sea level, and peat layers are well developed there. After the lake was formed by dammed lava flows, the deposition of clay and sand continued. According to carbon dating tests, the formation of the peat started 8000-9000 years B.C. Pollen analysis suggests that the vegetation at that time consisted of conifers and that this area was near the tree line, that is to say the tree line was 200-400 m. lower than it is today. 450. Sasaki Seiichi 4/ a -~, Hokkaido dojo chiri ron - t -J J- AJ (Soil geography in Hokkaido, Japan), Publication on Saski's own account, 1960, 221 pp. Soils in Hokkaido are studied for their physical and chemical characteristics, their relation to the climate, and are classified into zonal soils, intrazonal soils and azonal soils. They are subclassified into nine soil types. The distribution of these types is shown on a soil map. 451. Toya Hiroshi_,, Minami-kanto no akatsuchi ni kansuru akkan no shizenchirigaku-teki kosatsu g t A ~ i,- X di 3 % h i ' < g $ (Some physic geographical considerations on the volcanogenus deposits, Akatsuchi)," Tohoku chiri. v. 14 (1962) no. j, 85-92. Kanto loam is classified into four horizons, Tama loam, Shimosueyoshi loam, Musashino loam and Tachikawa loam. The classification is used for the correlation of terraces. In Musashino and Tachikawa horizons, the loam is deposited on terraces formed during the low sea level after the third interglacial period. Below

Page  73 CLIMATE AND WEATHER 73 Musashino loam, there is a layer of podosol-like soil suggesting the existence of an air temperature of at least 8~ C. lower than today. Shimosueyoshi loam is permeable, and at the time of heavy rain there is often a moving surface of land-slides. 452. Toya Hiroshi p and Kaizuka Sohei A A, "Kanto romu so chu no kaseki dojo -AA /t.j _ (Fossil soils in Kanto volcanic ash beds)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 6, 339-347. Several belts of black and brown soils are imbedded in Kanto loam. These are due to an accumulation of humus. From findings of stone implements in them the possibility of their accumulation by illuvation is negated. These layers were formed on the surface during the interruptions of the fall of volcanic ash. These are the top layers of fossil soils. 453. Wako Tatsuo 0'1 ^, "Tohoku-Nihon ni okeru chikeimen to sekishoku fukakaku to no kankei Ajar < 1 L 0 t 1st, (Geomorphological surfaces and the red weathering crust in Northeast Japan)," Daiyonki kenkyu v. 3 (1964), no. 4, 197-211. From the studies on landforms in Hokkaido and Tohoku as well as on the red weathered crust of soils, Wako concludes that there were periods in which the sea level was at the present day 100 meter level, and when gentle slopes were formed under a periglacial climate (approximately 2500 B.C.). Red weathered crusts can indicate the period in which such landforms were made, and it is important to study the relationship between the red crusts and the formation of low relief surfaces inland. H. Climate and Weather 454. Akashi Akira '7Vj and Shitara Hiroshi " "Bai-u-ki ni okeru Nihon fukin no shitsuzetsu (joho) M, ai-uTi i ('Moist Tongue' over Japan in the Baiu Season [preliminary report])," Tohoku chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 4, 171-173. The core area of humidity in the baiu season is discovered by means of an analysis of dew point distribution at the level of 850 mb. surface. In this season the core area exists in W to SW China, and when a tongue of humidity extends over Japan, heavy rains occur in the latter area. 455. Arai Takao and Watanabe Tsuguo, Tenkigaku ~~ (The Science of weather)," Tokyo, Gihodo, 1960, 357 pp. From the standpoint of synoptic meteorology, the authors try to study the real aspects and behavior of weather, using these elements as direct objects of study rather than relying on weather charts. In Part one, the structure of weather is discussed in relation to each of the climatic elements. In Part two, the behavior of weather is described with special emphasis on its relation to huIan life, industry, and natural disasters. 456. Arakawa Hidetoshi ~t)1 ~ A, "Go seiki ni wataru Suwako 'Omiwatari' no kenkyu r,7 X i % (Five centuries of recorded dates of the thawing of Lake Suwa [central Japan])," Chigaku zasshi, v. 63 (1954), no. 4, 193-200. At Suwa shrine on the bank of Lake Suwa in Nagano prefecture there is an annual festival which is held when the frozen lake starts to melt. An accurate record of the date of the festival has been preserved for five centuries. This provides valuable data for the analysis of long term changes in air temperature. 457. Arakawa Hidetoshi at j^^A, Kinsei kisho saigaishi X p (Records of meteorological disasters in modern times)," To1kyo, Chijin Shokan, 1963, 234 pp. This is a collection of information from old documents related to natural disasters caused by meteorological phenomena. Unlike former books of this kind, this is not merely a collection of excerpts from old documents. Efforts have been made to preserve the original reference completely. This makes the work useful for the study of various aspects of life in the periods covered. In addition to the ordinary list of unusual weather and crop failures, official and private memos, sketch maps and other kinds of records are also included. 458. Arakawa Hidetoshi, ed., Kogyo kisho - t (Industrial meteorology), Tokyo, Chijin Shokan, 1961, 266 pp. Part one, industrial meteorology, explains the influence of weather on industrial production. Climatic conditions within factories and their relation to factory accidents are also discussed with suggestions for factory plans. Part two is "meteorology of electric generation," and is mainly concerned with the influence of rain

Page  74 74 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY fall. Part three, entitled ' commercial meteorology,' concerns sales, demands, quality, etc. in relation to the seasons and weather. 459. Arakawa Hidetoshi v 1.,. "Kyoto ni okeru kan'o no kiroku kara suitei sareru kiko no hendot ) ), - (Climatic change as revealed by the blooming dates of the cherry blossoms in Kyoto), Chigaku zasshi, v. 64 (1955), no. 2, 31-32. There are numerous references in historical documents to the cherry viewing parties made by emperors and famous peopleate of Kyoto. The dates of cherries in full bloom are analyzed, and their changes are discussed. It is of interest to know that the air temperature was low in the eleventh to the fourteenth centuries. 460. Asai Tatsuro "sumi hanto ni okeru 1960 nen kakugetsu heikin kion oyobi kaki saiko kion i i / 1 A ^ ^ % X^ A (The monthly mean temperatures and summer maximumemprature in 1960 at Osumi Peninsula)," Shigen Kagaku Kenkyujo iho, nos. 56 and 57 (196,), 123-128. There are no meteorological stations on the Osumi Peninsula, and little has been known about the climate of this area. Asai organized an observation net in 1960 for the whole year, and the observed data are used to make climatic maps of the peninsula. 461. Asai Tatsuro Al 1) if and Masuzawa Jotaro si y-vou f, "Shimokita-hanto no kiko to tochi seisanron josetsui ad iae-ki~,gtrt (The climate of the Shimokita Peninsula and its agricultural productivityf," Shigenkagaku kenkyujo iho, no. 40 (1956), 5-16. This is part of the reconnaissance survey of the Shimokita Peninsula, located at the northern end of Honshu. Climatic data from meteorological stations is analyzed as the foundation of agricultural productivity. Unusually large variability of climatic elements are pointed out. Thein variability of the rainfall is especially serious in relation to floods. No districts in the world were found to have analogous climate in this point, and the necessity of a special type of agriculture suitable to such climatic characteristics is asserted. 462. Asai Tatsuro A8 A VF and Nishizawa Toshie " \, "Yamase suisoji ni okeru kion nichinichi henka no kiatsu haichi nado ni yoru kaiseki ]7 )1^ ofA a E. I { A t- -,_ (The interdiurnal change of air temperature on Yamase weather using a synoptic pattern)," Shigen Kagaku Kenkyujo iho, no. 50 (1959), 3-10. Yamase, the local NE wind on the Pacific coast of the Tohoku Region, brings a drop in air temperature in summer. The temperature drops as soon as the Yamase blows, and rises when it ceases. Its relation to various meteorological elements such as atmospheric pressure, cloud coverage, vapour tension, etc. is analyzed. The drop of the air temperature is closely related to wind velocity, and it starts right after the atmospheric pressure changes its distribution. The amount of clouds is related to vapour tension. 463. Fukui Eiichiro f, "Ajia ni okeru Sounsuweito no shin kiko kubun 7< 4 1C% )>LI' - A y 14/)lAtv _/ - -' (Application of Thornthwaite's new classification of climate to Asia)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 2 (1958), 47-64. Thornthwaite's new classification of 1948 has been applied to China, Formosa, Turkey, India, etc, etc., ut no classification of Asia as a whole has yet been published. Fukui applied the system to all of Asia using available data, and prepares four maps of climate divisions for Asia. Japan is dealt in more detail and classified into 2 regions. 464. Fukui Eiichiro, "Hokoto no kiko to shokusei A X (Climate and vegetation of the Pescadores Islands)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 4 (1960), 41-56. The Pescadores Islands belong to Cfa climate according to Koppen's classification, but the actual climate is very dry and the growth of trees is very poor. Based on average figures, the islands are classified under Cfa climate. However, when Kopppen's formula is applied to the figures of specific years the result never indicates Cfa. Dry years frequently appear. The application of Thornthwaite's method also yields the same result. Thus the scarcity of vegetation may be explaiied by the occurrence of frequent dry years. 465-. Fukui Eiichiro, t, ed., Kikogaku 4 (Climatology), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1962, 456 pp. imtl This is a general text of climatology comprised of the works of ten authors. It

Page  75 CLIMATE AND WEATHER 75 stresses climatology as a part of geology. Abundant reference to regional climate in Japan is provided. Main chapters are dynamic climatology, expression of climate, climatic environment, and climatic changes. 466. Fukui Eiichir5o /, Kikogaku gairon (Outline of climatology), Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1961, 256 pp. This volume is written as a text book of climatology. Special reference to dynamic climatology is made. Approximately one third of the book is devoted to a description of regional climate, making this work a good reference material for the study of regional climate. 467. Fukui Eiichiro 3 4 1 J,P, "Koppen no kiko kubunho ni taisuru nisan no shiken IN \oy / %) t 0 i X G - - 4 8;. (Some remarks concerning the Koppen classification of world climate)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 10, 911-927. Fukui applied Koppen's classification of climate to eastern Asia, and points out its merits and defects. Since it is a system based on the west-coast climate of Europe, Fukui makes several suggestions to make it more applicable to the climate of Asia. 1) The boundary between C and D should be drawn according to whether or not the difference between the warmest and the coldest month temperatures is greater than 21~ C. 2) As to the boundary of D and E, the formula given by Nordenskj'old is adequate. 3) The number of months above 10~ C used by K6oppen to draw a boundary between B and C should be changed to the number of months above 11~ C. 4) C climate should be subdivided into two on the basis of whether or not the coldest month's temperature is above 10~ C. 468. Fukui Eiichiro X, X n "Nihon ni okeru seika no shokansoki ni tsuite W -ht jt4&t ^ -Jl, R ) [ (A short dry period of mid-summer in Japan),r Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 10, 531-547. Hitherto the summer rainy season in East Asia has been explained by the SE monsoon from the Pacific. In most of Japan with the exception of Hokkaido mid-summer is a dry season between the baiu and the typhoon seasons. Mid-summer being the warmest season of the year, Fukui proposes to handle it as a separate dry season. References are also made to its relation with agriculture and the reason for its appearance. 469. Fukui Ei-chir5o ' 4 X, "Nihon ni okeru Thornthwaite no kiko kubun M )-' 6f Fuku i chr X% cflt- \ - (Application of Thornthwaite's method to the climatic division of Japan)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 1 (1957), 103-112. Hitherto Thornthwaite's former classification of climate has been applied to Japan with very little success. This article is FukuiTs report on his application of Thornthwaite's new classification (1948) to Japanese climate. Coastal regions of Japan, except Hokkaido, belong to AB', and in the inland areas there are regions belonging to BB' and CB'. The report fails to express the strong contrast between the Pacific and Japan Sea coasts. It also fails to show the difference among the Inland Sea area, Central Japan, and Southern Hokkaido. 470. Fukui Eiichiro X - f,_"Nihon no nissha kiko I Y}~ A A (Radiation climate of Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 5, 209-225. Seasonal and geographical distribution of radiation in Japan is discussed on the basis of monthly solar intensity tables. The nature of the baiu is analyzed from the viewpoint of radiation, and the appearance of the maximum air temperature in August in Japan is explained in terms of the baiu. 471. Fukui Eiichiro S t, "Sekai oyobi Nihon ni okeru kiko no diahyo chiten ni tsuite % ^ - %4 <) - f^ f (Climatological key stations in Japan and the world)," Tanaka Shusaku Kyoju koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1956, 21-23. In describing the climate of a region, climatic tables and charts of several stations within the region are used. This paper discusses the methods by which such stations should be chosen. The figures for Tokyo are close to the climatic average for the nation, therefore, it is an adequate station to represent the climate of Japan. In the same way the key stations for many districts of Japan, and for the countries of Asia, Africa and the Americas are discussed. 472. Fukui Eiichiro X - ~_-, "Shin shiryo ni yoru Toa no keppe kikozu ^ ~f if At - // AI V ^/W (Revision of the Kopp ' climatic map of eastern Asia with new available materials)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 65 (1956), no. 4, 149-158.

Page  76 76 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY When Koppen published his climatic divisions some stations in this part of the world had not accumulated data long enough for the purpose or had only inaccurate data available. Using up-to-date figures, K'ppen's method is repeated, and several suggestions for revision are presented. References are made to Japan and its adjacent areas, and also to China, India, and Java. 473. Fukui Eiichiro ~ -, ed., Shizen chiri II t L (Physical geography II) [= v. 4 of Asakura Shoten's Shin-chirigaku koza], Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1955, 324 pp. Succeeding volume 3 of Physical geography I which was assigned for geomorphology, this volume pertains to climatology, oceanography, limnology and hydrology, and biogeography. Contents are mostly theoretical in order to serve as a text-book of the respective fields. Not much is given in actual observation and survey methods, nor in regional descriptions. 474. Fukui Eiichiro } -, "Toa ni okeru shuyo kikoiki no keinen hendo (The secular movement of the mao:r climate areas of eastern Asia)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 19l1, 298-312. The meaning of climatic divisions based on average values of data is tested by drawing climatic divisions for each year after the Koppen system. In one area the climatic type is consistent, while in another area it varies from one year to another. In eastern Asia, stable areas are Korea, Manchuria, the Yangtze valley, the South China coast, Indochina, and Burma. The areas between humid and dry regions are unstable. 475. Fukui Eiichiro 4 f ^, "Toshi ni okeru kion bumpu to ryokuchi 1 ^i%') _ 7 690 (Air temperature and parks within cities)," Toshi mondai, v. 47 1956), no. 7, 699-706. Fukui present two methods for finding the relationship between air temperature and parks and other green tracts. One is to compare the figures of a meteorological station which moved from a city center to the suburbs. Such an example is found in Hiroshima, and from the analysis a fall of 0.7 c~ was found. The other method is to draw concentric circles around a station and to measure the percentages of green tracts, residential areas, fields, commerical and industrial areas, and then to calculate the deviation. It is concluded that the existence of green tracts lowers the air temperature. 476. Fukui Eiichirno? e t-{ and Yazawa Taiji C -, "Saikin ni okeru toshi kiko kenkyu no tembo T './ 4 't (Recent trends in city climatic research),' Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 1, 36-54. The study of climatic charactertistics in urban areas has been carried on in two ways, theoretical andpractical. The authors summarize recent development in this field, and point out the problems for future development. 477. Hoyanagi Mutsumi 4 W, "Sengo ni okeru kiko henka kenkyu no doko (Recent trends in researc lon climatic change)," Tusjimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 313-325. Hoyanagi compiled a bibliography of postwar papers dealing with climatic changes. Some two hundred articles are classified under such headings as prehistoric times, historic times and the ice age. They are further divided into Japan, the Arctics, the Asian continent and the southern hemisphere. For each topic the standard of present achievement and problems of the future are reviewed. 478. Kawamura Takeshi i, "Hokkaido ni okeru toki no kosui bumpu no sokan kikogakuteki kosatsu )V Z a I- '.t) / e ).l-,, (A synoptic climatological consideration on winter precipitation in Hokkaido, Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 11, 583-595. The frequency of days with precipitation above 5 mm. is related not only to the inclination of an 850 milibar surface when the winter monsoons prevail but also to the routes of cyclones. During monsoon weather, the rainy areas shift according to the direction of the wind. Furthermore, surface configurations have much to do with the directions of air currents; when a cold front passes rainless areas appear behind mountains. 479. Kawamura Takeshi it\ ], "Kumagaya-shi ni okeru kion bumpu no kaiseki 'of he temperature dst'rib ion in Kumagaya City),' Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 5, 243-254.

Page  77 CLIMATE AND WEATHER 77 Observation data accumulated by a group of urban climatologists in Kumagaya City in the northern part of the Kanto Plain are analyzed. According to the distribution of air temperature observed twenty-four tines within a year, there is a correlation between urbanization aned the air temperature. When the wind is calm air temperature is high in built-up areas, and there is discontinuity at the margin of the built-up area. Such distribution is modified by the strength and the (3ireciion of the winds. 480. Kawamura Takeshi 'l `. \, "iNihon ri okeru fuyu no tenko bumou no sokankikogakubeki-kaiseki ' A; ) (The synoptic climatology of the winter monsoon in Jaoan), Chir iaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 2, 64-78. Kawamura accepts the synoptic method which Jacobs am)plied to Iolkkaido, and intends to extend it to the winter in all of Japan. The amount and frequency of winter precipitation are analyzed in their relation to the direction of air currents from the Asiatic continent. Japanese weather in winter is controlled y, the anitcyclone on the continent, and the distribution of the weather shows an entirely different picture due to the way it extends eastward. They are modified by the direction of the air currents and by the details of land form. 481. Kawamura T keshi 5J ~ 4, "Toshi joku kaso ni okeru kion oyobi fusoku no suichoku bumou. l ) 1>,, ^'- f t / (The verticle distribution of temperature and wind velocity above Tokyo)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 4 (1960), 123-139. Verticle distribution of air temperature and wind velocity is observed using an NEK TV and a micro-wave tower in T5kyo. The main heat source of the atmosphere over the city is surface configuration. At night the ground surface and the surfaces of roofs preserve heat. The types of air temperature changes have discontinuities at the heights of 50 and 90 m. Between these two heights the maximum wind velocity is observed. 482. Kawamura Takeshi, "Toshi kiko kenkyu ni okeru jidosha ni yoru ido kansokuchi ni kansuru nisan no mondai Af^ ^i ' ~ gt l'','- ^. (Some considerations on the accuracy of readings taken by mobile observation patterns in an u"'-1'b climatological study)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 5, 291-298. An observation of air temperatures was made in Kumagaya City by using an automobile equipped with an automatic thermister. Problems such as the treatment of discontinuous changes of air temperature, and effects of exhaust from massing automobiles, are discussed. The accuracy of observations made using thermister, and the methods of correcting the results are analyzed in detail. 483. _ Kayane Isamu Vt tJ', "Kanto heiyabu ni okeru kion bumpusu ni arawareta chukibo no furenzokuiki t'. 2 Ak) X \'g 3d7 ' (Meso-scale discontinuity areas appearing in temperature distribution patterns in the Kanto Plain)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 3, 143-158. The distribution of daily minimum and maximum air temperatures is studied for 170 stations in the Kanto district from December 1957 to November 1958. Four typical patterns are shown concerning minimum temperature: prevailing winter monsoons, stagnant cold fronts, fine and calm weather in spring and fall, and fine weather in the summer. From each of the four types, its relation to landforms and the distribution of land and sea are analyzed. The influence of Tokyo bcy and other factors are studied in relation to maximum temperature. 484. Kayane Isamu k|o t ' X, "Kanto heiya ni okeru nichi saikokion bumpu no chu-kikogakuteki kaiseki 'o; 1d 1 / is h B (Temperature distribution and its meso-climatological analysis in the Kanto Plain)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 8, 438-339. The distribution of maximum daily air temperature is studied for the summer of 1958. As the distribution is -rifluenced by the wind, the data are classified by wind directior and are indicated on maps. Remarkable discontinuity of the maximum air temperature is observed along the sea coast. 485. Kayane Isamu, "Tokyo ni okeru toshi iki no kakudai ni tomonau kion no josho. \^) bk ~x Ad $0 \ 0f (The rise in air temperature due to the expansion of the Urban area of Tokyo)," Tenki, v. 7 (1960), no. 9, 269-274. It is widely known that air temperatures in urban areas rise with the expansion of cities. The increase in air temperatures in Tokyo is analyzed for the last thirty

Page  78 7 3 JAPAIIESE GEOGRAPHY years. Ro!om long. term differences of air ter-inerature in and out of Tokyo, the following faotors are nointed out as reasons for hivher air temperatures: 1) diffusion of artificial heat, 2) effeot of the smos layer, 3) surfaoe configurations of the oity, and 24) effeot from- matierals that constitute the oitv. 24 86. K~ayane Isamo _I; ~~, TOkJo to sons shuhen chiiki ni okero niohisaiti kion bumpr1u no toshikikogakuteki ktosatsu ): 9 (A climatoloilcal analys: o the daily minimum em. t1xre distribution is and around the Tokyo metronolitan area) " ni rcaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 11, 534-571. Analysis is based on the data of minimum daily air teMneratures frr three winter months for three years in an area with a radius of 30 km o.ar und 01,:: io. A w arn area exists in the Koto district, or the area to the east of the Sumida River. the temperature difference 1s 3-' C' from west Tokyo and 2.5 OC from north L'okyc. A laroer difference is observed at night in fine weather with little wind and low air temrerature. The differ-enc s srmall wJhen it is cloud-, windv and/or rainy. 2457. Kish~ogakushi KenHihonkno isho (Japanese meteorology), To2y8, Ar-ichithobo, 195b, 212 on-. This is not a g-_eneral text of meteorology but is a summary and review of meterology and meteorolgoical work in Japan. First, the weather and the climate of Japan are explained with Special reference to the climatic disasters which are characteristic to Japan, and the inconsetence of measures taken for the orewention of such disasters is noIfinted out. The historical development of mneterology in Japan is explained, an,-d the hack~~ —ound for i4.s late d~evelorment and characteristics is given. 24583 Kurashima Atsushi O chiai TlIorio, Aoki P1oriharu, rv ~Tsu nIiya Iwno /f, and Ariga jun~V, Ajia no kiko0 (Thae climate of Asia), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, '104, 577 pp. Postwar dev,~'upments in meterological ohserwations make it possible to draw a cl1earer nicture of' cl-1rmate in Jacanl and adlacent areas. After a summary for the whole of Asia- climate is described for the followingF soecific areas: China, Southcast Asia- Ind~i!a_ Pakistan-, and the TU.S.S'7.R. The latter half of the hook consists of climatic tables by statIon. 2450 1j~ej ima Iko0 Vk bunrui no futat-su no tachiba ~~~ ~~~~~ 4w t,ndrnoints in the classification of climates),I Waseda Paig-aku Kyoikug-akubu g7akuj utso kenk.-u, us0 7 (19 55) 101-1 10. Classification of' climates- cs done either from the Standpoint of climatology as a science-, or from,, that of aom~lve science. Both of them can be reclassified into a macr a~ecalapproach an~d a gFlrttoO approach. Generally speakino, the trend of develoonment is from the former to the latter. MIorpholog~ical classifications are already in a stagre of acconolsihoent, while genetic classifications are now a stage o-' g~radual progress and haws no-,t vet- formulated principles that can be applied to the world as a whole. 24590. Taeirna Ikus ",,:0ion no heirnenchi ni t suite (O~formal period of mnsntlj terneiratures)4 Ohirigaku hyoron, w. 30 (1957), no. 11, 10148-i1057. The reliability of' mean air templerature does not increase in direct proportion to the length of' the period of observation. The adequate length of the period is, discussed with the use of statistics. Ts sobtain the mean air, temperature within the p)ossible errors of 0.5 0C. 7) For January air temperature the adequate length is 25-30 years for ((southern Japan, 30 245 /eass for Central I~nla,,nd and Tohoko, anid 50-70 years for Hiokk~aido. 2) For August. air temperature, it is less than 10 years for Southern Japranq, 20- 30 years for sohako. and 30-510 years f or Hokkaido.- 3 ) There is a distinct difference In the variability of air temperatures in sout1hern Japan and northern Japan. 4l 122aej~rTsa Ikuo - ~ 4,"Murorcachi jidai k-oki no kiko ml kansuro oboec-aki VT + ~ (Recollecl isru of' the' dir,a~f in- late 2,Iuromachi period)," Waseda Daigaku gakujubsu kenkyu, V.59(12(01,1-2. ri Janjo hishi?C' —~netaka's dairy, the eve-rday weather in Kyo-to is recorded for the period 14742-1536. Here dates hare been converted into the Orevorian osi)`endar and records of rain- and snow-falls are studied. Annual changes of -precipitation frequency are found ts be ie those of today, and the rainy seasons of baiu,, typhoon and shuriri are identIcal with those of today. Iho results were obtained to support the theory of a climatic cycle of 700 years with 15-00 A.D. as its appex.

Page  79 CLIMATE AND WEATHER 79 492. Maejima Ikuo p ~A, "Nishho no kisetsu henka ni okeru tokuisei H 1 -I^^ ~ ti Y^^\t & 8 ^^ _; (Peculi-rities in the seasonal changes of insolation)," Waseda Daigaku gakujutsu kenkyu, v. 11 (1962), 99-109. Seasonal distribution of insolation per calendar day shows many discontinuities even when an average of five successive days in used. There are discontinuities which appear simultanerously all over the country. Northward migration of the baiu front begins on about June 29, and its influence appears in Hokkaido in July 7-8. Interruption of shurin is seen in northern Japan around September 26, and 'n Southwest Japan, around September 22. This may be compared to "Indian summer" in the United States. On about April 3, there is a remarkable drop of insolation all over the country. 493. Maejima Ikuo f4f 4, "Sokan kishogaku no kenkyu ti4m (Synoptic aspects of winter climate [Japan])," ToKvy Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu, no. 3 (1954), 127-148. The sequence of weatner repeated in similar ways is defined as 'weather type". For the representation of weather types, the systems of upper wind are used. The frequency of weather types, the sequence of different types, and precipitation for each weather type are calculated. The climate of Japan is briefly described with the conclusion that the direction of air currents and the influence of landforms are important in calculating the precipitation. 494. Maejima Ikuo 'X t ~, "Waga-kuni no tau kikan to kanso kikan tb ' Tfi fst^M -m1iI (Wet and dry periods in Japan)," Tsujimura Taro sensei oki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 326-338. Using the average precipitation of every day of the year, seasonal characteristics are nointed out. It is easy to determine such seasons as baiu, shurin, and winter rain caused by monsoons. There are also shorter periods )f rain or fine weather. These are explicable as periods in which high pressure weather or cyclones are apt to occur. The shorter rainy periods are from March 10-13, April 3-7, June 2-8, July 18-22. Dry periods are from February 16-20, March 16-22, April 16-20, May 26 -June 1, June 9-11, October 9-11, and October 22-24. 495. Mihara Yoshiaki _ f\ & 4, ed., Nogyo kisho % \ (Agricultural meteorology), Tokyo, Chijin Shokan, 1961, 224 pp. The relation between weather and agriculture, especially the influence of weather on crops, is discussed. Main chacters include such topics as crops and weather, insect and blight damages and weather, and forestry and weather. 496'. Mitsudera Mlitsuo _ 1,:Seikatsu-kei ni yoru kiko hyogen L- X 4 v A (Expression of climate by the life form of plants)," Tenki, v. 3 (1956), no. 12, 373-378. The correlation between macro-climatic indexes and actual figures obtained from meterological observations is investigated. 1) Plus correlations are found between the increase of flora and annual precipitation, and between the bryophyta index and the humidity index (annual premipitation/ latitiude). Phanerogamia can be considered an index of temperature, and the cryptogamia that of humidity. 2) Raunkiaer's indexes of surface vegetation and annual plants are valid for small areas, but are not adequate as indexes of micro-climatic phenomena. 3) For microclimatic phenomena, it is necessary to take into account not only life forms but also growth forms and propagate types. 497. MizuKoshi Mitsuharu iY A, "Baiu zensen katsudo ni tomonau kosuiryo bumpu M(Afl T^ W Distribution of rainfall re ate to the activities of the Baiu front)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 35 (1962), no. 1, 35-44. Baiu is a seasonal rainfall characteristic to Japan between late spring and early summer, caused by influence of monsoons. When the baiu front easses over Jaocan it brings heavy rainfall to some but not all districts. From the distribution of daily rainfall several "axes of heavy rain" are defined. Such axes frequently occur in the northern and western parts of Kyushu, western Chugoku, and central Kinki. These are the places where the landforms allow humid air currents to flow in more easily. 498. Mizukoshi Mitsuharu + S 3< Y^, "Nihon ni okeru kosuiryo kyokuchi no bumpu f * I I -)1V 5 -4t - a. I fA 4 (Distribution of extreme values of precipitation in Japan, with a special reference to their daily amounts)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 2, 86-94. The distribution of maximum dialy precipitation in Japan is analyzed by using data for 1901-1950 and concentrating on three seasons: the baiu season in spring, the

Page  80 o JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY rainy season in the fall due to the typhoons, and the cold season. The results for each season and for the whole year are shown in four maps or Japan. Periodicity in the occurrence of heavy rians was also looked for, but none was found. 499. Mizukoshi Mitsuharu * \ X/<, "Nihon no taiu no gentin E/ ~ A /f (The causes of heavy rains in Jaoan)," Mie Daigaku Gekugeigakubu kenkyu kiyo, no. 25 (1962), 1-17. Records of heavy rains are collected by stations and compared to synoptic charts to classify the causes that brought the rains. The percentages of the causes are different by region, but landforms exert a strong influence. 500. Nagao Takashi __ t, "Kidan no kongo henshitsu ni yoru dokikogakuteki kiko kubun 't ^*jK< i; A ^A 4) /4 (Dynamic cls'sificatior'oT climate based on air mass mixing and transformation)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 6, 307-320. Class.fication of climate by air mass theories is based on the differences between air masses. Nagao approaches the problem through deterioration and mixing of the masses. Troughs in the distribution of deviation of daly and annual changes in the average monthly values of air temperature and air pressure approximate the bounds of air masses from the continent before they deteriorate. Classification of climate based on these troughs can be interpreted as an extention of the classification by front belts; the classification of the climate of Japan presented here is based on this principle. 501. Nagao Takashi, t A, "Singularity ni oyobosu taiyo kokutensu no eikyo @>< ^~v ) 5 Ed l -T 1 ^I^^^^^^ (The relationship between the character o2 singularity and sun-spot numbers)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 4, 219-231. Three cases with marked singularity are chosen and characteristics of the weather particular to such days are studied. When there are many sun-suots on the day of singularity there is more precipitation in Japan. Rainfall in southern Kyushu and Shikoku is less when spots are more on days before and after the singularity. It is concluded that the number of cyclones and anticyclones is affected by the nurnmber of sun-spots. 502. Nagao Takashi: r.t, "Tairiku no tozai ni okeru kion to kosuiryo t\te %^t*~~v~ Tai)ik nol toa ni t (The distribution of temperature and precipitation on the eastern and western coasts of continents)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 11, 573-587. The differences of climate on the eastern and western sides of continents caused by the mixing ofnorthern and southern air masses are described. The distribution of blockings by longitude, amplitude of the waves of westerlies in the upner airstreams, distribution of the occurrence of cyclones and anticyclones, and the normal deviations of daily and monthly average air temperatures are discussed. With respect %o all the above mentioned element's, the west coast shows larger figures than the east coast, which indicates that the north-south disturbances are greater on the west coast, resulting in the greater exchange of heat. 503. Nakahara Magokichi I i, Nogyo kisho (Agricultural mete-)orology) Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1958, 209 pp. In agricultural meteorology, the prevention ot meteorological disasters and the improvement of meterological environment are emphasized. The test concerns the relationships of weather and farm lands, crops and animals, prevention of disasters, improvement of environment, and observation methods of farm land. Although the main purpose of agricultural meteorology is the improvement of environment, whether or not agriculture accepts it depends chiefly on social circumstances. Special emphasis is placed on micro-climate in its relation with landforms, vegetation, etc. 505. Nakahara Magokichi t,7' t - and Fukutomi Hisao, "Apato tokan enchi no kisho kankyo 'Y/- k - - (The imicroclimate over the open space of blocks of flats in wo areas in Tokyo)," Chiba Daigaku Engeigakubu gakujutsu hokoku, no. 5 (1957), 34-38. In the Mitaka and Nakano areas of Tokyo where there are groups of apartment houses, micro- climatic observatons were made mainly of the air temperature, insolation, and winds. Remarkable differences were observed between the north and south sides of the buildings, especially in air temperature and in the day time. 505. Nemoto Junkichi /k j i'|{, Kurahsima Atsushi _, Yoshino as atoshi v C, and Numata Nakoto y ~ r, Kisetsufu ' o i

Page  81 CLIMATE AND WEATHER 81 (The monsoon), Tokyo, Chijin Shokan, 1959, 294 pp. The monsoon is the main factor characterizing the climate of Japan and Southeast Asia. Following a meteorological explanation of the monsoon, the land of Japan is described in relation to the monsoon climate with reference to industry, settlements, traffic and regional variations. 506. Nishizawa Toshie 3, "Sho chiki no kion bumpu to sono chiiki kubun no ichi hoho!\v9 j y ft t W- f (Air temperature distribution in a small area and a method of areal division with special references to the urban area and its surroundings)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 3, 168-175. This is a report of air temperature observations carried out in the winter in Kumagaya city and vicinity. The data from 76 stations was plotted and, after climatic divisions, some correlations were found between urbanization and the distribution of air temperature. 507._ Nishizawa Toshie 'S1 y |, "Toshi kion ni oyobosu kenchikubutsu no eikyo Xd f ]Ti 11 - - (The influence of buildings on urban air temeprature A,," Shigen Kagaku Kenkyujo iho, no. 48 (1958), 40-48. Assuming that city buildings have much to do with the modification of the distribution of air temperature in urban areas, thermal characteristics of ground surfaces and pavements are studied, and methods of calculating the diffusion of heat into the air are tested. A method to obtain the coefficient of vortex diffusion in an urban area is presented. Finally, daily changes and vertical distribution of the air temperature in urban areas are compared to those in rural areas. 508. Norin Suisan Gijutsu Kaigi Kiko Bunkakai (Agricultural and Fisheries Technical Council, Cli tology Section), Nihon no kiko bunrui zushu o'_ _ 4iA @ 3A (Atlas of Japanese climatic regions), Tokyo, Norin Suisan Gijutsu Kaigi, 1960, 115 pp. The results of former studies on the climatic regions of Japan published in Japanese are extensively collected in the form of maps, with divisions by elements of climate, the combination of these elements, houses and buildings, climatic disasters. 509. Onodera Hitoshi -\-,Tf "Ou sammyaku nambu ni okeru shin'yoju no henkei ni tsuite ~)M^d ], X )V (Deformed confierous trees in the southern part of the Ou mountains, [Tohoku district])," Tohoku chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 3, 112-119. Strong deformations are observed on trees in the Ou mountains, especially on coniferous trees. Comparing the deformations with meterological data, it is pointed out that the winter monsoon from the northwest is largely responsible for the deformation. It is also found that there are places where the wind diverges and converges from the influence of topography. 510. Saito K "Tokyo-to ni okeru kukiosen no jittai to sono taisaku ~.)IC^9'j )4I f 4 ~) (Present aspects of air pollution in Tokyo and counter methods)," Toshi mondai, v. 47 (1956), no. 7, 716-733. Saito divides Tokyo into smog area, non-smog area and intermediate area, and sets stations in each section. Elements observed are the weather, soot and dust that fall, suspending soot and dust, C02, etc. Aspects of air pollution over Tokyo are explained for the first time with information on its daily and seasonal changes. 511 Sakaguchi Yutaka, "Kita Nihon no kanshinsei no kiko henka i X Ott#, At (Climatic changes in Northern Japan in the Holo ene epoch)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 5, 259-268. Little has been known about climatic changes in the Holocene. Sakaguchi tries to clarify them by analysis of peat deposits which were formed in the Holocene. He concludes that the climate at about 100 B.C. was much colder than today, but after A.D. became warmer and more arid. 512. Sapporo Kanku Kishodai 1t)X t, Shimpan Hokkaido no kiko ef A,-~ VA.(Climate of Hokkaido, a revised edition), Tokyo, Kisho Kyokai, 1964, 391 pp. This is a revision of "The climate of Hokkaido", published in 1952, with main chapters: static explanation of climatic elements, dynamic climatology of the changes of the seasons, meteorological disasters, climate and industries. Detailed climatic tables occupy 280 pages, with major climatic elements shown in diagrams and maps in the last ten pages. 513. _ Sasakura Kozo At Ax ---, "Shizuoka-shi kara nita F jisan no kemmeido to kiko yoso to no kankei ni tsuite ) T\ g t A relationship between the visitilibty of Mt. Fuji as seen from Shizuoka City and climatic elements observed there)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunsha, 1961, 339-342. - -

Page  82 82 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY The visibility of Mt. Fuji from Shizuoka City is classified into five grades. Daily observation of the visibility for a whole year is compared to the data of other meteorological elements with special emphasis placed on their seasonal changes. 514. Sekiguchi Takeshi ~ ' 9\, "Heiya ni aru toshi naigai no kiko bumpu -?T 1 -)Xtyl0S'8)8l,$0> _ (City climate distribution)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 7 (1963), 193-240. The main objective of this study is to determine the influence of cities on the climate. An appropriate place for the sutdy, a city in the middle of a large plain where climatic conditions are evenly distributed, Ogaki in Gifu Prefecture underwent an extensive survey of the air temperature, wind, and humidity. From the analysis of the data, a marked difference of the climate in the city from that in the surrounding area was pointed out and is shown on several maps. 515. Sekiguchi Takeshi ~ a, "Nihon no ame no choki-hendo no chiikisei _n X t^^J 'ILL (Areal changes in the patterns of Japanese rainfall)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 5, 217-225. Rainfall data is available in Japan for more than 60 years. From an analysis of the areal patterns of change, Japan is divided into three regions. 1) The Pacific coast had a rainy period in 1880-1910, and then after a period of medium conditions, a rainy period started again about 1948. 2) The Japan Sea coast shows a pattern which generally resembles the Pacific coast, though with much snaller amplitudes. 3) Hokkaido shows a pattern of successive dry years which is in reverse of the Pacific area. 516. Sekiguchi Takeshi Pt 1 \, "Nihon no kiko kubun u * El A_ (Climatic regions in Japan)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 3 (1959), 65-78. Meteorological data of air temperature, rainfall, insolation, and surplus water based on Thornthwaite's formula is used. Comparing the figures from one station to another, boundaries of climatic regions are drawn where the differences are great. Four maps of climatic regions are made for each of the four elements, and the distinctions are indicated with symbols. From a combination of symbols, climatic regions are classified. Japan is divided into 7 regions and 27 subregions. 517. Sekguchi Takeshin I.., "Yamagata-ken Yonezawa-shi ni okeru toki no toshi kion bumpu j If A A,\ If V (The distribution of winter-time city temperatures in and around Yonezawa [in northern Japan])," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 6 (1962), 67-95. This is part of Sekiguchi's effort to prove that air temperatures in city areas are higher than in rural areas. This particular survey was carried out when the city was covered with snow. Under this special circumstance the thermal effect of the different construction materials in the cities is removed. According to the survey, the observed difference in the air temperature was 1.0~-2.0~ C. The ways in which the high temperature area in the city is dissovled by the inflow of cold air streams were also described. 518. Sekiguchi Takeshi collaborators, "Tokyo-tonai no nissharyo no chiriteki bumpu ift ri^Tf ~1 (The geographical distribution of solar radiation in the Tokyo Metropolitan District)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 5, 269-276. The distribution of solar radiation in March, 1958, was observed and the results are shown here in maps. A station set at Tokyo Kyoiku University was utilized as a base, and the amounts of radiation are shown as percentages of the value at this base. The amounts varied from 40 to 110%. The pattern of distribution is affected by meteorological conditions, especially by wind. 519. Sekiguchi Takeshi g U < and collaborators, "Toshi joku no kion no chiriteki bumpu -V o %nT T (Geographical distribution of air temperature above city areas)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 10, 577-589. From observation at the NHK television tower in Tokyo it was confirmed that the optimal altitude for the observation of air temperature over an urban area is directly below the layer of maximum wind velocity, and is three to five times higher than the height of guildings. For local cities this approximates 30 m. Observations were made at Ogaki and Yonezawa. At Ogaki three centers of high temperature were found, and the existence of inversion was confirmed. The height of the inversion layer decreases toward the outskirts of the city. 520. Shitara Hiroshi - t X, "Aomori-ken Sambongi heiya ni okeru kaki kion X- Aft t <K gQ \ iTh< ) -r'Y

Page  83 CLIMATE AND WEATHER 83 no furenzoku bumpu ni tsuite (On the discontinuous distribution of air temperature during the summer season in the Sambongi Plain, Aomori Prefecture)," Tohoku chiri, v. 9 (1957), no. 3, 67-71. In the Sambongi Plain on the Pacific Coast of northernmost Honshu, the distribution of air temperature in summer is analyzed from a meso-climatological viewpoint. The regional differences in air temperature are small when the whole plain is under the same air current, but they are large when two different air currents are coexistent on the same plain. Thus, the distribution of air temperature on this plain in summer is explained by the existence of small scale air masses. 521. Shitara Hiroshi a n K u, "Hiroshima-shi no toki kion ni oyobosu kenchikubutsu no eikyo -V, A I.; (The effect of buildings upon the winter temperature in Hiroshima City)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 6, 468-482. The city of Hiroshima is located on a delta. Shitara observes the distribution of air temperature in Hiroshima by choosing areas of different surface conditions such as office sections, business sections, sections with wooden buildings,arable land, river areas, etc. The thermal effect of different surface covers is analyzed. On winter nights the air temperature in an office section is higher by 2.0 ~C than in the outskirts of the city. 522. Shitara Hiroshi "Kaigan chitai ni okeru yakan kion no bumpu kaiseki (An analysis of the distribution of nocturnal air temperatures in a coastal area)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 12, 609-620. The distribution of nocturnal air temperature is very irregualr along the coast of the Inland Sea. To explain this phenomena, daily changes in air temperature at Hiroshima and Kure are analyzed. Hiroshima is connected to the inland by a valley, and on nights of fine weather cold air streams from the inland mountain area lowering the temperature. Kure is surrounded by mountains in the rear, and the air temperature does not go down. Thus the irregular distribution of air temperature may be largely explained by landforms. 523. Shitara Hiroshi "Meso-sukeru ni okeru kiko kukai ni tsuite h n A-^Y-'h^^ J1v^ r (The meso-scale climatic boundary)," Tohoku chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 1, 1-6. After a general review of former achievements in the field of climatic boundaries in macro-scale climatology, Shitara tries to establish a concept of climatic boundaries in terms of dynamic climatology. He points out that the boundaries in meso-climatic are stil dependent on achievements in static climatology, and that the boundaries in dynamic climatology to be established in the future ought to depend on the more or less consistent wind systent localwind systems and their air-mass characteristics. 524. Shitara Hiroshi.., T"Shigaichi ni okeru nitchu kion no bihendo to suichoku henka % (Minute diurnal fluctuation of air temperature and its vertical profile in a build-up area),," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959)6,no. 6, 313-319. To explain the higher air temperature in urban areas than in rural, the vertical distribution of air temperature is observed using a tower in Hiroshima 35 meters high. There is great fluctuation of temperature in lower air. Near the surface eddy currents of warm air are formed which are transmitted upwards. Roofs of houses work to delay this upward transmission. 525. Shitara Hiroshi "Tenki kai no tahatsutai o motomeru hoho ni tsutie A y ' >)B ^ L (Measurement of the frequency belt of the weather divide)," Tohoku chiri, v. 12 (1960), no. 4, 115-119. The boundary of the winter weather between the Japan Sea and the Pacific coast has been drawn in various ways. Usually it is indicated as a belt of individual weather boundaries. Shitara analyzes the belt concerning the Tohoku district. The weather boundaries are classified into limits by the four cardinal directions. It is found satisfactory to use the eastern limit of bad weather as the weather boundary for winter in the Tohoku district. 526. Shitara Hiroshi,?"Tohoku chiho ni okeru kaki kion no bumpu kaiseki josetsu e<< R. % A e b)j t (An introduction to the analysis of summer air temperature in Tohoku)," Kaihatsu ni kansuru chirigakuteki shomondai, 1959, 94-102. From the analysis of discontinuous distribution of summer air temperature in the Hachinohe Plain, Aomori Prefecture, Shitara concludes that it is caused by a sea

Page  84 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY wind front, and confirms this by pointing out the differences of the air masses on both sides of the front. This interpretation is applied to the entire Tohoku Region, and the existence of a low temperature zones is pointed out. In years of reigai, the crop failure belt due to low temperatures in summer expands towards the inland. 527. Shitara Hiroshi A t t, "Toki ni okeru Chugoku chihc no tenkikai ni tsuite I-TE r-'^/S X XA (The winter weather divide in the Chugoku region)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 11, 655-665. In the winter as the NW monsoon becomes strong a clear contrast develops between the weather of the Pacific and the Japan Sea coasts. Shitara draws a weather boundary in the Chugoku district where the distinction is less sharp than for other districts. All the weather boundaries are drawn on a map, and a climatic boundary is represented as a belt of weather boundaries. Thus, the limits of a snowfall area and a cloudy area are defined. According to these, the climatic boundary is in the Inland Sea side of the watershed. The degree of discrepancy between the snowfall and cloudy areas is influenced by the heights of the watershed. 528., Suzuki Hideo 4I,\-, "Chu-kikai kikogaku e no yosatsuteki kenkyu 10f Ald \& l ~ ~,, ~, _ (An approach toward meso air climatology)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 6, 347-357. From an analysis of daily rainfall maps of the Tokai district, it is seen that rainfall is often found on the plains. A hypothesis is presented that this is not rainfall caused by landforms but is the result of the influence of mesoscale air masses that force the upheaval of warm air masses. Based on this idea, many cases of heavy rainfall reported in the records are studied, and it is discovered that this hypothesis does offer a rational explanation for many cases. 529. Suzuki Hideo $! t, "Fuyugata kosui no oyobu han'i ni tsuite Ltt I )\^/ t o ) v? -ct V(The range of winter rain in Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 6, 321-326. In Japan the typical distribution of atmospheric pressure in winter is high to the west and low to the east; however, there are regional characteristics in the distribution of rain on winter days of typical atmospheric arrangement. The Japan sea coast is in a range of precipitation. Except for rain shadows caused by the islands of Sado and Rishiri, there are isolated areas of precipitation in the southwestern Hitaka Mountains, the Kii Mountains, the Shikoku Mountains, and in the southwestern part of Kyushu. 530. Suzuki Hideo, "Nihon chubu no kikokukai ni tsuite. 2,1T 8\0 (Weather boundaries in Central Japan)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 66 (1957), The distribution of daily weather boundaries in 1955 is drawn for every half month on 24 maps. From the viewpoint that weather boundaries for different seasons may be drawn where the daily boundaries appear most frequently, it is seen that such boundaries are particularly distinct in the winter in Central Asia. 531. Suzuki Hideo, "Nihon no chikei to kosui bumpu ~1 T~a~,~j^^ @(The landforms of Japan and the distribution of rainfall)," Chirigaku hyor.on, v. 34 (1961), no. 8, 430-437. In considering the 1955 rainfall, winter rains are excluded.The rest is classified into rainfall due to cyclones, fronts, and thunderstorms. Rainfall due to cyclones shows the closest correlation to landforms. From an analysis of the distribution of rainfall, Suzuki concludes that the distribution is influenced not by individual mountain bodies but by the large forms of mountain ranges that form the backbone of the Japanese islands. The most rainy areas appear at the feet of the mountains. 532. Suzuki Hideo "~, "Nihon no kiko kunbun g A 0 A n, (The classification of Japanese climate)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 35 (1962), no. 5, 205-211. Using the northern limit of the polar front, Japan is divided into moderate and cold climates. Hokkaido belongs to the latter. As a secondary criterion Suzuki utilizes winter precipitation types. Namely, at the time of typical winter atmospheric distribution, wet areas, dry areas, and intermediate areas are classified. For minor divisions, total amount of precipitation is used. Nine climatic regions are defined. 533. Suzuki Takeo a; i y, "Toshi ni okeru taiki osen ni tsuite 0 _)5~ty ' ~ ~ <"~'L (Pollution of air in cities)," Toshi mondai, v. 47 (1956), no. 7, 706-715. Pollution of the air in urban areas is becoming a serious problem in many cities. The causes of pollution, the materials that cause it, and the present aspects of

Page  85 CLIMATE AND WEATHER 85 the pollution in many cities are explained in this volume. Daily, weekly and annual changes of pollution are discussed in detail, and their relationship with meteorological elements is analyzed. Much data is given concerning effects of air pollution, and the necessity of counter methods is pointed out from the standpoint of public sanitation. 534. Takahashi Koichiro5 - i - X, Dokikogaku: tokuni Nihon no tenko ni tsuite X t - T _ _ A (Dynamic climatology: with special reference to Japanese weather), Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1955, 316 pp. Based on his long experience as a meteorologist, Takahashi tries to systematize research on the weather of Japan. A year is divided into six seasons, the four seasons of the year plus the baiu and typhoon seasons. At the beginning of the section allotted to each season, explanations of the weather of the world and of Japan are given. The contents consist of meteorological analysis and description of the weather. 535. Takahashi Koichiro 1 X Y/ ~-, "Kisho gensho no kunen shuki ni tsuite At ~w < e 9 a )7, ~V (9-year periodicity in meteorological phenomena)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 72 (1963), no. 3, 105-109. In 1963 there were heavy rainfalls in the Hokuriku Region after nine years of light rain, an occurrence causing a revival of old discussions of the nine year cycle of climate. Takahashi reviews many cycle theories of climate, and comes to the conclusion that most of them have no scientific basis. However, the existence of a nine year cycle is hard to deny, although there are no successful explanations available. 536. Takahashi Koichiro A -, Nihon no kisho, E \ ~ i (The weather of Japan), Tokyo, Mainichi Shimbunsha, 1956, 288 pp. This is a text on Japanese climate for the lay reader. Japanese climate as a whole and its seasonal changes are explained. There are abundant references to the relation of climate to daily life. Main chapters of geographical interest are:. Japanese climate and life, the baiu, years of good and bad crops, heavy rains, and floods and dams. 537. Takahashi Koichiro " ffA - -n', Nihon no tenki, 4 A Xi) (Weather in Japan), Tokyo Iwanami Shoten, 1963, 218 pp. Seasonal changes of weather in Japan are described in an easy style for general readers. Chapters are on the four seasons of the year and on the baiu and typhoon seasons. Frequent references are made to natural disasters caused by meteorological phenomena. 538. Takahashi Koichiro -, 3yo kishoron ^ (Applied meteorology), Tokyo, wanami Shoten, 1961, 292 pp. This is an endeavour to systematize studies on the relationship between meteorology and human life. The topics include weather and traffic, weather forecast, atmosphere as a source of energy, human control of weather, and acclimatization. 539. Takahashi Momoyuki -, "Nihon no chusho toshi ni okeru kion bumpu to kaoku mitsudo ^ t )i^ < 1-' ~ f E ~X (Relation between airtemperature distribution and density of houses in small cities in Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 6, 305-313. Choosing Kumagaya and Ogaki as examples of small cities on a plain, Takahashi observes the distribution of air temperature. On calm, clear nights, urbanized areas have higher temperatures, and the denser the houses the larger the differences. Sections with more two-storied houses are warmer than those with onestoried houses. Wind velocity affects the distribution, but when the wind is stronger than 4 m/sec. there is no relation to be seen. 540. Takahashi Momoyuki S Z Toki ni okeru Hokuriku Tokai kyo fukin no tenki kai khfi ' M y 24? 5a t (The weather boundary between the Hokuriku and Tokai climatic regions in winter)," Gifu Daigaku Gakugeigakubu kenkyu hokoku, no. 2 (1954), 1-5. In winter there is a strong contrast between cloudy and snowy weather in Hokuriku and fine weather in Tokai. From weather charts made on winter days, the boundaries of the weather were drawn, and where the distribution of these weather boundaries was densest the weather boundary between the regions was drawn. 541. Takasaki Masayoshi ~ 4 $a and Iosawa Tomoya JLf V - Vt "Sekisetsu-shin no bumpu to chikei: kuchu shashin no riyo no yoru XS y, 2 aP t L yt f --- '

Page  86 86 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY d)hT 6) $}) J )zg (Landforms and the depth of accumulated snow: as shown through air photos)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 73 (1964), no. 1, 23-40. In the winter of 1963 the Geographical Survey Institute prepared mpas, utilizing air photos, of the distribution of accumulated snow in the Hokuriku Region. This survey successfully identified the flow lines of predominant wind from an analysis of snow depth and landforms at the times of heavy snowfalls. Takasaki and Iosawa analyzed the relations among oredominant wind, landforms and snow depth. At times of heavy snowfall, the windward side of mountains facing predominant winds received heavy snow. However, once the wind drops the snow, there is no place behind where there is accumulated snow of remarkable depth. 542. Tokyokanku Kishodai X? A, a Tokyo-to no kiko t (The climate of Tokyo)," Tokyo, Kisho Kyokai, 1957, 565 pp. These are the complete data on the climate of Tokyo accumulated in the last eighty years. Figures include the monthly average of all the observed elements. For the more important elements, daily, ten-day, and half-month averages are also included. Monthly figures for forty-two stations in Japan, the history of meteorological work in Japan, an outline of the climate of Tokyo, and a historical table of climatic disasters are attached as appendices. 543. Toshi Kiko Sogo Kenkyuhan 1j 5 ~ 4 (A Group for the study of urban climate), Toshi kiko kansoku shiryo U l1 _1 l (Observation data of urban climate), Tokyo, Toshi Kiko Sogo Kenkyuhan, 1957-1958, 95+153+144+77+37 pp. Observations were made at five places in 1955 by a research group on urban climate. The stations are Kumagaya in Saitama Prefecture, Ueda in Nagano Prefecture, Yonezawa in Yamagata Prefecture, Ogaki and Kitagata in Gifu Prefecture, and the NHK television tower in Tokyo. For each of the stations a volume is published with data and details of the observation. 544. Tsuchiya Iwao J-2X, Kiko no hendo, d ^$)d (Climatic changes), Tokyo, Koseisha Koseikaku, 1962, 210 pp. This is a general explanation of factors affecting climatic changes and climate in different geological and historical periods. References are made to causality of changes, artifical climate, and to former theories on this problem. Contents of special interest are the references to historical records of the first blooming days of cherry trees and other documents available only in Japan. 545. Tsukada Matsuo a A, "Kafun-bunseki kara mita kohyoki no kikohensen Kii*t~ 5 t' 6 ~ 4) M (Climatic changes of the postglacial age in Japan, based on four pollen analyses)," Daiyonki kenkyu, v. 1 (1957), no. 2, 48-58. There are common characteristics in the results of former pollen analyses carried out at Sapporo, Ozegahara, near the city of Suwa, and at Shiga Plateau. In all of the four peatlands, three climatic periods are discernible. Namely, the cold period indicated by the lowest layer suggests an air temperature 3 ~C lower than that of today. The middle layer corresponds to a warm period, 2 to 3 ~C warmer than today. The upper layer indicated a trend toward lower temperatures. According to the estimated speed of accumulation and to carbon dating, the boundary between the warm and coldperiods is 6000 to 5500 B.C. and that between the warm and declining periods is 2000 to 1000 B.C. 546. Wadachi Kiyoo *'vS ', ed., Nihon no kiko f 2 I t)i (The Climate of Japan). Tokvo, Tokyodo, 1958, 492 pp. All important aspects of the climate o Japan are described in three parts. In part one, the present status of meteorology is discussed, and its relation to human life, industries, and natural disasters is described. Part two is a regional description of Japanese climate in which the districts from Hokkaido to Kyushu are handled in turn. Many color maps are attached. Part three consists of climatic tables and a chronological table of natural disasters in Japan. 547. Watanabe Tsuguo Lt Z *, Kindai kisho chosaho pL ' z (Research method in modern meteorology), Tokyo, Gihodo, 1958, 302 pp. Methods of statistical analysis of meteorological phenomena are explained. Watanabe asserts that modern meteorology was started by Rosby. Various methods of meteorological analyses are introduced, and application of meteorology is discussed in relation to shipwrecks, destruction of railroads, and damage by storms. 5 4 8. Yazawa Taiji,\ ^ )/;\;-, "Chuo Andes no kiko henka ^/T) Tv' M\A '

Page  87 CLIMATE AND WEATHER 87 (Climatic changes in the Central Andes),"Chigaku zasshi, v. 69 (1960), 153-159. In accordance with the author's analysis of data obtained by the 1958 expedition, the cycles of climatic change are seven years near the coast and 11 years in the mountains. In the coastal dry areas, recent changes toward arid climate are observed from study of the vegetation and sand dunes. Mountain glaciers are showing remarkable retreat in the recent period. The changes of the water level of the Titicaca Lake show, besides changes due to the 11 year cycle, some complex variations which do not always coincide with the changes of precipitation near the coast. 549. Yazawa Taiji ~~V -, "Kankyo to shite no Amami no kiko ~,t~+q (The climate of Amami Island as its physical environment)," Jinrui kagaku, v. 9 (1957), 80-89; v. 10 (1958), 177-186. According to the analysis of average rainfall and its variation semi-monthly, July and October are periods with both high variability and high precipitation. Climatic records indicate a positive correlation between July rainfall and both cultivated acreage and second rice crop yields. In the season of the winter monsoon, higher portions of the island are always covered with clouds, resulting in very high humidity. On Kikai Island near Amami, postwar settlers' villages at the height of 200 m. were almost abandoned due to the high humidity. Development of windbreaks is more noticeable on the east side of the islands. 550. Yazawa Taiji t j -, Kikogaku: kindai kikogaku josetsu ~ -- ' ^ ^Ct to ll L (Climatology: an introduction to modern climatology), Tokyo, Chijin Shokan, 1956, 122 pp. After a review of the achievements of classic meteorology, the process of change to modern meteorology is discussed.The achievements of modern meteorology, then, are descirbed and are classified into several fields. In conjunction with the study of air masses, the meteorology of weather and synoptic meteorology are referred to. The history and the meaning of the study of singularity are discussed. Finally, the problems of the classification of climate are pointed out in comparing classic and modern meteorology. 551. Yazawa Taiji ^vX _, "Noto no shizen 5~,~ ~~ (The Nature of Noto), Kyu Gakki Rengo Noto kyodo chosa hokoku, 1955, 12-21. Report of the survey of Noto under cooperation of nine scientific associations. Climatic characteristics of Noto are explained through analyses of air temperature, wind, and rainfall. Average temperature is higher along the coast than inland, and the isothermals make concentric circles. The wind is strongest in winter and weakest in summer. Rainfall is heavier inland. The variability of rainfall shows reversed correlation to the average amount of monthly rainfall. 552. Yoshida Yoshinobu + l3 & By. "Kensetsu yotei no Yonesawako shusuiiki no sekisetsu chosa ^ -IO - g ~~ at (Snow survey of the catchment basin of the projected lack Yonezawa)," Chirigaku hyoron, v.33 (1960), no. 1, 26-43. In the catchment basin of the planned Yonezawa Reservoir there are three regions bounded by 700 m. and 1,000 m. contour lines relating to the depth and density of accumulated snow. Total amount of snow in this basin Ls estimated at 3.5 million tons in an average year, and 6.2 million tons in a maximum year. 553. Yoshino Masatoshi, "Akozantai fukin ni okeru kaze no kiko keikan to sore ni yoru shokiko chosa 4.A tat\< - l ) M<$t.1 (Climatic landscape due to the wind in subalpine zones; a microclimatic survey)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 4 (1960), 87-106. As indicators of strong winds, one can use deformed trees in areas with violent winds and the usnea sp. attached to trees in areas of less strong wind. Using these indicators, the characteristics of the wind at Mt. Azuma, at the Neko Volcano in the Azusa valley, and at the Hiuchi Volcano, all in Nagano prefecture, are studied. Usnea grows in areas above 1000 m. with weak wind, and deformed trees are found above 2000 m. in very windy localities. According to the deformed trees the wind perpendicular to the ridge prevails near the ridge, while behind the ridge, the direction of the wind is reversed. The range of strong wind belts near the ridge is 20-40 m. from the ridge on windside, and 40-70 m. on the leeside. 55)4. __Yoshino Masatoshi "^ 5f 3L^~^ X "Kanto heiya to sono shuhen sanchi ni- okeru kosuiryo no sokan-kikogakuteki kenkyu (1) s tu Si < ) *t- ) ~~M J3~ }yA r (A synoptic climatological study of precipitation in the Kanto Plain and its surrounding mountainous region)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 8, 371-385. Typical examples of the movements of middle latitude cyclones along the Pacific

Page  88 88 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY Coast have been selected. For each, the relationship is measured between local precipitation and distance from the centers of cyclones in the plains area. This relationship is a direct ratio. Precipitation data in the mountain areas are compared with this relationship, and the factors that cause deviations are considered. 555. Yoshino Masatoshi ~ f 3 "Kirishima sanchi no kiko t j ~l (Local climate in the Mt. Kirishima region)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirlgaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 5 (1961), 79-109. Using data obtained at twenty-five stations in this area, Yoshino presents detailed maps of air temperature and rainfall. The frequency of rainfall is classified according to the causes that brought the rain. The lapse-rate is calculated from the maximum and minimum air temperatures. The direction of prevailing wind is assumed from its influence on trees in the forest. 556. Yoshino Masatoshi,t 3 "Nihon ni okeru uryo saidai kansokuchi uryo, jikan kyokusen uryo kyodo, jikan kyokusen no tokusei to sono bumpu 1 A V X Y A vif IMf-1 t tw '^ ma t - )q v o (The distribution of maximum observed rainfall and the characteristics of depth-duration and intensity-duration curves in Japan)," Kisho shushi, ser. II, v. 38 (1960), no. 1, 27-46. The amount of rainfall within ten minutes, an hour, six hours, and twenty-four hours respectively shows different patterns of distribution. In comparison of the data with that from other countries, Japan is found to be one of the countries with very strong and frequent rainfall. Yoshino presents a formula to calculate the intensity of rain per hour, and surveys its distribution in Japan. 557. Yoshino Masatoshi - E, "Setchiso no kaze no suichoku bumpu to shochikie ~~*~ ~_? God ^\S^^^^y^ T(Microtopography and vertical distribution of winds above the ground)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 2 (1958), 120-146. Distribution of wind velocity was observed on the southwestern slope of the volcano Nekodake at Sugadaira in Nagano prefecture. Wind velocities over the gentle slope of the volcano, the valley sides, and the valley bottom were observed. The process of the development of vortex when the wind blows across valleys is thus clarified. 558. Yoshino Masatoshi toh K, "Shochiikinai ni okeru fuko bumpu no ichi tokusei i ].i jA {^ / ' (One characteristic of the distribution of wind direction in a small area)," Kisho to tokei, v. 6 (1956), no. 4, 67-71. During World War II, observation of daily wind direction using pennons was made at 200 spots in Tokyo. The following conclusions are summarized from an analysis of the data. Wind directions are scattered when the wind is weak. In coastal areas sometimes a southerly wind appears while the north wind blows in the inland area, but the frequency of such a contradiction rapidly decreases towards the inland. 559. Yoshino Masatoshi % f, Shokikogaku ~]~lt (Microclimatology), Tokyo, Chijin Shokan, 1961, 274 pp. In part one Yoshino's viewpoint of microclimatology is presented after a brief history of the study in this field. In part two principles of the distribution of microclimate are explained in their relation to surface landforms and consisting materials. In part three the relation with human life and vegetation is discussed. 560. Yoshino Masatoshi -t ' it, "Sugadaira kSgen no kiko to shokiko V- *X ~ kr _ ~ t (The climate and micro-climate of Sugadaira)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 1 (1957), 159-188. Tokyo Kyoiku University has a biological station at Sugadaira. In this area several newly reclaimed areas exist where the settlers are confronted with problems of low temperature and heavy snowfall. The objective of this survey was to provide the settlers with climatoligical data. Climate of the plateau is described in detail. Micro-climatic data of various climatic elements, the movement of cold air currents in winter, and data on fog are of special interest. 561. Yoshino Masatoshi * "Tochigi-ken Hoki gawa kyoryo fukin no kyokuchi teki kyofu ni tsuite etcV5 1,t: 5$ A AI(A strong local wind along the Hoki River in Tochigi Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 10, 613-624. In Tochigi Prefecture, where the Tohoku railway crosses the Hoki River, strong winds often blow sometimes at the velocity of more than 30m/sec. Once a whole train was blown down into the valley. Such strong winds exist when the winter monsoon is strong and when a highly developed cyclone crosses the Sea of Japan. The reason for

Page  89 DESTRUCTION BY PHYSICAL FORCES 89 the concentration of wind at this point is explained in terms of landforms. 562. Yoshino Masatoshi, {K. "Tokyo-to kunai ni okeru ame no bumpu to biu nissu no zoka I P t j F 1 l (The distribution of precipitation and the increase of days with slight rain in Tokyo City proper)," Tenki, special issue, 1957, 121-125. Increased precipitation in urban areas has been noticed in many cities of the world. According to the long term record, the number of days with slight rain shows an increase in the central part of Tokyo. No changes are observed in the number of days with strong rain or in the total amount of rainfall. Thus, only slight rains are frequent in city centers, and the difference between the center and the outskirts of the city is becoming greater. 563. YDshino Masatoshi 7 t and N'shizaw Toshie f "Reiki no ryushutsu to shimomichi no keisei y' A 1 9 6jt c' (Cold air drainage and local distribution of frost)," Nogyo kisho, v. 15 (1960), no. 4, 133-138. In the spring of 1958, an air temperature survey was made at Matsukawa on the right bank of the Tenryu for the purpose of analyzing the relation between surface landforms and the distribution of air temperature. It was found that there were different air masses on both sides of the Matsukawa, and the flow of cold air streams were different in both masses. I. Destruction by physical forces 564. Bosai Hand-book Henshu Iinkai ndo'o " 7" 7 des ntr, ed., Bosai hand-book t_/ 7 ~ " 7 (A hand-book of defense against natural disasters), Tokyo, Gihodo, 1964, 1223 pp. Contents are mainly technological problems related to defense against natural disasters. Following a history of defense against disasters, problems are discussed concerning defense planning and designs, and control of defense programs. Respective problems concerning defense against earthquakes, fire, floods, land-slides, coastal erosion, etc. are also discussed. Then follow chapters on administrative and legal problems related to defense against natural disasters. 565. Chiri Tsunami Godo Chosahan g IJ)!g@M ~~ 1960 nen 5 gatsu 24 ka Chiri jishin tsunami chosa sokuho -ivu\^t at S ^) i 9 - ' (Report on the Chile Earthquake tsunami of May 24, 1960), Tokyo, Tokyo Daigaku Jishin Kenkyujo, 1960, 870 pp. Materials collected by survey groups of the destruction caused by the tsunami, due to an earthquake off the coast of Chile, which attacked the Pacific coasts of Japan on May 24, 1960 are published for the use of future analysis. The area under survey includes all the Pacific coast from Hokkaido to Kyushu. Distribution of the heights of tsunami waves, the arrival time of the highest waves, the records of tide gauges, and other valuable information are collected. 566. Fukui Hideo ' t f t "Tohoku chiho ni okeru reigai no chiikisa to sono jidaiteki henka v) ~c,. (Areal and yearly variations in rice crop failures in NE Japan)," Tohoku chiri, v. 10 (1957), 29-38. There is marked regional differentiation in the distribution of crop failures due to low air temperature in summer, and the pattern of the differentiation is changing with the development of agricultural technology. To analyze the changes, Fukui applied the theory of an upper limit of effective temperature for plants to the cultivation of rice. In Tohoku Prefectures, the correlation diagrams of the yields of rice and the air temperatures of June, July and August show clear changes in the critical temperature, but the critical temperature has not dropped continuously. There were periods when it went up, suggesting that the varieties of rice became less resistant to low air temperature. 567. Fukui Hideo } t, Watanabe Yoshio, Hasegawa Norio '-f1} -, and Fujiwara Kenzo X,"Sanriku kaigan chunambu chiiki ni okeru Chile jishin tsunami ni tsuite _"' _ ^^f^ l~']~ 5!,S )]<-~ ~v \~t (The Chile tidal wave on the Pacific coast of the Tohoku Region)," Tohoku chiri, v. 12 (1960), no. 3, 80-94. High waves caused by an earthquake off the coast of Chile on May 23, 1960 attacked the Pacific coast of Tohoku on the following day. From a survey of damages due to the disaster, the following characteristics are pointed out. Arrival time of the highest tidal waves differed from one place to another by as much as three hours. The height of the waves was large at the head of deep embayments, sometimes reaching six meters above the average sea level, while at the mouth of bays the waves

Page  90 (90 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY were only a couple of meters high. Little difference of wave height was observed in relation to the direction of the embayments or to the coast line. The kind of destruction suffered was generally in proportion to the height of the waves. In many ways the tidal wave which crossed the whole range of the Pacific was very different from those caused by earthquakes with epicenters near the Japan trench. 568. Ichinose Yoshimi, it o i, "Tara-dake kazan ni okeru yamakuzure_ ry - - \ (On landslides at Tara Volcano, northern Kyushu)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 10, 515-528. In July 1957 a heavy rain caused serious flood damage in the area of the volcano Tara, in northern Kyushu. The flood was accompanied by mud and sand flows due to land-slides, which increased the damage. The damage was mainly in areas of hypersthene andesite and agglormerate. The different reactions of these rocks to the water provided the impetus for the floods, and the other destruction was simply one of the landslide disasters common to this district. 569. _Ichinose Yoshimi t muit?, "Yama kuzure no chikeigakuteki kosatsu: Tamagawa ryuiki no baai AL y -3 ) eta '4 (Geomorphological studies of landslides: the case of the Tama Valley)," Shigen Kagaku Kenkyujo iho, no. 45 (1957), 8-18. Distribution and forms of landslides, mudflows, etc. are studied in their relation to relief, valley density, slope directions, geology and geologic structure. In the Tama Valley landslides frequently occur above steep slopes where the slopes become gentler, near the knick-points influenced by rejuvenation, and at the bottom of saucer-like depressions often seen in granite regions. It is also observed that the scale of the slides is large in areas of Paleozoic hard sandstone, and that NE-NW slopes which are susceptible to freezing have more frequent landslides. Furthermore, in granite areas, landslides and mudflows took place within the last geologic period. 570. Iwatsuka Shuko ~ ~. ', "Nagasaki-ken hokubu no jisuberi to sono ippanteki tokusei ni tsuite 0 t t f X A ) + 4 fl 1- Y., \ (Landslides in the northern part of Nagasaki Prefecture and their characteristics)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), 244-254. The western part of Hizen Peninsula, Nagasaki Prefecture, is a district of many landslides. In 1953 severe damage was caused by many such landslides. Iwatsuka made a survey of the slides and classified them into different types. He also pointed out that these types have common geological and geomorphological characteristics. 571. Kagaku Gijutsucho Shigenkyoku (Resources Bureau, Science and Techlology Agency), Ishikari gawa deitan chiiki no chikei to suigai 2Jr)) li)1jkt.(,~ ~ 0 t ^^ ^ _ (The relationship between the flood and topography in the Ishikari River Basin), Tokyo, Kagaku Gijutsucho Shigenkyoku, 1961, 111 pp., 2 sheets. This is a Natural Resources Committee report of the survey for the defense of floods, published as material no. 37, Resources Bureau. Reports have been published on the survey of the drainage areas of the Kitakami, Watarse, Joganji, Kiso and Chikugo Rivers. Special aims of this survey were to clarify geomorphic changes caused by reclamation and land use in peat-land, and changing types of floods. Contents are: geomorphic types and flood types, geomorphological development of drainage area, changes of river courses, subsidence of the ground, etc. A 1:50,000 map of the classification of landforms related to floods is attached. 572. Kagaku Gijutsucho Shigenkyoku ~ A _ t v (Resources Bureau, Science and Technology Agency), Suigai chiiki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu dai-nibu: Chikugo gawa ryuiki ni okeru chikei to suigaikei 7)<,) t - -- At t sl-t' K,,, A T.- (Reconnaissance topological survey on areas subject to flood, Part 2: Landforms and types of floods in the drainage area of the Chikugo River), Tokyo Kagaku Gijutsucho Shigenkyoku, 1957. The Resources Bureau previously published a survey of the Nobi Plain from the viewpoint of defense against floods. This survey of the Chikugo Plain is their second project with the same objective. The drainage area of the Chikugo River is classified into the upper, middle, and lower reaches; and the landforms are described in their relation to flood disasters. The influence of the engineering of the revision of river courses upon river beds and drainage areas is discussed in the text. Further topics of discussion are the relationship between landforms and reclamation of the shallow bay of Ariake, as well as the relationship between hydrology and land use in the area of numerous creeks in the lower reaches of the Chikugo River. Remarkable differences are pointed out in the nature of flood disasters in the drainage areas of this river and the Kiso River in the Nobi Plain.

Page  91 DESTRUCTION BY PHYSICAL FORCES 91 573. KoideHiroshi Jl\;, Nihon no jisuberi: sono yochi to taisaku %t)x) -- ^<T^^^f^tt (Landslides in Japan), Tokyo, Tokyo Keizai Shimposha, 1955, 259 pp. Landslides are natural disasters which are hard to prevent. After the classification of landslides, their distribution over the country is explained. As tthe make-up of slides, Koide asserts that the planes of slides exist within rocks, and the clay layers to which slides hitherto had been attributed are nothing but the results of the movements. Therefore, to prevent landslides, draining of surface and groundwater will be more effective than the traditional dam method. 574. Kokudo Chiriin '.t (Geographical Survey Institute), Ariakekai hokugan teichi takashio chosa hokokusho 7 g t t t g t (Report of the survey on the high tides along the northern s ore of the Ariake Bay), Tokyo, Kokudo Chiriin, 1963, 36 pp., 2 maps. Although high tides caused by the Ise Bay Typhoon reached the height of 3.9 meters, the inundation reached approximately one meter above sea level, which coincided with the prehistoric and ancient coastline. This gave a clue for the estimation of the limits of inundation along the coasts of resembling landforms. Possible destruction along the Ariake Bay is analyzed on the assumption that the typhoon which passed this district in September, 1959, had taken the worst possible route. Possible range and depths of inundation are calculated so that they will be useful in planning defense programs. 575. Konno Enzo 9 ~ ~, Kitamura Nobu jt, Kodaka Tamio )t\ Q ff t, and Kataoka Jun "Chile jishin tsunami ni yoru shinshoku to taiseki ni tsuite A.\) 1.; Z1 - 1< -vt (Erosion and deposition due to the tidal wave'caused by the Chile earthquake on May 24, 1960)," Tohoku chiri, v. 12 (1960), no. 4, 120-127. High waves caused by an earthquake off the coast of Chile on May 23, 1960, crossed the ocean and attacked the Pacific coast of Japan the next day, causing severest damage near the city of Takanda. The erosion and deposition due to this tidal wave are described. The erosion took the forms of sheet flows, linear flows and eddy flows. As to mass-wasting, there were rapid flows and slumpings of a sliding type. Distinction is made among sediment due to mass-wasting, sediment transported for a short distance, and sediment transported from the sea bottom. 576. Matsui Taketoshi I X and Iseki Hirotaro -4 T "Daini Muroto taifu ni yoru takashio to kaigan chikei: tokuni Kii suido engan o chushin to shite (Relation between the coastal topography and the high tide of the Second Muroto Typhoon: i.e., the coastal area of the Kii Channel)," Nagoya Daigaku Bungakubu kenkyu shuroku, 29, (Shigaku 10), 1963, 93-109. On September 16, 1961, a large typhoon caused great damage by high tides on the coastal areas along Kii Strait. The damage was great along the coasts where beach ridges develop. There the tide was about one and a half times as high as elsewhere. On sandy beaches, the height of tides was estimated as much as two and a quarter times the figure obtained by tide gauges. 577. Murakami Kazuyuki, "Kumamoto-shi seiho ni okeru suigai maiden no wareme i I ^1 s 6 < (Mud cracks in rice fields derived from the 1953 flood in the city of Kumamoto)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 5, 412-417. In June 1953 there was a heavy rainfall in Kyushu and many rivers flooded into surrounding areas. Rice fields were buried under mud. When the mud deposits dried they were filled with cracks. From observing the cracks in rice fields to the west of Kumamoto City, it was pointed out that seemingly irregular cracks could be classified into several basic patterns. Such patterns and the depths of the cracks are recorded. 578. Nagoya Daigaku Saigai Kagaku Chosakai %V IF X 4 X (Reasearch Group for the Defense of Natural Disasters, Nagoya University), Isewan taifu saigai no chosa kenkyu hokoku fuzu: Nobi heiya no chika kozo to sono kosei _ _4 _ r _) v an \ 4% _ - Ah ffT tf<T a i X~- (RaRport on t e Destruction causea5y the Ise-wan Typhoon: underground structure of the Nobi Plain), Nagoya, Nagoya Daigaku Saigai Kagaku Chosakai, 1964, 234 pp. The Ise-wan Typhoon of September, 1959, caused enormous destruction in an area around Ise Bay. This is a report of a cooperative survey carried out by members of Nagoya University, Nagoya Technological University and the Meteorological Observatory in Nagoya. Geological problems, the subsidence of the ground, geological structure, groundwater level, and crustal movement were studied. Agricultural problems

Page  92 92 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY studied were the destruction of coastal forests, effects on soils and crops, deposits caused by high tides, degradation and recovery of productivity, etc. This being an area of reclamation by empoldering, the relationship among destruction, landforms, and embankments is discussed in detail. Sixteen maps are attached. 579. Nakamura Keisaburo:5^ "Hpm, p"Hompo no jisuberi oyobi yamakuzure ^T X) 3 5 A D fi (Land-creeps and landslides in Japan)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 64 no. 1, 1-6. This book contains a summary of knowlege about landslides in Japan. Main topics are the conditions that cause the landslides, their relation to geology, triggers for their movements, their dynamics, the meaning of geologic structure, etc. Finally, included are discussions on land use of the slide land and on the prevention of disasters from landslides. 580. Nakamura Keisaburo ', t Hosai to kokudo: jisuberi Yamakuzure no kenkyu ' x * )-\ (Landslips and landslides), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 195,5 300 pp. Landslips and landslides are discussed, relating geology and geomorphology to the dynamics of their occurrence. The classification becomes more diffecult as more details are studied, and the necessity for quantitative analysis is asserted. Many examples from all over Japan are collected, and their relation with human activities such as the land use on slipping land and the redivision of farms makes this book an interesting reading in geography. 581. Nakamura Saburo l r 5, "Nagano-ken Sai-kawa Dojiri-gawa ryuiki no yamakuzure jisuberi ni tsuite k,, 4!)3)..9Ji) P, ci) l.4 A L j.',_- V) (Landslides in the drainage areas of the Saikawa and the Dojiri-gawa, Nagano Prefecture)," Tohoku chiri, v. 9 (1956), nO. 2, 53-59. Landforms of the survey area are in the late young stage, and the occurrence of landslides is limited in the areas of sedimentary rocks and agglomerate of Tertiary. Scale of the slides is larger in areas of shale and when the direction of movement coincides with that of the dip. 582. Nakano Takamasa _t l _, Nihon zero metoru chitai a — /v~/ (Zero meter zones in Japan), Tokyo, Todai Shuppankai, 1963, 224 pp. Because most large Japanese cities developed on the deltas along the sea and over exploited the ground water by industrialization, depression in the ground often occurs. Such areas are susceptible to damage from high tides and inundation. The causes of the depression, and the process of the change are described in detail, and suggestions for solutions to this problem are presented. 583. Nakano Takamasa t f *, Tokyo shuhen no suigai kiken chitai X K J-.ji tLAd (Areas in danger of floods around Tokyo), Tokyo, Chizu Fukyu Kyokai, 1961, 36 pp. This is an explanatory text to the maps published by the Tokyo Metropolis (a land classification in relation to floods, an altitude map, and a flood defense map of areas around Tokyo). The present status of such areas concerning the danger of floods is explained for general readers. Main points of discussion are history of the floods, landforms and flood types, inundation caused by high tides, inundation by rivers, and lingering inundation. 584. Nakano Takamasa, K t 9 and Takehisa Yoshihiko i' N,,\ "Niigata no jiban chinka (The ground subsidenc in the Niigata Plain)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 1, 1-9. The ground subsidence in the coastal area of the city of Niigata has become serious, especially since 1951. The breakwater has sunk to the sea surface, piers are washed by sea waves, and poor drainage is causing a social problem. One of several factors causing the subsidence is that the crustal movement observed in Tertiary land around Niigata Plain continues to Quaternary. The margin of fan deposit equivalent to the last glacial low sea level is found far below sea level today, and the rate of depression is calculated to be 3.7 mm/year. From trigonometrical survey the subsidence in the last 60 years was 50 mm. It is estimated that 50% of the subsidence is due to crustal movement, 10% to compression of the surface layers, and 40% to the pumping of ground water. 585. Okuda Yuzuru, ed., Nihon no reigai gQ44 (Crop failures due to low summer temoeratures in Japan), Tokyo, Toyo Keizai Shimposha, 1957, 230 pp. This book contains articles contributed by four authors. Reigai, crop failures (mainly of rice) due to low temperatures in summer, occur mostly in northern Japan.

Page  93 OCEANOGRAPHY 93 There are six chapters, aspects of reigai, history of reigai, factors and types of reigai, meteorological study, reigai and agricultural technology, and how to diminish reigai. In chapter two the traditional hazards are described, and counter methods used in the Meiji era are also referred to. In chapter three meteorological studies are related to the growing seasons of rice, and also to the regional distribution of the damage. In chapters four and five many scientific theories on the causes of the crop failures are introduced from the viewpoint of plant biology and accompanying blight damage. In the last chapter the prospect for the development of methods to diminish the damage is discussed. 586. Shimizu Keihachiro v _ /\ and Ichikawa Masami \))1 ~ Boshu jisuberi chitai no kenkyu )JA,); 'J -a ^ f (A study of the landslide zone in Awa Province), Chiba, Chiba-ken, 1955, 70 pp. The landslide area in Awa Province, Chiba Prefecture, mostly consists of soft serpentine which collapses easily, and yields clay. The depths and dynamics of slides are surveyed. This area coincides with the cattle raising area in Awa. The coincidence is explained as follows: landslides produce gentle slopes adequate for pasturing, there is abundant groundwater in such an area, and maintainance of rice fields is difficult in a landslide area. 587. Takahashi Koichiro - -k, "Saigai ni kansuru opereishiyonaru risachi (Operational research on disasters concerned with storms in Japan)," Kenkyu jiho, v. 9 (1957), no. 1, 1-34. The amount of damage caused by natural disasters in Japan involves as much as 20 -30% of the national budget. Research on natural disasters has been carried on in various fields of science, but as this is also a problem of national importance, the need for cooperation on a broader scope for preventing disasters is urgent. Counter methods against disasters must be considered within the limit of economic and scientific possibility. Takahashi introduces 'operational research' in which disasters are understood in correlation to destruction and resistibility. Both terms are explained in detail, and examples of disasters in Japan are given with statistics. 588. Tsutsumi Gen 4it _, Tsuru Daijiro /f41 A v, and Takeuchi Hideo /A t, Taifu saigai no riron to jittai At t\Jt (The theory and aspects of typhoon disasters), Tokyo, Nihon Gakujitsu Shinkokai, 1956, 258 pp. Typhoons are one of the most serious natural disasters in Japan. The character of typhoon disasters is described in detail and classified into those on agriculture and fishery. Reports concerning southern Kyushu where the damage is most severe are given in greatest detail. It is asserted that the national government should take charge of the program to minimize damage by typhoons. 589. Ueda Kazuo.X1-A, "Moji-shi oyama kuzure ni okeru hokaigen no seikaku: bosai toshi keikaku no kiso to shite btt, i 9 AR t 3 _-Tgff th4 L (A study of the landslides in Moji City in 1953: as a phase of city p anning for the prevention of disasters)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 9, 355-365. In 1953 there were more than 600 large scale landslides accompanied by floods in the Kiku Peninsula of North Kyushu, the damage being concentrated in Moji City. The author makes a detailed survey of the destroyed areas and tries to explain the causes of the catastrophe mainly in its relation to land inclination and vegetation. J. Oceanography 590. Aramaki Makoto t A and Suzuki Takasuke 5 "Kaihin taisekibutsu no bumpu keiko kara mita Sagami-wan no hyosa ni tsuite 0A\ i X $ fif 4fi W7 t} (The prevailing direction and mechanism of beach drift inferred from beach sediments along the Sagami Bay coast)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 35 (1962), no. 1, 17-34. From the distribution of size of grain of beach deposits, it is seen that the coastal drift is predominantly towards the east. Size analysis of beach deposits yields different figures according to the kinds of rocks. On the Nanko coast to the east of the Sagami River, extremely flat gravel is predominant. This is explained by the refraction of waves affected by the existence of the islands. 591. Fukuoka Jiro X ]t I., "Kaiky5 no hendo: tokun nihonkinkai no kaiteichikei to kairyu no kankei ^ A-* Em -) At l y ~, (Variations in oceanic conditions: especially in the relation between ocean current and bottom topography in the sea adjacent to Japan)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 343-352.

Page  94 94 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY Cold water masses appear off the southern coast of Honshu, primarily off the Enshunada and the Kii Peninsulas. There is an isolated warm water mass in the Sea of Japan. The reasons for the appearance of these water masses are analyzed in relation to submarine topography. The fact that there are disturbances of the ocean currents which precede the appearance of cold water masses, and that submarine ridges are also related is confirmed. It is postulated that the occurance of the warm water mass in the Sea of Japan is related to submarine ridges but there is not sufficient data to confirm this 592. Iseki Hirotaro t " ihon shuen no rikuho to chusekito kiteimen to no kankei ni tsuite Ac-zivV C ib, l ii't t (The relation between the continental shelf and the base-level of alluvium)," Nagoya Daigaku Bungakubu kenkyu ronshu 14, (Shigaku 5), 1956, 85-102. From the results of borings it was apparent that in the early part of the alluvial age, the surface of deposit of alluvial fans was more widely spread than it is now in accordance with the lower level of the sea surface. If one extends the dip of this deposit towards the sea, it coincides with the level of flat surface of the sea bottom 100-120 m. deep. Accordingly, it is presumed that the sea level at that time was at a level between the flat sea bottom and the surface of the deposit of old fans. In Echigo Plain, the surface is located 30-60m. lower than in other regions, due to the later crustal movement. 593. Iwabuchi Yoshio j g f$|, "Kaiko-heki ni tsuite: Chishima kaiko o rei to shite g -. ---4V? - 01vj>4t (On marine trench walls: with special reference to the Chishima Trench)," Kaiyo chishitsu, v. 2 (1963), no. 1, 1-7. On the wall of the Chishima Trench there is a low relief surface with a breadth of about 10 miles at a depth of 7,000 m.; there is also another gentle slope at a depth of 8,000 m. Other examples of such landforms are reported from marine trenches in various parts of the world. 594. Kosugi Ke zo 4\2%) / _, "Hokkaido, Rumoi engan no kaihinsa ni tsuite A ^j,^I^',J^ ~ US yf\ ~7', -vwz (On the analysis of beach sands along the Rumoi Coast of Hokkaido)," Tohoku chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 2, 54-59. Analysis methods of beach sand are studied in order to explain the origin of coastal terraces. Samples were collected from twenty-six places on the beach at Rumoi on the Japan seacoast of Hokkaido at high and low tides. According to the analysis of grain size, roundness, and classification by A. Cailleux's method, a distinction can be made in fluvial and marine origin of sand and finer material. Cailleux's method proves very effective in making distinctions between fluvial, marine and windswept origins. 595. Masuzawa Jotaro ), "Saikin no kuroshio no kenkyu jt jMf _ (Recent research in the Kuroshio current), ' Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kiken chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 354-364. Observation of the Kuroshio current, particularly since 1950, has been carried on by the Meterological Bureau, the Hydrological Survey and ol er institutions. In 1954-59 a routine survey of the Kuroshio was carried out. anus, much new information has been obtained concerning the Kuroshio. The Kuroshio resembles the Gulf stream in many ways, but such a phenomenon as the meandering of the current observed off the Enshunada in 1953-55 is not known there. Little is known also about the change of the Kuroshio from a narrow strong stream to a widespread weak stream. The axis of the current oscillated from north to south with a cycle of 4-5 years; it is supposed that this oscillation is related to changes in the air temperature in Tohoku. 596. Mino (Ishikawa) Yokichi - Machida Tadashi Aramaki Makoto j, and Yamauchi Hideo, "Nii]gata kaigan no kaihin taisekib ts' kara mita enganryu no takuetsu hoko ni tsuitet ' t " S t; X1 (Physio-geographical studies on the littoral drift along the Niigata Coast)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 7 (1963), 1-22. For the length of 140 km. along the Niigata coast, the size and shape of sand grains and the mineral composition of coastal deposits are studied. From an analysis of the sand it is concluded that coastal drifts that deposited the sand were not of a prevailing direction but that they sometimes flow to the north and sometimes to the south in different areas of the coast. The result of the coastal drift survey gave the same conclusion concerning directional flow. 597. Mogi Akio Pr, "Kaigan oyobi kaitei no rizumikku patan tsuite Al i h ) ^)), K y U7 }Y $-v~/ -7,v (Rhythmic landforms seen in the beach area and offshore sea bottom),"

Page  95 OCEANOGRAPHY 95 Tohoku chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 3, 79-84. There are common features in the rhythmic patterns of various scales, such as the sand and waves and ripple marks on the sea bottom, the undulations of the coastline and so on. In the mechanism of the making of such features, there are no fundamental differences. It is assumed that such features are caused by the meandering current of the sea water, whose effect works in the cross section vertical to the sea bottom in one case, and in the cross section horizontal to the shoreline in the other. 598. Mogi Akio ~A/y%, "Nihon kinkai no kaitei chikei 1V:-,/ X (Submarine topography of the adjacent seas of the Japanese Islands)," Nihon kaiyogakkai shi, 1962, Nihon Kaiyo Gakkai soritsu nijis shunen rombunshu, 52-63. Due to recent advances in survey technics, many new findings have been made in oceanography. The more important of these are summarized here. The relations between sand bars, wave heights, and bottom inclinations are discussed. Also discussed are changes in bottom configurations due to tsunami; submarine terraces of -10 m., -30-50 m. and 100-150 m.; submarine trenches; and the relation between the sea level of the early alluvial transgression and the marginal plains of the continental shelf. 599. Mogi Akio h of~, "Noto oki no kaitei chikei W~: ~ M I E (Submarine topography off Noto Peninsula)," Tohoku chiri, v. 9 (1956), no. 2, 43-46. The northern coast of the Noto Peninsula is considered a fault coast, and unlike the eastern coast, a wide continental shelf extends to the north of this coast. There are three submarine terraces, their depths being -20-30 m., and submarine filled-valleys across the terraces, and on the -80-100 m. terrace, there is a landform which is supposed to be a drowned delta. Apparently these landforms were formed at the time of the low sea level of the ice age. 600. Mogi Akio ^ or e #f, "Tohoku chiho no kalhin-gata ni tsuite ~ ~-' b -7 ) -V^ (Shore types of the Tohoku Region)," Tohoku chiri, v. 12 (1900), no. 4, 103-114. Mogi considers that for the classification of sandy coasts it is necessary to take into account not only surface forms but also bottom configurations, and for this purpose the coasts of Tohoku are used as examples. According to cross sections of the coasts of up to a depth of 10 m., remarkable differences are found between the Pacific and the Sea of Japan coasts. There are several rows of off-shore bars along the coast of the Sea of Japan, while there is only one row along the Pacific. Generally speaking, the relative heights of the bars are smaller when the slope of the bottom is gentler. When the slopes of the sea bottom are about same the off-shore bars along the Sea of Japan have large relative heights and breadths, suggesting that the types of breakers have much to do with the scale of off-shore bars. 601. Mogi AkioI g, "Tokai-mura engan no chikei henka ni tusite I ^ ^^T)y^^)^, V (On the topographic change ofthe beach of Tokai Village ton the Pacific Coast of the Kanto Region] Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 8, 393-411. There are two kinds of periodicity in the shape of coast lines. One has a cycle the same as that of cusps, and the other has a larger cycle. The former influences the shape of individual sand bars, and the latter determines the series of bars. 602. Mogi Akio % 2 i A, "Tsugaru kaikyo seibu no kaitei chikei V g OX ^ 9 > 0 IV (Submarine topography of tne western part of Tsugaru Strait)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1950), no. 1, 15-23. In drawing up plans for a submarine tunnel across Tsugaru Strait, a detailed survey of the strait bottom was made. Using the data of the survey, Mogi discusses submarine topography. The surface of the continental shelf in the western part of the strait is correlated to the level of an upper marine terrace on the western coast of the Oshima Peninsula. This level is continuous with the upper terrace on the west coast of the Tsugaru peninsula. A marked upheaval is observed in the western part of the Oshima peninsula and the warping still continues. Hokkaido was still separated from the main island by faulting and erosion, and the flat sea bottom 25-50 m. below the surface was formed in the early part of the alluvial period. 603. Mogi Akio I and Horii Takashiga 4X0 4, "Sagami-wan hokuseibu no kaiteikoku-gun 4K zg) If 3 ^ 'f (Submarine valleys in the northwestern part of Sagami Bay)," Kayo chishitsu, v. 1 (1963), no. 2, 16-22. There are numerous submarine valleys in the northern part of Sagami Bay. They are located at a depth of 30 to 3000 m. and are ranged about 200 m. apart. There are several dozen of them, while there are only a few corresponding valleys on land.

Page  96 96 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY The relative depths of the valleys are 20-60 m. at their tops and about 20 m. in their lower parts. Bottom sediments are mostly sand and mud. It is unlikely that they are submerged valleys but are assumed to oe delta front valleys. 604. Mogi Akio 'tA 1 and Iwabuchi Yoshio i "Joban oki niarabi ni Kashimanada rikudana no kaitei chikei to teis itsu 4 1 1$; a j% XX c ^ -t ~(Submarine topography and sediments on the continental shelves along the coasts of Joban and Kashimanada)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 3, 159-178. The submarine topography of the entire coast from north of the river mouth of the Tone to Sendai bay is surveyed by the Japanese Coastal Survey. According to the data, the continental shelf along this coast may be classified into four surfaces, with the depths of 20 m., 25-50 m., 40-60 m., and 100-140 m. The 20 m. level is very narrow but flat, and is still developing in its relationship to the present sea level. The 25-50 m. level is on the average about 10 km. wide, and is cut by many distinct submarine valleys. A 40-60 m. surface makes a narrow belt along the end of these submarine valleys and is covered with sediments of coarse material. 605. Nakayama Masatami A k j — V, "Kumanoura kaigan ni okeru kaihin taisekibutsu ni tsuite tt 4 4t )- V A s (The study'oI beach sediments along the Kumanoura Beach, Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 35 (1962), no. 12, 605-617. The differences in shape and size of beach gravel along the coast of Kumano in Mie Prefecture are studied in order to make a comparison with similar changes in gravel which has been transported by rivers. The general trend of the change in shape is seen when the diameter is over 8 mm. it tends to be round. Larger gravel settled on the beach is worn down from the polishing of the waves and sand. The waves carry round gravel to the beach, and when the waves move along the beach they deposit flat gravel, resulting in a selection of gravel of different diameters. 606. Suda Kanji ' 0 nj1V2, Kaiyogaku tsuron I? bt (General oceanography), Kokon Shoin, 1962, 284 pp. There are four chapters in this general text of oceanography: configuration of the oceans, the nature of sea water, movements of sea water, and the ocean and human life. In addition to being a general text-book of oceanography, there are abundant references to Japanese oceanography, including recent development of research and survey instruments. 607. Tada Fumio /? )C _ and Ishida Ryujir$5,I 1 ^h, ed., Kaiyo to rikusui no cnirin 4 (Geography of the ocean and groundwater) [=v. 5 of Kawade Shobo's Gendai chiri koza (entry 68), Tokyo, Kawade Shobo, 1956, 316 pp. After general discussion of physical oceanography and hydrology, biological and economic aspects of the ocean are discussed. Topics cover the limnology, production in the lakes, aquiculture, changes in fishing villages (taking examples from villagesin Boso Peninsula), etc. There are discussions of the reclamation of swampy areas along the river bed of the watarase, changes in the river bed and its relation to irrigation, ground water and settlements in the Musashino Upland, etc. 60B. Wadachi Kiyoo V, ' _, ed., Kaiyo no jiten.- f ) (A dictionary of the ocean), Tokyo, Tokyodo, 1960, 671 pp. Scientific knowledge of the ocean is collected from many related fields, such as physics, chemistry, biology, geology, meteorology, etc. Recent development of oceanology is well adopted. Recent increase of knowledge on the marine areas adjacent to Japan is especially well represented. 609. Yoshikawa Torao a 1 J ~ and Saito Mitsunori ~,(i 1. "Boso-hanto nangan Chikura-ko fuKin no kaigan narabini kaitei no chikei X I X R > t 4-A s 1.k l I-, ^^~ - (Topography of the shallow sea floor in the vicinity of Chikura Harbour 6i the southeastern coast of Boso Peninsula, on the Pacific Coast of Japan)," Tokyo Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu, no. 3, (1954), 40-50. Geomorphological changes since the alluvial age are explained, and the relation between the lower alluvial deposit and bottom topography is clarified. The flat bottom surface, 10-15 m. deep, is under making. The lower alluvial bluish-gray silt layer is cut by the present sea level. The slope below the indistinct boundary at -15 m. is the continuation of the lower alluvial deposit found on the land. The existence of a thin gravel layer covering the silt layer at a depth of 25 m. suggests that there was a period of suspension during the late lluvial regression. K. Limnology

Page  97 LIMNOLOGY 97 610. Arai Tadashi f and Horiuchi Sei ii, "Tagokura chosuichi no suion kozo ni tsuite 'W:t _t 'i& s-ov\ (On the thermal structure of the Tagokura Reservoir)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), 590-601. Since the construction of large scale reservoirs, the influence of lowered water temperature on rice fields irrigated by the water is becoming a serious problem. Observation of the distribution of water temperature in an artificial reservoir revealed layers of marked thermocline above and below the inflow layer and near the intake. It is difficult to estimate the water temperature from data on natural lakes because the vertical turbulence in an artificial lake is much greater than in a natural lake. 611. Horiuchi Seiji ' "Nihon no mizuumi no suion-seiso no koshogakuteki kenkyu J^ o d)} 2J M ) k '1f{(. (A limnological study on thermal stratification of lakes in Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 7, 374-384. The depth of thermocline is observed in twenty lakes in Japan. According to the survey of lakes Biwa, Kizaki, Saiko, and Kuttara, the depths of thermocline are influenced by turbulence caused by the wind. 612. Horiuchi Seiji,it 9 "Shizenko oyobi jinzoko ni okeru shodo ni tsuite 'Q^[i 'j, [}j - (On under water illuminations in lakes and reservoirs)," Sogo kaiyokagaku, no. 4 (1962), 99-110. This is a comparative study of the physical nature of water in natural and artificial lakes, in terms of suspending materials, water temperature, and velocity of water movements. In artificial lakes, the distribution is influenced by horizontal movement of water due to the inflow, while in natural lakes there is little horizontal movement and the water is more stratified and stable. 613. Horiuchi Seiji )^~, Abe Yoshinari ~f~~, and Ohata Hiroshi 1]) )Si, "Gyogun tanchiki ni yoru Kizaki-ko no kobon chosa j, fno f140% ) ^s-vF 7d ^\ Afij~zv' h(On the limnological research by echo sounding instruments in Lake Kizaki)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 72 (1963), no. 3, 126-130. Bottom configuration of Kizaki Lake, Nagano Prefecture, was surveyed using echo sounding instruments. Compared to the result obtained by plumbing thirty years ago, much improved information was obtained. The deepest part is -30.3 m. and the area encircled by -25 m. isobath forms a third of the lake bottom. Thiere are two terraces at the depths of 2.5-3 m. and 12-15 m. Existence of an off-shore current is assumed from the disproportionate development of deltas. 614. Inoue Yoshimitsu ~ ( X, "Yamanakako no suishitsu no shunen henka A4~ dn) AKtet fo WV4t (Annual change of the quality of the water of Yamanaka Lake [Yamanashi Prefecture])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 5, 292-303. Limnological studies of Lake Yamanaka have been carried on for a long time but most of the observations have been made in summer. From round-the-year observations, many aspects of this lake are now clarified. Data is obtained for the annual changes of water temperature, PH and 02 contents. Correlations are analyzed between stratification and the prevailing wind, air and water temperature, water temperature and PH contents, and water temperature and 02 contents. 615. Nagasawa Mikio ~ JX, "Osaka-fu Sayama-ike no suishitsu no kisetsu henka ~f ~ 2 Ad (Seasonal variations of water properties of the Sayama pond, Osaka Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 7, 579-592. Sayama-ike, Osaka Prefecture, is one of the most ancient ponds used for irrigation in Japan. For every meter of depth, observations on water temperature, transparency, PH, chemical and organic components were made. Based on the data of seasonal changes of such elements, it is concluded that Sayama-ike is a typical example of trophical lakes in lowland areas. 616. Saijo Yatsuka jSS ~~, Kosho chosaho A v x j (Survey method of limnology), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1957, 306 pp. This work is a general text covering geomorphological, chemical and biological limnology. A table of information on natural and man-made lakes in Japan is. attached. 617. Saijo Yatsuka X* \$, "Kotei taisekibutsu no kenkyu WI ffi~A 40 @5 t (Studies on lake deposits [(3) On the stratification of deposits in Lake Chuzenji, Nikko, Tochigi Prefecture])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 4, 253-258. In 1952 a core sampling of bottom deposits was taken at Lake Chuzenji. The upper 10 cm. of the core consists of black ooze with high contents of sulphate and organic matter. Within it, there are four layers of inorganic deposits, gray brown or red brown in color. The origin of these layers is deduced to natural phenomena such as

Page  98 98 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY landslides and volcanic eruptions. For three of the four, approximate dates are assumed 618. Saijo Yatsuka i1i, Tsujimoto Akira 4 le, Ichimura Toshihide ^ X, and Takada Kasuo J 1,E "Kotei taisekibutsu no kenkyu: Ibaraki-ken Nakanuma no shinsei chindenbutsu i| LA- ~ t~. (Studies on lake deposits:seasonal variation of deposits in Nakanuma, Ibaraki Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 2, 69-76. Nakanuma is a small lake in the southern part of Ibaraki Prefecture. The lake was formed in 1910 by a flood of the Kogai River. Its 13 m. depth makes it one of the deepest lakes in Kanto. The author made a continuous samnling of the bottom deposits for a year. The changes of the deposits in quantity and in components, especially in organic nitrogen and carbon, are measured. Diatoms make up an important part of the deposits, and there are seasonal changes in the amount and the proportion of the deposits. 619. Suzuki Shizuo, Nihon no kosho ^g VI i i (Lakes of Japan), Tokyo, Uchida Rokakuho Shinsha, 1963, 240 pp. This is an introductory text to Japanese limnology. Contents cover the configuration of lake basins, the physical and chemical nature of the water, and biological limnology. Biological information is especially detailed, a summary of the author's extended research. 620. Yoshida Yoshinobu "Y, onezawa-bonchi no Oyachi A^-^^A^m (Oyachi in the Yonezawa Basin [Yamagata prefecture]),' Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (!195)), no. 2, 75-84. Oyachi is a swamp in the northeastern corner of the Yonezawa Basin. 'The author points out that this is a semi-floatinf peat land. iie measures the thickness of the peat layers and the denth of mud layers, and clarifies the configuration of the swamp basin.

Historical and Cultural Geography


pp. 99-142

Page  99 HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY 99 CHAPTER IX HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY Modern geography in Japan, as elsewhere mentioned, derives from two initial sourcesgeology and history. The inheritance from geology has been the stronger force but the historical approach has also been highly significant. Published studies in historical geography are relatively quite numerous. Many of them are of very high quality. Others are but poor attempts to give a geographical slant to already published historical studies. In this bibliography, a rather large proportion of the best studies in historical geography has been included, not only because of the high quality of the studies but also because of the poor availability of the original documents and the difficulty of handling them. Settlement studies make up another important development in Japanese geography and one which has attracted a persistent interest since the middle 1920's. Both in morphology and genesis, rural settlement in Japan has been worked out in considerable detail. Most authors have considered both phases in their publications. Urban studies are much less well developed. In general, other aspects of cultural geography have been relatively neglected. In political geography, much that has been published is geopolitics in an extreme form. The work in linguistic geography has been done mostly by linguists and lacks a true geographical flavor. Much the same can be said of other cultural fields- the main contributions have been made by other than geographers and so are not entirely satisfying to the geographer. The boundary between cultural and economic geography must be drawn arbitrarily. The problem has been partially overcome here by cross indexing. The basic problem, however, is that an inordinately large proportion of Japanese geographical publication is made up of general, intensive studies of small areas in which all geographical aspects are considered and integrated. The number of studies covering all Japan is extremely small. Fewer still are those studies pertaining to areas outside of Japan. The reason often given for this dominance of small area studies is that Japanese culture is very complex. This, however, does nothing to explain the situation. A. Historical geology 621. Asai Jihei I vf,f "Qigawa o chushin to shita kotsuro no hensen _A )k +t)\tZ rj- ~ I > 6 A(Changes of traffic routes in the environs of the Oi River)," Chirigaku yoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 1, 68-78. In the Edo period the Tokugawa government put severe restrictions on the building of bridges and on the use of river boats on the Oigawa. Passengers therefore, gradually came to use detours over the passes in the steep mountains to the north. Since the Meiji Restoration when the retrictions were removed, traffic by river boats developed rapidly across the lower part, but soon declined due to the competition of trains and automobiles. 622. Asake Yukio yA t, "Kinseiki ni okeru Okitsugawa (Suru a no kuni) karyu chiiki no sonraku no hattatsu A t 1 } Avi ) ^ 9 J ^ s (Dev.J.opment of villagesalong the lower course of the Okitsu River (Suruga Province) in the Edo period)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 6 (1962), 152-178. From the comparison of two communities in Okitsu (today a part of Shimizu, Shizuoka Prefecture), some factors are pointed out as having influenced the growth of villages. In territories of hatamoto, the burden of taxes was lighter than elsewhere, but villages along the Tokaido enjoyed better chances for cash income from travelers. 623. Asaka Yukio ^,' i, "Kinseiki ni okeru Wakiokan shukubamachi no hattatsu Atfl/4; A d, - - (Development of Shukubamachi along Waki-okan in the Edo era)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 2 (1958), 147-204. In 1601, the feudal government officially appointed five highways. These were the main highways with Edo as their center, and many shukubamachi, the stage towns, developed along them. As the time went on and as the traffic on the highways increased, some secondary highways developed; these were called waki-okan. Using old documents, Asaka analyzes the characteristics of stage towns which developed along the waki-okan. On waki-okan the transportation of merchandise was more important than passengers. Towns formerly of a semi-farming nature grew.more and more specialized as stage towns and became known as centers of trade and handiwork.

Page  100 100 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 624. Asaka Yukio by t T Ih4, "Kokufu no ichi to Sagami kokufu no sansen C 1 1)40 (Location of kokufu [the capitals of ancient provinces] and the movements of the kokufu pf Sagami)," Rekishi chirigaku kiyo, no. 2 (1960), 47-58. Generally speaking, the location of the capital in ancient provinces is either near the center of the province or the nearest place to Kyoto within the province. The kokufu of Sagami Province moved from Ebina in the eastern part of the province to Higita and again to Kokufu (now Oiso). The changes were due to the progress of land reclamation from east to west. 625. Ebato Akira jL / ], "Meiji zenki no jinushisei to sangyo shihon ~V (The landlord system and industrial capital in the early Meiji era),' Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 1, 10-26. Statistical and regional analyses of the landlord system and industrial capital in the 1880's became possible when reliable statistics became available. In this work, as an index for the former, the ratio of tenant farmers is used; for the latter, the number of factories is used. Manufacturing did not develop in areas where the landlord system was strong. The latter was strong in rice producing areas where land productivity was relatively high. In areas of unirrigated field crops where commerical economy permeated, manufacturing grew. In spite of former theories in which the landlord system and industrial captial are associated, Ebato represents different aspects of the dissolution of the agricultural population. 626 Ebato Akira y, t "Sanshigyo chiiki no shiteki bunseki* ) ~ i o, (Historical analys s of sericultural regions)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 3, 139-159. It is generally accepted that the typical class differentiation of the farming population took place in the form of dissolution of the farming population into landowners and tenant farmers, reflecting individual regional characteristics of various agricultural areas. However, based on his research in sericulture regions in Nagano, Gumma, Fukushima and Yamanshi prefectures, Ebato points out that there existed a period in which class differentiation took a rather differen path, favored by the profitability of sericulture. The farming of commerical crops absorbed the surplus population in rice farming areas. The rapid growth of the manufacturing industry, however, soon stunted this development. 627. Fujioka Kenjiro "', Kokufu kenkyu ni okeru rekishi chiriteki kadai ni tsuite g'x I, xr<t x^ -v< (Some problems on the kokufu- ancient Japanese cities: from the viewpoint of historical geography)," Chirigaku-Tyr-on, v. 30 (1957), no. 8, 633-652. Kokufu are the capitals of the ancient kuni, or provinces, of seventh century Japan. They were not only center of administration but also centers of military affairs and communication; details about them, however, are not known. Selected examples of kokufu are studied on the basis of historical documents, remaining place names, minor landforms etc. The shapes and scale of some of the kokufu are thus identified, and their relation to the jori system is also discussed. 628. Fujioka Kenjiro ~'X., "Nihon ni okeru toshi bumpu to ritchi no hensen o titLo f4i~_ A t&ji _ Aft_, (Change of distribution and location of cities in Japan), Toshi mondai, v. 48 (1957), no. 1, 55-63. This book provides a crude treatment of Japanese cities in three historical periods, ritsuryo, feudalistic, and modern times. The location of cities in the respective times is explained geographically; that is to say, their location within provinces. Cities developed after Japan's industrial revolution are described with reference to mining and manufacturing industries. 629. Fujioka Kenjiro * ' 1- 1, Sensi chiiki oyobi toshi iki no kenkyu: chirigaku ni okeru chiiki hensenshiteki kenkyu no tachiba [ TF. -7 - Ay S}%^^XS' T i te, 1955, J6 J ^%(Prehistorica areas and city areas), Kyoto, mnoten, 1955, 461 pp. This work is intended to analyze prehistoric areas from the distribution of relics and their natural conditions, taking examples in northern Europe and central Japan. The historical background of large, modern Japanese cities and the so-called areal structure of such cities are also discussed. In both cases the grasp of abstract concept is superficial. Some of the materials presented may be of use as reference materials to the understanding of Japanese cities. 630. Fujioka Kenjiro ~~ 'fi. Mizuno Tokiji 2t P-. Kioke Yoichi, y, Yamazaki Kin'ya D t, and Yamori Kasuhiko Rekishi chiri kyodo chir r A (Historical geography and Rekishi~ chr kyd chri ~. j ~

Page  101 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY 101 geography of the provinces), Tokyo, Taimeido, 1958, 330 pp. Chapter one discusses basic ideas of so-called historical geography and geography of the provinces. In Chapter two, historical geogrpahy is described, divided from prehistoric down to the industrial revolution. Historical geography and geography of the provinces are asserted to make separate yet closely related fields of geography. 631. Harasawa Bun'ya 4, ~ f ',, "Edo jidai ni okeru shukueki to wakimichi okan kotsu to no kankei ni tsuite v; i T )- 7V ' (A study on the relationship between post towns and byway traffic in the Edo period)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 5, 277-291. The highway system in the Edo period was remarkably well-developed. Priority was given to official use by the feudal government, and the stage offices were obligated to supply porter, horses and all necessary conveniences. As compensation they were allowed to handle ordinary passengers and goods. As long as the Edo government maintained its power, the system was efficient. However, with the decline of power and with the growth of a national economy, the obligation became a burden to the stage offices and they began to use illegal and unofficial bypasses resulting in conflicts between the two. One of many examples of such conflicts and suits described in the article is that of the frequently used Usui Pass. 632. Hattori Masayuki fY 7 &-, "Gun no seiritsu katei E 'A - ' (Processes of the formation of gun)," Jimbun chiri, v. 10 (1958), no. 1, 1-17. From the distribution of ancient administrative gun (kori), one can tell that they were divided uniformly and mechanically, with the exception of those in frontier areas. This means that gun were not a mechanical succession of former agata, as is often asserted, but are the product of the zeal for reform in breaking down the pre-Taika naturally developed regions. Gun were also made at a later time by the division of existing gun, by the collective immigration of naturalized Koreans, and from new development in frontier areas of northern Japan. The subdivision of the existing gun may be interpreted as the process of adjustment of political boundary to physical condition. 633. Inami Etsuji A. 4 "Kato-gawa sankakusu no hitaishoteki kaihatsu to sono gen'in U 3 )I ^ - )X V t (The process of reclamation of the Kakogawa Delta Plain)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 1, 1-14. The reclamation of waste-land made great progress at the end of the Middle Ages in Japan. This was due to the development of engineering and simultaneously to the guidance of able leaders. The Kakogawa Delta is an example of reclamation by means of the upland irrigation. In this delta, reclamation made partial progress. Inami has explained its development from the shifting of the river channels, which was caused by tilting of the land block. 634. Itakura Katsutaka., "Owarinokuni Tondanosho o rei to seru Nihon shoen no sonraku kozo go1A TA 0 m _1 fi 9Tt I (Tonda-no-sho in the fourteenth century)," Tohoku chiri, v. 5 (1952), no. 1, 29-35. Tonda-no-sho is located in what is now the southwestern suburbs of Nagoya. There is a map of this village prepared in 1338. The coast line in the map is a large scale embankmnet by which the village gained much reclaimed land. Houses shown on the map as pictograms indicated the houses of lower samurai who worked as middle men between the feudal government and peasants. 635. Kikuchi Toshio X 3t+]], "Kinsei zenki ni okeru Hirosakihan no sh_ bigyo hadachi to sono sonraku kosei: hanshi kaihatsu shinden dai ippo i-ML r ) 14, A i V )h A4^ ^ ^Ac t- of 0 43 4 l-,i k (Shinden settlements reclaimed by vassals in the Tsugaru Delta Plain in the early Edo period (Part I))," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 5, 193-202. Shinden are settlements and the cultivated fields originating from reclamation under the feudal system in the Edo period. They are usually classified according to the persons or bodies that presided over the reclamation. Unlike other parts of Japan, samurai of small fiefs started shinden in the Hirosaki feudal domain. The author proposes the addition of this type to the classification of shinden, from historical study of villages in which shinden obtained by reclamation are found. 636. Kikuchi Toshio X J m1X, "Kujukurihama ni okeru rinkai shuraku no hattatsu no rekishi chirigakuteki kenkyu jA7\. I ~ O 1^ ~ 9 ~ -i^3M 9 (A criticism of the former explanation of the movement of villages in the Kujukurihama coastal region)," Jimbun chiri, v. 11 (1959), no. 6, 485-498.

Page  102 102 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY In Kujukurihama, on the Pacific Coast of Chiba Prefecture, there are three rows of settlements. They are called respecitvely Oka, Shinden, and Naya settlements from inland to the coast. Hitherto the order has been considered the same as that of their development. Kikuchi asserts that Maya settlements are not the newest, but were coexistent with Oka settlements in the Edo period as storages of fishing gear. Both the Oka and Shinden settlements are farm villages, and the latter developed later in accordance with the natural advance of the coastline. 637. Kikuchi Toshio X aJ,a Shinden kaihatsu r f (Reclamation of shinden), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1958, 2 vols., 295 pp., 254 pp. Shinden are the cultivated fields reclaimed in the Edo period. The term also refers to villages originated in the reclamation. An extensive review is first made of previous research on this problem. Policies of Edo and local governments concerning the relcamation are compared, and two lines of technological trends are compared. Kikuchi then classifies the cases into reclamation of land in which irrigation was the main concern such as in diluvial upland, alluvial fans, and coastal sanddunes, and that of swamp land where drainage was the necessity such as in lakes, lagoons and coastal shallows. In Volume two, Kikuchi describes many examples of shinden villages, and presents his new system of classification, dividing Japan into three advanced areas and two backward areas of relcamation. 638. Kondo Tadashi aL, i, "Kishu no Kinsei ni okeru chiho gyosei kukaku no hensen to sonraku no bungo IK)l|ll)j.' -f A e. I, PII. - cf0 (Recent changes in administrative divisions and village consolidation in Nl Province)," Jimbun chiri, v. 9 (1957), no. 1, 1-16. Before 1619, Kii was under the Asano Clan, and at that time the sho was an administrative unit below gun and above mura. According to the land survey of Keicho, there was also kumi and ban as administrative units in addition to sho. After 1619 when Kii was transfered to the Tokugawa Clan, two or three of the former sho were combined to make kumi which included an average eighteen mura. There was an oshoya, as headman of a kumi, who was under control of the daikan, the magistrate of the gun. A mura headman was a shoya whose business was to collect the land tax. These mura are the oaza of today, and the sho are preserved as parishes of shrines in northern Kii. 639. _ Kondo Tadashi nLt '., "Kishu ni okeru hans i *on no son'iki no kokyo to shuraku kosei 11t)lI] X>4 ) 64 ^4 S4 _ (Area and structure of villages in feudal Vii Province)," Jimbun chiri, v. 11 (1959), no. 1, 16-26. The area and the yields of rice in Kii Province in the Edo period are compared with the results of the mura in the plains, smaller in area and larger in yield. Mura in those days consisted of several kona, as unit community. In the plains, a community usually consisted of a mura, while in the mountains separated kona were agglomerated to make a mura. 640. Matsumoto Toyotoshi 1gA t oka, "Jokamachi shokenron: Akinai Mono Hogen Rei o chushin to shite f ggtw. (The trade area of a castleown: the case of Kochi in Kochi Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 11, 593-605. The trade areas of castle towns in recent times consist of two elements- the trade area of towns originating in the feudal system, and the trade area of modern economic times. Since the nineteenth century, feudal elements have been decreasing, and aspects of a purely economic nature have been developing as the result of competition with other local central places. Such processes, with Kochi as an example, are described. 641. Matsumoto Toyotoshi S, "Kochizu ori mita Edo-jidai shoto ni okeru k'nsei joka machi no toshiiki no kozo -^Xl; r- bu ^ ^ ^f, 7f (The city structure of castle towns in the early Tokugawa period) Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 8, 652-665. Castle towns were founded or enlarged by feudal lords during the feudal period. They were planned cities and had common characteristics. However, the patterns of the city plans underwent several changes in the feudal era. Such changes are found on old maps of castle towns. Examples of several castle towns are given, and the changes within them are described. It is explained that the changes were inevitable due to the economic development of the cities in the period. 642. Matsumoto Toyotoshi?A $ t, "Naiwan kantaku shinden no rekishi cirigakuteki

Page  103 TISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY 103 kenkyu A f l tv t 0 1ff itf (A historicalgeographical s udy on the reclaimed rice fields in the vicinity of Kochi [Shikoku])," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 2, 65-77. In the lowland near Kochi the reclamation of coastal marsh has been carried on since the Middle Ages. Old to new reclaimed lands are arranged zonally along the sea coast. The characteristics of the villages differ according to the period of reclamation. In the Middle Ages, there were various types but the recent ones are more standardized. 643. Matsumoto Toyotoshi /Ax, "Taiko kenchi no ikkan to hite no 'Chosokabe kenchi' no sonraku ron: sono rekishi chiriteki kosatsu lf* 1- Ae A htr~ X X 04 1* * A - t f 0I)Wte5 t- (Historico-geographcial research on villages in the early modern age; based on materials taken from 'Chosokabe Kenchicho')," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 10, 601-613. There are two kinds of mura in the census records of the Tensho and Keicho eras: one is the mechanical succession of myo in medieval times and the other is a unit of land given by feudal lords as a share. In the Mononobe Valley, Tosa Province, the former type is found mainly in the upper valley and the latter in the plain. In myo-type villages, the medieval subordination of villagers to village heads persisted, while in the plains with high productivity, some of the landed farmers were able to obtain mura as their share. 644. Mitomo Kunigoro t, "Jomon jidai soki zenki no shuraku 4 )IX~~N A- (Settlements in the early Jomon period)," Jimbun chiri, v. 11 (1959), no. 1, 1-16. Houses in the early Jomon period consisted of sheds from which the hearths were separated..Well organized houses appeared after the middle Jomon period, but in the early Jomon period people lived migratory lives within limited areas. Settlements were located at the margins of uplands and on tops of hills, and they indicate collective living. From the plazas in the center of the settlements, the author assumes that a clan system had developed. 645. Mitomo Kunigoro -A, i -T, "Kanto-heiya no jori ~ t 9 f f ( Jori of the Kanto Plain)"" Saitama Daigaku kiyo, v. 8 (1959), 1-22. Remnants of the Jori system are scarce and indistinct in the Kanto Region. According to a study made from air-photos, detailed land-allotment maps, and old documents, such remnants may be classified into large scale developments around the ancient capitals of the provinces, and small scale ones on the river terraces in the middle reaches of the rivers. Directions of land divisions are mostly due N-S and E-W. Reconstruction of old divisions is hard as very few place names with the original numbering system are preserved. 646. Miura Tetsuo t, "Omono awa oyobi Babame-gawa hanrangen no shinden kaihatsu 44 4'1 8 ^ 8 1] & ' (The reclamation of "Shidnen" in the floodplains of the Omono and Babame Rivers in Akita Prefecture, northern Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 1, 35-44. From a study of the reclamation of the flood plains of the Omono and the Babame into rice fields, it is concluded that the following processes took place historically. 1. Revision of the river courses to stop the floods caused by meandering. 2. Drainage of marshes and swamps. 3. Drainage of lakes in the former river courses. 4. Digging of irrigation canals to supplement the shortage of water due to drainage, revision of courses, and the reclamation. 647. Mizutani Seizo 7g Al X -, "Kurumaishi':Kyoto san kaido ni okeru unso shisetsu no kosatsu ifia7 a 'ft 3 g ~tl ('Kurumaishi': transportation facilities along three highways in Kyoto)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 6, 483-493. Along the highways near Kyoto there often are found rocks called kuruma-ishi, wheel stones literally. They are oblique granite rocks with dents of truck wheels. These were used as pavement to facilitate vehicle transportation where the highways crossed clay-beds or swampy land in feudal days. It is concluded that the distribution of this pavement was very wide and that it had an important meaning in the traffic geography of the Edo period. 648. Mori Shikazo and Oda Takeoed. Ajia Shin-Tairiku Y A E fS (Asia and the New world) [= v. 2 of Asakura Shoten's Rekishi chiri k5za ( entry 65)], Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1958, 355 PP., 84 illus. A general outline of geography is given in respective historical periods. The description is detailed concerning East and Southeast Asia, but is very general in relation to other parts of the world, such as West and Central Asia, Africa, the

Page  104 104 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY Americas, and Oceania. 649. Mori Shikazo ~A -t and Oda Takeo -^ _ ' ed., Nippon f;t (Japan)[ = v. 3 of Asakura Shoten's Rekishi chiri koza (entry 65 )], Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1957, 376 pp., 90 illus. Articles on the historical geography of Japan are contributed by nine authors. The chapters are divided into prehistory, ancient, medieval, and modern times, the last mentioned covering the period until the end of the Edo Period. Historical background is especially important in an understanding of the human geography of Japan. 650. Mori Shikazo -, Oda Takeo Wo Ad ]i, ed., Soron Yoroppa ft *3-PV/x~_ _ (General and Europe) [ = v. 1 of Asakura Shoten's Rekishi chiri knza (entry '5)], Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1951, 396 pp., 93 illus. The section treating general historical geography includes discussions of the substance and history of this field. Following are articles on natural environment, such as the background of history, and brief comments on the origin and distribution of races. The historical geography of Europe is a general geography of Europe, including the Orient and Russia in ancient, medieval, and modern times. 651. Muramoto Tatsuo ~i -L1, "Kanto-heiya seibu no jori iseki )gt, f<) - (Some remnants of Jori found in western part of the Kanto Basin), Saitama Daigaku kiyo, v. 8 (1959), 23-34. In the Kanto Region the Jori system (allotments were mainly of the stripe type) was applied to every separate topographical surface such as a fan or terrace. However, since this area was a kind of frontier in the seventh century, the Jori system was not very strictly put into effect. From a study in the western part of Saitama Prefecture, it is found that the system has worked here on a minor scale. 652. Nagai Masataro J4 F a S }, "Tohoku chiho no okeru goshi shuraku ni tsuite el^ tP ^ T _ (On squire settlements in the Tohoku Region),"Chirigaku hyoron", v. 29 (1956), nos. 11 and 12, 689-699, 788-798. In the feudal domains of the frontier there was a social group of people called goshi. They lived in rural villages and maintained their status as samurai. They were the leaders in the villages, and their houses were larger than those of ordinary farmers. After Meiji many of them became large landowners. 653. Nagai Masataro -J 41 ) v, "Tohoku no gozoku zhuraku ni tsuite _JA ~^^^k %) VYt (On villages originating from the premises of local powerful families in the Tohoku Region),"Chigaku zasshi, v. 65 (1956), no. 4, 159-167. In the southern part of T5hoku, there is a characteristic type of settlement in which farm houses are built around a large house which is often surrounded by a moat or embankment. These settlements were originated from the mansions of powerful families going back to the Heian period. To these warriors who later becanme farmers belonged hereditary, serf-like farmers called the nago. 654. Nakamura Kichiji.,4 _ _y Sonraku kozo no shiteki bunseki- Iwateken Kemuriyama son 4l s (Historical analysis of village structure), Tokyo, Nihon Hyoronsha, 1956, 908 pp. The structure of villages is analyzed on the basis of economics and economic history. The field chosen is the villages in the -foot hills in the Tohoku Region. Main sections of this book deal with agricultural communities, land ownership and taxes, and circulation economy. Labor, irrigation, the use of forests, and the institutions within agricultural communities are described in detail. 655. Oda Takeo t,ed., Rekishi chiri nA^ II (Historical geography) L= v. 7 of Asakura Shoten's Shin-chi-_igaku koza], Tokyo Asakura Shoten, 1953, 281 pp. The contents are concerned mainly with the principles and methodology of historical geography. Nine authors contributed. Subdivided into prehistory, Western, Oriental, and Japanese history, the articles are mostly theoretical arguments not without duplication in other chapters. Emphasis is given to the historical geography of Japan, which covers about half of the volume. 656. Qita-ken Kyoiku Iinkai) A 74y, 5ita-ken bunkazai chosa hokoku dai sanshu A / f ^ _ (The third report on the cultural monument of Oita Prefecture), Oita, Oitaken Kyoiku Iinkai, 1955, 194 pp., 18 illus.

Page  105 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY 105 This is the report of an excavation on the northern coast of Beppu Bay of a prehistoric settlement from the early Jomon period. The relics are scattered on the brown clay soil of weathered tuff, covered by black volcanic ash. The tuff, being a water containing layer, has many springs along its upland margin. Some thirty relic sites of oval, circular, and square plans were discovered. It is presumed that the residents were hunters who settled there for a long period. The coastline at that time was farther to the south, and the vegetation was sparse forest and grassland. 657. Ono Hiroshi ~, m, "Nimmyo-sei-ka Shiwaku shoto ni okeru keizai kozo to sono hembo A it"( Z- 'o (The economic structure and its transformation in the Shiwaku Islands under the nimmyo system)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 7, 328-338. The Shiwaku Islands in the eastern part of the Inland Sea is today a poverty stricken area with scanty fishing and underdeveloped farming. The islanders have been recognized as excellent sailors, and in the early feudal days they were used by the govenrment as sailors under the nimmyo system. Under this system about 650 islanders were appointed as leaders of groups and were obliged to serve in sea transportation. This is a reason for the low development on industry in the islands today. 658. Ono Tadahiro ]] f at #fi, "Yayoi jidai no ikaku sonraku no shomondai ) ~t id^j\' ^' iSS^M tp it ^ S (Some problems on enclosed villages in the YLayoi age)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 6, 287-305. In the Yayoi age there were villages enclosed with moats and embankments, the type of which was not seen in the Jomon age. From the later Yayoi to the Haji ages this type decreased and disappeared. These enclosed villages originated as a device for self-defense in southern Korea in the second to the third century under Chinese influence. However, by the time the idea spread into northern Kyushu, its function of defense was lost. 659. Ono Tadahiro pit 5 - %- "Yayoi shiki shuraku no suichokuteki sen'i gensho ni kansuru jakkan no mondal tI 1 I3 I. Tq E (Some problems in the vertical migration of settlements in the Yayoi period)," Jimbun chiri, v. 10 (1958), no. 3, 173-190. In the Jomon period settlements were usually located in the uplands, but their location changed from the uplands to the coastal plains from the late Jomon period in accordance with the development of rice farming. In the Yayoi period they are found mostly in lowlands, but sometimes there is a stage in which the settlements remain in the uplands. This may be explained from existing political tension. 660. Saito Kokichi t ^%, "Oku Noto rinkaison no seitaigakuteki kenk u ) (1): Hanseika ni okeru rura: Jokomura o rei to shite Z k I; T 1 ) I Ki 0) 4 f: Y^1' A:: 4 f | Ut (An ecological study of a seaside village in the northern part of the_Noto Peninsula (1): Village life under the feudal system of the Tokugawa)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), nos. 7 and 8, 287-296. The Noto Peninsula jutting into the Sea of Japan was a remote area in the Edo period; it still remains backward. The author tries to analyze the geographical characteristics of the villages along the coast of this peninsula using historical documents. The main topics discussed here are farming, forestry, salt baking, and seasonal migration in these farm villages in feudal days. 661. Sakaguchi Yutaka o t3. and Sato Tatsuo 4~ ki, "Oita-ken Nyu daichi shutsudo no kyusekki no jidai ni tsuite A/ X1X8X f9 _^' ^ (The age of the early peleolithic artifacts found on the Nyu Upland, Qita Prefecture, northern Kyushu)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 35 (1962), no. 7, 295-309. In the Nyu Upland to the east of the city of Oita, paleolithic implements were excavated. The location is the second terrace, covered by breccia and clay more than 3 m. thick, and the surface layer is red soil. This red soil is inferred to be a product of the interglacial period, earlier than the development of the Aso caldera. 662. Suitsu Ichiro fKi, "Koaza no rekishi chirigaku ' ) t 02 A (Historical geography of the koaza [the cadastral units in the Japanese village])," Jimbun kenkyu. v. 8 (1957), no. 10, 1075-1096. The koaza is a subdivision of the oaza or the mura of the Edo period. Its size is usually 1-2 ha. The origin of the koaza is very ancient; supposedly it was an area in which the production of food for a family was undertaken, comparable to the Hufe of the Germanic people. The unit of ippitsu meant an area for a man's daily work like the German Morgen.

Page  106 106 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 663. Suitsu Ichiro fK. v "Koaza no rek shi-chirigaku: kiso-chiiki no kosei yoso to shite no koaza ) 0)o Sa~T- t By^c ~ I 0 ~4, (Historical geography of koa2a)m" Jimmon Kenkyu, v. 8 (1957), no. 10, 1075-1096. The size of a koaza in the Kinki and Hokuriku Regions is predominantly 1-2 cho. This is not because of the influence of the jori system, but because one cho had been an adequate rice field area to maintain a family before Taika reform of the Eighth Century. 664. Takashige Susumu SX L _t, "Chusei noson no fukugen If 4_ '^X (Medieval farm villages)," Shigaku kenkyu, no. 73 (1959), 1-21. From the Bitchu Kayaguri Hattorigo map, the jori system of the mediaeval villages in that district is recontructed and is compared with present aspects. There are 181 myo shown on the map, and some of the myo have more than twenty cho of farmland, while 31% of the myo have less than 0.3 cho. This shows the stage in which farm villages in ancient times collapse into medieval villages. The excessively large myo were formed through the dissolution of medium villages. 665. Tanaka Toyoji JYU ~ "Kinsei Oki ni okeru shogyo shihon no hattatsu to tosho keizai no tenkai a, 1.~ ' ' k*to 1 r-A*t (The development of commercial capital and the island economy of Oki in the Tokugawa period)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 1, 14-27. The islands of Oki had been isolated from the development of a national economy and were under a self-subsistent economy. In the later part of the Edo period, the ports in Oki became the ports of call for the boats of the west-bound ship route. Thus, the islands became included in the economy of the nation, an inclusion which caused the island economy to develop into a more diversified industrial structure. 666. Tanaka Toyoji ) t V, "Kinsei Oki no sonraku shakai kozo ~~~, 9^ 4^-'~ZI_ (Structure of the village society of Oki Island in modern times)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 5, 280-292. Villages developed along the coast in the Jomon period in the inland areas from late Yayoi times; during the Middle Ages the manor system with crop rotation and common use of privately owned fields developed. After the Middle Ages the feudalistic village system was established with its class-divided self-subsistent economy. Permeation of commercial capital into the island economy took place at the end of the feudal period and helped dissolve the class system, a system which is today further disorganized by wide-spread seasonal migration. 667. Tanioka Takeo X, Heiya no chiri n. 0 ff (Geography of the plains), okyo, Kokon Shoin, 1962, 2 2 pp. The historical background of the development of Japanese plains is described with frequent reference to old maps, old records, place names, as well as to archeological findings. The discussions on land systems and allotment of land are especially detailed. 668. Tanioka Takeo d Lg A, Heiya no kaihatsu - ^t g (Cultural development of the plains), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1964, 344 pp., 87 illus. Tanioka asserts that the plains were formed by physical and human agents. Therefore, historical geography is an indispensable approach to the analysis of the process of their formation and the development of their cultural-landscape. Following his former work "Geography of the Plains" Tanioka displays his historicogeographical studies of the Kinki district. 669. Tanioka Takeo / 2*ffi4, "Kinai no sonraku to kochi ko ci u3 A (Villages and arable land in Kinai)," Kinai rekishi chiri kenkyu, 1958, 135-157. In Kinai the average administrative unit includes 8.4 communities, or oaza. There are 120-130 households, of which 60 are farming households, and 25-42 cho of arable land in an oaza. These figures of a naturally developed village have not changed very much since the ancient days of jori, and this fact is attributed mainly to the unity of Buddhist and Shinto parishes which make up the villages. 670. Tanioka Takeo /5 "mi no,unmi no kun nukami-gun no jori to Koto heiya chubu no kaihatsu ')%1&rKf M t WK (The Jori system of Inugam, Omi Province, and the development of the Kanto Plain)," Jimbun chiri, v. 8 (1956), no. 5, 325-343. There are discrepancies among the directions of jori in Inugami and along the Tosando Highway. From maps drawn in the eighth century jori allotments are compared and the order of land development in this district is inferred.

Page  107 107 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY 671. Tanioka Takeo i.^ P $ and others "Todaiji-ryo Minuma-no-sho no rekishi chirigakuteki kenkyu a~rte 'j '. i o istorical-geographic search on the Minuma Manor of the Todaiji Temple)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958),no. 4, 191-205. From a pictogram prepared in 751 A.D.,a piece of temple land belonging to the Todaiji, the jori land allotment of Inugami-gun in Shiga Prefecture is reconstructed. An excavation was made at the spot where Minuma was located in the eighth century. A layer of black soil with relics of the Nara period was found under the present farm land and there are depressions in the ground which appear to indicate remnants similar to the jori system of Inugami-gun. Jori patterns observed on the surface today are not the same as those in all of Inugami-gun; the present surface patterns may result from a later readjustment after desolation from inundation. 672. Tanioka Takeo and Yamada Yasuhiko "Toban heiya (Kakogawa Akashigawa ryuiki) no jobo ni tusite "I,')JJ )1. /)^)'J~)i h'Z (Jori-type paddy fields in the easter Harima Plain: the drainage basin of the Kokogawa and Akashigawa)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), nos. 7 and 8, 275-286. Jori is a land system enforced in 652 A.D. In many parts of Japan its old patterns are reconfirmed by means of historical studies. In the Harima Plain in the western part of Hyogo Prefecture not much is known because of the scarcity of historical material but the authors contribute new information using place names and remnants of settlement landscape. They also discuss the relation between settlement types and landforms. 673. Tomioka Gihachi ), "Kinsei engyo no hatten katei ~~~ ~t S n^l (Development of the salt-making industry on the east coast of the Seto Inland Sea in the Edo period)," Jimbun chiri, v. 8 (1958), no. 3, 175-192. Salt fields in Japan were scattered all over the country, but in 1906 the government took over the industry and concentrated its production in the Inland Sea area. Today 90% of the salt is produced in this area. Even before the concentration this area, particularly its eastern part, was the most important salt producing area of the nation because of the warm climate, low precipitation, protextion and encouragement by feudal lords, and the use of the Inland Sea as a transportation route. 674. Tomioka Gihachi.. "Kinsei no nairiku toshi to kotsuro no mondai: Tobu Chugoku chiho no baai j'X 9) ^ L~PT;M/ t yj A9 (The problems of inland cities and traffic routes in the late Tokugawa era: the case of the eastern Chugoku district)," Chirigkau hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 8, 450-468. Tomioka analyzes the distribution and geographic character of transportation and traffic in the inland Chugoku Region at the end of the Tokugawa period, classifying them into the routes taken by the feudal lords in going to Edo to take up their period of residence, the routes of transportation for iron, copper, and salt. He then selects six castle towns in the inland area as centers of local administration and economy, and explains their structure and function. 675. Toyota Takeshi t, Nippon no hoken toshi p p. 2 (The feudal cities of Japan), Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1962, 303 pp., 2 illus. Since the majority, of present Japanese cities originated in the feudal period, Toyota's work on the history of feudal cities contains much information related to urban geography. This is a detailed history of Japanese cities from 15th to the 19th centuries. Eight chapters are the growth of cities in feudal domains, features of feudal cities, administrative systems of cities, commerce and industry in feudal cities, and disorganization of feudal cities. 676. Tsujimura Tar5o,Lt A If, ed., Chirigaku honshitsuron i i c ~ X__ (Theories on the subsistence oP geography)[= v. 2 of Asakura Shoten's Shin-chirigaku koza] Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1955, 340 pp. The contents are mainly the history of geographical thought in Europe. Geographical theories and books since the pre-Greek periods are discussed. After referring to the theories of Ritter, Peschel, Richthofen, etc., the trends and lineages of environmental theories, landscape theories, area studies, etc., are discussed. 677. Uchida Kan'ichi ") X ~ —, "Kamiogano mura no koko ni tsuite no rekishi chirigakuteki kenkyu y.A j,] - - \~-' ) 6 ' ^ * C- y Mt (A historical-geographical study on the population of Kamiogano, MusasEi Province)," Nippon Daigaku Bungakubu kenkyu nempo, v. 7 (1957), 203-226. Historical documents from the late Edo period of Kamiogano, a village at the eastern foot of the Kanto Mountains, are used for an analysis of the population. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, the number of households in this village in

Page  108 108 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY creased from 234 to 291 in spite of decreased population. This unusual increase of households is explained by the fact that temporary farm establishments in the mountains owned by neighboring farmers, were erroneously counted as households. 678. Ukita Tsuneyosi i "Edo- idai no Yamato:sonraku ni okeru kochi to mensaku v k ' % hi Xl S _ (Land use in the Nara Basin in the Tokugawa period)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no lo, 927-946. During the Edo period cotton was raised in many parts of Japan. Cotton raising in a village of the Yamato Basin is studied through the use of historical documents. Cotton was planted in rice fields as a part of crop rotation and was planted only on good land. 679. Watanabe Hisao ~ A~, "Chuko ni ok ru konden no rekishi chirigakuteki ichi kosatsu t I - a w e ~~~L - t (Historical geography of reclamation in the eighth century)," Jimbun chiri, v. 5 (1953), no. 3, 159-174. An existing map of Ina-no-sho attributed to the eighth century indicated reclaimed land. The reclamation was carried out in order to make a strategic base on the highway connecting Naniwa and Arima. Good fields comprise the core of the village which is surrounded by newly reclaimed land which in turn is bounded by waste land. 680. Wata abe Hisao ZI7 l, "Jori sei kigen ni kansuru ichi kosatsu X C X^ ]^ 3 Xi. 9 (A study on the origin of the jori land allotment system)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 61), no. 12, 631-649. Some of the jori allotments in Hyogo Prefecture do not follow the directions of the cardinal points perfectly. The magnet was introduced to Japan before the time of the jori system, and jori-like land division were made. From the declination of the magnetic pole the date of the division may be identified. According to this method, the jori-like land division in Hyogo Prefecture started in the third century and was most wide-spread in the fourth to fifth centuries. 681. Yamaguchi Daigaku Shimadagawa Iseki Gakujutsu Chosadan \T3 ) 1 t $t. himadagawa Suo Shimadagawa ryuiki no iseki chosa kenkyu hokoku X*l1 )m Xn^o9l Ok')N^ 1g\0>x X. g kt (Reports on the survey of prehistoric relics of Shimadagawa, _Yamaguchi Prefecture), Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi Daigaku Shimadagawa Iseki Gakujutsu Chosadan, 1955, 221 pp. There are many prehistoric relics in the drainage area of the Shimada River, Yamaguchi Prefecture, icnluding those from the Jomon, Yayoi, and kofun (ancient tombs) periods. After a reconnaissance of the distribution of the relics, the natural environment of the area in prehistoric times is analyzed. The fact that in the upper valley there was an earlier cultural development is explained by its relation to the development of alluvial land. The cultural influence of north Kyushu was weak in the Middle Yayoi period. In the Late Yayoi period the influence from Kinai extended. This area, as a whole, was a backward region in prehistoric times. 682. Yamazaki KinIya A t Av _, ed., Kinsei Kanto no rekishi chiri n AdX IY Ad'ff (Historical geography of Kanto in Modern times), Tokyo, Meigen Shobo, 1963, 156 pp. The changes in the characteristics of the Kanto Region in recent times are studied from an historical viewpoint. Main topics discussed are: inland water-ways, distribution of textile industries along the margin of the Kanto Plain, distribution of agriculture and manufacturing industries, changes in agricultural villages, and circulation economy in the cities. 683. Yamori Kazuhiko t, "Hikone han ni okeru chiho chigyo ni tsuite ff4 yfy^^ a ^^ }:)~-7VN Z (On the system of tribute collection in the Feudal Domain)," Jimbun chiri, v. 9 (1958), no. 6, 423-445. In the Edo period there were two ways to collect tribute from farmers and distribute it to the samurai. One was to store all of the rice in the store house of the feudal estate to which the samurai went directly to claim the rice; this system was called kurairichi. In the other, the samurai collected rice directly from the farmers; this was called kyuchi. When all the farmland in Hikone was realloted in 1645, the fields located near boundaries to other estates and those on the main highways were changed to the kurairichi system. Kyuchi were minutely divided, suggesting that the sharing of the loss from natural disasters and the preventing of a samurai establishing power on his alloted land were taken into consideration. 684., Yonekura Jiro X S _t, "Jori no kochiwari to Toro suiden ato ^E ^ fj ^y-^^Q g $ ff At(Jori land allotment and the ruin of rice fields at Toro),"

Page  109 POLmTCAL GEOGRAPHY 109 Rekishi chirigaku no shomondai, 1952, 12-19. At the smallest unit of jori an area of 60 x 60 ken is divided into ten fields. There are two types, namely 60 x 6 ken, and 30 x 12 ken, and there are arguments as to which type is older. Yonekura supports the theory that the latter type is older. This long allotment is suited to farming using animals; the introduction of animals into Japan started in the middle of the third century, and was widespread by the time of the Taika Reforms. Apparently this was the motive for the change to longer land allotment. 685. Yonekura Jiro *1 X - _, "Kokufu to jori 4 A ^ U(Capitals of ancient provices and jori)," Shigaku kenkyu, no. 57 (1954), 1-5. The street plans of the ancient capitals of Suo, Bitchu, Izumi, Wakasa, and Harima fit with the land divisions of the jori system in the respective provinces. No particular relation was found between the outer limits of the capitals and the boundaries of ri, 6 x 6 cho square. The location of the government buildings in the ancient capitals, however, is exactly at the crossing points of the ri boundaries. 686. Yonekura Jiro ) =, "Toa ni okeru hokakuJo jiwari no tenkai a' 4^^W^^^fi&l;_t T(The development of the grid pattern land project in eastern Asia)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 7, 529-548. Yonekura thinks that the grid-systems found in the settlements and cultivated fields in East Asia orignated from the field system developed in the densely populated alluvial plain of the lower Hwang-ho. After a general description of land systems in ancient China, the grid-systems in East Asia are described as a diffusion and derivation of the former. 687. Yonekura Jiro /!,- T, Toa no shuraku *V_3 JJ (Settlement geography of eastern sia), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1960, 372 pp. In part one the tradition of settlement study in the Orient is described from the standpoint of historical geogrpahy. In part two Japanese settlements in ancient and medieval times are handled with an emphasis on the reconstruction of original settlement systems from the existing landscape. Part three compares the settlements in the deltas of north and south. 688. Yonkeura Jiro ym a: _, "Yamashiro no jori to Heiankyo JA 4' AYA 1 by (Jori of Yamashiro and Heiankyo, the ancient capital of Kyoto)," Shirin, v. 39 (1956), no. 3, 203-211. Yonekura thinks that the city planning of ancient Kyoto was made on the basis of the jori system in Yamashiro Province, because the major boundaries of counties in Yamashiro Province were coincident with median lines in Kyoto. Like Heijokyo, the ancient capital of Nara, Heiankyo was planned upon the jori system; Heijokyo had been planned on jori with adjustment made to fit the basin where there was no obstruction from swamps. B. Political Geography 689. Ikeda Yoshiaki I e ^ I e Id "Seiji chiiki no riron to sono moshikiteki hyogen A'W)^ e) I jo (Political regions: theories and moel expre son)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 11, 1058-1065. Ikeda defines political regions as economic regions bounded by political boundaries. The development and changes in political regions are determined by three kinds of factors: fixed factors like land, resources and society; uniting factors like traffic, differentiation of production and enlargement of market; and separating factors such as political boundaries, economic policies and ideology. As models of political regions Ikeda explains the situation of India and other areas. 690. Iwata Kozo X N % $, Seiji chiri V S i t (Political geography), Tokyo, Teikoku Shoin, 1956, 324 pp. After general discussion on the nature and methods of political geography, the Japanese administrative system is discussed, comparing it with similar problems in the U.K., U.S.A., and U.S.S.R. In part two, problems such as nation, people, frontier etc. are described by country. 691. Kawaguchi Tei )} a d a g, "Choson gappei to noson t -4@44 1 X8 (Municipal amalgamation and agricultural villages)," Nogyo sogo kenkyu, v. 14 (1960), no. 1,1-27; v. 14 (196)), no. 4, 117-166; v. 15 (1961), no. 3, 35-77. As a result of the amalgamation program carried out in 1953-56, the number of shi increased from 285 to 555, machi decreased from 1970 to 1896, and mura decreased from 7640 to 1096. At present, an administrative unit consists of a large area in

Page  110 110 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY eluding urbanized and rural areas. The population consists of agricultural and non-agriculatural inhabitant. Of them, independent farmers and owners of enterprises hold control of municipal administration. Their interest is for the profit of their own districts, which thus conflicts with the interest of national economy upon which the amalgamtion was based. 692. Shimizu Keihachiro i, Sengo Nihon no senkyo no jittai, ' ^^i 0 (The true aspects of election in post-war Japan), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1958, 114 pp. The present electoral districts and quorum for the Lower House are based on the census of Novermber, 1945. The last thirteen years have been a period in which the changes of population were greater than in any former period. There were over 1.5 million repatriates, northward movement for new reclamation, and subsequent concentration in cities. If the quorum is to be revised on the basis of present distribution, the electoraldistricts with increasing population will gain more than forty seats, and those with stagnant population will lose about forty. 693. Shimiu Keihachiro _' if and Koibuchi Yoriko j1t;j )'1']J "Jinko no toshishuchu ni tomonau toshi to noson no seijiteki fukinko:Beikoku senkyo seido no mujun (Urban and rural political unbalance due to centralization of population in urban districts: contraditctions of electoral district systems in the U.S.A.)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 2, 82-96. As the quorum of electoral districts is based on the distribution of past population changes in the distribution bring many contradictions. Number of votes per diet member elected differ widely by region. Shimiu ooints out some of those contradictions observed in the United States, and discusses problems stemming from the unbalance. 694. Tanabe Hiroshi 0 L 1, "Shi-cho-son kibo no chiikiteki tokucho ffi a i i^ m ig Ie t n^ (Regional character of adminstrative units)," Jimbun chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 4, 46-69. Population and area are used as indicators of the scale of municipalities. In Japan the administrative system of dividing municipalities. In Japan the administrative system of dividing municipalities into shi, machi and mura was enacted in 1889. The Edo period system of mura and machi had previously been used. Therefore, conditions in 1884 and 1889 are compared in analyzing the changes. Population and the area of taxed land are averaged by gun in connection with the old mura and machi. There is a correlation between the average scale and the boundaries of former feudal domains. Until 1889, the analysis was made by gun and by prefecture. Concerning the area, the influence of landforms is observed. With respect to population, the scale becomes even greater as the result of amalgamation. 695. Yoshida Kokumi + t, "Makado no birin chitai o meguru Nambu Tsugaru ryohan no kyokai funso -4 r O A (Boundary disputes betweeen the Nambu and Tsugaru Cl as in anroun e rich forest zone of Makado)," Seiji chiri, v. 2 (1963), 75-89. The feudal clan of Nambu (present Iwate Prefecture), tried to develop the lumbering industry to solve financial difficulties, and started a long continued conflict with their neighbors, the clan of Tsugaru (present Aomori Prefecture), in the Shotoku era, 1711-1715. Forestry in Tsugaru had been well organized in comparison to Nambu. Nambu lost the suit before the Edo government, and they had to undergo a period of instability before they could reorganize their forestry. C. Population Geography 696. Cheng-siang Chen V at /, \ and Te-hsing Sun i,. /f "Taiwan no jinko bumpu to sono hensen A)\ O ~ A S,% A (Population distribution and changes in Taiwan, 1920-1956)," Chir galu hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 11, 644-654. The statistics used here are the results of 1905 and 1915 censuses, five national censuses during 1920-40, and the Post Census of 1956. Population density in Formosa is generally high in the well irrigated plains, and is low in regions of hills and mountains. Density per square kilometer is 750 in the plains, 330 in the hills and 25 n1 the mountains. Since 1920 there has been a rapid increase in population in the irrigated plains and cities, while the mountainous districts show little change. The proportion of urban population to the total population was about 14% in 1900, but it reached 44% in 1958.

Page  111 111 POPTTT,ATTON GEOGRAPHY 697. Ebato Akira jN- y 8 i, "Nogyo rodoryoku no ryushutsu to noka no datsunoka ' (Outmigration o labor from farming and farming households in changing to other occupations)," Chiri, v. 9 (1964), no. 7, 20-26. Since about 1955 Japanese agriculture has been undergoing a great change as the result of the rapid growth of the inational economy. The farming population is migrating, many farming households are involved in secooinary occupations, and mechanization of agriculture is progressively covering the labor shortage. The shift in population is the most fundamental problem, and Ebato tries to analyze it statistically. The growth of the national economy and raised wages for the workers in the lower age group are main factors of attraction to labor. In addition, Ebato stresses the importance of factors winhin farm villages 698. Endo Shokichi "Tokyo-to kindo toshi no tsukin jinko no dotai ni kanshite 4)t^ f) L `X (Recent trends in comutingo Tokyo from a satellite town)," Keizaigaku ronshu, v. 30 (1964), no.2, 64-71. Kashiwa, Chiba Prefecture, is becoming a satellite city of Tokyo. The commuting traffic of Kashiwas is analyzed and the city is divided a,.c(rdingly into seven districts. It is natural that the commuting is mostly to Tokyo. The proportion of commuters is high in districts recently developed as residential areas, and in those districts developed as real estate projects the percentage of commuters shows the same general pattern. In districts of a more agricultural character the ratio is lower and the destinations are within the city or areas adjacent to it. 699. Fujisawa Shigeki a a and Yamazumi Hajime j tn, "Jinko potensharu ni tsuite no ichi kosatsu A f v~ T )- -\^f. 0 - 5 (Some comments on population potential)," Jimbun chiri, v. 13 (1961), no. 1, 34-42. Methods are discussed which can be used to simplify claculations of diagrams for population potential. The authors classify twenty-five location based on relative positions to X, Y axes. Using this simplified method, potential maps are made for Osaka, Nara, and Yamanashi Prefectures. Potential maps classified by occupation are also made for population, and the effectiveness of this method is also pointed out. 700. Goda Eisaku v ' J it, "Engumi ni yoru Omishima no jinko ido ( r 1a r X ^ Av ^g Iti - (Migration caused by marriage in Omishima, Ehime Prefecture)," Chirigkau hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 10, 523-535. Migration is higher in areas with higher economic standards. The areas of outm;:_ri._.g and in-mnarriage are approximately the same, making a sphere of marriage. The age of migrants extends from 15 to 68 and the maximum rate is at the age of 21. The rate of out-migration is higher in age groups below 20, and in-migration is higher above 20. 701. Goda Eisaku J 1F, "Engumi ni yoru Sanuki toshi no jinko ido fj-4 -3 1^ f g 1/ T^^/\ -] 9 _ (Migration caused by marriage in cities and t'os in Sanuki Province)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 8, 355-398. Basic data used are reports of marriage recorded in eight major cities of Kagawa Prefecture. From the analysis of the data it is found that in Kagawa Prefecture immigration surpasses emigration, and that the larger the cities are the higher the ratio of immigration. Cities of Kagawa Prefecture, on the whole, receive population from the countryside and lose population to the large cities of neighboring districts. 702. Goda Eisaku a? I'^, "Nihn ni okeru tsukonken no shokenkvu to chirigakuteki no mondaiten |l ',Z A 2: ii W (Studies relating to marriage in Japan and geographical problems), Kag wa Gakugei Daigaku kenkyu hokoku, no. 12 (1959), 1-41. There are regional chracteristics in the patterns of the sphere of intermarriage in Japan. In analyzing the patter.s, previous papers on this problem are referred to, and the necessity of a statistical approach using the figures of migration of people by city and village is pointed out. The spheres of intermarriage are worked out from the data concerning types of migration, ratio by sex and age. Some new devices are presented concerning the cartographic expression of the spheres. 703. Godai Eisaku i, "Osaka-.shi no jinko ido tf, n )/1l i 1 (The migration of the population of Osaka)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 10, 429-439. Osaka is the second largest concentration of population in Japan. The movement of population into and out of Osaka is analyzed in detail, and the sphere of population movement as well as the seasonal changes of the movement are determined. The internal migration within the city of Osaka is also analyzed.

Page  112 112 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 704. Goda Eisaku t 1 l "Shikoku chiho no engumi idosha kosei no chiiki teki ruikei 4tg)M A t W (Regionalities of migration caused by marriage in Shikoku, Japan," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 4, 290-301. According to population statistics by administrative unit, Shikoku is divided into five regions: urban, plain, piedmont, mountain, and island regions. From an analysis of population structure and its movement, a trend of migration into cities is seen. The percentage of unmarried population is high in the urban regions. The spheres of intermarriage have a more or less standardized size, and the extent of the spheres is affected by natural conditions such as mountains and the sea. 705. Goda Eisaku, ' "Tokyo-to no jinko-idoken X A ^ (Spheres of population migration in Tokyo)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 1, 1-9. The sphere of migration in Tokyo is investigated using the statistics of in- and out- migrations of urbanized Tokyo under the ward system. The attraction from Tokyo is strongest in the adjacent prefectures, Saitama, Kanagawa and Chiba. The area of infuence covers the entire Kanto and a part of Tohoku in a roughly concentric pattern. Tokyo's influence on migration does not cover western Japan. Among the twenty-three wards in Tokyo the ratio of migration is high in the wards located in the center. 706. Hama Hidehiko A\ T, "Demographic influence no riron to sono Nihn ni okeru tekiyo ni tsuite Demographic influence I 4 z9 L 'ft,4l- 'i1 j j C-V^t (On the demographic influence theory and its application to Japan)," Jinko mondai kenkyu, no. 72 (1958), 18-30. Based on J.Q. Stewart's method, a map of potential population is calculated by prefecture in relation to demographic influence. Areas with high population potential were Tokyo and Osaka in 1920, butin 1935, 1950 and 1955 such areas were the prefectures in which are located Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, and Fukuoka. Thus, a correlation between high potential and mobility of population was proven. The areas with high demographic influence are characterized by higher mobility. 707. Horikawa Tadashi 11~/iJ^, "Jinko bumpu ne bunseki shakudo A I]/ X A (Measures of population distribution)," Jimbun chiri, v. 12 (1960), no. 5, 381-392. Methods for the analysis of the distribution of population are compared. Although the "potential of population" has several problems to be solved, it still is an important means for the s':udy of population distribution. "Rank-size rule" of cities lacks the analytical >cpacity of spatial distribution and relative location of urban population. "Class-size rull" of cities fills the deficiency of the former. Finally, the "coefficient of evenness" is described in general, and examples are shown of the calculation applied to regions in Japan. 708. Ina i Etsu i _A t, "Daitoshi no ryudo jinko no kozo to jinko no ryudoken f I A^ A eA x (Structure of the commutative population in the metropolitan cities and their commutation area)," Toshi mondai, v. 45 (1958), no. 8, 813-824. Population movements to and from Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Yokohama, Kobe, and Kyoto are analyzed in terms of age, sex, and season through the use of migration statistics. 70% of the impetus for in-migration to Tokyo involves the search for jobs, education and marriage, and 40% for out-migration. The areas concening out-i.igration are rather small and are mostly adjacent and closely related districts, while the in-migration involves population moving to the cities from much larger areas. 709._ Inami Etsuji X _ "Hompo-toshi no chukan-jinko no ryudo to sono ryudoken (Population difference between day and night in Japanese cities and their commutation area)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 7, 401-416. Daily migration within an urban area is mainly commuting between different districts of the city. Migration both within and from outside the city increased remarkably after the War and the area involved expanded. However, not much difference is seen before and after the War in the range of commuting;roughly 60 km. is the limit of commuting. 710. Kanasaki Hajime,, "Hokuriku chiho no kisetsu dekasegi iT~) iKslr4 (Migrant workers from the Hokuriku Region)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 35 (1962), no. 6, 251-262. The Hokuriku Region has been noted for seasonal migrating laborers. However, they are recently Decreasing in number, especially drag peddlers and workers in textile factories from Toyama Prefectures, weaver girls and charcoal bakers from Toyama

Page  113 POPULATION GEOGRAPHY 113 and Ishikawa Prefectures, and the lacquer workers from Fukui Prefecture have almost disappeared. Workers in sake breweries are still important. Before the war migration outside the prefecture was frequent but since the war, movement within the prefecture is becoming more important. 711. Kawabe Hiroshi ^| t g, "Iwate-ken ni okeru jinko hendo to sono jinkogakuteki yoin ni tsutie ~ ' f E7 iAt~i ^^A~ ~S(The social and natural components of population change: a case study of Iwate Prefecture)," Tohoku chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 1, 7-13. The census data of 1950 and 1960 are used to analyze natural and social population changes. It is pointed out that in Iwate Prefecture the natural increment was the major factor in population change between 1950 and 1955, while social changes played a more significant role between 1955 and 1960. Based on combinations of different patterns of natural and social changes, Kawabe has classified Iwate Prefecture into five population regions. 712. Kawabe Hiroshi >4 L, "Jinko chirigaku ni tsuite no ichi kosatsu VA0 fi6t,n 1 - t (Considerations on population geography)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 1, 1-13. Kawabe defines population geography as a study of regional characteristics in determining the meaning of population. Compared with other fields of human geography, the development of population geogrpahy has been slow, and Kawabe asserts that this is because population geography hitherto has been mainly interested in the static aspects of population, such as the size of popualtion, density, and population increases. Population geography hereafter should pay more attention to dynamic demography. 713 Kawabe Hiroshi f %, "Nihon no kokunai jinko ido: 1950-55 V*fiNA9P 49*4M (Internal migration in Japan: 1950-55)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 2, 96-108. The survival ratio method is one of the methods to infer internal migration in countries deficient of statistics on migration. Kawabe discusses internal mi-. gration by prefecutre, shi, and gun in Japan for the period of 1950-55, and analyzes the figures obtained. Marked concentration is observed in Tokyo and osaka Prefectures. There are twenty-four prefectures where the net-migration trend of the total shi shows negative figures. The trend is negative concerning the total population of gun in all the prefectures with the exceptions of Tokyo and Osaka. High correlation is found between the net-migration rate and the rate of part-time agricultural population. 714. Kawabe Hiroshi, "Nihon no toshi ni okeru jinko ido no kosatsu zflsJ)ff 'f I. y23 ( )7 -- 30. (Migration to cities in Japan)," Chigaku zasshi, no. 723 (1961), 6-30. Migration to Japanese cities in 1950-1955 are analyzed. The total net migration, computed by a survival-ratio method, shows minus values in two-thirds of the Japanese cities. The plus figures are seen only for larger cities. In large, industrial cities, the age structure of net migration shows a peak in 20-24 age group, while the peak in local centers is in the 15-19 age group. In the six largest cities of Japan, the migration ratio is high in the age groups of 15-19 and 20-24. 715. Kawai Reiko )11, "Chikei b tsu jinko mitsudo zu no sakuseihoho to shusei kekka f '9 ^At ^A i X 5 4 X (Method for making population density maps by landform division and the accumulated results)" Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 10, 532-549. Kawai worked at the Geographical Survey Institute to prepare the 1:800,000 population maps based on 1950 statistics. She explains the details of the map work and then discussed the problems of poulation distribution observed in the maps. Mountains and volcanoes occupy about 61% of the country, and 21% of the rural population is distributed in areas with a density of 50/ square kilometer. In hill lands the density is more than 500, and there are marked differences in density in areas of similar landforms. 716. Kawamoto Chuhei )3]X^ t, "Nomin dekasegi no seisanteki jiban(dai-ippo): Iwate-ken no baai ' - '&F. (-,): J ) 1 4 e (The migratory laborers of Iwate Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 10, 405-415. Dekasegi, the seasonal migration of laborers, is widely carried on in Iwate Prefecture. The development of dekasegi is rooted in the structure of local economy. Three factors are pointed out as the reason for the development of migration. These are the low percentage of full-time farmers, the low percentage of rice

Page  114 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY fields in the total arable land, and the long winter that prevents the people from productive activities. These three types are classified in areas where there are numerous migrations. 717. Kawamoto Chuhei )1J AF", "Nomin dekase i no seisa teki chiban (dai niho) Kitakamigawa ryuiki no beisaku noson ^~ ~~ ~~,~ (i- ) L Ji' A* (Migratory laborers in a rice-producing village in the Kitakami Valley, Iwate Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 4, 170-182. Iwate Prefecture is a large source for the seasonal migratory labor of farmers in the winter. The migration of farmers in winter differs regionally within the prefecture. The relation between migration and the length of the season is analyzed. The longer the season, the more migration urged by the surplus of labor on the farms. 718._ _ _Kikuchi Toshio S %fL 4 IJ Y, "Keihin-rdod5shijoken ni oeru rooryoku no jukyukozo to sono doko yosoku 13 X4 W IT) fq (Supply-demaid structure of the labor force in the Kei-Hin labor circle and its future development)," Jimbun chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 6, 553-569. The Tokyo-Yokohama area is the largest labor market of Japan. The labor force increment in the period between 1950 and 1955 was largely absorbed by medium and small enterprises. However, after 1955 large and medium enterprises played this role instead. The labor supply from within this area is relatively decreasing, and attraction of labor from outside the commuting area is intensified. Kikuchi proposes that in the future there will be a decline of supply from the Tohoku and Chubu regions and an increased supply from Kanto as a result of changes in agriculture. 719. Kishi Eiji 8 t X J, "Tohoku chiho, sanson nogyo ni okerp kajo jinko no keisei katei ni kansuru jakkan no kosatsu lIty A f $ Xf 1, ~J, K j/\v x. ' f 10 )f^ 1 v t K ^ X^ f(Some considerations on the process of formation of surplus opulation in the mountain villages of Tohoku Region)," Nogyo sogo kenkyu, v. 14 (1960), no. 2, 117-160. It has been pointed out that the mountain villages in Tohoku are over-populated. This is seen in their low standard of living, low wages, and by the outflow of seasonal laborers. The population increase in mountain villages surpassed the increase in plain villages from the later half of the nineteenth century to World War II. Surplus population has been absorbed by employment in forestry. After World War II, the opportunities for employment ceased and the surplus population became a serious problem. 720. Kishi Eiji A, "Tohoku nogyo ni oke r kajo jinko no keisei to nominso no bunkai ^ A 1-zt1 a f X e /, > l i 6 (Surplus population in Tohoku agriculture and the dissolution of the farming population)," Nogyo sogo kenkyu, v. 10 (1959), no. 4, 141-165. The radical increase of rice yields per acre brought the Tohoku Region, which had been backward, to the top of the nation, while the formerly leading. Kansai Region had been stagnant. However, there are still many aspects that characterize Tohoku as a backward region, such as large families, high proportion of young age groups in the population, fewer chances for part-time jobs, and less mobility of surplus popualtion due to the low development of traffic. 721. Kiuchi Shinzo A\ ~. _, "Jinko bumpuzu no igi to tokei oyobi sakuzu jo no shomondai 'A?/ 1 g 4 L K F t M (The object, meaning, and method of a population mapO," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 10, 551-562. Outline of theprojects forwarded by IGU since 1932 concerning world population maps is explained, and problems concerning statistical units are pointed out. Methods of classification of settlements for this purpose are discussed. A list of recent population maps is attached. 722. Kobayashi Hiroyoshi r)\$k~ " k "Hompo yosan takuetsu-son no jinko zogen 4ffi tV* X *> Aft0 A -Ap if g(Population changes in prominent s riculture areas in Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 3, 131-141. Compared to non-sericultural villages, the population changes of villages where sericulture is important are faster within a shorter period of time. Their population, however, does not increase in the long range. Reasons for this are sought in the fast changes of cocoon prices, and in the expansion and reduction of labor demand in accordance with the chages in the scale of management. There are regional differences concerning population changes, which are explained by regional differences in reduced mulberry fields in the rotation of crops, and in the management of sericulture.

Page  115 POPULATION GEOGRAPHY 115 723. Kondo Y suo ' ft and Kaijii Takumi A&A %4, Nihon gyoson no kajo jinko 'i3,_~t 4_) /A (Superfluous population in Japanese fishing villages), Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1956, 228 pp. This is a group study of superfluous population in fishing villages from the standpoint of Marxian economic. Theoretical causality of superfluous population and the processes of production are used as premises and various aspects are analyzed with respect to fishing villages of open-sea fishery, villages of small-scale fishing, villages used as American bases, out-migrating fishermen, etc. Statistics compiled by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry are compared with the Labor Census of the Prime Minister's Office, and defects in the latter are pointed out. The authors' figures of superfluous population are attached. 724. Momiyama Masako_) fQ, Kisetsu-byo carenda tM ^ " (Disease calendar), Tokyo, Kodansha, 1963, 244 pp.W Diseases with some relation to seasons are listed, and the relation is shown in diagram form. The materials used are monthly death rates by cause of death, and they are compared by nation. The concentration of deaths in winter, the distribution of a worldwide disease calendar, and so on, are described for the general reader. 725. Morikawa Hiroshi Jkli yX "Jinko ido no chiri teki bunseki: chushin toshi tono kanren ni cite AXI Jf.4$ ) y<L g 1 _ t - j A s (Regional analysis of migration: in connection with the regional urban center)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 10, 602-616. Taking the examples of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Prefectures, the areal extent of migration, and the areas of central city influence are studied. The size of the areas of influence in population movement is in proportion to the size of a central city, and is coareal to its hinterland in the widest sense. The centrifugal power of the central city, however, is not in proportion to the size of the city. 726. Nagatsu Ichir3 "Tokyo oyobi sono fukin ni okeru chusengyo romusha ni tsuite -7 VA1^'^l ^, Yt- X-^ ]<^V (A study of the workers in the pump-dieing industry in Tokyo and its neighboring districts)," Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku kenkyu hokoku, chirigaku, v. 10 (1959), 15-20. Pump-dieing_factories, for the manufacture of pump dies, are distributed in and around Tokyo. This has been a seasonal indsutry, depending on labor from rural villages in winter, when farm work is not heavy. In most districts, however, the farm workers are becoming full-time laborers commuting to the factories, and the characteristics of a seasonal industry are disappearing. This is because the industry is coming under control of wholesalers and the work is done by order instead of the former system of speculative work. 727. Namiki Masakichi V I t, "Nogyo jinko no hojuritsu (1920-59) ~A~l),'~ (Supplement ratio of farm population)," Nogyo sogo kenkyu, v. 14 (1960), no. 3, 33-62. A percentage is calculated of the ratio of those who started to work on farms versus the number of population necessary to maintain the number of farming households. Since 1920, the ratio has been steadily decreasing, and the number of population who enter farming has been decreasing by 2% on an annual average. The decrease of farming households is a postwar phenomenon, and the annual average of decrease is 0.5%. The decrease of the supplemental population is found in the age group of new graduates from schools, and as long as the parents are working, the number does not come out in the figures for households. So long as the category of two parttime farmers classified as farmers is used, the decrease of farming households is not marked, but in the near future there will be a radical decrease in the number of farming households as well. 728 Namiki Masakichi, "Noka jinko no ryushutsu keitai ** \ ^ t Emft^ ~ (Forms of outflow of farm popualtion)," Nogyo sogo kenkyu, v. 10 95), no. 3, 1-33 The Japanese farm population and the number of farming households have been stagnant for the period from 1920 to the end of World War II. There were about 5.5 million farming households and a farm popualtion of 14 million. This means that the secondary and the Tertiary industries were able to absorb the natural increase from the farm population, and at the same time that there was a constant demand for labor by agriculture in order to maintain its level. The demand for labor from the secondary and Tertiary industries was not strong enough to remove the labor required by the farms, but this trend is appearing in postwar times. 729. Nishimura Kasuke - -4 A, "Kazoku-jinko no bumpu _ p )41+ (Distribution of family population)," Hiroshima Daigaku Bungakubu kiyo, no. 6 (1954), 225-244. Some of the factors that decide the size of a family are ethnolgocial, but the main

Page  116 116 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY factors are economic. The average number of family members in Japan increased unitl 1913, but since then has declined. The reduction in family size is related to industrialization and urbanization. Family size is large in northeastern Japan and small in southwestern Japan. There are three trends in family size. Hokkaido and Aomori are in a stage of expansion. The size of family in other prefectures in Tohoku, plus Ibaraki, are stable. Family size in the rest of Japan is declining. 730. Noh Toshio "Chirigaku ni okeru kiko no shomondai %gt^X |^'!e 8~ <aw 4-o gO' (Problems of acclima-. If Tr -b, PT Z i An - - tization in geography),Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 388-397. Acclimatization is defined as changes towards adaptation to climatic environment. Acclimatization, therefore, should be grasped by means of changes in aspects of human activities. Culture in this case is a tool for acclimatization, and thus should not be interpreted by maintenance of the standard of living after migration. 731. Oshita Kinjiro >5a~ - f^, "Osaka-ko ni okeru hashike kous a no kayoryoku to sono shusshinchi no chiriteki seikaku J\ ^ l; T a rILJ-i I % ' (The accomodating capacity of barge-dwellers in the port of Osaka and georaphical characteristics of their native places.)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), nl. 4, 192-204. Based on a survey of the distribution of barges in Japanese ports the fact that barge-dwellers tend to congregate in ports where more than 100,000 tons of freight are handled is pointed out. They are more numerous in ports whose hinterlands are industrial areas. It is also pointed out that the numbers increase in ports where the water fronts extend along rivers, and where the ports are connected with well developed systems of inland canals. From the study of the place of birth of the barge dwellers in Osaka, it is found that many are from the islands of the Inland Sea. 732. Ouchi Tsutomu l ) X, "Kodo keizai seicho-ka no noson jinko idao y ~ WA.B tt1C s4) tJA^ Y!9f(The migration of the rural-arm population and the high pace of economic growth in Japan)," Keizaigaku ronshu, v. 30 (1964), no. 1, 70-95. The influence of cities in the migration of rural populations to urban areas is analyzed by using Toyoura-mura in Niigata Prefecture as an example. Two communities are considered, one quite near the city of Shibata, and one more distant. In the community more distant from the city the migration is restricted to the younger age groups, and the farm scale is not diminished as a result. In the community near the city, the percentage of part-time workers becomes high, and farm work is shifted to women and old people. The scale of farm management is smaller here. 733. Saito Kazumaqsa I -f, "Taiwan ni okeru shosu minzoku: Kozan-zoku A~ i^ 0\1>*\t~~~~~~ @ t a(Minority tribesmen in Taiwan: mountain tribesmen), Seiji chiri, v. 2 (1963), 55-66. In the high mountains of Taiwan and on small islands adjacent to Taiwan, live primitive minority groups of natives. Under the Japanese regime of 1895-1945, these natives were called Takasago-zoku; after the islands were returned to China they have been called Kozan-zoku or high mountain tribes. Saito lived his early life in the areas of these tribes, and describes the life of the people here as an ethnological geography. 734. Sekiyama Naotaro 4 Xsr u v, Kinsei Nihon no jinko kozo t jfS~t ~ (Population structure of Japan in recent times), Tokyo, Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1959, 332 pp. This is an extensive study on population and population censuses of Japan in the Edo period. For basic census data, parish registration, the nimbetsu-cho, and the checking records were used. The processes by which these records developed into census records Preexplained. In the Edo period, several revisions of these records were made; the main objective of these records was to check the acreage of arable land. Samurai and outcasts were exempted from the registration, but their total number has been estimated at three million; however, Sekiyama's new estimate is 5.5 million. A population table by province and district is attached. 735. Shimizu Keillachiro 4y )\F, "Dai toshi kotsuryo no hen'i to toshin no jinko kyuinryoku: dai toshi kotsu mondai to sono taisaku ni kansuru ichishian xLf W ^t^ft*o YR B ^f A ^- M>f 7L\Ttf *t K A o -M) gA3 ^'' (The one-sidedness of traffic volume and the centalization of population in the city center of Tokyo)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 10, 416-428. The traffic in Tokyo is very unevenly distributed within the city, with very high

Page  117 117 POPULATION GEOGRAPHY concentration in its urban centers. Shimizu gives an estimate of the number of commuters and visitors who are attracted by the large buildings in the urban centers. He seeks the reason for traffic congestion in the concentration of large buildings and their capacity to absorb people in urban centers. To solve rhe problems of traffic congestion, it is important to establish a well organized city planning especially in the ruban centers. 736. Shimizu Keiahchiro;X)K \A gA, "Dai toshi no chu yakan jinko jushin to sono ido ) -\)< (Center of daytime and night time population in space and its shifting)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 4, 231-235. In large cities, the centers of gravity in the distribution of daytime and night time populations are different. Distribuiton of daytime population in Tokyo and Osaka is determined by an analysis of traffic. The distance between the daytime and night time centers is becoming greater. It is concluded that this distance is the main factor causing traffic problems. 737. Suzuki Fujio s^ ^,., "Kanko toshi ni okeru jinko ido: Shizuoka-ken Ito-shi no baai 1w b Aub * A" If t4 V (Population structure and migration of a resort city)," Toshi mondai, v. 49 (1958), no. 12, 1407-1415. Ito in Shizuoka Prefecture is a resort city with famous hot springs and a population structure with many special characteristics which distinguish it from ordinary cities. The working population engaged in services is analyzed. According to the statistics of 1955, 30% of the immigrants into Ito were single migrants who were not accompanied by their families, and 62% of them were women. Migrations are concentrated in the tourist seasons of the spring and the fall. The peaks of the age groups among female migrants are at 13-15 years for immigration, and 20 -24 years for emigration. The ratio of middle age migrants is higher than in other cities. 738. Tachi Minoru.;, ed., Daitoshi jinko no shomondai AT fQ>% ~ (The problems of population in large cities), Toky5, Kokin Shoin, 1962, 246 pp. Various aspects of urban population are discussed. Main topics are: internal migration and urbanization, population density and its changes in the metropolitan area around Tokyo, surburban areas and commuting problems in Osaka, income distribution and immigration in large cities, factors of increase, economic potential and actual movement, regional analysis of income and birth statistics. 739. Tachi Minoru 4 k<, Keishiki jinkogaku J vt (Formal demography), Tokyo, Kokin Shoin, 1959, 800 pp. Formal demography is defined as a science of statistical study of population. After definitions of population and demography _ the history of demography is generally described. Four chapters are on population increase, distribution and population sturcture, death and birth, inland and outland migrations, and estimation of population. Sociology, economic and mathematics are fully used. 740. Tachi Minoru 4 G, ed., Nihon no jinko ido (Population movements in Japan), Tokyo, Kokin Shoin, 1961, 214 pp. After a general discussion of the meaning and form of population movements, the relation between population movements and their factors is analyzed. Finally, the function of internal population movements is discussed with the conclusion that they serve as stabilization movements in the adjustment of the distribution of income, or in other words, of the standard of living. 741. Takagi Hideki & $ t, "Nihon-kokunai no jinko ido 1X T 7)Vf (Internal migration in Japan), Chirigaku hy5ron, no. 10, 974-981. Internal migration is analyzed from population statistics by the prefectural_place of birth. There are flows of population toward a few large centers like Tokyo, Osaka, and Fukuoka. Tohoku is included in an area with Tokyo as its center. In western Japan there are several areas with respective centers overlapping one another. Remarkable out-migrating regions are found in areas near large centers and especially in the Hokuriku region. 742. Tanaka Kozo.., "Toyonaka-shi no inks kyuin sayo tokuni kyuinryoki no fuhenteki bumpu no gen'in _f </ $4/474F^ 7) i/ (The drift of population of Toyonaka City with special reference to the causes for universal distribution of absorption factors)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 11, 666-677.

Page  118 118 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY Toyonaka, one of the satellite cities of Osaka, is characterized by its high population exchange beyond the prefectural boundary, as well as for the fact that its ratio of attracting population is not greatly reduced with increased distance. From the statistics of migration range by industry, it is found that the range of a consuming population is larger than that of productive and trading populations. 743. Tsubouchi Shoji "TSA., "Nobi heiya no kinsei ni okeru jinko kozo ni kanksuru kenkyu 4VtYI) Ii -l'^' A Xt|l-Xat (A study on the population structure in the Nobi Plain in the modern times)," Ehime Gakugei Daigaku chirigaku hokoku, no. 20 (1963), 1-40. Changes in the structure of population in the Nobi Plain are discussed. Major problems handled here are the spreading of a currency economy, the break-up of farmers and their differentiation into classes. The changes and the differentiation took place all over the plain, but the coastal area along the Sea of Ise is an unusual case with its new villages resulting from reclamation of the shallow sea. 744. Tsukada Hideo ft,f " Rodo-shijo no chiikiteki kenkyu: nisan no jirei ni yoru kokoromi =f-J _ i T- - _ I. r 1A (A preliminary essay in regional analysis of labor market)," Jimbun chiri, v. 13 (1961), no. 5, 52-67. Population movements between areas of demand and supply are analyzed by using an example of female laborers in the cotton industry. The main area that attracts labor is Aichi Prefecture; the supply is from all over the nation, but particularly from Niigata, Nagano and Kagoshima Prefectures. The outflow from Nagano Prefecture is analyzed concerning age, sex, education, etc. It is pointed out that industrial sturcutre in the areas of demand selectively affects the labor supply. 745. Wada Shunji Iju —, Iju to tekio VM92~ (Migration and adaptation), Tokyo, Kokin Shoin, 1963, 348 pp. Geographical problems of acclimatization are discussed. Former studies in the western world are introduced and reviewed. Two sides of acclimatization, namely, the physiological side and the side of adaptation through the activities of production are pointed out. The importance of an historical approach as well as medical and bio-climatical methods is asserted. 746. Yamashina Yoshimasa 1, "Izu, Hatsushima ni okeru kosu no kotei ni tsuite if f5Et v fI^rJ wb1 4^SLI v~ _' VT(Constancy in the number of families on Hatsushima)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 438-447. Hatsushima is a small island of 0.48 square kilometers in the Sagami Bay. For more than a century the number of households on the island has been fixed at forty-one. The landform of the island does not allow for the increase of arable land, and accordingly there is not room for an increase of households. However, the rule was originally aimed at preventing a decrease of households. At the end of the eighteenth century a communal fishery was established, and to carry it on a decrease of households had to be avoided. This is shown by the fact that when a household was moving out a relative was called from the main island to replace him. 747. Yonetani Seiji, "Kyushu no jinko-jushin l (Center of population in Kyushu)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 5, 249-254. The centers of density in the distribution of the population in Kyushu and in the individual prefectures of Kyushu are calculated using census statistics of every five years between 1920 and 1950; the meaning of their location and their movements are discussed. In the prefectures where there are industrial cities the preWar centers were attracted towards them. For a time after the War the trend was interrupted and only recently resumed. In prefectures without industrial cities the centers are less mobile and are usually found in the largest cities in the prefectures. The center of population density in Kyushu is moving northward. D. Transportation and Communications 748. Arisue Takeo k X t g p, "Kokutetsu no r okyaku yuso kara mita wagakuni no kotsu chiiki @f '~ a ' (Japanese traffic regions from the viewpoint of the passenger transportation of the National Railway)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 2 (1958), 205-230. In Japan, the National Railroad plays a very important role in passenger transportation. Passenger transportation is analyzed by twenty-seven districts of the

Page  119 TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS 110 National Railroads. The relation between regions is strongly influenced by the capacity of the major centers, especially by Tokyo and Osaka. Naturally, the arrangement of the districts also has much to do with the regional structure of the transportation. 749. Arisue Takeo X", Ura Nihon hokubu ni okeru chiho toshi shuhen no ryokyaku!:otsu 1a~ U~g 1h _i #z f ytt t If (Local passenger traffic in the northern part of the Japan Sea Coast)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 1, 28-38. This is an analysis of passenger traffic in and around the cities of the prefectures on the Japan Sea Coast from Aomori to Niigata. The relation between bus traffic and snowfall, distance limits of bus traffic, and the relation between the frequency of service and distance are studied statistically. The ranges of foot and bicycle traffic are also measured. 750. Arisue Takeo 2 \ ~i / A \, "Ura Nippon ni okeru toki no basu-kotsu ni tsuite 1: Alr ]- *4 I/ C -} 7 V\ (Bus service in winter in the egions along the Japan Sea Coast)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 12, 518-527. The Japan Sea Coast is a snowy area, and in winter bus service is often suspended for fairly long periods. From this study of the length and distribution of these suspensions of service, it is found that 50 cm. of accumulated snow is a critical depth. Among other factors that have to do with suspension of service, the more important ones are the width of the roads, whether or not they are paved, and the demands of passengers. 751. Arisue TakeoA f\ Wagakuni ni okeru koku kotsu to enkyori ryokaku ressha no unko \V A f i' l'- ' Xt tM ^ 4 (Air service and the servicne of long distance passenger trains in Japan)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 1 (1957), 1-20. There are three major forms of long distance travel in Japan. Air travel is centered in Tokyo, and there is a steady demand for service to Sapporo, Osaka, Fukuoka and Nagoya. Next in the structure of passenger travel is passenger service on long distance express trains of the National Railroad. Based on the number of departures of express trains, regions of concentration are Tokyo-Yokohama, KyotoOsaka-Kobe, Nagoya, North Kyushu, and Sapporo. The ratio of departure frequencies for these areas is 14:8:4:2:1. The next type of transportation is night trains, and numerical analysis of such trains gives besides the above-mentioned five, fifteen more or less distinguished core regions. 752. Arisue Takeo a T\ A, "Waga kuni ni okeru kotsuken no katachi ni tsuite: Hompo ryokyaku kotsu no chiikiteki kosatsu e t ]XS1ff/ 4 )-v) 'a 1[f0Y^^ ^ X t ~(A regional study on passenger traffic in Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 11, 1016-1030. The destinations of passengers are checked at many railroad stations. Distribution of the destination of passengers from a station will indicate the area which Arisue defines as a "sphere of traffic." The spheres of traffic are drawn for many cities all over Japan. The development of the spheres, based on their size and shape, is discussed. 753. Asai Jihei 1 - B! " ai- aa aryuiki fukin ni okeru chikei to kotsuro to no-kankei )\ 1\ I t)1' ]-'K,, ^A4M) (Relations between topography and traffic routes in the area of the Oi River)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 584-598. During the Edo period, navigation and the building of bridges on the Oi River was prohibited for strategic reasons by the Tokugawa Government. The inhabitants of the central and upper reaches of the river were thus compelled to rely on roads constructed in the mountainous land alongside the valley. After the Meiji Restoration the newly constructed railroad proved to be not very functional for topographic reasons, and transportation by buses and trucks along the old routes remains very important. 754. Asai Jih i ".,Tetsudo yuso izen ni okeru Oigawa mokuzai no hanshutsuro n (Shipping routes of timber from the area of the Oi River in the pre-railway period)," Jimbun chiri, v. 10 (1959), nos. 5 and 6, 321-330. The upper reaches of the Oi River Shizuoka Prefecture, is one of the most important lumbering areas in Japan, and already in the early seventeenth century a fairly large amount of lumber was being shipped out of this district. In the Edo period and in the early part of the Meiji era, the Oi River was the only route of

Page  120 120 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 755. Hirano Joji - Ft f, Gendai no boeki At 'X^ (International trade of today), Tokyo, Hosei Daigaku Shuppankyoku, 1962, 230 pp. This is a general text on the principles and practice of international trade. After a general commentary on the theories and policies of international trade, custom duties, and international treaties, the foreign trade of Japan is explained with reference to government control of trade and trading procedures. In the last two chapters international trade of the world and of Japan are described geographically with reference to their background and present status. 756. Inanaga Sac io ^ff, "Denwa tsushin hassei kara mita Nihon no chiiki kubun L l-4 g [t $ )f - t (The regional division in Japan from the standpoint of the development of telephone communication), Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 3, 145-161. The number of telephones and telephone calls are studied for 278 cities in Japan excluding the 23 wards of Tokyo and Osaka. After eliminating the influence of factors that may distort the figures, there still are observed regional characteristics in the distribution of the figures. Inanagadefines such characteristics. By using them, he divides Japan into thriteen districts. Potential regionality is the highest in Kinki, and gradually lowers towards the east and the west. Thus, central Japan is an advanced area concerning telephone communication, southwest Japan is a backward area, and Tohoku is in the middle. 757. Inanaga Yukio A", "Hokkaido ni okeru tsuwaken no chiiki kozo A I iJwb t -<3. - (Regional structure of telephone-call regions in Hokkaido)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 8, 451-463. Inanaga rearranges the statistics of telephone calls in Hokkaido according to administrative unit, and tries to explain the formation of communicational regions. The number of telephone calls by municipality is analyzed and the areas of communication are defined by city, town and village. Then hierarchic structure of such communication areas is discussed. 758. Kimura Tatsuo /1 X, "Kamotsu unchin no chiriteki seikaku buts (1~9s-3) ~ (Some regional aspects of freight rates)," Jimbun chiri, v. 15, (1963), no. 3, 269-291. Isopleths of the freight rates for railroad transportation are drawn from Shicdome station in Tokyo and Umeda station in Osaka; the rates for truck transportation are drawn from Shiodome, Umeda, and Sasajima station in Nagoya. Much distortion is seen especially in the map of railroad transportation due to the complicated system of calculation of the rates as well as to distortions of the routes. The map of truck transportation shows a far more concentric distribution, but here again some distortion is seen, particularly from the influence of the landforms. 759. Kinoshita Etsuji, Yamamoto Yu Uchida Katsutoshi ^, and Okumura Shigenji Sekai no boeki (World trade), Tokyo, Sanichi Shobo, 1960, 284 pp. This book includes a discussion of international trade from a regional descriptive point of view followed by a discussion of Japan's foreign trade. The following are the three main viewpoints discussed concerning the problems of international trade: the relationship between advanced and undeveloped countries, the meaning of the trade with socialistic countries, and the contradictions among capitalistic countries after the decline of the supremacy of the United States in world trade. 760. Kodama KSota It 3- ~, Kinsei shukueki seido no kenkvu X tt ]'W lE 7ff) Kodm K (A study on the system of stage towns in modern times), Tokyo, Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1957, 574 pp. The historical study of stage towns gains from this work much newly discovered material, mainly related to the stage towns on Nakasendo. The system was established by the feudal government in Edo, and the stage towns enjoyed various privileges, and at the same time suffered from a number of inconveniences. The main chapters are as follows: the origin and development of the system: the relay system of porters and horses; relations with adjacent villages obligated to help the stage towns; tax and treasury; competition for passengers and cargo; and the termination of the system. 761. Konno Shuhei ", Tokyo-ko ni okeru hashike yuso 1' Itl r A,' (The barge transport in the port of Toky6)," Tohoku chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 3, 114-120. Barge transport plays an important part in the function of the major ports of Japan. There is a strong dependence on barge transport at ports where there are piers for

Page  121 TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS 121 general use, and is weaker where there are piers which are monopolized for special uses. The port of Tokyo belongs to the former type, and its dependence on barges is very high. Freight landed here is mainly raw materials for industry, such as petrolium, metals, etc. This shows a close relation between Tokyo and the hinterland, as well as the connection of the port with small scale enterprises in the hinterland which are unable to have their own piers. 762. Masaki Yukio 5L 2 m, "Yokohama-ko no genjo ' jA (The port of Yokohama: the postwar tendency and today's immanent problems)," Keisaichirigaku nempo, v. 3 (1956), 26-39. The present status of the port of Yokohama is discussed, using up-to-date statistics. Main items included are: the number, tonnage, and nationality of the boats, the amount of merchandise imported and its comparison with prewar figures, the hinterland, the causes of the decrease of trade, and the general characteristics of postwar conditions. The relationship with neighboring ports such as Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Chiba is analyzed at the end. 763. Morikawa Hiroshi A )l| ', "Denwa-tsuwa o shihyo to suru kessetsu chiiki no kaisosei ni tsuite X - t % A ti I th et^'is TV ~f (A hierarchical system of nodal regions on the basis of tele6hone call method)," Jimbun chiri, v. 13 (1961), no. 1, 1-16. The interrelation of regions with cities as their cores can be observed clearly by_an_analysis of traffic and communication. The relative importance of cities in Kyushu is analyzed by using the frequency of telephone calls as an indicator. In Kyushu Fukuoka is the center. The cities of Kyushu are classified by size, ranging from 4th class to 6th class. The size of the population of the fourth class cities is about 200,000, while 5th class cities range from 40,000 to 10,000 and 6th class cities are those below 10,000. The relative importance of each city is quite obviously related to size of population, but there are many intermediate cases, and no indicator is available to make these distinction absolutely clear. 764. Nakagawa Shigeru o )X1 ~, "0-D chosa kara mita Tohoku chiho sho-teshi no jidosha kotsu 0-JD Anp4 1A - (The pattern of motor vehicle traffic in the cities of the Tohoku Region)," Tohoku chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 4, 196-201. Recently, 0-D (origin and destination) surveys of automobile traffic have been carried out in the larger cities of Japan by the Ministry of Construction. Based on the results of 0-D surveys, Nakagawa analyzes the types of traffic flow within cities, between urban and suburban areas, and detours, concerning 32 cities in the Tohoku. The patterns are more complex in Sendai, Aomori, and Akita, where traffic is concentrated in areas in front of the central railroad stations and at business centers. It is also pointed out that such concentrated areas are rather low in population density but have heavy traffic. 765. Oshima Totaro \ f, ed., Gendai Nihon no kotsu t. 'E ^0fi3* t t(Traffic in modern Japan), Tokyo, Hosei Daigaku Shuppankyoku, 1963, 350 pp. Traffic in Japan is disucssed by six specialists using the problem approach. The main problems handled are confusion of commuting traffic, paralysis of urban traffic, increased traffic accidents, deadlock of port functions, etc. The authors conclude that the problems are caused by the imbalance between the boundless development of productive activities and so-called "social capital". 766. Sato Motoshige "J _, "Kogyo chitai keisei ni okeru kotsu soshiki no seibikatei: Niigata kogyo chitai o chushin to shite L }C 1 U AL * 9 ^ jg^t — yfv^ ^ —X^T ':t (The process of gradual organization of transDortation systems in relation to the development of industrial regions: the case of the Niigata Industrial Region)," Chirigkau hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 9, 385-394. After the Meiji Restoration that put an end to feudalism in Japan, the nation proceeded to industrialization. The process of development of a modern transportation system has close relations with the development of manufacturing technology and to the increase of industrial production. The development process in the newly growing Niigata Industrial Region is described in detail in reference to the development of the manufacturing industry. 767. Sawada Kiyoshi fA 4, "Daitoshiken to kotsuryui AI P 1 *2 (Metropolitan city-region and daily traffic current in Nagoya and Osaka)," Chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, no. 7 (1963), 167-192. The number of passengers traveling to each station of the national and private railroads near Osaka and Nagoya was calculated as a percentage of the total traffic volume. The percentages are shown in maps prepared for two periods (Nagoya, 1951 and

Page  122 122 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 1958; Osaka, 1953-4 and 1959), to demonstrate the change in postwar years. In Nagoya it is clear that former minor centers are losing their centrality and are becoming satellites of the major city. The metropolitan area of Osaka is larger and its centrality is even stronger. Here the attraction of traffic to the city predominates, and the pull of satellite cities is feeble. 768. Tanaka Keiji I - Q #, Shio oyobi sankana no inyuro ais l ' ' ),@_\ (Transportation routes of salt and fish before the development of railroads), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1957, 316 pp. The essential commodities salt and fish are used as indicators to show the grades of isolation in inland parts of Japan prior to the spread of railroads. As sample regions, the drainage areas of the main rivers in northeastern Japan, and main basins in central Japan are used. The survey is the most detailed regarding the basins of Nagano Prefecture. Ships were formerly used for the transportation of salt. Between the ports at the mouths of rivers and the river ports on the outskirts of mountains, salt and rice were transported in the opposite directions. For the transportation of fish, the first choice was the shortest route. Thus the limits of these commodities from coastal areas can be drawn. 769. Tomioka Gihachi.\ A, "Setonaikai ni okeru kihansen kotsu no nisan no tokuso / y 4 L 0t --- = )4- j (Some characteristc features of:'ihansen' (steam and sail boat), traffic in the Inland Sea)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. (, 363-378. Transportation on the Inland Sea has been important since early times and has been an important aspect in the growth of industrial areas along the Inland Sea. Transportation on the Inland Sea is mainly by sailing boats equipped with supplementary engines. Activities of these boats are analyzed in detail and the flow of cargo and its relation to the development of' industrial areas is discus;ecl. 770. Tsu.inuma Yataro 'M 1t and Suzuki Soichi — 4? h "Koku shashin sokuryo ni yoru kotsuryo kaiseki ni tsuite A t YI11] I l f XT V (Traffic analysis by means of aerial photogrammetry)," Shashin sokuryo, v. 1 (1963), no. 3, 128-139. A test survey of traffic was made to analyze rush-hour traffic for an area of 7 x 7 km. surrounding the Imperial Palace. Technical problems such as the treatment of tall buildings, smog, angles of lenses, and films to be used are first discussed. There are then given explanations on the method of photo interpretation. Finally suggestions for the contruction of facilities such as roads and parking places are presented. 771. Yomiuri Shimbunsha Shakaibu Aid t A g ^-fi^ ^ (Editorial section, The Yomiuri), ed., Kotsu senso (Traffic warfare), Tokyo, Tomeisha, 1962, 372 pp. Present condition of traffic in large cities, particularly in Tokyo, is analyzed. Frequency, distribution, and nature of traffic accidents are described, and it is pointed out that traffic problems are the result of imbalance between production of automobiles and improvement of roads. Suggested plans for an improved road system and terminals for Tokyo are attached. E. Settlement Geography 772. Hattori Keijiro / At /. - v, "Tokyo no toshin kino to kozo ni tsuite e~Xf'T^^ ^ fii 41j_ oY.\^ (Function and structure of the civic ce terof the Tokyo metropolis)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 4, 203-205. Civic centrality of the inner city of Tokyo is analyzed using the poly-variant method. The twenty-three wards of inner Tokyo where urbanization has been developed are analyzed on the basis of twenty-three variants. 573 sections thus divided are classified into five types. The 129 civic cores are also classified into five types. From the combination of these two elements, six types of civic centrality are classified: 1) compound type, 2) business and finance type, 3) finance and amusement, 4) finance type, 5) amusement type, and 6) shopping type. The higher the hierarchy of the centers, the more complex their structure as civic centers. 773. Kiuchi Shinzo ~ ~$t, ed., Jinko shuraku chiri A\J ii ~i (Population and settlement geography) [= v. 5 of Asakura Shoten's Shin-chirigaku koza], Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1954, 338 pp. Population geography is emphasized to described the dynamic changes of population, especially that of Asia. The section on settlement geography is well organized, covering the subsistence, methodology, and respective studies of farm, mountain, and fishing villages as well as urban geography.

Page  123 SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY 123 774. Nakajima Giichi J, Ichiba-shuraku.- 4 t (The market towns), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1964, 174 pp., 21 illus. Market towns are often the origin of cities. In Japan o,too, many market places have developed and prospered from medieval to modern times. Nakajima studies the historical geography of Japanese market towns in their growth, development, and decline. Place names originated in market places are identified for all of Japan on 1:50,000 topographical sheets. 775. Yamaguchi Yaichiro 2 U,) - P, Shuraku no kosei to kino ^' 6 ', ~~ (The composition and function of settlement), Tokyo, Bunka Shobo, 1964, 167 pp., 40 illus. Yamaguchi asserts that the sociological method is effective in analyzing the stagnant nature of fishing and agricultural villages in to Tohoku Region. Local communities in the Tohoku Region started in terms of blood kinship and later developed into regionally related communities. Yamaguchi shows numerous distribution maps of blood-relation and land-relation groups within communities, and he reduces the stagnancy of rural villages in the Tohoku Region to the undevelopment of the latter groups. 776. 1. Rural 776. Asaka Yukio & + 8 fit, "Fuji kitaguchi no Kamiyoshida Kawa uchi no Oshimachi no keitai to sono kozo 0)roTJ e Ge-1 - VI X X T A,) V, ~ '_ (Form and structure of towns, Karniyoshida and Kawaguchi, bases of a mountain religion)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 7 (1963), 55-82. Until recent times, a mountain religion was spread with Mount Fuji as the object of worhsip. The believers were called oshi, and the towns Kamiyoshida and Kawaguchi developed as their bases. These towns have distinctive landscapes with street-village patterns and shoe-string type land allotments not unlike those in stage towns. 777. Asaka Yukio ' T?/, "Shinko tozan shuraku no keisei /^^^^ "k /// (A particular type of Japanese high mountain village in central Honshu)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 3 (1959), 185-243. Until the nineteenth century, mountain climbing in Japan was done mainly from religious motives, with the eighteenth century as its climax. Many settlements developed along the climbing routes and in front of the shrines and temples which were objects of pilgrim worship. There were inns, souvenir shops and restaurants. Villages such as Kurosawa and Odaki were developed for pilgrims to Ontake, but villagers used to be engaged in farming and forest work in winter when the pilgrim season was off. 778. Asaka Yukio 4 t At, "Tokaido Totsuka shukuba-machi no seiritsu Wt ~ >4 t T 'L _ (A study on the establishment of Totsuka-shuku (the post town of Totsuka) along the Tokaido Highway in the Tokugawa era)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 4 (1960), 107-122. The well-known fifty-three stations of the Tokaido were not set up at once when the system was established in 1801. It took about thrity years before all stations were authorized. Totsuka Station is one of the later additions. The Edo Government felt the necessity for Totsuka Station and added it, suppressing strong opposition from competitive stations. 779. Bekki Atsuhiko _ft JL#, Ningen to chiiki (Man and regions), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1965, 187 pp., 9 illus. This book consists of two parts. Part one deals with the development of geogrpahical thought, and the differentiation of regions. Part two is a regional description of underdeveloped society from an ecological approach. The rural society of Southeast and West Asia is described. 780. Fukuda Tpru t, "Fuji sanroku nansei chiiki ni okeru shinden shu:raku t1 Ai o) a (Shinden settlements at the southwestern foot of Mt. Fuji)," Jimbun chir, v. 15 (1963), no. 6, 569-589. Settlements in this district can be classified into three: those on the delta of the Fuji River, those in the swampy land of the former lagoons, and those in the volcanic ash land of Mt. Fuji. All of them originated from reclamation in the Edo period. Reclamation of the delta was carried out on a large scale, but the other two met little success. 781. Hayase Akihisa ~ ', f, "Yamato-mune no bumpu to sono keifu &1I (The 'Yamato-mune' roofing; its distribution and geneology)," Jimbun chiri, v. 10 (1958), no. 4, 251-267.

Page  124 124 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY In the Nara Basin and the Osaka Plain there is a characteristic roof type called Yamato-mune. There are some thirty variations of Yamato-mune. Hayase, however, classifies them into three basic types and their variations. The distribution of these types is shown in a detailed map, and their development and dispersion are discussed. 782. KagoseYoshiaki ir ",Kyoto-fu Yura wa karyu tani heiya: chikei kozui shurakuiten oyobi tochi riyo, j1'f ]! -YJi% ' ~;K' -IVa' A. —_ -1 A (Landforms, floods, removals of settlements and land use at the valley plain in the lower part of the Yura, Kyoto Prefecture)," Yokohama Shiritsu Daigaku kiyo, A-29, no. 13 (1962), 1-85. The valley plain of the lower Yura is only 400 m. wide with an incline of 1:3,000 to 10 000, and the range of the water level at times of heavy rains is 10-14 m. The villages in the plain, therefore, are often compelled to move to escape destruction by floods. For instance, seven communities moved entirely after the flood of 1907. Using old documents, Kagose succeeds in representing land use and arrangement of houses before the removal. This area has suffered from flood in 1953, 1959, and 1961. A thorough flood preventative measure is urgently required. 783. Kanno Shinlichi t, t, Sanson ni ikiru hitobito- 4 \ (The people who live in mountain villages), Tokyo, Miraisha, 1961, 310 pp. In deep mountain villages, the main occupation is making woodwork for lacquer ware and sawing. Such villages are called kijiya settlements. Kanno visited kijiya villages in Miyagi Prefecture and recorded the aspects of their life in essay style. Daily life of the woodworkers, the communication, and the changes of life in the mountain villages are described in vivid fashion. 784. Kawasaki Shigeru t| A4, "Iyo Besshiyama-mura ni mirareru kozan to ~~samson ~~~~ onrakuf shaka chA4 w(Mining industry and the mountain village of Besshyama-mura, Ehime Prefecture), Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 4, 259-274. The Besshi Copper Mine was opened in 1691, and is still one of the most important copper mines in Japan. It became the base of development for Sumitomo Trust. Before the opening of the mine, Besshiyama-mura was a mountain village depending chiefly on forestry for its livelihood. In those days charcoal was used for the refining of copper ore. As a result of its need for charcoal, Sumitomo came to own 90% of the forest in the village, and the villagers came to be employed in baking the charcoal or in transporting it to the mine. Eventually, villagers became laborers in the mine. 785. Kitamura Toshio, Kurematsu Shizue n kt I and Suizu Ichiro s f-S n Sonraku shakai chiri n i 4 1 _- O (Social geography of villages), Tokyo, Taimeido, 1957, 2 pp.,. Various approaches to settlement geography are explained and the authors' standpoint is asserted to be that of social geography. Discussions follow on villages in various environments, and on types of villages in Japan compared with village types in Europe. The problem of irrigation in the farm villages of Eastern Asia are used as an introduction to explain characteristics of community life in Japanese farming, fishing, and mountain villages. 786. Kiuchi Shinzo, Fujioka Kenjiro A^ - and Yajima Jinkichi \ A, ed., Hattatsu to kozo A t -- (Development and structure of settlements) [= v. 2 of Asakura Shoten's Shuraku chiri kozo (entry )], Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1957, 368 pp., 122 illus. Articles on the development and structure of both rural and urban settlements are contributed by twenty-two authors. The contents are classified into urban and rural, and structure and development. There is a chapter on the culture and industry of cities. Examples are selected mostly from within Japan, and research through about 1957 is summarized. 787. Kiuhi Shin, and others, ed., Kyodo kenky koza: sonraku and YajK ima Jfinkc(Villages: studies on the 5fovirce), Tokyo, Kadokawa Shoten, 1957, 292 pp. Studies on rural villages are summarized from geographic, historical,archeological and folklore viewpoints. In the geography section, comments are made about agricultural and fishing villages, mountain villages, and also cities. In the historical section, references are made to villages in different ages, and also to place names and prehistoric villages. The personality and combination of villages are explained with abundant maps and diagrams. 788 Kiuchi Shinzo; ^, Fujioka Kenjiro _ and Yajima Jinkichi, J-, ed., Nippon no shuraku 1 %

Page  125 SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY 125 (Settlement geography of Japan) [= v. 3 of Asakura Shoten's Shuraku chiri koza (entry 64 )], Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1958, 443 pp., 182 illus. After a general review, Japan is divided into Hokkaido, Tohoku, Kanto, Chubu, Kinki, Chugoku, Shikoku, and Kyushu, and the characteristics of settlement types are described. A fairly detailed bibliography is attached by district. 789. Kiuchi Shinzo j, Fujioka Kenjiro ^ and Yajima Jinkichi /5i>4_, ed., Sekai no shuraku- _ (Settlementgeography of the world) [= v. 4 of Asakura Shoten's Shuraku chiri koza (entry 64 )], Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1959, 460 pp., 218 illus. The objective of this volume is to provide a general description of both rural and urban settlements in all parts of the world, which the authors divide into Asia, Europe, the Americas, and Africa with Oceania. The contents and their quality are varied in accordance with the authors who contributed the respective Darts. 790. Kiuchi Shinzo +t 'I, Fujioka Kenjiro and Yajima Jinkichi,,AMA _, ed., Soron _ _ (General) [= v. 1 of Asakura Shoten's Shuraku chiri koza (entry 64 )], Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1957, 419 pp., 135 illus. General problems of settlement geography are included in Volume one. Main chapters are 1) the history of settlement geography, 2) survey methods, 3) settlement locations, 4) morphology of settlements, 5) settlements and society, etc. Articles are contributed not only by geographers, but also by specialists in sociology, urban engineering, etc. 791. Kondo Yasuo ), Mura no kozo: nosanson no kaiso bunseki iT 4 j^-* X. tt 68T^^^ (Structure of villages: Class differentiation in farming and mountain villages)," Tokyo, Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1955, 450 pp. The structure of farming villages is conceived as a hierarchy of landholders. According to the processes of class differentiation, villages are classified into types. Twenty-two villages were considered' six in Tohoku, five in Kanto, eight in Chubu, and three in Kinki. In outlying districts the controlling class persists, metamorphosing from pre-landreform parasitic landowners to cultivating landowners, or by holding the control of agricultural, fishing or commerical associations. On the other hand, in areas where the development of traffic or urbanization changed such villages into suburbs, the hierarchy is collapsing. 792. Matsumura Yasuichi -, "Tamagawa keikoku Tanzaburo-mura no sanson seiritsu katei [ ^J^ - - 4 2 fIA ^ S (Development of Tanzaburo in the valley of the Tama into a modern mountain village), Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 12, 620-632. The Tama Valley was a commercial lumbering area in the Edo period. From the study on Tanzaburo Village in the Tama Valley, the following characteristics are summarized. Little class distinction existed concerning land ownership. Population was stagnant in the later part of Edo period. Farming was self-subsistent with emphasis on food crops. Forestry absorbed the surplus labor. 793. Morikawa Hiroshi " )1] jT, "Hiroshima-ken ni okeru chushin-,shurak-u no bumpu-to sono seni i X) Yr *a #' ^ko 4 ni (The distribution and transition of central places in Hiroshima Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 11, 595-613. The model of the distribution of central places presented by W. Christaller is disturbed by various factors such as traffic, population density, standard of living, etc. Morikawa analyzed the influence of such factors on the distribu tion of central places in Hiroshima Prefecture, and classified the types of central places into inland, coast and island types. In densely populated coastal areas, there develop large centers surrounded by small centers with slight central function. In sparsely populated inland areas, all the cities function as central places. The distribution of the central places in the early part of the Meiji era (middle nineteenth century) was almost the same as that of today. 794. Muramatsu Shigeki A4By^ ^, "Hompo ni okeru kaze to shuraku no kankei ni tsuite <- ] ^ f 7 (Influences of wind upon settlements in Japan)," Jimbun kenkyu, v. 7 (1956), no. 9, 1021-1037 The wind has much to do with the characteristics of settlements. Its influence is particularly evident on summer heat, coldness and snow in winter, and typhoons in the fall. The generally open structure of Japanese houses is explained by the hot summer. Houses in Hokuriku and Kanto are often mantled by trees for protection from the northwest winter monsoon. Devices against typhoons are to be seen in southern Shikoku, southern Kyushu and the Satsunan and Okinawa Islands where the

Page  126 126 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY houses are surrounded by stone fences, and roof tiles are cemented. 795. Muramatsu Shigeki i-f, Nihon shUraku chiri no kenkyu g2%.'t (Studies in Japanese settlement geography), Kyoto, Mineruba Shob5, 962, 430 pp. This book containes summaries of eleven articles on settlement geogranhy. The areas chosen are ones with characteristic settlement _tyoes, for instance the Yamato Basin, Hatano-shinden in Mino Province, the Kochi Plain, the delta olain of the Otagawa, the Tonami Plain in Toyama Prefecture, Hokkaido, etc. Two of the articles deal with general settlement types in Japan. 796. Muramatsu Shigeki ~ ^, "Nippon sonraku no tokushitsu $ t 19- 1133. (The character *f Japanese villages)," Jimbun kenkyu, v. 8 (1957), no. 10, 19- 1133. Following the revision of administrative laws in 1889, several old Edo Period mura were comibned to make new administrative mura. Former mura came to be called oaza under the new mura. Much of the social life, however, has been carried on with the oaza as its unit. Japanese villages are mostly agglomerated, and the oaza makes a convenient unit for mutual communication and other social life. This has helped to maintain the oaza in village life, but recent develonment of traffic and the diffusion of urban ways of life are working to enlarge the villagers' sphere of activity beyond the bounds of the oaza. 797. Muramatsu Shigeki,A "Tetorigawa senjochi no sonraku kyoju keitai P )iKA 0)-fYi d# 44L ' _ (The type of rural habitation of Tetori Alluvial Fan, Ishikawa Prefecture)," Jimbun kenkvu, v. 11 (1960), no. 2, 184-198. Settlement type in the alluvial fan of the Tetori River in Ishikawa Prefecture is agglomerated, in sharp contrast to the disseminated type in other fan areas of Hokuriku, such as the Tonami Plain and the Kurobe Fan in Toyama Prefecture. One of the reasons for this difference is the low water level in the Tetori Fan, which makes the people dependent on communal wells. Insufficiency of the river water of the Tetori is another element that obliges the farmers to cooperate to secure irrigation water in summer. 798. Nagai Masataro t j vjv, "Kakuzetsu shuraku no henka ni tsuite ^9 6A24 % ),n tAd D7Vt (The transition of isolated villaves)," Tohoku chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 3, 109-113. There are isolated villages on remote islands and in deep mountains. The process by which isolation disappears is discussed from examples in the Tohoku district. The examples discussed here are the Nakatsugawa and Tobishima Islands in Yamagata Prefecture, and Minote in Niigata Prefecture. The main reasons for the dissolution of isolation are the development of traffic in and near the settlements, the introduction of new industries, the development of tourism and some natural resources and the construction of dams. The enactment of the law for aid to isolated islands in 1953 with accompanying financial support caused not only economic development of the islands, but also helped to change the traditions and customs existing in remote islands. 799. Nagai Masataro F, Okitama chiho no gozoku shuraku X KL rW~o 15 6P (Manor settlements in Okitama [Yamagata Prefecture]), Tokyo, Kolcon Shoin, 1956, 67 pp. In the Yonezawa Basin, there are villages which originated from the houses of large landholders, comparable to the manor houses in Eurooe. Such houses in Tohoku were called zaika in the Middle Age, and taya in the Edo period. The house lots are 1-2 cho large, and are_surrounded by moats and embankments. Compared with the Kansai Regions, those in Tohoku are larger because they are the remains of large pieces of land reclaimed by samurai pioneers in the Edo period. 800. Nakamatsu Yashu At, A "Ryukyu-retto ni okeru sonraku no kozoteki seikaku, s r }tlcd^ _ __I_ (The structural character of the village in the Ryukyu Islands)," Jimbun chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 2, 113-138. Remanats are to be seen of the ancient ritual system in the structure of villages in the Ryukyu Islands. This is particularly evident in the arrangement of houses Makamatsu analyzes the arrangement and contrasts the location of houses which had been concerned in the rites with locally powerful families, and main families with branch families in the villages of the islands fro Amami-Oshima to the Yaeyama Islands. There is a hierarchical relation in the location of houses. Houses of families in charge of rites and founders of the villages are high in the hierarchy.

Page  127 SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY 127 801. Nakamura Keizaburo l t, "Nagano-ken Naniai-mura ni genson suru tochi warikae seido V ffA ^4 - fW ^ / v +A J (A land reallotment system still existing in Nagano Prefecture)," Chirigakl hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 4, 301-304. In areas where landslides frequently occur, it is often necessary to rearrange boundaries between private and common lands. In Kamiminochigun, Nagano Prefecture, reallotment of farmland is still carried on under a system originating about 160 years ago. It consists of the rearrangement of the boundaries of bunraku and the reallotment of farmlands within the buraku. 802. Nishikawa Osamu LI )i, "Noson shuraku no jimbun seitaigakuteki kenkyu U ta1t Tf ) ( ( A human ecological study of Japanese rural settlemeht)," Tokyo Daigaiku chirigaku kenkyu, no. 3 (1954), 51-96. Hitherto settlement geography mainly relied on a morphological approach, but Nishikawa asserts the importance of consideration of locational factors, as well as productive and political activities of the inhabitants. Such an approach was applied to settlements in eastern Japan with the same kin groups and proved to be effective for the study of human geography. 803. Noh Toshio it.,i "Marai hanto no no on ni okeru bunka keikan no minzokuteki kosi i4 7 i I4 f < XX At )h A (Ethnographi constitution of cultural landscape in rural settlements of the Malay Peninsula)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 60 (1951), no. 4, 13-16. In rural settlements of the Malay Peninsula, ethnographic structure is well reflected on settlement landscape. The agrarian settlements of Malays, the commercial settlements of Chinese and rubber plantations under Western influence are developed side by side and with little mixture of the various cultures. 804. Ogasawara Setsuo J}1. SA, "Korei kaitakuchi Yatsugatake aroku Nobeyama ni okeru shuraku no hembo ^.1 4 t \t r )5- fi s (Dispersion movement of the settlement in Nobeyama)," Jimbun chiri, v. 14 (1962), no. 1, 44-58. The village of Nobeyama is a product of postwar reclamation. Situated at the foot of the volcano Yatsugatake; it is noted for its high altitude and cool climate. At first, the settlers mainly raised cereals and beans, and lived near the railroad station in a clustered village. Later dairy farming and vegetable raising were introduced, and farming tended to be more intensive. When the inconvenience of living far from their farms was fully realized, farmers began to exchange or consolidate their farmland and settle on it. 805. Ogura Tsuyoshi )\ 4 A_, Tohoku no minka j d)~^ (House types of Tohoku), Tokyo, Sagara Shobo, 1955, 276 pp., 36 photos, 47 figures. This is an architectural study of house types in Tohoku, including much information related to geography. General reconnaissance, regional and historical background of house types and the diffusion of architectural technics are explained. Also discussed is the relationship between house types and farm life. A bibiliography of materials compiled in the Edo period concerning house types classified by feudal domain is attached as an appendix. 806. Okamoto Kaneyoshi 4- v A ", 1 9Kannto teichi ni okeru sanson no seiritsu to bichikei- 9X " l Pan tY (Dispersed settlement and its relation to the surface configuration on the deltaic plain of Kanto)," Jimbun chiri, v. 7 (1955), no. 3, 182-194. In Japan, villages having a dispersed settlement pattern are often found in the low delta plains. Examples of this occur in the swampy deltas of the Furu-Tone and the Edo-gawa. Their coexistence with larger agglomerated villages, which occupy the more or less raised natural levees, is explained as the result of later development in the lower parts of the plain. 807. Okamoto Kaneyoshi A] k11, "Kanto teichi sanson chiiki no shizenteki kozoto kyoju kiko ^ M ^ 4 i - - (Surface configuration and farm dwellings in te dispersed settlemtns of the Kanto Plain)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 21 (1954), no. 3, 96-107. In the lowland areas of the Kanto Plain, there are distinctive disseminated villages To explain the development of this village type, the author analyzed the types of early settlement of this area, the process of reclamation, and the relation to landforms. As the main reason for the development of disseminated settlements, the author points out that the people chose slightly elevated terrain within swampy lowlands as the site of habitation. 808. Okamoto Kaneyoshi *i~, tA-, "Sonraku keitai to eino kozo: Kanto teichi

Page  128 128 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY ni okeru chosa %- IY) T' v w(Settlement types and agricultural structure in the lowland area of Saitama Prefecture),' Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 2, 77-89. Settlement patterns are strongly influenced by landforms. Therefore, to analyze the relationship between settlement types and agricultural management, it is desirable to eliminate this influence. For this reason, 58 mura and machi in the Kanto lowland were chosen because the landform conditions are similar and also because they exhibit diversified types of agricultural management. Quantitative analyses were made concerning the density of habitation, percentage of tenantship, Darttime workers, acreage of farms, management, etc. 809. Okamoto Kaneyoshi 1 J/'S-, "Sonraku keitai to keiei kochi;'t//t, " ^~tL ~4(Types of settlement and the distribution of farms)," Bunpakubu ronso, 1958, no. 8, 80-98. Cultivated fields in Japan are divided into small catches and holdings are scattered. Small landholders usually own their land far from the settlement, and large holders near the village. The further from the village, the larger the catches of the fields. Due to the development of improved transportation, the need for the consolidation of landownership is less urgent than the need to make the matches larger. 810. Okamoto Kaneyoshi ', "Tsukushi heiya ni okeru sonraku kyoju AA 'f t 13 44f ti (Villa re communities in the Tsukushi Plain), Rissho Daigaku Bungakubu ronso, 1956, no. 5, 21-47. Villages in the Tsukushi Plain, northern Kyushu, are surrounded by numerous canals, creating a characteristic lowland landscape. There are three kinds of canals: for drainage, for irrigation, and those which are the result of excavation to build house-lots or arable land. The first two kinds of canals are large in scale and continuous, while the last kind is small in scale and discontinuous. 811. Okayama Daigaku Hobungakubu Chirigaku Kyoshitsu XbK/'j 3, 'Vl'J 2- - v "Kozan shuhen noson ni okeru kengyo noka no jittai, Ajd )AL'4,~ l )A X (Problems of subsidiary farming: especially in a case of a village situated near a mine)," Jimbun chiri, v. 14 (1962), no. 5, 333-358. Near Yanahara Mine, Okayama Prefecture, there are many farming households whose adult male members are working as miners. Because of low wages and job insecurity at the mine, they dare not leave the farms; but the burden of the work on the farms is laid on the shoulders of the women members. This is comparable to farming household members commuting to the cities from the surrounding urban areas. In both cases, the situation retards or prevents increased productivity and modernization of farming; and in both cases the fundamental reason for such practices is low wages and employment insecurity. 812. Osaka Shiritsu Daigaku Chirigaku Kyoshitsu TkB t j t s 9 (Institute of Geography, Osaka City University), "Tonami sanson no kenkyu j) 0 & (Studies of the dispersed settlement of Tonami)," Jimbun kenkyu, v. 5 (1954), no. 9, 721-808. The alluvial fan of the Sho River, Toyama Prefecture, is called the Tonami Plain and is the scene of disseminated villages, which are rare in Japan. The colonization of the fan started in the seventeenth century on slightly elevated locations. The water for drinking and irrigation was available all over the fan, and the farmers carried on highly self-subsistent farming. Houses were scattered and surrounded by the owner's fie-dls. 813. Saito Mitsunori. nfi {', '"Kitakamigawa churybu ni okeru sonraku kozo no chiikiteki ruikei ) ' 1 F ^ A (Types of village structure in the valley of the middle stream of the Kitakami River)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 7, 430-446. Saito chooses the relationships between landowners and tenants, blood kinship, and social class distinctions as indicators in understanding the structure of rural settlements in the Kitakami Valley. From a classification of village types based on the combination of these indicators the following were observed to have existed in the prewar days: mountain village types, predominantly rice field types, minute management types, and marginal area types. 814. Sato Jinjiro 4ii t, "Nippon noka no tatemono kosei to haichi hohb _~:~2o (Structure and planning of Japanese farm buildings)," Jimbun chiri, v. 14 (1962), no. 6, 445-464. In southwest Japan farm houses have detached buildings with various functions, while in Northeast Japan the parts with different functions are included within the main house. This difference is due to the weather. In Southwest Janan the weather during

Page  129 129 SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY the harvest season is generally good and the threshing and other work can be done in the open air. In Northeast Japan, on the other hand, much of the work must be done in the house because of bad weather; hence, the difference in architecture. 815. Setonaikai Sogo Kenkyukai X l I A, Sanson no seikatsu SJ4 4)0 4 ' (Life in mountain villages), Okayama, Setonaikai Sogo Kenkyukai, 1955, 432 pp. This is part of a cooperative research project carried out by a group of scholars on the Inland Sea area. The parts on agricultural villages and fishing villages were previously published. As the survey area, O-buraku, Tomi-mura, Tomata-gun in Okayama Prefecture was chosen. Main topics are: the location and physical environment, analysis of historical documents concerning the village, the development of agriculture after Meiji, etc. As economic characteristics, landownership from Meiji until World War II and the processes of the development of mountain economy are discussed.Sociological problems dealt with are the structure of families in the Edo period, familysuccession, social institutions and people's consciousness of them, and sanitary conditions, etc. As members of the group, there are specialists in geology, forestry, sociology, anthropology, medicine, history, animal husbandry, architecture, and education. 816. Sugimoto Hisatsugu j4.<i, "Nishi Nippon ni okeru minka no chirigakuteki kosatsu p |t)W X Vt, ^^^ ^ (A geographical study of rural houses in Western Japan)," Jimbun chiri, v. 9 (1958), no. 6, 445-460. As roofing materials, miscanthus and shingles are frequently used in mountain villages and isolated islands. Use of the tiles is spread near the tile producing places, and is spreading from the cities to rural areas. Main roof types are yosemune and irimoya. In general, the distribution of roof types largely coincides with regional divisions by landform. 817. Sugimoto Naoji 47t, "Nishi Nihon ni okeru minka madorigata no chiikisei p ] s l^e-^ ^' W ) t ~'x (Types of rural house plans and their regionality in western Japan)," Chirigaku hvoron; v. 34 (1961), no. 5, 279-294. All over Japan, houses with W shaped four-room plans are predominant. Besides this, other house-types are classified into six categories and their distribution is described. The distribution of the names of the rooms reflects the various cultural areas and the routes of their diffusion. Attention is given to the tendency in mountain villages to concentrate in the main building the rooms in which the functions of daily life are carried out. 818. Tada Fumio and Ishida Ryujiro, Toshi no sonraku no chiri (Geograohy of cities and villages) [= v. 4 of Kawade Shobo's Gendai chiri koza (entry 68)], Tokyo, Kawade Shobo,1956, 336 pp. Classification of cities based on various standards are discussed, followed by the geography of metropolitan areas in Japan, which is described in detail. There are articles on urban climate, taking the example of Tokyo. Different types of rural settlements are described concerning those both in Japan and in the Western world. The historical geography of Japanese rural settlement is especially detailed. 819. Tanioka Takeo /~ %, "Shuraku shakai no shinka to shogyoteki nogyo 119 U~ A 0)d i,4 LY t 8(Evolution of rural settlement and commerca agriculture)," Ritsumeikan bungaku, no. 113 (1954), 602-635. There are examples in which secluded villages with self-subsistent farming were rejuvinated by the introduction of commercial agriculture under the influence of cities. On the other hand, the introduction of commercial agriculture often disorganizes community life through differentiation into classes. The processes are moderated, for instance, by turning commercialization to the improvement of the standard of living. The changes in the secluded villages are analyzed by an example of a village in the mountainland to the east of the Yamashiro Basin. 820. Umezaki Hideharu * *, "Yamato bonchi ni okeru 'Ukezutsumi' no kino to bumpu )q\_ IA -* I3t e YVt V%# (The function and distribution of ud:ezutsumi or protection banks in the Yamato Basin)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 10, 590-601. In the Yamato Basin, there are special embankments to protect the villages from floods. These embankments are called ukezutsumi, and their origin is said to date from ancient days, although the precise date is unknown. The climatic environment of the basin is unreliable, and the basin is susceptible to cron failures due to

Page  130 130 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY both droughts and floods. The ukezutsumi are a device developed under such circumstances, which have played and still play an important role in the organization and unity of community life. 821. Watanabe Yoshio 'A fr, "Yamagata-ken Shinjo-bonchi ni okeru noson 'akushin shuraku no surei -Ly i f X Xip (Some aspects of the latest formation and removal of rural center villages in the Shinjo Basin, Yamagata Prefecture)," Tohoku chiri, v. 7 (1955), no. 3, 100-107. In the rural area of the Shonai Basin, Yamagata Prefecture, there are often cases in which an administrative unit, mura, has only one nucleus village. These nuclei are usually service centers Awith public offices, and when these offices happen to move, the nuclei also move. The reasons for the instability of central places are explained as follows. Urban development is low, and the function of rural centers is large. Due to the underdevelopment of manufacturing, the function of administrative institutions in overwhelming. Because of low population density and the large areaof administrative unit, the central location of service centers is indispensable, and one is usually chosen as the site of administrative offices. 822. Yajima Jinkichi V vX 1 -, "Gumma-ken Kaburagawa ryuiki ni okeru taniguchi shuraku no kenkyu (A study of the settlement to the north of the Kabura Valley in Gumma Prefecture)," Jimbun chiri, v. 6 (1954), no. 3, 169-181. Yajima chose Shimonita-machi as an example of a settlement developed at the mouth of a valley opening into a plain. This town has the upper valley of the Kabura River as its hinterland. Such mountain villages are by no means economically selfsubsistent, but are closely tied to the economy of the plain. Shimonita-machi functions as a market town. The characteristics of settlements in valley mouths are clarified by the study of the economy of the mountain villages and of the plains. 823. oYajima Jinkichi \x- 823. _ _Yajima Jinkichi ff d-^ "~, "Kita-Kanto ni okeru Taniguchi-shuraku no kiso kozo: tokuni Gumma-ken Shibukawa-machi ni tsuite A ],,t w t ^&/ 9 ^. - 'l:T/f A A Ji;))'1 _ T (The town of Shibukawa, a valley mouth settlement in Northern Kanto)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 1, 10-19. At the opening of valleys into plains a characteristic type of settlement often develops. Shibukawa-machi in Northern Kanto is chosen as an example of such ~ralleymouth settlements. The characteristics of the town are discussed in detail- historical background, structure of the town, land ownership, and the geographic nature of its hinterland. 824. Yajima Jinkichi, Shuraku chirigaku - X (Settlement geography), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 195T, 394 pp. This book consists of two parts: rural geography and urban geography. After a general introduction, the development of rural settlements is described in detail with reference to historical ages. The characteristics of settlements in various physical environments are explained, and the relation between settlement types and their functions is discussed. In the section on urban geogranhy, the historical development of cities both in Japan and abroad is first described. City types are explained in regard to their plans and elevations. Finally, functions of cities concerning production, consumption and trade are analyzed. 825. Yajima Jinkichi,A -1i-, Shuraku chosaho 5 2 pp. i (Methods of rural settlement research)," Tokyo, Kokin Shoin,1958, 24 pp. This is a very detailed and practical guide for the research of settlements, especially rural settlements, and historical cities in Japan. Practical methods for the preliminary study of maps and reference books, how to collect information in the field and how to keep records are explained fromYajima's own abundant experience. Main chapters deal with settlement history, locational factors, cultural landscape, and settlement functions. 826. Yamaguchi Gengo d 2 ik y, "Kokyo nogyo shuraku no jogen kako 1tu VraX " ^O))T^4(F'P (The lowering of the upper limit of an agricu ltural settlement, Kitagawa)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 8, 398-402. The highest agricultural village in Japan is Kitagawa on the western side of the Akaishi Range, Nagano Prefecture, situated at a height of 1490 m. From the field survey of this village, it was apparent that physical conditions here are very unfavorable for agriculture, and the maximum level for growing was lowered to 1300 m. The lowering started immediately after the decline of sericulture; and some villagers were compelled to abandon farming, sell their fields, and leave the village. 8 2 7 Yamamoto Shozo - — ~j~ "Mikanchitai no noka: Shizuoka-ken chubu

Page  131 SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY 131 chiiki no rei X ^ s} (Farmhouses in the orange region: the case of the central part of Shizuoka Prefecture)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 1 (1957), 135-158. In the mandarin orange producing area of Shizuoka Prefecture, a special house type has developed. The houses are characterized by storehouses for oranges, and extensions attached to the main house. There are variations within the type according to farmsize, and the process of type formation was also different. 2. Urban 828. Fujimoto Toshiharu *4 41i e, Dogyosha_machi )t A& X f (Streets with concentration of the same occupation), Kyoto, Yukonsha, 1963, 242 np. There are streets in which people of the same occupation gather, giving a distinctive outlook to cities. This is particularly true of merchants and craftsmen. The origin of such streets is explained historically, and the factors that maintained them are discussed. Special references are made to the streets of wholesalers in textiles, fans, lumber, religious instruments and drugs in Kyoto, and dealers in lumber and drugs in Osaka. 829. Fujisawa Hiromitsu _ % X _, Chiho toshi no seitai YL~ 101 l (Ecology of local cities), Tokyo, Nihon Hyoron Shinsha, 1958, 327 pp. In 1953 the Municipal Amalgamation law was enacted, and by 1958 more than 200 new shi were born, based on this law. Compared with the 284 shi which existed before the amalgamation, the new shi are different in many ways. As an example of a new shi, Fujisawa chose Fuji-Yoshida, Yamanashi Prefecture, and analyzed its characteristics from the standpoint of agrarian economics. In the interpretation of urban-rural relations and the human relations of the citizens, a sociological approach is also used. 830. _ Furukawa Kiyoshi i)15 I "Seto uchi ni okeru rekishiteki toshi no kogyoteki saisei 7} (Regeneration of feudal towns through industrialization in the Seto uchi area)," Jimbun chiri, v. 9 (1957), no. 5, 357-376. Most of the cities in the Inland Sea area originated as feudal castle towns, norts and stage towns. After the Meiji Restoration, they lost these functions and temporarily declined. Following the industrialization of the nation as a whole, they gradually picked up manufacturing industries and enlarged. Today, the main industries developed in this area are ship-building, the cotton industry, and the chemical industry. The former two started in this area in the Edo Period and were regenerated as modern industries. Location factors favorable to the area are closeness to the Osaka-Kobe area market, and to the coal producing area of North Kyushu, and a relatively abundant supply of water. 831. Hattori Keijiro Xfi VP 4-, "Toshi kino no oyobosu saka no eikyo IecTT alsotal^^ l?"? j7 s ffi~Sp (Influences of sloping roads upon urban function, esnecially on road pattern)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 3, 111-121. The city of Tokyo is located on both upland and alluvial lowland. Accordingly, there are saka or slope roads. Within the central part of the city there are about 400-500 slope roads. Hattori surveys their distribution and analyzes their relation to the road pattern. The construction of roads in connection to slope is classified into three categories 1) avoiding the slope, 2) making a detour, and 3)searching for a less steep slope. 832. Hattori Keijiro K Be, Kagaya Kazuoyoshi r and Inanaga Sachio O g < f, "Tokyo shuhen ni okeru chiiki kozo, Is, }ON A a -l _ (The regional structure of the surrounding areas of Tokyo)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 10, 495-513. The regional structure of an area surrounding Tokyo is analyzed by means of a factor analysis using 16 factors as indexes. Difference in characteristics is evident between the areas along main traffic routes running in four directions from Tokyo and the areas located between them. The former have a more urban character, of which the western suburbs are the most urban. Factors indicating urbanization, distribution of residences, development of factories are the most adequate indicators of regional strcuture. 833. Inami Etsuji kg _ "Jokamachi no sensai fukko to chiiki kozo no hembo ~-f 0 '&t^ ^ g A t (The nostwar reconstruction of a castle twon and the consequential change in regional structure)," Jimbun chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 3, 227-246. The form and structureof Japanese cities have changed since their destruction by

Page  132 132 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY World War II. The change is especially large in the former castle towns. Inami chooses Himeji as an example of the cities originating from former castle towns, and describes the changes of road apttern, the changes of civic centers and C.B.D., expansion of residential areas to outlying districts, etc. 834. Inami Etsu i, "Risairitsu to sensai toshi jutaku no fukkoritsu to no kankei *M ^r I t - XM<t Ao (The war damage and reconstruction in the cities of Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 5, 396-412. During World War II 20% of the Japanese houses were destroyed. The quantity of the loss was larger in big cities, but the percentage of the destruction was higher in smaller cities. Housing problems in the later stage of the war, right after the war, and the progress of the reconstruction are analyzed. The speed of reconstruction differs according to the classification of characteristics of the cities. 835. Ishimizu Teruo 67g K\ A i, "Toshi no chushinchiteki kino to sono kukanteki tenkai t Atf 6 a 9 f I (The urba; central fuction and its spatial features), Ehime Daigaku kiyo, v. 3 (1960-1961), nos. 3 and 4, 157-169, 39-66. The relation between the centrality of a city and its original function is studied. Ishimizu devised an index to show centrality, and calculated the figures for Utsunomiya and fourteen adjacent cities. These figures are compared to the degree of dependence on the centers obtained by questionnaire method, and proved to be valid. I1 836. Ito Gohei dI atf, Chiho toshi no kenkyu: atarashii Toyohashi,,jivc i&4 t- PTI An t (New Toyohashi: a study on a local city), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1954, 205 pp. This is a regional geography of the city of Toyohashi with emphasis on industry. Main chapters are; location, agriculture, the manufacturing industry, the urban area, and prospects for the future. The cotton industry had an early start in Toyohashi, which is still an important textile center. Economically it is still subordinate to Nagoya, Osaka, and Tokyo. 837. Ito Tsukei _,Toshi no seitai to keikaku Stt (Urban ecology and planning), Tokyo, Gihodo, 1961, 289 pp. The importance of city planning based on the understanding of cities as regions is emphasized. Part one is titled "The cities and city planning," and the basic concept of cities and the problems of the arrangement of urban land use are discussed. In part two, "The mathematics of city structure," the practical methods of the application of planning are explained with much emphasis on their quantitative treatment. 8D8. Kanazaki Hajime a, "Nanao-shi no kankeiken AL / t if It Vanao City's sphere of relationship)," Jimbun chiri, v. 1 (1959), no. 2, 116-132. Two spheres of interest are considered. One is the sphere of commerce and daily life. The other is larger, an area from which merchandise and raw materials are imported. The sphere of interest of Nanao in the former sense is competing with those of Kanazawa and Takaoka, and has not succeeded in including the whole of Noto Peninsula. The sphere of interest in the latter sense is suprisingly large, and virtually covers all of Japan. 839. Kiji Setsuro Bl K ~,, "Toshi-nai ni okeru kouri shoken no kosaku kankei 4 )},.9 X ~ X - (Overlap of trade areas of shopping streets)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 12, 507-517. Trade areas are governed by the extent to which the merchandise moves, and this can be applied to retail shops as well. In the case of retail shops, the customers visit the shops and bring the goods home. Therefore, the trade areas are limited by residential sections even when they are in the central business district. Taking Kyoto as an example, the relations of trade areas and their overlapping are explained. 840 Kiuchi Shinzo "Ch ih t, "Chihotoshi no seicho ni kansuru shomondai I-tAe0l l^Mt A' Is g Adia -(Inaustrial development of local cities and towns, examples from Niigata Prefecture),"Tokyo Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu, no. 3 (1954), 167-177. The extremeconcentration of population in large cities, especially in Tokyo and the Osaka-Kobe districts must be moderated by encouraging the growth of kernel cities as centers of local economy and culture. As a model of such development, a case in Niigata Prefecture is introduced. Sanjo and Tsubame in Niigata Prefec

Page  133 SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY 133 ture are noted for the development of the metalware industry. These cities have absorbed the rural population around them. In neither of the cases are locational factors very favorable. Both raw materials and techniques were imported, and the industry was developed by local capital using local labor. 841. Kiuchi Shinzo t, Yamaga Seiji vLb, Q Shimizu Keihachiro \^^JJ d S m, and Inanaga Yukio Nihon no toshika qf (Urbanization in Japan), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1964, 187 pp. This is a summary of the studies made by Japanese geogrpahers in recent vears. Among them the main events are the section on urbanization in the Regional Conference of IGU in Tokyo in 1957, the establishment of a committe on urbanization by the Associatain of Japanese Geographers in 1958, and the symposium on urbanization in the Pacific Science Congress in Honolulu in 1960. Emphasis is given to the activity of the committee in the association and not to the introduction of Japanese geography in general. 842. Kobayashi Tokisaburo )J _, "Toshi-shogyo no kino bunseki ni kansuru ichi kosatsu j l j ) iJYt OIN )A1Z _-; (A study on the commerical function of the towns of Tsugaru)," Tohoku kaihatsu kenkyu, v. 3 (1963), no. 1, 64-69. Four types of commerce in Tsugaru Province in Aomori Prefecture are classified 1) closed type in which merchandise is purchased and sold within the area, 2) concentration type in which merchandise is purchased in other areas and sold here, 3) dispersion type in which merchandise is purchased in the area and sold outside, and 4) transit type in which merchandise is purchased from and sold to other regions. The important thing for regional development is the degree to which the proportion of the trade of the dispersion type should be raised. In Tsugaru Province closed and concentration types are predominant, and only in Hirosaki is the dispersion type a little developed. 84 3 Komori Seiji 1\ t, "Toshi no kibo to sangyo ritchi A )t <JI t /S-A 1A-< ~(Industrial location and city size)," Jimbun chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 5, 487-511. Population size of cities comprises a standard of their minimum industrial activities. The increased ratio of working population in accordance with the increase of urban population is most evident in the,Tertiary industries. The role of cities as central areas is porportionate to the size of the cities. Manufacturing industries for highly sophisticated goods attract more population than others. 844. Kurematsu Shizue y g ' X-, "Metropolitanization no kiko to hosoku OP l -9:::- AC- g ~-i / 8 0 *-4tf i A (The structure and rules of metropolitanization),". Chirigaku hyoron, v. 35 (1962), no. 11, 541-569. Using the figures of migrations and commuters to the Osaka-Kobe area, the structure and rule of the metropolitanization of the Nara Basin are analyzed. The regional structure of the metropolitan community will be worked out historically as a composite of the changes from agricultural to commercial and industrial systems, and from medium-and-small-city centric to a system dominated by huge cities. There are four functional and structural unit areas which together centripetally form an organic total. 845. Kuwajima Katsuo A S, "G oshu kosei kara mita toshin shoten-gai no hatten katei '.t > f,, %JA t _ (Development of central shopping streets),'Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 12, 649-660. The development of central shopping streets is discussed on the basis of examples of the Ginza in Tokyo, Sendai, Yamagata, and Shiroishi. As the cities expand, the ratio of stores dealing in goods to be purchased from the central shopping area lowers. The rapidness with which stores dealing in goods for the customer from long distances becom concentrated is influenced by economic changes and also by accidents like earthquakes and war destruction. The speed of concentration in the Ginza, which reflects its overgrowth, is stagnant; it is rapid in Sendai and Yamagata. In Shiroishi the speed is slow, as the result of immaturity. 846. Kuwajima Katsuo bA, "Shohin kara mita toshin shotengai no seikaku a y -e ^ / (Characteristics of central shopping-streets determined by commodities)," Tohoku chiri,, v. 15 (1963), no. 1, 7-14. According to Kuwajima central shopping streets are developed in areas where land value is highest in the respective city, and where the shops dealing with luxury goods make more than half of the total. The results of a survey of the Ginza in

Page  134 134 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY Tokyo, Kawara-machi in Kyoto, Ichibancho in Sendai, Gofuku-machi in Shizuoka, etc. are compared. The ratio of shops of luxury goods versus those for daily necessities becomes higher in proportion to the size of the population of the cities. The highly developed shopping streets with a high percentage of shops of luxury goods are large trade areas. 847. Kuwajima Katsuo i -, "Shohin no kakaku to shiikibetsu shotengai t~f A/M W J]L A YC /A A (Price of commodities and classification of shopping-streets)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 4, 232-237. The distribution of prices of classified commodities found in the shopping areas of Sendai is surveyed, and remarkable differences are found. Expensive commodities and luxury items are handled only in shopping areas in the urban center. The function of shopping streets may be indicated by the prices of commodities, and the prices may be used to compare one city with others. 848. Mizuno Tokiji o(1 t;-, "Nagoya joka-mahi no hokakushiki machiwari A "Naoy W' * >8 Tt(The checker-patterned street project in the castle town of Nagoya)," Jimbun chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 2, 139-159. It isthe general belief that city planning in castle towns is based on the model of Kyoto. In Nagoya, however, Mizuno found a section to the south of the castle in which an area 11 cho east to west, and 8 cho north to south was divided into 88 square blocks. Thus, the original planning for the castle town of Nagoya was different from the system used in Kyoto. 849. Morikawa Hirohsi >)1] ', "Kumamoto-ken ni okeru chushinchi kozo no sen'i,^t^u fnt 1^are^an ma (Transition of the structure of central areas in umamoto Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 9, 471-486. In Kumamoto Prefecture metropolitan areas do not develop and the growth of the manufacturing industry is low. The changes in the development of central areas are summarized as follows. Until the end of the Nineteenth century when dependence on central areas was strong and traffic was poorly developed, the number of central areas rapidly increased. As traffic developed, competition among the central areas was strengthened and, as a result, powerful centers rapidly grew, while minor centers declined. The decline of minor centers was alos due to improved services in the rural areas. 850. Moriwaki Ryoji ut _ and Watanabe Akira "Miyagi-ken ni okeru sabisuken ni tsu te e )P 1-T I h f T V (Service areas in Miyagi Prefe'cture)," Tohoku chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 2, 82-91. Using the enquete method, the relation of shopping, amusement, and medical treatment is analyzed for the pre-amalgamation administrative units. Percentages of dependence on central places are used to define the serivce areas. There are twentyfive central places identified by this method in Miyagi Prefecture, and the size of the areas is proportionate to the population such central places attract. 851. Nihon Toshi Senta Kenkyubu 91+/ -jV VT (Research Division of Nihon City Center), Toshi no Saikaihatsu Aft' (Urban Renewal), Tokyo, Nihon Toshi Senta, 1960, 172 pp. Renewal or rearrangement of urban centers is carried on in some Japanese cities, and much is learned from the precedent of the United States. As the structure of Japanese cities is different from that of the American cities, the problems of urban renewal are also different. Such problems are described in their relation to city planning, finance, and city administration. 852. Nishimura Mutsuo, "Toshi no baiyoken w* A (The hinterland and the urban area)," Ritsumeikan bungaku, no. 219 (1963), 21-43. The relation between the service areas and the number of households in the Nara Basin and in an area to the south of the Lake Biwa during the early Meiji era is analyzed. In the later half of the paper, basic service activity is estimated in terms of total population of the service area minus the population of the central area. When the population of a municipality coincides with this figure, it may be assumed that the administrative unit represents the service area of the city. 853. Noh Toshio t + L f, "Shokugyo kosei kara mita Tohoku no toshi ^C*lt4A } 9ei fAct (^F (Cities in Tohoku seen from the occupational structure)," Tohoku chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 4, 153-154. Working populations of TThoku cities are classified into primary, secondary and Tertiary industries. The respective proportions are very indicative of the charac

Page  135 SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY 135 teristics of the cities. The small cities have a higher proportion of primary industries. In medium cities, the proportion of secondary industries is relatively high. Large and mature cities in Tohoku are characterized by a high proportion of Tertiary industries, and a relatively low figure of secondary industries. 854. Sawada Kiyoshi ~JI} 4, "Chiho shoken no hen'yo to kotsu A iWt a sL _uur (Historical changes of trade areas of local towns in the northeri suburbs of Tokyo)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 3 (1959), 51-64. Among the factors that change the trade areas of local cities, changes in the means of transportation are important. In modern Japan the increasing use of smaller vehicles like small automobiles, tricycles, and bicycles is very important as a factor for change in the trade areas of local cities. Their relation to the patterns of road network is mainly studied. Taking Omiya and Urawa in Saitama Prefecture, the conditions in 1932 and 1958 are compared. Nowadays, both cities are included in the commuting area to Tokyo and changes in their trade areas are rather slow. Urawa is especially a bedtown of Toky5. Omiya has a fairly large farming area around it, and the influence of the newly built farm roads on the expansion of its trade area in such rural areas is pointed out. 855. Sawada Kiyoshi }iff 41, "Toshiken to kotsuryu: omoni Nagoya chiho no baai - (City region and traffic flow: chiefly in the case of the Nagoya region)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 1 (1957), 87-102. The percentage of the passengers traveling to a particular city as against total passengers is used as an index, and is calculated for Nagoya, Osaka and Ichinomiya. The isohypse of 50% indicates the boundary of an areas in which the influence of the city is predominant in cases of cities with a population of a million. For medium and minor cities the boundary corresponds to the 20% line. Around the influence area of Nagoya, such areas of minor centers are arranged in approximately the same distances. 856. Shimazaki Minoru Xj 4 4 n and Kitagawa Ryukichi j |ffiY Gendai Nihon no toshi shakai \1 (Urban society in modern Japan), Tokyo, San'ichi Shob5, 1963, 320 pp. The urban society which includes two thirds of the population in present day Japan is analyzed from the view point of capitalistic social structure. Postwar urban society in Japan clearly consists of two classes- the capitalists and wage laborers. Many defects are to be found in city planning from the viewpoint of these classes. 857. Sugimura Nobuji M/ - +h _, "Hompo sho-toshi ni okeru chushin shotengai no hikaku kenkyEu 4 \ I- -. (A comparative study of central shopping streets in Japanese cities)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 12, 633-643. Central shopping streets are indicative of commercial capacity of cities. To measure the capacity the following items on each central shopping street are compared: specialized shops, shops selling expensive merchandise, purchase capacity for expensive goods, land value along the street, and illumination. The author found that the types of central shopping street vary and are not always controlled by population size. 858. Sugimura Nobuji 44, "Nippon no toshi no chushin shotengai to sono tempo gA T B t 0 f\: 3 By fib (Shopping streets and their shops in the cities of Japan)," Chirigaku zasshi, v. 67 (1958), no. 4, 208-218. With the growth of cities, there develop central shopping streets. The proportion of shops dealing in suits, clothing, luxury goods, etc. gets higher in larger cities than in small cities, and greater in central areas than in the outskirts. The larger the cities are, the bigger the average floor space of the shops. Comparing the composition of shops in the central shopping streets with that of twenty years ago, the decrease of shops of cloths, drugs, toilet goods, books, stationers and business offices, and the increase of tailors and coffee shops are remarkable. 859. Suzuki Tadashi A *, "Kagoshima-ken no toshi kais5 to bumpu no bunseki A dv f 1 (Types of cities and distribution in KagosHima Prefecture)," Jimbun chiri, v. 14 (1962), no. 3, 236-255 The relative size and importance of cities in Kagoshima Prefecture is compared in two chosen periods: the late period of feudalism, and 1960. The following categories are elements counted in the first period: yields of rice, samurai population, number of armed men in 1870, stages, and ports. For modern cities, thirty elements

Page  136 136 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY were taken, such as population, industry and commerce, traffic and communication, culture, tourism, etc. In 1870 Kagoshima alone was a city of importance, and there was a sharp distinction between Kagoshimaand other cities. In 1960 the findings indicated that Kagoshima was still the most important city of the prefecture. 860. Takano Fumio ff (The, "Toshika no ruikei to gainen kitei E Tit i tt fl A t t (The types and definition of 'urbanization')," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 12, 629-641. Urbanization is classified into four types, large city type, reg-ional center type, industrialization type, and mixed type. These types represent historically different stages in the development of economy. The regional center type is typically seen before the development of modern technics of production. The industrialization type is brought about by the development of modern manufacturing industry, and the large city type shows the stage of production of monopolistic capitalism. These types materialize from a particular combination of landuse, means of production, and the condition of labor. 861. Tanabe Ken'ichi ci -, "Chirigaku ni okeru toshi chosa no hoho to kadai f Mr E +St e f L E g (Geographical study of the city)," Toshi mondai, v. 45 (1954), no. 5, 25-33. Tanabe chooses forty-one papers on cities in T5hoku and classified them. Sixteen papers dealing with Sendai are analyzed with special care. For the analysis of areal differentaition, a single element is compared to multiple elements, and the effectiveness of the latter is emphasized. 862. Tanabe Kentichi ' I32-.., "Minato to kogy5 to chiiki chushinsei: chiho chushintoshi no kensetsu A j X ^ A j e:E (Port, industry, and centrality: geographic significance in the planning of a regional center)," Toshi mondai kenkyu, v. 15 (1962), no. 4, 57-68. Regional development plans in postwar Japan were first based on the idea of areal development in which areas were considered homogeneously. Recently the idea of nodal areas has become strong, and many plans for industrialization with construction of ports as their core are being made in various districts. Industrialization does not always strengthen centrality, and the interest in localcities as central areas contradicts this new trend. 863. Tanabe Ken'ichi @fi _-, "Toshi kennai ni okeru chiiki teki ketsugo kankei no henka j v y 1 / ) (Change in the regional combination relations within a metropolitan region)," Toshi mondai kenkyu, v. 10 (1958), no. 6, 37-50. Areal differentiation of a metropolitan area is influenced by the structure of production. An example of ideal structre is presented by diagram. Then the example of Yonezawa Basin is analyzed. Here the areal structure of production is more of an isolated area, but it is a part of a much wider structural area in regard to consumption. Thus, the areal structure differs in production and consumption. 86)4. Tokyo Daigaku Sog5 Kenkyukai It If, ff\ A ge< (Society for the study of general culture), Nihon no toshi mondai T T Iltm (Urban problems of Japan), T5kyo, Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1963, 314 pp. This is a text for a seminar held at T5kyo University in the spring of 1962. The seminar on urban problems was held through the cooperation of specialists in various fields such as economics, law, engineering, medicine, and so on. The topics included are economy, traffic problems, housing policies, education, crime, public welfare, disasters and city planning. 865. Ueno Shiyakusho Lm, r Ueno-shi shoken ch5sa 1[A A tA, (The trade area of Ueno City)," enoCmie), Ueno Shiyakusho, 1956, 202 pp. The city of Ueno, Mie Prefecture, carried out a study collecting information through the help of students of 35 junior high schools. The survey area covers two cities, eight towns, and twelve villages. Ueno is a city surrounded by agricultural areas. 18 items were chosen, and the area in which the dependence upon shops in Ueno is above 10% is defined as the trade area of Ueno. The relation with trade areas of adjacent cities competing with Ueno is also discussed. 866. Watanabe Shir5 ^ flJW, "Hitachi-shi ni okeru toshika gensho,fi!' 4r Aft jJ Em (Patterns of urbanization in the suburbs of Hitachi City)," T5hoku chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 4, 121-128. Hitachi, Ibaraki Prefecture, is a growing industrial city. Watanabe uses the record of applications for changing the land from agricultural to other uses. The largest

Page  137 LINGUISTIC GEOGRAPHY 137 applicant is the Hitachi Manufacturing Company, and the next largest is Hitachi City. The most frequent use of the land is for houses to rent, followed by factories. 867. Yamaga Seiji 4 1 4'., "Chiba-shi no sh5tengai. dai toshi ken ni okeru chutoshi no sh5gyo kino fA I ~ tf — ZT ^, Vf tT A ff (Shopping streets of Chiba City, a medium-sized town in the Tokyo metropolitan area)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 3, 170-180. To study the influence of the large city of Tokyo on adjacent small cities, three cities of different distances from Tokyo are chosen. These are Urawa, Chiba, and Utsunomiya. Special emphasis is given to Chiba in the study of shopping streets, and the other two cities are used as a comparison of Chiba. It is concluded that Utsunomiya, the farthest city from Tokyo, still maintains its character as an independent local center, while Urawa, the nearest to Tokyo has already become the suburbs of Tokyo. Chiba falls between, and is in a transitional stage from the former to the latter. 868. Yamaga Seiji it,' B Toshi chirigaku titf (Urban geography), TokyS, Taimeido, 1964, 193 pp. Part one is a general text of urban geography consisting of four chapters, 1) geographical meaning of cities. 2) urban development and urban functions. 3) urban structure and urban areas. 4) urban problems and city planning. Part two is a collection of Yamaga's former articles in urban geography. Main topics discussed here are development of secondary centers in large cities, urbanization in the outskirst of large cities, and satellite cities. 869. Yamaga Seiji 4, Toshi chosa ho ~ l v (Methods of urban survey), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1963, 181 pp. Technics and principles of urban geography are explained. After a general description of the recent trend of urban studies, the processes of the research common to all the related fields are explained with a detailed explanation of the terminology used. The later half concerns discussions of topics classified by different aspects of cities. 870. Yasaki Takeo 34 A, Nihon toshi no hattenkatei fla.l to r\ iiAt (Development of cities in Japan), Tokyo, Kobundo, 1962, 464 pp. The development of Japanese cities is discussed from a human ecological approach. Yasaki thinks that former studies are mostly static, and intends to present a dynamic study. Characteristics of cities in different historical ages are explained in their relation to economic and political circumstances. 871. Yoshida Isekichi t a + P, "Shodo ni yoru toshido to toshi naibu kozo ^X,s, BytF^ A! a, ^ AX7 (Urban pattern and its index: a study of illumination), T5hoku chiri, v. 7 (1954), no. 2, 70-73. Yoshida tries to classify the grades of main streets in Koriyama City, Fukushima Prefecture, which has a population of about 70,000. He bases his study on the grade of illumination from 7.00 to 8.30 p.m. 1) Districts above 2.0 lux meter: main business and amusement centers. 2) 0.1-2.0 lux meter: districts where factories were established early; residences, and public offices are mixed. 3) 0.01-0.1: residential areas at the margin of the city. F. Linguistic Geography 1. Dialects 872. Masai Yasuo t, "Izu hanto nambu ni okeru gengo chirigakuteki kenkyI sfXX A A a (A linguistic geography in the southern part of Izu Peninsula)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 11, 555-569. Twelve towns and villages in the southern part of the Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, are chosen, and the pronounciations of several selected words are studied and recorded using phonetic symbols. It is discovered that within such a small area there are regional differences in pronounciation. Often pronounciations are different on each side of a mountain, reflecting different historical and social backgrounds. 2. Place Name Studies 873. Kagami Kanji t --, "Chimei no kenkyu: Ainugo hi- Ainugo no shikibetsuho tA of - it f F Thx t 4 a A

Page  138 138 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY (On discrimination of Ainu and false Ainu place names)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 4, 150-157. Many of the place names in Japar are explained as having originated from the Ainu language, but there are different arguments and it is difficult to tell whether or not a place name is of Ainu origin. Kagami chooses examples of such place names, and studies the distribution of each name. If the center uf distribution of a name is in a non-Ainu district, it is unlikely that the name is of Ainu origin. 874. Kagami Kanji 4t -, Nihon no chimei 3A 0 1tY7 (The science of place names), Tokyo, Kadokawa Shoten, 1963, 162 pp. Based on his lifelong study of Japanese place names, Kagami tries to establish a science of place names. More general problems such as interpretation of the names, how to classify them, and the origin and date of the place names are explained. A gazetteer of Japanese place names is attached. 875. Kagami Kanji t X -, "Toshi naibu no chomei y g0T)t X (Street names in Japanese cities)," T5hoku chiri, v. 6 (1954), no. 3, 86-92. There are names of streets and sections common to many cities which originated before the Meiji Restoration. From the distribution of such names within the cities, the areal development of the cities can be analyzed. Such place names show different distribution within the country, and so may be used as keys to study the diffusion of culture. For instance, Kyo-machi is numerous in western Japan, and Ise-cho is widely spread in eastern Japan. 876. Kagami Kanji X - and Nakajima Giichi T Asad "Ichiba to sono chimei a (Markets and their place names), Tohoku chiri, v. 10 (1957), no. 1, 8-14. In Japan, there are many place names relating to markets. The problems of finding whether a place name is related to the market is discussed. Then about 700 place names are selected from all over Japan. It is pointed out that in some regions the function of the places as markets is better preserved than in other regions. From the place names, one can also tell whether their market origin was dated in the ancient, middle or modern period. For some typical examples, the relation between settlement plans and the market function is explained. 877. Kimura Hiroshi, 4O -, "Maito to Suru no kyoiku ni tusite Jj, y_- 0 i r ui e y\ v. 8AC (1 5 ) no 1, l 5 l(The territory of Mait and Sulu)," Jimiun kenkyu, v. 8 (1957), no. 10, 1057-1074. Mait and Sulu are place names found in Chinese books from the 10th century. From the analysis of references in many documents, Mait is concluded to mean an area including west Luzon, Bataan, Mindoro and the Palawan islands, and Sulu is identified with an area including Mindanao, Sulu and the northeastern part of Borneo. 878. Kimura Keiichi t _ "Ainu chimei kara mita Kodai Nihon no sake no bumpu 7XA A i ~ r^1S (Distribution of salmon in ancient Japan assumed from Ainu place names)," Tohoku chiri, v. 6 (1954), no. 3, 78-85. Place names of Ainu origin relating to salmon are collected from all over Japan. The distribution extends to southwest Japan, and is much wider than the distribution of salmon today. At present the southern limit of salmon is equivalent to 14~ C isothernal, but the limit from the place names approximates 16~ C isothermal. Kimura asserts that in the period when Ainu lived all over Japan the air temperature of Japan was lower than today by two degrees. 879. Matsuo Toshio A, "Kanagawa-ken ni okeru jakkan no chimei ni tsuite jt )ji) % S3f ) t - (A study o certain place names in Kanagawa Prefecture)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 599-611. There are several place names in Kanagawa Prefecture whose derivation is unknown. Matsuo studied the etymology of such names and explained them as follows. Iriyamase and Iriyamazu mean deep mountain. Makado means a cliff, Kikoba a small castle town, Maruko and Mariko a ferry point, and Utosaka a pass road between cliffs. G. Religious Geography 880. Kiuchi Shinzo ' ^, "Hikaku toshi chirigkau no nisan no mondai PrLt (Problems of comparative urban geography)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 557-573. The role of religious institutions in the city landscape of Japan, the U.S.A., and

Page  139 CULTURE TRAITS AlID OTHER CULTURAL DISTRIBUTIONS 139 Germany is compared. In cities in Western cultural tradition, churches often occupy central parts of the cities with attached spiritual importance. This does not happen in Japan except in smaller cities. With regard to the development of large cities, comparison is made concerning the areal expansion, dissipation of civic center functions, expansion of residential areas, and the birth of new towns. 881. Taima Seishi d*i ' itj, "Maruyama kyodan no hatten to dochakuka katei ni tsuite Ad ^ / g1 - ]t' (On the development of Maruyama-kyo (one of the Mt. Fuji worship sects) and the process of its naturalization)," Chirigaku hy5ron, v. 31 (1958), no. 8, 477-486. Maruyama-kyo is a new religious sect worshipping the sun and Mount Fuji. It started in about 1880, and grew rapidly. From the distribution of the believers, backgrounds for the spread of the new religion may be determined. It spread especially in the following areas: near cities where the control of the traditional community system lost its hold; in villages in where distinction of classes causes internal fights, and in mountain villageo where there were conflicts among gorups of villagers. 882. Taima Seishi ~ 'yX ' Ai, "Tenryu kagan no ichi noson ni okeru shuky5 luyo to chiiki kozo no kankei, 1 )h -t5t ^o\ ^T xXt (Relationship between the regional structure of a vil age in the valley of the Tenryu and its acceptance of religion)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 4, 205-218. The impact of religion on a farm village in the Tenryu Vallye was studied. The northern part of this village is susceptible to frequent droughts, floods, frost damage and other natural disasters, while the southern part of the same village is favored with rich soil and other good conditions. When new religions spread into the village, the two parts reacted quite differently. The northern part accepted Maruyama-ky5 more readily in the 1880's and Tenriky5 later. 883. Uchida Hideo Shinshuo hatten (Distribution of the Shinshu sect in Japan)," Jimbun chiri, v. 10 (1959), nos. 5 and 6, 330-344. ShinshU, Sotoshu and Shingonshu are the three major sects of Buddhism in Japan. There are ten schools in shinshu, of which the east-Honganji and west-Honganji schools are predominant. Of 21,600 temples of shinshu in Japan, the west school has 9,700 and the east school has 8,500. The distribution of shinshu is studied on the basis of the distribution of temples of the east school. Shinshu has its believers in the plains of the Kinki, Hokuriku and T5kai regions, especially in farming areas. This is contrary to the distribution of such sects as shingonshu which look for places of training in the mountains. Shinshu claims to be a religion of the common people, and the poor and humble are treated equally, which explains its spread into farm villages. H. Geography of Folklore and Folk Songs 884. Togawa Yukio / )'I _, Matagi: karyudo no kiroku f J /'-,fy As (Matagi, the hunters), T5kyo, Shinchosha, 1962, 248 pp. Matagi is a name attributed to the unique ways of hunters living in the mountain areas of Tohoku. This is a report of the author's observations mainly at the Matagi communities in Akita Prefecture. They are the believers of a special religion spread among the mountain people; their prizes are gifts from the gods to them, and they have strict codes of conduct. I. Culture Traits and Other Cultural Distributions 885. Nippon Jimbun Gakkai g X t @(Japan Cultural Science Society), Damu kensetsu no shakaiteki eikyo A I 'j-p At A `: g $ (Social influence of dam-building), 1959, 492 pp. A multi-purpose dam was contructed upstream on the Sagami River, enabling irrigation of the upland fields. The response of the local communities differed according to their economic and social structure. The reasons and process of the differences in change are studied. 886. Suitsu Ichiro5 Y\ ~, "Chiikiron no kino shugi teki tenkai I t ' 69 t \4q X gg(Functionalism in a regional concept)," Chirigaku hyoron,. (1958), no. 10, 577-590. The theory of the nodal region concept developed in order to analyze regional features after the industrial revolution. However this concept is too comprehensive to accurately understand the phases of historical development and functions of nodal regions. Suitsu thinks that he can classify the nodal regions according to the stages of their development from isolated community to a region within

Page  140 ~~~~14 ~0 ~JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY the world economy. The standards of the classification are qualitative. 887. Tada Fumio ~?X J and Ishida Ryujiro l, ed., Shinzen to shakai t^^^/ (Nature and society) [= v. 1 of Kawade Shobo's Gendai chiri knza (entry 68 )], Toky5, Kawade Shobo, 1957, 318 pp. This is a collection of monographs written by twenty-one authors rather than a systematic book. In the first part the relationship between man and environment is discussed. In the later part individual problems, such as reclamation of sanddunes, water and paper industries, the manufacturing industry and weather, predominant wind and house types, etc. are handled. 888. Takano Fumio - V,I "Ishitsu shakai no sesshoku to doka ~ a~. ~Y]. )q V_ w(The plural society of the Ainu and the Japanese [in Hokkadio])," Jimbun chiri, v. 9 (1958), no. 6, 405-422. The contact with and the assimilation of Ainu in Hokkaido started in the eighteenth century, when Japanese merchants and farmers began to settle in Hokkaid5. The Ainu fell to the status of aminority group, and intemarriage gradually started to affect their assimilation. Today, most of the so called Ainu are half-breeds. There are still, however, difficulties that prevent them from perfect assimilation. These are the discrimination from the Japanese side. Ainu who are reluctant to adapt to city life, the Ainu custom of mutual aid among themselves, and so on. 1. General 889. Iba Nantetsu Ok ' A, Okinawa fudoki a k l D (A fudoki of Ikinawa), T5kyo, Miraisha, 1959, 294 pp. Okinawa is considered to be a transitional area between the two cultura areas of southeast Asia and Japan. Legend and folk songs are analyzed by a folklore approach. The book, Ryukyu Saijiki is used as an important source of information. There is a matriarchial structure in the cultur of Okinawa. 890. Nishioka Hideo A)., Bunka chirigaku, <vi, a A? (Cultural geography), Tokyo, Kobunsha, 1961, 247 pp. Nishioka defines cultural geography as geography of folklore, languages, local arts and other attainments, morals, education, and ways of thinking. After a general discussion on the definition of culture and civilization, the author's idea of cultural geography is explained with abundant references to examples in Japan. 891. Obayashi Taro A h s, Nippon shinwa no kigen g (The origins of Japanese myths), T5kyo, Kadokawa Shoten, 1961, 248 pp. The origins of Japanese myths are classified into four groups, and their analogy is sought in Circum-Pacific and other areas. The sources and the routes of their dispersals are discussed with reference to their relationship to fishing and agriculture. The myths of the creation and Amaterasu entered Japan in the Yayoi age, and the Izumo myths and the myths of the descent of the heavenly son were introduced in the kofun age. 892. Wakamori Tar5, ped., Uwa chitai no minzoku j )pp '.4 (Folklore of the Uwa istrict, Ehime Prefecture), Tokyo, Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1961, 394 pp. This is a report of a cooperative survey of Uwa district in the western part of Ehime Prefecture. The content cover a wide scope of interest including legends, rituals, farming, and traditions and customs, aiming at the collection of positive information rather than interpretation. Main topics are farming, hunting, mountain villages, traditional religion, rituals in daily life, festivals of the shrines, forests around houses, pilgrims, annual events, farming rites, local arts, bon dances, folk songs, etc. 2. Specific 893. Ishiyama Hiroshi 7 "M, "Meiji chimongaku to Sir Archibald Geikie ~~;. Sit A.chib&Uad /i ri (Sir Arcibald Geikie and Japanese physiography in the nineteenth century)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku romunbshu, 1961, 612-621. The development of phsyical geography in Japan started in the later half of the nineteenth century under the influence of Western science. From the analysis of scientific literature printed in early publications, the influence of Sir Archibald Geikie was greatest. 894. Miyamoto Tsuneichi of i oT. Mnsha no chie o tasunete n —,,B~0~

Page  141 141 CULTURE TRAITS AND OTHER CULTURAL DISTRIBUTIONS (In search of the wisdom of common people), Tokyo, Miraisha, 1963, 256 pp. As a folklorist Miyamoto visited secluded parts of the country, and reported on his findings. The secluded nature of the places visited also makes the book of geographical interest. In the chapter on " an island community" the Got5 and Ojika islands, Nagasaki Prefecture, he describes the ways of life and the details of production. The techniques of building stone walls in Oshima, Yamaguchi Prefecture, are explained in detail. In the chapter on mountain villages, there are descriptions of a traditional iron refinery using barrels, and the life of charcoal bakers. 895. Sait5 Ryosuke f ~ X, Nihon no kyodo gangu g t @ (Folkart toys in Japan), Tokyo, Miraisha, 1962, 254 pp. Local toys have long historical backgrounds and developed into regionally characteristic folk art. Toys from Tohoku to Okinawa are described with their lines of historical development. 896. Tanaka Kaoru J V, Chiri shashin tech5o t ~ f-' (Photography: a handbook of geography), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1960, 241 pp. Photography is an important tool of geography, and to make full use of it there must be particular techniques and devices. Pracitcal suggestions on how to take, develop, and print geographical pictures are given,based on Tanaka's experience. In particular, special directions are given for photography in tropical lands.

Economic Geography


pp. 142-190

Page  142 142 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER X ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY The majority of geographical studies in Japan contain some economic geographical data. This is because most studies are concerned with small areas and encompass all or most aspects of the geography of those areas. On the other hand, it is often difficult to get a picture of the national whole in the field of economic geography. Under this section of the bibliography are entered only those studies which are primarily economic in character. There has been a relative neglect of the industiral field, and the changes brought about by the war and reconstruction have not yet been studied in detail. Especially numerous are studies of agricultural production and problems. This is a natural development in a country where agriculture is the most important occupation and dominates the national landscape. A. General 897. Birukawa Shohei I AJ 1 ', ed., Keizai chiri ff _ (Economic Geography), [= v. 6 of Asakura Shoten's Shin chirigaku koza], Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1957, 298 pp. This book is intended to serve as a text book of economic geography. Twelve authors contributed chapters on definition, method, agriculture, forestry, landuse, fishery, manufacturing, commerce, transportation, etc. 898. Birukawa Shohei. l )ljT, "Ryukyu (Okinawa) no tochi riyc oa (vt) d) -t- A^I^ *A1 1(Landuse in Okinawa)," Chiri, v. 3 (1958), no. 10, 1242-125b. In spite of its small size, Okinawan agriculture is treated as that of an independent country and is exposed to the changes of world economy. The distribution of the main crops is described, and the rapid changes in landuse are pointed out. Birukawa uses the influence of the expanding use of land by American forces, the policies of both the American and Okinawan governments, Japan's trade policy toward Okinawa, etc., as an explanation of the rapid changes in landuse. 899. Chihoshi Kenkyu Kyogikai he Council for the Study of Local History), Nihon sangyoshi taikei, (1) soronhen A A (1)0 V - (History of Japanese industries, 1. general), Tokyo, Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1961, 401 pp. This book is a geographical and historical description of Japanese industry divided into three parts. In part one, the geographical and historical background of the industries at the time of their development in modern times is explained. In part two, branches like rice farming, fishery, forestry, mining, sericulture, and textile industry are described with emphasis on the technological side. In part three, the industrial structure of Japan directly before the beginning of modernization, ca. 1877, is analyzed as the basis for later development. 900. Chiiki Keizai Kenkyujo YL i 1 ^ 9 T (Institute for Regional Economy), Nihon snagyo zusetsu I jtSi Cllustrated descriptions of Japanese industry), Tokyo, Iwasaki Shoten, 1954, 556 pp. The present status and development of Japanese industry is described by analyzing branch industries.Each branch isdiscussed in terms of its relation with natural conditions, population, labor, etc. Problems of the manufacturing industry and the role of manufacturing in the nation's economy are discussed in separate chapters. 901 Ezawa J5ji. it, Sangy5 ritchiron to chiiki bunseki yX ti S 4P] ^I t M *^ (Location of industries and regional analysis), Tokyo, Jichosha, 1962, 328 pp. This is an effort to systematize the location theories which have been undergoing development recently. First, Ezawa classifies the early theories and defines the theories of von ThUnen and Weber as those of partial equilibrium, he then classifies later ones as the explanations for the influence of location on prices and market areas. He next tries to apply the macroscopic view of modern economics to location theories, using the methods of the measurement of the degrees of accumulation and monopolization. Finally, he discusses factors concerning production,

Page  143 ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY 143 the distribution of the products, and the selection of the location by the application of linear planning methods to regional planning. 902. Ezawa J5ji ~ ~ ~~ and Ito Hisaaki tf, Keizai ritchiron gaisetsu g *FJ; ^ t- W (An outline of economic location theory), Tnky, Jichosha, 1959, 276 pp. Fix authors explain the theories of economic location and describe their historical development. The main chapters include economic geography and location theory, ThUnen's agricultural location theory, location theories since Weber, and regional economy and location policy. 903. Futa ami Hiroshi -.t Ad, "Kyushu sanchi Gokanosh5 no keizai kozo Ahll^ (The economic structure of Gokanosh5 Village in the Kyushu mountains), Chirigaku hy5ron, v. 31 (1958), no. 3, 152-160. Mountain villages in Japan have remained backward and dependent on self subsistent economy. Recent development of roads into the mountainous districts is changing this picture. Rice is distributed by national regulation and timber earns cash income. Gokanosh5 in southern Kyushu is taken as an example of villages in deep mountain areas, and its process of modernization is described. It is anticipated that the burned-field agriculture typical of mountain villages will decline as the reuult of modernization. 904. Higuchi Setsuo i]t f _, Shgyvo chiikiron f 3 (Studies on commercial areas), Toky5, Chijin Shobo, 1963, 174 pp. Based on studies of the commercial geography of Osaka, Kyoto, and Shiga Prefectures, the principles of trade areas are discussed. The main contents are: trade in Japan as seen from statistics, the importance of traffic in the developing trade areas, the influence of historical traditions, and landuse in urban areas. 905. Ito Goheiaduka-f, Tanabe Ken'ichi 12 -, Uejima Masanori 5Et %,and Ukita Tsuneyoshi ~, Keizai chiri I ~ i 1 (Economic geography I), Tokyo, Taimeido, 1957, 250 pp. The economic geography of agriculture, animal husbandry, and forestry is explained. Chapter one is general, including the methodology of agricltural geography, discussions on agricultural regions, the development of agricultural management, etc. Chapter two is a collection of monographs dealing with individual examples in Japan, such as regions of apples, oranges, and tea. Dairy farming, irrigation in agriculture, and agriculture in a basin are other examples. 906. Kagaku Gijutsuch5 Shigen Chosakai 4T\P ~I ( Board of Natural Resources, Science and Technology Agency), ed., Nihon no Shokuryo T (Food sources of Japan), Tokyo, Daiichi Shuppan, 1962,88 pp. This is a part of 'Natural Resource Problems of Japan', compiled by the Board of Natural Resources to commemorate its tenth anniversary. Food problems of Japan are discussed using numerous statistics and diagrams. The meanings and changes in the figures are explained in detail, making this a useful aid for the understanding of Japanese food problems. The contents consist of two parts: economic analysis of food resources and sitological analysis of food resources. 907. Kagose Yoshiaki i, "Semai tani-heiya no ruikei to sono tochi riyc g ^ I\/@(T X0 ~ ^ X? t -- ](Types of narrow valley plains and their landuse)," Chiri, v. 5 (1960), no. 9, 1002-1009. Kagose classifies the types of agricultural landuse in the valley plains into six groups: Fields exposed to frequent floods, fields protected by embankments, rice fields bounded by natural levees, higher flood plains, ordinary terrace surfaces, and terraces with natural levees. Each type is explained in detail, giving actual examples. The security of the fields and settlements are analyzed concerning the possibility of floods. It is concluded that a geomorphological classification is not practical for determining whether or not particular land forms of plains are suitable for agriculture. 9Q8. Kasuga Shieo "Sangyo ritchi no joken to inshi ni tsuite 1 Ji J < d) 1Se? — v VX -r (On the conditions and factors of indusrial locationD," Jimbun chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 5, 441-460. The theories of industiral location are reviewed, and various locational factors suggested by different authors are criticized. Kasuga claims that from an analysis of the methods by which the locational factors are set up, the principles of industrial location can be summarized; this is a better method than using mere distribution as a basis of analysis.

Page  144 144 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 909. Kawasaki Toshi )] '., "Sandai rodo shijo ni okeru kyuin r5doryoku no chiiki kozo _ A d -VW|,/o)i t,[.,, (Regional structure of labor forces absorbed in the three largest labor markets)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 8, 481-498. Tokyo, Osaka, and Aichi Prefectures are Japan's largest labor markets. The structure of the labor supply to these markets is analyzed by region with the following conclusions. The source of supply to Tokyo is northeastern Japan and that to Osaka is southwestern Japan to the west of the Kinki Region. The source to Nagoya is scattered, from both northeastern and southwestern Japan. Central Japan is an area of competition with the three markets, and the boundaries of contact are determined by distance and traffic conveniences as well as sociological and psychological factors. The amount of labor supply is in proportion to the size of population in the primary industries. 910. Keizai Kikakucho 4 g (Board of Economic Planning), Kokumin seikatsu no chiikiza to sono haikei Q Ig t t t L (Regional difference in thest andard of living and its background), Tokyo, Okurasho Insatsukyoku, 1961, 239 pp. Although the rapidly rising standard of living in Japan reflects the rapid growth of Japanese economy in the last 10 years, there are regional differences in distribution. Since the "Regional Analysis" published in 1959, this is the second report by the Board of Economic Planning. It is worthy of notice that in this research the living standard is not interpreted on the standard of income alone, but is looked at as a total of income, expenditure, the contents of the expenditure, and the availability of facilities for living. 911. Keizai Shingicho5 '4^.(_. (Office of the Economic Council), Kokudo chosa: tochi oyobi mizu no kiso kozo 1 -J - (The National Survey: basic structure ofnational land and wa er),Keizai Shingicho, 1954, 208 pp. Many surveys which are based on the National Survey Act (1951), designed for the purpose of the development and conservation of resources and for more intense use of national land, have been made. These surveys include such items as land registration, water resources, land classification ( landform, geology, and soil), groundwater, etc. The methods and the objectives of such surveys are also discussed. 912. Kiuchi Shinz5 ]/ _j_,3' "'Chiiki kaihatsu no _isoteki shomondai, tokuni Toyama ni kanren shite )'1B ^ ^ d^ Af t (Basic problems of regional development: with emphasis on the case of Toyama Prefecture)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 73 (1964), no. 4, 253-261. The trends of regional development programs in the postwar Japan may be classified into three periods. They are respectively 1946-49, 1950-55, and after 1956. The largest of the problems in regional development is the great difference between cities and rural areas. Current programs of the greatest importance are those of the organization of the national capital and new industrial cities. The latter, especially, will contribute in minimizing the difference. 913. Kiuchi Shinzo 0fiA P. ed., Gendai no chiri n (Geography of today), Tokyo, Mainichi Shimbun, 1960, 292 pp. The problems and the application of geography to modern life are explained for the general reader. Emphasis is put on the geography in daily life, urban and rural development plans, and regional development programs. Geography and cartographic training also are discussed as useful tools for planning. 914. Kobayashi Shin il 4, Keizai chirigaku josetsu Y.~~ t (An introduction to economic geography), Tokyo, Nihon Hyoron Shinsha, 1960, 192 pp. The book is a general text of economic geography from the standpoint of Marxism. Systems of production are put into five classifications from primitive community to socialism. Regional analysis is made concerning their historical meaning, areal differentiation, development in urban and rural areas, geographical division of work, and concerning the development of socialism. Emphasis is placed on pointing out internal contradictions in the capitalistic system. 915. Kokudo Keikaku Kyokai (LLk Y, v National Planning Society), ed., Nihon no kokudo s$gU kaihatsu keikaku (Planning for regional development of national land in Japan), Tokyo, T5kyo Keizai Simposha, 1963, 680 pp. The Regional Planning Law was enacted in 1950 and this is a summary of the work done in the past ten years using this law as a basis. After a brief history of planning in Japan, main projects are described. These include national and local

Page  145 ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY 145 planning, prefectural planning, work based on the Law of the Development of Remote Islands, reclamation of the Hachirogata and Tokyo Bay noast, etc. Minor programs planned by prefectures and public organizations are also explained. 916. Kunimatsu Hisaya a y a /, "Chirigaku Jo ni okeru bumpuron no igi f gf$ (Prinicple of distribution in geography), Hitotsubashi ronso, v. 46 (1961), no. 6, 64-77. Kunimatsu defines economic geography as the science of the structure of economic regions, or a study of the spatial arrangement of heterogeneous economic regions. His economic region is location and accumulation of productive activities, and from their distribution, the arrangement of economic regions is determined. Location is an economic phenomenon, and, therefore, economic geography is a study of the distribution of economic phenomenon. 917. Kuroiwa Toshiro %i Xt, Shigen-ron f j (Theories on resources), Toky5, Keiso Shobo, 1964, 244 pp. Kuroiwa thinks that studies on resources up to this time have been deficient in theory and have concerned only superficial phenomena. It is necessary to study the problem of resources from the viewpoint of economic history and from scientific and technological aspects. For an analysis of the relation between man and nature, an understanding of the conditions for the development of resources is indispensable. Main chapters are: the nature of the problems of resources, the reality of the problems, the history of the development of resources, the future of the use of world resources, and problems of resources in Japan. 918. Matoba Tokuz5 ^ ^ AtL, ed., Kyush_ ni okeru keizai to nogyo5 )j 1' pa + 1 3 480 pp.Economy and agriculture in Kyushu), Tokyo, Tokyo Daigaku Shuppan i, 480 pp. Mining and industry in Kyushu attract farm labor in the form of part-time workers, but although agriculture remains extensive, it also remains backward. Only a quarter of the surplus population in the agricultural area of KyushE is absorbed within Kyushu. The rest emigrate mainly to the Osaka-Kobe and Nagoya districts to be employed in small enterprise. The money they can send home is not much. Thus, conditions for the modernization of agriculture in Kyushu are not good, and agriculture here is still backward and unable to compete on the market with other districts. 919. Miyasaka Masaji ' f, Chiiki keizai no kozo to'keikaku _ t V,^ Sj^4i-sf (Structure of regional economy and regional planning), Toky5, KoKon Shoin, 1963, 272 pp. This is a report on the economic structure and its development in Matsumoto City and three adjacent villages along the Chikuma River in Nagano Prefecture. Manufacturing industries were started by local investors using local capital, but for continued industrial development in this area much capital was introduced from other areas and gradually replaced the local enterprises. 920. Murata Kiyoji ta.N I'd, Keizai chirigaku josetsu g _ X t (An introduction to economic geography), Tokyo, Sozosha, 1959, 458 pp. The history of economic geography is explained in reference to the history of geography. The theories on areal studies are given much attention, and Murata tries to combine them with locational theories. Thus, Murata's idea of economic geography is based mainly on the location theories of von Th'unen and Hoover. Examples of his research on the location of industrial regions in Japan are presented and used as a basis for explaining his principles. 921. Murata Kiyoji - 9g f, Nihon no ritchi seisaku j f (Policies of industrial location in Japan), Tokyo, T-kyo Keizai Shimposha, 1962, 176 pp. While the manufacturing industry is making rapid growth in post-war Japan, there are also serious problems like the over-concentration of industries and population as well as the increasing unbalance of regional development and standard of income. After historical review of the location policy, the problems of accumulation and limitation of industry, the formation and the magnitude of industrial areas, and social loss due to over-accumulation are discussed. The exclusion of overaccumulation and the need for adjustment of location policy are emphasized. 922 Narita Kozo t _ "Chiiki kino no bunseki to ekonomikku beisu no gainen 922 t Nar ita Ko Xcan e i, c Adse @ <, (Economic base concept and functional region)," Jimbun chir, v. 13 (1961), no. 5, 377-40. The basic-nonbasic or economic base concept of R.B. Andrews and J.W. Alexander is applied to the cities in the Nara Basin. Besides the calculation of the figures by city, the figures for 1920 and 1954 are compared. In regard to the areas of

Page  146 146 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY basic activities in the cities, each city is divided into the city itself, surrounding areas within the prefecture, and surrounding areas beyond the prefectural boundary. 923. Nihon Jimbun Kagakukai X e, ed., Kindai sangyo to chiiki shakai 4i/A*I> ' I!^ (Modern industry and local communities), Tokyo, Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1956, 616 pp. This is the report of a survey on the social influence of modern technology, originally presented to UNESCO. The survey was made in 1955 by the Japanese Association of Human Sciences under the cooperation of the thrity-two members. The main objective was to investigate the dynamic influence and the relations of a small industry to a local town. As examples, two cities in Okayama Prefecture were chosen: Niimi-shiwith its cement factory and Soja-shi with its textile factory. Chapter one deals with the general outline of the region as a whole, with emphasis on the developmentOf economy. Chapter two deals with the Niimi district, and Chapter three the Soja district. There are descriptions of the physical enviroment, historical background, and the introduction and development of modern industries. 924. Nishioka Hisao, "Keiki hendo to sangyo ritchi a (Business-cycle and industrial location),' Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957, no. 3, 203-209. Depressions and booms have regional characteristics in their changes and grades. Therefore, from ananalysis of the regional characteristics of business cycles, factors that cause them are clarified. Needless to say, the diversity of industries within a region is important in decreasing the influence of depressions and in making the region economically stable. 925. Nishioka Hisao X )S Atwi, "Toshi ritchi no sounso hiyo ni oyobosu koka (The location of a city and its effect on' total costs of transportation), Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 3, 117-124. The problem of how to minimize transportation costs in an urban area is discussed on the basis of community benefit and not within the framework of an investment. The main issue of this paper is the arrangement of cities within a region so that the transportation cost is at a minimum. Based on several assumptions, the author tries to indicate the costs quantitatively by a diagram. 926. Saito Mitsunori f{ i(v and Kiso Toshiyuki;4 ' "Nagaragawajoryubu no kasen koji ga shuhen sonraku ni oyoboshita eikyo ni tsuite -~ );I~)4 (On the influences caused by improvement work on the upper stream of the Nagara River to the surrounding settlements)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 4, 163-182. Using the data of the 1960 World Census of Agriculture, the areas with less than 50% of the population in secondary and Tertiary industries are defined as agricultural areas. The agricultural areas are subdivided according to the ratio above 27% and 35% of the population engaged part time in secondary and Tertiary industries. Distribution of areas thus defined is shown on a map, and it is pointed out that the areas above 35% are widespread in the mountains of the Kinki and Chubu regions. Mountain villages in Gujo-gun of Gifu Prefecture are chosen as examples of villages of this kind. From comparisons of 1943, 1953, and 1960, it is pointed out that forestry as a part-time occupation is decreasing an day labor employment is increasing. Mountain villages in this area are classified according to the proportion and combination of part-time occupation, and their distribution is shown on a map. 927. Saito Seizo I f L, "Saikin junenkan ni okeru Tohoku chiho suitotansaku chitai no npgyo kozo no henka to sono mondaiten J~L/O~ fM j.y J(. 1 'J<L W ~f 0) ~f j ffi 4et ^s YeIfi (Changes of the agricultural structure in ricecrop areas in T5hoku during the last ten years and problems to be solved)," Tohoku Kaihatsu kenkyu, v. 2 (1962), no. 1, 20-31. The trends of farm economy in T5hoku are analyzed for the last ten years. Outflow of farm population is especially remarkable since 1960; the outflow is stronger among the upper class farmers, resulting in minimized management. Labor shortage in the upper class necessitates cooperative management, introduction of agricultural machines, agglomeration of arms, and rationalization of farming techniques, resulting in raised labor productivity. Thus the adjustment of the relationship between agriculture and industry takes the form of an external pressure on agriculture. The author emphasizes the necessity of government intervention. 928. S5go Seisaku Kenkyukai A K. 7j If, 14 Nihon no chiiki kaihatsu gi A y General Policy Research Seminar, (Regional development plans in Ja

Page  147 147 ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY 147 pan), Tokyo, Daiyamondosha, 1963, 278 pp. In postwar Japan a law for national land development was passed and many programs for regional planning are now under operation. However, the interest of related ministries does not always coincide, and sometimes the programs are hindered. The General Policy Research Seminar has been working on such programs and sometimes has made propositions to the organization concerned. The problems of industrial areas, modernization of agriculture, urban problems, etc. and their relation to regional planning are also discussed. 929. uada Fumio fl3/X and Ishida Ryujir5o 7 X ~G, ed., Seisan no chiri J_ X) At f (Geography of production) [= v. 7 of Kawade Shobo's Gendai chiri koza ( entry 68 )], T5kyo, Kawade Shobo, 1956. Articles are contributed by seventeen authors dealing with separate problems. The selection of topics is arbitrary rather than systematic. Such topics are: production and geographical conditions, agricultural regions, analysis of the location of manufacturing, Japanese manufacturing industry, distribution and production patterns of rice farming, commercial farming in Japan, analysis of Japanese manufacturing industry, dispersals of electric and chemical industries, etc. 930. Takahashi Yutaka, Nihon no mizu shigen 4 %F N it' (Water resources of Japan), Tokyo, Todai Shuppankai, 1963, 205 pp. Because of the increase in population, the growth of the economy, and the expansion of cities, the effective use of resources becomes a matter of critical importance. This book deals generally with the use of water. Not only are the problems of flood control, and the prevention of natural disasters discussed but references are also made to artificial rain and to the use of sea water. 931. Takasaki Masayoshi X 4, "Wagakuni ni okeru mizu- shigen to mizu-riyo 04XaI'. XW K Ih AK "r; R Kf1 (Water resources and the use of water in Japan)," Chiri, v. 6 (1961), no. 8, 877-882. The amount of water used for industrial purposes has doubled in the last five or six years, and it will go on increasing. Takasaki thinks that Japan has a large enough water supply to cover the demand. The shortage of industrial water is due to the processes used to convert precipitation into actual water supply. The ways in which water resources are used in various parts of Japan are described; water is used most efficiently in the Inland Sea district. Even here, it would be impossible to enlarge the amount of available water two or three times. 932. Takasaki Masayoshi, "Wagakuni no chiiki keikaku no hatten to mondaiten $\ @/) jtl t fit 0<?6 lf MS CThe progress of land planning in Japan," Chigaku zasshi, v. 70 (1961), no. 6, 261-277. Land planning is defined as a plan to develop the basic resources of a region such as water, land, etc. as well as a building plan for facilities and systems of traffic and communication, conservation of land, and public welfare and culture. Its final aim is the welfare of the inhabitants, which is usually multi-purpose. Land planning in prewar and postwar Japan is compared. The enactment of the regional development law in 1950 is described and given special emphasis. Comments are made on regional planning based on law. Planning which is not based on law but on other criteria such as arrangement of metropolitan Tokyo, the basis for the construction of new industrial cities, and the plan for the development of isolated islands is also considered. 933. Uemura Motosato t i F, Gyoshken to ryoiki keizai: Toyama baiyakugyoshi no kenkyu j X L -e aay A — - _ tThkent (Peddlers' trade area and area economy: a study in the history of drag peddlers of Toyama), Ky5to, Mineurba Shobo, 1959, 370 pp. Drag peddlers of Toyama have a history of 300 years. Using historical documents, Uemura analyzes background and the changes in development. The system of management, the protection and control by the feudal lords, and the growth of the industry within the frame of local economy are described. 934. Yamada Ryoz5.i 3 E-, Zoku Nihon sangyo nyumon $ J (An introduction to Japanese industries), Tokyo, Inoue Shob5, 1959, 2 vols., 264 pp., 274 pp. These volumes treat the industrial structure of present day Japan:production, consumption, circulation, and profits gained by main enterprises are described. Industries discussed are textile, electrical instrument, oil, steel, ammonium sulphate, ceramics, automobile, ship-building, banking, secruities, foreign trade, etc. First, an international comparison and detailed information about representative enterprises of the field are given.

Page  148 148 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 915. Yamaguchi Heish'fir5 A V + S, ed., Sangyo chiri no shomondai t^ ^.^) '"if (Problems of industrial geography), Ky5to, Yanagihara Shoten, 1963, 240 pp. Problems of agricultural geography are discussed by using examples of areas mostly in Japan. The main topics discussed are: the formation of agricultural regions, part-time jobs of farmers, irrigation, farm houses, soil erosion, and climatic disasters. B. Land Use 936. Arai Toshiro.t, "Soerj o chushin to seru tochi iyo keita' yori mitaru hompo yosan chiiki no bunrui ) X (Classification of sericulture regions in Japan from the standpoint of land use forms of mulberry fields, etc.)," Saitama Daigaku kiyo, jimmon'shakaikagaku, v.3 (1954), 180-197. Using the percentage of mulberry fields to total arable land, and the combinations of mulberry with other crops, Arai defines eight types of distribution patterns. Distribution of the types by gun is shown on a map, and from it four sericultural regions are classified. These are: kernel regions, regions with sericulture as the main occupation, regions with sericulture as part-time occupation, and regions in which sericulture is not important. 937. Birukawa Shohei A ll iE f, Yamamoto Shozo 3E- and others, "Wagakuni ni okeru nogyo tej. tochiriyo no shuyakudo no bumpu oyobi sakumotsu ketsugo-gata ni tsuite l49 ~'~ tat t~N TX *) 1I* flt / 7o (Distribution pattern of agricultural land use intensity and crop combination types)," T5kyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 8 (1964), 153-186. To define the intensity of agricultural land use, the following three factors are discussed: 1) intensity and distribution of agricultural land use as of 1960, 2) the complex of crop association as a type of intensity index, 3) the relations of intenisty with the percentage of cropped areas, farm management, population density, etc. 938. Chiri Chosajo AtxA *, Nihon no tochi riyo d ) >^ ~ 1 (Land use in Japan), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1955, 296 pp. In relation to landforms and historical background, the land of Japan is classified into land use regions. Economic development and social systems are taken into account, but special emphasis is given to the intensity of use of land. 939. Fukui Hideo A, "Yonezawa bonchi ni keru nogyo tochi riyo no chirigakuteki kenkyu A j - - 1 f t (Regional appraoch on the areal differentiation of the agrarian land use pattern in the Yonezawa Basin)," Tohoku chiri, v. 8 (1956), nos. 3 and 4, 27-58. As rice traditionally occupied a predominant position in Japanese agriculture, the newly-introduced commercial crops started as second crops in rice fields through the conversion of upland fields, or through the reclamation of new land. The Yonezawa Basin is noted for its variety of cash crops and the resulting differentiation. Main cash crops are grapes, pears, apples, vegetables and tobacco. Commercial crops had been encouraged since feudal days. Adaptation to different physical conditions is to be seen. Diffusion of a capitalistic agrarian system is weak. 940. Hasegawa Norio - 1 ~, "Nochi to kochi tono haichi kankei ichirei: kochi kokan bungo no kiso toshite ^ b ) A 4- | it t (A survey on the rel aion between farm ownership an management, as a basis for consolidation)," Tohoku kenkyu, v. 5 (1955), no. 1, 33-38. There are many studies on the scattered nature of farms but little has been done to learn how farms are actually managed. Hasegawa chose 200 examples in Iwate Prefecture, and analyzed the relations between ownership and management. There are regional differences in the relations. This method will be useful for finding areas where the consolidation of farms is an urgent necessity. 941. Hattori Nobuhiko ~~$A, "Shirasu-daichi no suidenka /@ ~ 717'2 (The relcaimed rice-fields of shirasu-soil in Kagoshima Prefecture)," Jimbun chiri, v. 13 (1961), no. 4, 296-311. In southern Kyushu there is extensive development of uplands of volcanic ash called shirasu. Shirasu areas are used mainly for unirrigated upland crops, but recently a small part of these areas has been reclaimed for irrigated rice fields. From the research in the Osumi Peninsula, Hattori concludes that the low development there of shirasu upland is due mostly to the shortage of funds by the farmers.

Page  149 LAND USE 149 942. Inami Etsuji v, "Kodo betsu keisha betsu Awaji-shima no tochi riy6 XAAA F ^4 n M4 l (Land utilization of the island of Awaji in terms of height and gradient)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 5, 246-255. The distribution of land use on Awaji Island in relation to altitude and slopes is analyzed. Classification of land use is: unirrigated fields, rice fields, orchards, forests, gen'ya, and house lots. Inami points out that it is not the altitude but the slope that sets the limitation. Critical inclination is 10~ for rice fields and 15~ for orchards. House-lots sometimes exist at 20~ but usually at 5~-10~. 943. Inoue Shuji L A t 1.), "Jiwari no shinten ' 4 (Development of land division with land settlement)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 2, 51-79. Land allotment is one of the best indicators of the growth of human habitation. Minutely divided land normally indicates development of habitation. As the main field, Kamitome-shinden a western T5kyo suburban area, is chosen. Reference is made to examples in South America, Manchira, and Hokkaido. When redivision starts the original rib-formed allotment is preserved for a while, but the increase of house-lots results in more square patterns. 944. Ishii Yasuyoshi j ^t, "Mayuyama shuen ni okeru tochi riyo - *h-SOD iyL~~ xJ(Land use in the environs of Mt. Mayu)," Nagasaki Daigaku Gakugeigakubu shakai kagaku ronso, no. 12 (1963), 1-15. The environs of Mayuyama, Shimabara Peninsula, Nagasaki Prefecture, consists of alluvial fans of volcanic origin and poor soil. The percentage of rice fields to total arable land and distribution of the size of farm management are used for an analysis of sixty-two farm villages in this area. Ishii classifies the villages into four types, and points out the problems concerning land use. 945. Iwasaki Katsunao A k T A and Yoshikawa Tadao 't 112q, "Tohoku chiiki ni okeru nogyo shigen tokuni tochi oyobi mizu shigen no ritchi haichi to riyo- ni kansuru kenkyg ^ L — f':~ ~o atz~?n~, f.l (X 0) 'fS t MYl^ (Studies on the location and utilization of agricultural resources in the Tohoku district, with special reference to land and water resources)," Tohoku kenkyu, v. 7 (1957), no. 4, 3-45. Based on the assumption that in Tohoku landforms are the most important factor influencing agricultural land use, the author classified Tohoku into agricultural regions on the basis of landforms. In the lower reaches of the main rivers, the readjustment of the fields has progressed more, irrigation canals and farm roads are better organized, and the proportion of irrigated rice fields is higher. Upstream, landforms become more complicated, and accordingly the fields become irregular in shape and a higher percentage of the field is used as unirrigated upland fields. 946. Kagaku Gijutsucho Shigenkyoku ' 4 ~ h i a (Resources Bureau, Science and Technology Agency) Nakagawa ryuiki teishi chi no chikei bunrui to tochi riyo (Landform classification and land use in the swampy land in the middle stream reaches of the Naka River, Saitama Prefecture), Tokyo, Kagaku Gijutsuch6 Shigenkyoku, 1961, 148 pp. 4 sheets. The middle stream area of the Naka River is a swampy land subject to frequent floods. The contents of this book are landform classification, history of past flood destruction, flood control work and reclamation, soils and drainage of rice fields, and flood defense programs. Attached color maps are 1: 50,000 in scale, showing respectively: landform classification in relation to floods, altitude and flood distribution, drainage systems, and land improvement projects. The depths and the bounds of inundation, the length of inundation, stations for irrigation and drainage, classification of microtopography, and constructions related to flood defense are indicated in the maps. 947. Kagose Yoshiaki i, ~ ), "Omono-gawa kyosakubu no chikei kozui tochi riy5 oyobi shuraku ~ ^ f- _ ] i hs (The topography, the floods, the land utilizations, and the settlements in the lower reaches of the Omono River, Akita Prefecture, Japan)," Yokohama Shiritsu Daigaku kiyo, series A-26, no. 127 (1961), 1-79, 25 illus. Where the Omono River crosses the Dewa Hills, it makes a narrow valley plain 1,000 -2,000 meters wide. This plain may be classified into the main part of the valley plain,a valley 10-20 meters wide and about 10 meters lower than the former, and the natural levees between the former two. Hitherto, flood defense programs were

Page  150 150 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHYv made for the plain as a whole. However, they should be concentrated to protect the main valley plain and the natural levees because the houses and arable land are mostly in these areas, and the valley within the valley may be considered as the channel of water in times of high water level. 948. Kagose Yoshiaki l "Saitama teichitai no kaihatsu ni kansuru jakkan no k5satsu i. ^ f ) fa (Reclamation in the lowlands of eastern Saitama Prefecture)," Yokohama Shiritsu Daigaku kiyo, series A-17, no. 84 (1958), 1-40, 25 illus. Kagose classifies the lowland of Saitama Prefecture into the following three landform regions: 1) margins of alluvial fans and adjoining natural levees, 2) natural levees in the lower reaches, and 3) swampy areas with the nature of back-marshes. In ancient days rice fields were developed in the region 1 thanks to the water springs around the margins of the fans. In region 2, the mansions of powerful local families were established in the Medieval period. In region 3, the drainage of lakes and marshes was started in Modern times. 949. Miura Yasutoshi -.d, "Yatsushiro-shi Kongo kantakuchi no tochi riyo J\ T%4\^^ ^ -Hi t ts wa(Land use problems of Kongo reclaimed land, Yatsushiro City)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 12, 607-615. The Kongo reclamation, 272 ha. in area, was carried out by the national government in 1943-58. The land is used mainly for irrigated rice fields, and the proportion of cropped land for ordinary and early growing varieties is half and half. The former is lower in yield but can be associated with the winter crop of i rush, while the latter yields more and, at the same time, escapes from the danger of typhoons which often attack this area. The former variety is cultivated mainly by the settlers from Kumamoto Prefecture where i rush is widely raised, and the latter mainly by the settlers from iNagano Prefecture. 950. Miyaki SadaQ ^ f o re, "Kant5 chiho ni okeru kyu- un' ychi no kojochi e no.en'yo ni tsuite ) X e I - 7 (On the changeover of former military bases to industrial sites in the Kanto Region)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 9, 507-520. After World War II land formerly used by the army and navy was switched to other uses that would contribute to the development of the national economy. In the KantE Region there were 1,100 places of such land with an area of 430 square kilometers. The proportion of present uses of such land is 44% for farmland, 30/~ for public facilities, 14% for U.S. Armed Froces, 8, for Japanese Defense Forces, and 4% for factory ground. Within a 60 km. radius from Tokyo there were 38 air fields used for the defense of the capital. Such places are flat, large and are suitable for factory ground. Conversion into factory grounds has been increased since 1950, and the ianr' o1ce converted into farmland is also becoming factory ground. 951. Niizawa Kamenobu ff and Koide Susumu l Kochi no kukaku seiri )A^ ns)_/14 (Rearrangement of arable land), T5kyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1963, 432 pp. Japanese farmland are characterized by minuteness of management, class distinctions of farmers, and scatteredness. The results of surveys carried out in various parts of Japan are summarized, and methods of rearrangement of farms, houselots, redivision, and consolidation of farms are discussed. 952. Ogasawara Yoshikatsu c 1',,t, "Nihon no tochi riyo k / -' ~A (Land utilization in Japan)," Jimbun chiri, v. 7 (1955), no. 3, 169-182. Being a small nation with mountainous land and a dense population, Japan is one of the countries of most intensively utilized land. However, close observation will show that within the country, there are regional differences in the types and grades of land use. Regional characteristics of Japanese land use are described with main concern given to their present aspects; when necessary, historical background is added to deepen the understanding. 953. Okamoto Jiro 'P 4\, "Ishikari heiya ni okeru su den bum u no henka: tokuni tochi joken to no kanren ni tsuite J A p - X/T )Zk d A T --- t~f ) a ^ ~g_~ l: v) (Expansion and distribution of rice fields in the Ishikari Plain)" Tohoku chiri, v. 14 (1962), no. 4, 116-125. Geomorphic location of rice fields in the IshikariPlain has undergone several changes in accordance with the development of land. The changes in the period 1920 -43 are analyzed using maps surveyed in different periods, air photos, and documents of land improvement organizations. 9 5 4. Osako Terumichi An t-xl, "Kumamoto-ken ni okeru seen no bumpu to kyogo

Page  151 LANDu USE narabini kyoson,,..ft 4 l't ~ Al-l J^ X 5{A^Xl(The distribution of mulberr'y fields: competition with orchards and coexistence with cattle)" Jimbun chiri, v. 14 C1962), no. 3, 255-279. Japanese sericulture has been declining after a peak in 1930; the decline is especially marked in western Japan. In the northwestern part of Kumamoto Prefecture, which is the largest center of sericulture in western Japan, sericulture is also declining. The main factor is the competition with other cash crops, citrus fruits and grapes in particular. Cattle raising and sericulture coexist: the former supplies manure, and residual leaves from the latter are used as fodder. 955. Osako Terumichi X " "Tottori-ken kaigan sakyu chitai ni okeru soen no suitai^ *rA} rk1+ t (The decline of mulberry fields on the coastal sanddunes in Tot'-ori Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 1, 14-34. Mulberry fields in Tottori Prefecture have been declining since the peak in 1930, following the same trends as those of the nation as a whole. In accordance with the decline, the mulberry areas within the prefecture have migrated. Although the areas of coastal sanddunes have lost most of their mulberry fields, some still remain. Irrigation in the dune areas enabled the farming of vegetables, fruits, and tobacco, which helped the decline of mulberry growing. The nicotine from tobacco leaves affects silk worms, making anunfavorable condition for mulberry culture. Among commercial crops, the mulberry is gradually becoming a crop of lower class farmers. 956. Shigen Kagaku Kenkyusho. i} 7 TF (The Resource Science Laboratory), Tokyo-to teichiiki no suigai chikei bunrui chosa IT) c ~} J 4t t}K (Survey of landfomrs in relation to floods in the lowland areas of Tokyo, with 4 sheets of maps), Tokyo, Tokyoto Shuto Seibikyoku, 1962. This is the text to Tokyo-to Teichi B5sai Kihonzu, basic mpas for the prevention of natural disasters in the lowland areas of Tokyo. In Chapter two, there is a detailed explanation of the maps, describing the relationship between alluvial geology and subsidence of the ground and exploitation of the groudwater, and the distribution of shelters at the time of floods. In Chapter three, the populations of these areas are analyzed in detail with reference to their relation with flood defense. Furthermore, specific problems in lowland Tokyo are discussed comparing them with the disasters caused by the Ise Bay Typhoon and by the Muorto Typhoon no. 2. 957. Ueno Fukuo oJ 3t, Saito Kanakichi - f-$, and Fusuki Koichi,At ^ --, "Kyukeisha natachi ni okeru tochi riyo no hatten: Gumma-ken Xaburagawa ryuiki o jirei to shite J..f 1:A- \P /-* 'f],}W f1 A A 0 l-C (The development of land utilization on steep slopes: the case of the upper region of the Kabura River, tributary of the Tone, Gumma Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 12, 763-787. On the steep valley slopes the choice of crops is limited and there are limitationsin the economic use of land. The upper valley of the Kabura River is an area where intensive land use is developed notwithstanding such limitation. As an important cash crop, konnyaku has been introduced, and in combination with sericulture, paper mulberry and other commercial crops comprise a highly intensive agricultural complex of well stabilized land use. 958. Ukita Tsuneyoshi -$ x, "Edo jidai- Meiji zenki no Settsu, Kawachi, Izumi mensaku chitai ni okeru tochi riyc keitai ~1- 8 ' - j 'n ~ ~' @$i w14-ta -t-P Il^^^ N^Xr (Land utilization of the alluvial plains of Osaka, in the 17th-19th centuries, especially with reference to cotton culture)," Jimbun chiri, v. 13 (1961),no. 2, 97-124. Osaka Plain was Japan's most important cotton growing area from the late Edo period to the early Meiji era. Cotton was raised in both unirrigated and irrigated rice fields. Cotton in the rice fields was planted on dikes built around the fields. Since the end of the Nineteenth century, cotton farming in Japan has virutally disappeared. 959. Watanabe Akira lj. ed., Nihon no tochi rivo, chiho-hen (I) g 4)iijN A4w (O) (Land use of Japan, provinces book (I)), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1958, 280 pp. Since 1953, the survey for 1:50,000 land use maps has been carried on through the cooperation of the Geographical Survey Institute and prefectural governments. This is an explanatory text of the survey. The survey was carried out mainly in areas under regional development planning, and is explained in detail, and compairsons between land use and landform are often made.

Page  152 152 JAP NESE GEOGRAPHY 960. Yamaguchi Keiichiro l fa d Watanabe Akira X-[A, Nihon no tochi riyo, chih5hen I Ak )L/ 3?t 1 A (1) (Land use in Japan, regional. v. 1 ), Tkyo, Kokon Shoin, 1958, 280 pp. The Geographical Survey Institute has been publishing 1:50,000 land use maps under cooperation with the Ministry of Construction and the prefectural governments. Sheets already published are for some of the areas under regional development programs. This is an explanation of the maps. For nine of the areas for which maps were prepared historical background of land use, basis of classification, physical background, and regional characteristics are presented. 961. Yamamoto Shozu 2 ) _-, Masai Yasuo 3i tMbi', Marui Hiroshi AtT, Ota Isamu Aj t, and Sasaki Hiroshi J4 * t, "Shimizu shiiki ni okeru tochi riyo no henka,a 1h ^ 1 - A L o)k ~ (Land use in the Shimizu area, central Japan: A geographical study on the modernization of the region)," Tokyo Ky5iku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu h5koku, v. 6 (1962), 1-66. The city area of Shimizu is classified into hill lands, rice field zones, and sandy soil zones. Both urban and agricultural land use has undergone various changes. Concerning agricultural land use, oranges on hill lands and in the rice field zones, and vegetables in the sandy soil zones are studied. Dealing with urban land use, the changes of the port of Shimizu and the stage town Ejiri are described. C. Forestry 962. Chiba Tokuji f t ^f1a, Hageyama no kenkyu I, " f (A study on denuded mountain slopes), Tokyo, Norin Ky5kai, 1956, 237 pp. The denudation of mountain slopes, landslides, and landslips are analyzed by using references from historical documents. The denudation is associated with the development of land use, and efforts are made to clarify the progress of this process resultant from destruction of forests. Grades and types of forest destruction are shown on maps, and Chiba points out that human actions are most responsible for the destruction. In part two, the study concerns various historical periods. The influence of salt making and pottery production important because of their need for fuel resulted in over-lumbering. The up-rooting of trees for fuel by poor farmers was also a cause of denudation. 963. Fusuki Koichi 4 1 -, "Waga kuni ni okeru seitanjiki no shokeishiki no bumpu b 1l ^JFu K'och 4 % (Distribution of types of charcoal-baking seasons in Japan)," Rissho Daigaku Bungakubu ronshU, no. 5 (1956), 48-58. The seasons for charcoal baking differ by region. In areas of deep snow the season is from summer to fall. In the mountains of the Pacific coast where there is little snow winter is the season. In areas near highly developed plains the production of coal is carried on the year round. 964. Gendai Ringyo KenkyUkai A /\P' tjf4t Modern Forestry Research Group), ed., Zusetsu Nihon no ringyo (g-> --- -q,* (;9 S (Forestry in Japan, illustrated), Tokyo, ChikyU Shuppan, 1962, 172 pp. The book describes forestry in Japan using many tables and diagrams. There are chapters on forest resources, ownership, management, labor, forest products and market, public projects, etc. 965. Kyoto Daigaku Jimb un Kagaku KenkyUjo [,~s A ~' t/t k J (Kyoto University Institute for Humanistic Sciences), Ringy5 chitai SJ a (Forestry zones), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1956, 360 pp. This is the result of field surveys of the Yoshino Forest in Nara, the Kiso Forest in Nagano Prefecture, and the Kitou Forest in Tokushima Prefecture. Part one deals with the Yoshino Forest; the district is classified into three areas and the stages of development of forestry in the importance of timber industry to the local economy are explained. Forestry in this district is characterized by the forestation of rented land. Labor, the activity of labor unions, and life in the mountain villages are described. Part two deals with the Kitou Forest and follows the general pattern of part one. The history of changes in ownership from the feudal system to the modern captialistic system is discussed. Thus, the complicated aspects of highly developed and privately managed forestry areas are described in detail. 966. Matsumura Yasukazu A 4-t 4 —, "5me ringy5 ni okeru ikada 4 4 Lz)3^'Z t (Rafts as a means of transportation in Ome forestry)," Jimbun chiri, v. 7 (1955) no. 5, 346-365. In the early part of the modern period forestry in 7me prospered as the source of lumber supply for the new capital of Edo which was under construction. Since the

Page  153 AGRICULTURE 153 demand was so large, lumbering was put under the control of the central government. Later it was transferred into the hands of licensed dealers. There were several big fires during the Edo period, and the demand for lumber expanded explosively, helping the development of the lumber industry in Ome. The prosperity and the eventual decline of the industry are described up through the changes in the transportation of wood as rafts. 967. Oguri Hiroshi ]1 X, "Iriai noyo rin'ya no kaitai to iwayuru kyodotaiteki shoyu ni tsuite X@ B )% 4 Lf V X' i M^ V (On the dissolution of common forests and so-called joint ownership)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 7, 406-4l6. In the Japanese farm system forests as the source of green manure are associated with the farmland as an indispensable element. The social structure was accomplished in the later part of the Modern age, and forests formed a kind of communal land attached to the farmlands surrounding the villages. Such forests were under potential ownership of the feudalistic social system. Oguri does not agree with the idea of too much emphasis on ownership, and insists on the necessity of handling this problem from two aspects, landownership and land use. 968. Yamamoto Akira J, Ringyoshi: ringyo chiri ptp BN^,f (History of forests: forest geography), Tokyo, MeibundU, 1961, 260 pp. This work consists of two parts. Part one is the history of forests and forestry from geological to historical times and, in particular, recent times. In recent times, the forests, as a source for green manure, were closely connected to agriculture, and for this reason the traditional privileges of farmers to use the common forests were acknowledged. The processes by which former common forests were turned into private land after the Meij.-i Restoration are described. Part two deals with the geography of forests and forestry; the forests of the world in relation to their environment are described. Especially forests in Japan are described in detail 969. Yamazaki Keiichi J4 t --, Sekai ringy5 keizai chiri n L f (Economic geography of forestry in the world), Tokyo, Shinrin Shigen Sog5 Taisaku Kyogikai, 1960, 272 pp. The circumstances of forests in the world are analyzed mainly utilizing FAO sources. It is concluded that the development of slow growing forests in North Europe, Alaska and Siberia, and also of tropical forests in Southeast Asia and the Amazon region, is urgently needed. Abundant statistical and graphical representations of forest economy are valuable sources of information in the economic geography of forests. D. Agriculture 970. Ebato Akira U& t I, Nihon nogy5 no chiiki bunseki $ t jxPtr (Regional analysis of Japanese agriculture), T5kyo, Kokon Shoin, 1965, 192 pp. The book attempts to explain the development of agricultural regions in their relation to regional differentiation due to the development of a capitalistic economy. Chapter one deals with the methods of statistical analysis. In Chapter two, analyses are given concerning three selected agricultural regions in Japan characterized by commercial crop cultivation. Main topics that follow are: development of the land owner system, regional characteristics of rice farming areas, sericulture and fruit raising as commercial agriculture, farm labor and mechanization, farm income and productivity, circulation and processing. The last chapter describes selected agricultural regions in Yamanashi and Nagano Prefectures, etc. 971. _ Ebato Akira jW R o I "Seimo yosangyo chiiki no hembo katei: yosan kairyo Takayamasha o chushin ni 0 *U A* X ri -A a ' N J A - Zl (Changing processes in the sericulture region in the western part of Gumma Prefecture)," Keizai chirigaku nempo, v. 5 (1958), 45-73. The history of sericulture in Mikuri-mura ( now Fujioka-shi), Tano-gun, Gumma Prefecture, is studied in its relation to agriculture, for the period from late modern times to after the Land Reform. Traditional sericulture grew rapidly after the opening of foreign trade. The latent capacity of agriculture to develop into capitalistic management withered due to the development of sericulture. Unlike most partsof Japan, the class differentiation in an agricultural village was not brought about by the introduction of commercial farming. 972. Kawakami Makoto _]1-* ', "Nomin bunkai no chiikisa ni kansuru ichi kosatsu Hi ^^^ @ y a Aft *i1- ^iM Ag (A study on the regional differences of the social differentiation of peasantry in Aomori Prefecture)," Keizai chirigaku nempo, no. 9 (1964), 56-69.

Page  154 154 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY In the process of changes from pre-modern and pre-capitalistic agriculture to capitalistic and commercialized agriculture, the proportion of middle class farmers is decreasing as compared to those of the upper and lower classes. The nature and process of this differentiation are different by region. Kawakami analyzes such differences through a comparison of two areas in Aomori Prefecture. One is the Tsugaru area, which is characterized by its apple culture and rice fields. The other is the Sannohe and Kamikita area in the southern part of the prefecture characterized by unirrigated fields and rice fields in the lowlands which suffer from frequent crop failure due to low summer temperature. 973. Kikuchi Shuji [j t #.=-, ",tTohoku-chihono rakuno-j ken no hikaku to sono seibi ni kansuru chosa &))l4e 4 tky -9X g} { 1: B-L (Investigation on comparison of various factors affecting dairy farming with agricultural adjustment problems in Tohoku)," T5hoku Kaihatsu kenkyu, v. 2 (1962), no. 1, 49-57. Although dairy farming in Japan is highly concentrated in northeastern Japan, its development in Tohoku is in a most rudimentary stage. In the patterns of its milk collecting system, T5hoku is divided into three regions. Kikuchi defines an ideal type in which the monthly amount of collected milk is always more than that for the month of April. From the analysis of annual changes of types, there are found areas approaching this ideal type, areas with little change, and areas with exceptional types. Summarizing the analyses, Kikuchi divides the dairy regions of Tohoku on the basis of management types and technical standards. 974. Kikukawa Kosuke K,!. l, "Kumamoto-ken Shodaizan sanroku ni okeru dezukuri ni yoru mikan saibai t XI' 1 )I.l-$ 'I-'A ls z; /'IJA' (The formation of a specialized tangerine growing area: a cast study of Mt. Shodai in Arao City, Kumamoto Prefecture)," Jimbun chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 6, 597-613. Tangerine orchards in Kyushu are rapidly replacing ordinary upland-field crops or newly reclaimed fields on slopes. The case explained here is a special one in which orchards are made in reclaimed land on foot slopes of mountains, and farmers commute from villages far from the fields. Relations of new orchards to old ones in the originating villages, the influence of tangerine raising on the villages, the introduction of tangerines to non-horitcultural farmers, and other situations are analyzed. 975. Ogasawara Yoshikatsu,s l "Wagakuni no shohin sakumotsu n5gyo to tochi riy5 A 0, Am, i l (Commercial crops and agricultural land use in Japan)," Chiri, v. 3 (1958), no. 5, 549-560. Japan is located in the monsoon district of East Asia; its agriculture is characterized by cereal crops, especially rice, and by an intensive farming highly dependent on hand labor. Within East Asia, Japanese agriculture is characterized by its very high intensiveness and by the development of commercial crops along with the development of the market. The ways in which commercial crops are adopted into small-scale management, and how such commercial crops have changed since the Second World War are analyzed in their relation to agricultural land use. 976. Sakamoto Hideo }2X t A, "Kochi-ken i okeru engei n5gyo no keisei to chiikiteki tenkai * By, '9, I'k X A W.,4 (The formation of horticulture in Kochi Prefecture and its regional development),' Jimbun chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 5, 463-481. In Kochi Prefecture, horticulture of vegetables started early. Factors which helped its development were high temperature, much insolation in winter which enabled the production of vegetables early in the season, and the development of agricultural techniques. The fact that it has been carried on by low class farmers with insufficient rice fields to obtain a secondary income is also a favorable basis for the development. 977. Yano Yoko gSt9, "Niigata-ken no churippu kyukon saibai ~ -.7~ 'C ^ ' b^ (Tulip bulb cultivation in Niigata Prefecture)," Tohoku chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 1, 14-22. Production of tulip bulbs in Japan is concentrated on the Japan Sea coast and especially in Niigata Prefecture which alone produces about half of the national total. Unlike the horticulture of flowers, the production of bulbs is strongly controlled by natural conditions. Niigata Prefecture is favored with climatic and soil conditions. As to human factors, it is associated with rice farming carried on by farmers with more than one hectare of rice fields. Cropped land for the bulbs is 5-15 ares so that rotation of crops in 3-4 years is possible. Thus it is a specialized farming to obtain secondary income which is typical in Japan. 978. Yasuda Hatsuo k n a ei."Hokkaido no rakunE chiiki ~ a *->

Page  155 CROPS AND CROP SYSTEMS 155 (On the dairy regions in Hokkaido)," Jimbun chiri, v. 16 (1964), no.1, 1-18. Dairy farming regions are defined as areas in which more than 30% of cropped land is used as pastures, and where more than 4% of the farm houses keep more than five milch cows. On Hokkaido, there are dairy farming regions of considerable size in Northern Hokkaid5. Eastern Hokkaido, around Sapporo, in Eastern Iburi Province, and at Yakumo. Such regions are described with reference to their climatic and soil conditions. 1. Crops and Crop Systems a. General 979. Ajia Keizai Kenkyujo 7 j T i7 (Asia Economic Research Institute), ed., Ajia no inasaku -T o 4 Xt (Rice culture in Asia), T5kyo, Todai Shuppankai, 1962, 236 pp. Rice farming in Southeast Asia is explained from a technical standpoint. After a general description, references are made to rice farming in Ceylon, Thailand, Viet Nam, Malaya, and Cambodia. For each country there are explanations of landforms, climate, soil etc. as well as of varieties, fertilizer, irrigation, insect and blight damages, etc. For countries with export capacity, the status of rice mills, shipping relations and other information are also provided. 980. Ando Masuo "Daitoshi kinko ni okeru kajusaku At ~t t 1I^'j1 (The situation of orchards in the nearest suburbs of Nagoya City)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 9, 536-547. The fruit raising districts in the area surrounding the city of Nagoya are analyzed as suburban truck farms. In terms of the cost of transportation and packing, and especially the latter, the cost range typical of truck farming is found within a distance of 30-40 km. from the city. Dependence upon the city is also seen in the higher use of organic fertilizer, and near the city the small scale namagement is noticeable. 981. Ando Masuo, Nihon no kaju t t) g (Fruitculture of Japan), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1963, 215 pp. The development of fruit agriculture in Japan is discussed in its relation to natural conditions and economic backgrounds, especially with relation to the growth of capitalistic economy. And5 then analyzes the economy of fruit-raising areas in comparison with the areas where fruit agriculture is missing. 982. Ando Masuo W 4;4/ and Nishida Kazuo It +, "KyUryochi ni okeru atarashii kaju sengyo chiiki X 4 y4)1 UV j - Xit-) (A new special region of fruit production in the hills), Jimbun chiri, v. 10 (1958), no. 3, 190-207. The survey area is located 24 kilometers east of the city of Gifu. A pear raising area developed here contrasting remarkably with the surrounding rice field area's. The survey area is located on Tertiary hills where irrigation water is not available, and for this reason the area had been used for collecting grass. Since 1924 settlers moved in to reclaim the grassland, but these newcomers owned no rice fields. The closeness of the area to the markets of Nagoya and Gifu is a favorable condition, and once started, the pear raising has been developing rapidly. 983. Aoki Chieko ^t^ 5 ^s, "Nihon ni okeru suits seisanryoku hatten no chiiki ruikei ni kansuru kenkyu * 1-\'v It;- ^/ A, C 7 P IJ 3 N ff (Regional characteristics of productivity development of paddy-field rice in Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 7, 412-423. Yield of rice per tan is used as an indicator, and regional deviations from the national average are calculated for every fifth year from 1887 to 1959. The country is divided into nine regions according to the degree of development or of stagnation. The differences by region in the development of rice productivity are explained in terms of their relation to the introduction of a commercial economy and of a new agricultural technique. 984. Birukawa Shohei At. J 1 E, "Izu Shirahama rinkai shuraku ni okeru engei jinkyunogyo gyogy5 kengyorodo no kumiawase ~ i, 4 ' X? X i J^ '.(Combination of specialized horticulture, subsistance farming, sea-weed collecting and other side-work at Shirahama on the Izu Peninsula)," T5kyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyU hokoku, v. 3 (1959), 79-114. In the farm village of Shirahama, Shizuoka Prefecture, farmers seek sources of cash income in flower raising, the collection of agar-agar, and part-time labor. Based on various combinations of these part-time activities with self-subistence farming,

Page  156 1i6 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY farming households of Shirahama are classified into five types. Upper and middle class farmers show regional differentiation within the village, while lower class farmers are distributed among all types. 985. Birukawa Shohei XS l], A, "Kycdai toshi shijo to no ketsugo kara mita Nihon no yasai engei chii E^ ft/ ti rb4i ne ts di X (Vegetable growing regionsin relation to the giant urba markets in Japan)," Toky Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 6 (1962), 179-225. Half of the vegetable shipping in Japan is sent to T5kyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Yokohama, Kobe, Kyoto and Kitakyushu. The role of Toky5 is particularly large. Birukawa analyzes the relationships between producing areas and markets, means of transportation, combination of crops, and seasonal distribution of shipping. He classifies the vegetable producing areas into the following five types: suburbs, outskirts of suburbs, areas of cool climate with altitude, areas with warm climate, and areas with cool climate. In contrast with the truck farming in the suburbs, the last three types are defined as far-suburb farming. 986. Chishaki Shoichi -, "Kyushu no inasaku sagyo kisetsu N 'd'ij fl X Pl41 A i~ ~(The rice harvesting season in Kyushu)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (194), no. 9, 366-373. The rice harvesting season in Kyushu is one or two months later than in Honshu. Regional variation of the cropping season is marked in inland areas of Kyushu. Chishaki presents the distribution of cropping seasons within the island in a detailed map. He points out some of the elements that might have affected the cropping season, but does not try to explain it systematically. 987. Fukui Hideo? t e t, "Shinjo bonchi no beisaku no yo" sono shizen kankyo e no tekio ni tsuite. ~.7 y e X v _._a.~'. (On the adjustment of rice cultivation to its physical environment in the Shinjo Basin, Yamagata Prefecture)," Tohoku chiri, v. 6 (1954), no. 4, 11-28. As a result of unfavorable natural conditions, the Sh3nai Basin in the rice producing areas of T5hoku has remained a backward area. The author analyzes this situation in terms of the following three factors: 1) slowness of reclamation in the Post-Meiji era as compared with other areas, 2) late introduction of new techniques in irrigation, and also in 3) seedling raising. Thrasing-machines are widespread in this area because the climatic conditions compel the farmers to finish harvesting as quickly as possible. This mechanization does not indicate overall technical innovation. 988. Hama Hidehiko;' ^ A,"Philippine nogyo mondai e no kiso kosatsu 70tL'/ -M1I'4^ - -' _ (A basic approach to Philippine agricultural problems)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 538-556. The agriculture of the Philippine Island is dependent on the United States in its structure, and conflicts with the trend of nationalism create a handicap to its development. After a general description of crops and agricultural regions of the Philippines, two crops, the rice and sugar cane are chosen and their regional and class structure is discussed, pointing out internal contradictions. Internal colonization, the circulation of funds for agriculture, and the readjustment of land ownership are suggested as problems which must be solved for the improvement of agriculture. 989. Ichikawa Takeo i )*j /(.4, "Yatsugatake-sanroku no tochiriy5 to nogy5 keiei (The land utilization and agriculture: 'lopes of Mt. Yatsugatake)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 4, 215-231. The lower slopes of the Yatsugatake volcano, Nagano Prefecture, are noted as an example of high altitude agriculture. On the western slope, where most of the land was formerly used for collecting grass, the cereal-mulberry type of agriculture, with rice as its base, was introduced as an extension from the lowland. On the southern slope, dairy farming replaced sericulture. On the eastern slope, intensive farming of vegatables for market in large cities started soon after the completionof the railroad in 1936, and has since been combined with largescale dairy farming, introduced in the postwar period. Thus the different sides of this volcano saw a different development of farming, but all sides represent the highly improved agricultural management of modern Japan. 990. Ito Kenji if, Keishachi n5gyo5 5 4Xp ' (Agriculture on sloping land), Tokyo, Chikyu Shuppan, 1958, 254 pp. Besides 25% rice fields and 45% upland fields, there are some two million chobu

Page  157 CROPS AND CROP SYSTEMS 157 of land which can be reclaimed in sloping land areas. Agriculture in sloping land areas is classified by landforms. Its relation to land use and management scale are discussed. The problem of soil erosion is discussed in detail with reference to rainfall, topography, soil structure, kinds of crops, and methods of cultivation. Abundant data from actual observations and experiments is inserted. 991. Kagose Yoshiaki y' S ",Toyama-ken Kurobegawa senj5chi no ryusui kyakudo jigy5 ^A, I 2t (The work of mining soils means of transportation through irrigation canals at the Kurobe alluvial fan in Toyama Prefecture, Japan)," Yokohama Shiritsu Daigaku kiyo, A-12, no. 65 (1957), 1-168. In the alluvial fan of the Kurobe, Toyama Prefecture, rice culture suffered from frequent crop failure due to the poor soil of permeable sandy clay. Since 1951, the government carried out a project to introduce red clay into rice fields by means of irrigation canals. The acreage of the fields under this project is approximately 6,000 ch5bu. The first part of this paper deals with an agricultural geography of the area with emphasis on rice farming. The second part consists of records of this project which aimed at increased production through raising water temperature in the fields and adding minerals to the soil. 992. Kawai Etsuzo u a t=, Nogy5 to nomin wa donaruka %,1it L i /t I ) t (What is the future of agriculture and farmers?), Toky5, Iwanami Shoten, 1962, 216 pp. The future of the quickly changing agricultural scene in present day Japan is discussed in this work. Main issues are the new types of farmers and their dissolution into classes, reform of the agricultural structure, and agricultural policies of the future. The ways in which farmers are adapting to the rapidly changing economy are reviewed; agricultural policies in a capitalistic country are criticized. 993. Kojima Toshihiro ht, "N5gyo no keizaiteki chitai kukaku no kangae kata to shihy5 ni tsuite no oboegaki tl f Kg 7 ~ (The idea and the aim of economic zoning in agriculture)," Nagyo sogo kenkyu, v. 15 (1961), no. 1, 45-70. The author takes the standpoint of functional regions for the zoning of agriculture He discusses how to manipulate statistical indexes for this purpose. A model structure of agricultural zoning surrounding a core city is presented in which the figures concering labor, land, etc. are drawn. Zoning based on the relations among the figures are worked out the a diagram. 994. Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan Chosa Ripp5 Kosakyoku i (Bureau of Research, Diet Library), Keizai no Kodo seicho to nogyo kozo ^ y) 71)XW f A A< AXX- /7 t 4 ^ j, (Highly developed economy and the structure of agriculture), T5kyo, Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan, 1962, 268 pp. Changes in agriculture caused by industrialization are the main issues. In Part one, the development of industrial regions all over Japan and its effects on and conflict with agriculture are discussed. In Part two, the highly industrialized areas along the Pacific Coast from Kant5 to Northern Kyushu are described, and the changes caused on regional agriculture are discussed. 995. Kondo Yasuo thmX/, Nugyo kindaika no sho joken ~tt A Xx (Conditions for the modernization of agriculture), Toky5, Nosangyoson Bunka Kyokai, 1963, 258 pp. In contrast to the fast growth of the manufacturing industry, there is a pessimistic view for the future of Japanes agriculture. The high productivity of Japanese agriculture and the recent trend of its improvement are discussed with reference to collective farms and the introduction of machinery. Conditions for the development of capitalistic farming in Japan are analyzed through comparison of two farms. The author warns that appropriate evaluation of the status of farming must be made in spite of quickly progressing industrialization 996. Mainichi Shimbunsha Keizaibu A g t M A ap (Economic Division, The Mainichi), ed., Nihon no n5son M * / (Japanese farm villages), Toky5, Kowado, 1963, 318 pp. Hidden behind the striking development of cities, recent changes in Japanese farm villages often escape general attention. This work attempts to analyze their inner structural changes, and points out the problems. Main topics are improvement of agricultural structure, modernization, cities and farm villages, the collapsing family system, agricultural associations, and liberalization of Japanese economy and farm villages.

Page  158 158 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 997. Miiami Satoru a t, 'IJogyo seisanryoku kozo no chiikisa ni tsuite 4 4AA7V ~;J69 t)3 J,1 ' 7V^ (The regional differences of the structure of agricultural produc ivT ty),' Jimbun chiri, v. 11 (1.959), no. 1, 26-38. This book provides an analysis of regional differences of agricultural productivity in the rice producing areas of Okayama Prefecture during the period 1920-1940. Although land ownership has much to do with land productivity, there is clear influence of land productivity on the development of the land ownership system. Holdings by large land owners lowered productivity, and at the same tine, poor land arrested the spread of large holdings. 998. Motooka Takeshi, Ar "Ariakekai kantakuchi no nogyo chirigakuteki tokushitsu to sono mondai V, f ~X W, '- S If t ' e fj a (Some characteristics and problems of reclamation of Ariake Bay from the agricultural geographical. point of view)," Jimbun chiri, v. 6 (1954), no. 3, 181-195. The reclamation of Ariake Bay has been promoted for increased food production. Here the program is analyzed froma technological viewpoint. In its favor is the fact that the coast is in a stage of aggradational deposition, and that the new soil will make fertile fields. On the other hand, the softness of the sediment and frequent typhoon attacks constitute unfavorable conditions. This project will be fairly expensive to complete, and then will still be susceptible to damage from high tides caused by 'yphoons. 999. Murakami Setsutaro tsuy i te "Hiroshima-ken Ocho-mura no sengyoteki kankitsu saibai: tokuni watarisaku ni tsuite X (Specialized citru culture in gcho Village, Toyota County, Hiroshima Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 2, 51-61. Ocho-mura is an island in the Inland Sea which is in the rare position of having no rice fields at all. The island's one village specializes entirely in the farming of oranges. This is a study of the human ecology of the island, with special reference to watari-zukuri, or farmers who commute by boat. 1000. Murakami Setsutaro "Ty~ _ 'hNihon no biwa-saibaichiiki no chirigakuteki kenkyu (2) 1fi ^ -#.t jk A o Z fvvlff Z) (Geographical study of loquat growing areas in Japan),"Ehime Daigaku kiyo, v. 3 (1961), no. 4, 1-3 b. This paper discusses such aspects of loquat cultivation in Japan as marketing, shipping season, classification of the fruit, etc. and thus completes Murakami's study of loquat raising in Japan. IIlurakami points out several physical and cultural factors that influence the cultivation of loquat. Climate, landform, soil, and the varieties of the plant itself and their characteristics constitute the physical factors with which he deals; labor supply, market, transportation, management, competition with other crops, and the habits and traditions of producers and consumers are discussed as cultural factors. 1001. Nishimura Kasuke MS 4 v, "Beisaku chiiki no tenkai (The world rice zone)," Hiroshima Daigaku Bungakubu kigo, no. 9 &1956), 167-188. Formerly the cultivation of rice was almost entirely limited to Southeast Asia, but recently new rice areas are growing in tropical America and Africa, creating a rice producing belt with the equator as its axis. This is comparable to the wheat belts formed a century ago in both moderate zones. Colonialism in these areas had prevented the growth of this belt, and the recent growth of the new rice belt keeps pace with the collapse of colonialism. 1002. hishimura Mutsuo -a a f, "Toshi shahembu no nogyc keiei D A % 6 1 imoun chiri, v. 7 (1955), no. 2, 85-101. In the suburbs of Onoda and Ube in Yamaguchi Prefecture, the proportional dependence of agricultural households on farming was analyzed. Around the cities, there are zones in which the proportion is low and where farm management shows a corresponding tendency towards extensive cultivation. Beyond these areas, there are zones with intensive suburban agriculture, with a corresondingly lower rate of part-time employment of the members of agricultural households. 1003. Norinsho Sanshikyoku Gijutsu Kairyoka %x~ ~ raT* ^"Tochiriy5 yori mita yosangyo ni kansuru kenky[u v,$8 XX ');fL<x ^y )l< ^ (A study of sericulture seen from land use)," Sanshi Keizai kenkyg shiryo, no. 16 (1957), 166 pp. This is a report of a survey made by the Bureau of Sericulture, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The decrease in mulberry fields is analyzed in relation to the acreage of fields for other crops. The decrease in mulberry fields by region, and the kinds of land use replacing them are first discussed. Changes in kichi

Page  159 CROPS AND CROP SYSTEMS 159 and Gumma Prefectures are then analyzed. In these areas, the period of general increase of mulberry fields coincided with the increase of fruit and vegetable raising, and the latter slowed the increase of the mulberry. 1004. Okamoto Kaneyoshi 1JjL, Mogyo chirigaku t (Agricultural geography), Tokyo, Meigen Shobo, 1963, 190 pp. This work is a collection of research done in various parts of Japan. The relationship of houselots and their arrangement with landforms in the Tsukushi Plain in Kyushu are discussed. The origin of disseminated villages and the processes in which the families branched off from the early settlements in the Kanto Plain are traced with the conclusion that in the beginning relatively high and dry locations were chosen. Finally, examples of field surveys with very detailed information on farm villages on Hachijo Island, in the Tama Hills, etc., are given. 1005. Osako Terumichi:, "Mie-ken hokusei chiku ni okeru soen no suitai to sono chiiki kozo _ 1 l X ^ it (The relationship between the decrease of the area of mublerry fields and the agricultural structure of regions in northern Mie Prefecture)," Chirigaku hy5ron, v. 34 (1961), no. 2, 68-82. The northern part of Mie Prefecture is one of the main areas where mulberry fields remain, but here too the fields are decreasing. Mulberry fields are located mainly in diluvial hills, uplands, and lower slopes. These are also areas of low production irrigated by natural rainfall. Recently, in accordance with the differentiation of crops due to the introduction of commercial crops, mulberry fields have gradually been ousted from better farm-land. The development of the YokkaichiKuwana industrial area nearby became another element attracting labor from the farms. 1007. Saito Kanokichi t "Fukushima bonchi ni okeru soen no suitai to kajen no shincho c4| - l GrislK ^It (The decline of mulberry fields and the expansion of orchards in Fukushima Basin)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 8, 432-442. The amount of land used as mulberry fields in Fukushima Basin has been sharply declining since 1929, while the number of fruit orchards is rapidly increasing. Today, the core areas of mulberry fields are the flood plains of the Abukama River, and the foothills along the western margin of the basin. The fruit orchards are located mainly in the central part of the basin and along the river. Formerly, apple orchards tended to displace rice fields, and pear and peach orchards tended to take over unirrigated fields. Recently, however, apple orchards have invaded ordinary fields, pear and peach orchards, unirrigated fields, and peach orchards especially are spreading at the cost of mulberry fields. 1008. Saito Kanokichi ^Mf at 4, "Gumma-ken ni okeru seen bumpu no henka Ae>J> ih*.~3? +W/i^tS1 (Changes in the distribution of mulberry fields in Gumma Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 9, 449-460. The distribution of mulberry fields in Gumma Prefecture in 1902 and 1950 is compared. Generally speaking, the distribution was relatively uneven in 1902, while it was more uniform in 1950. There is some relation between the changes in the intervening period and the general nature of the terrain. Mulberry fields increased in areas with low relief and in areas covered by volcanic ash, while they decreased in the basins and river terraces. The annual changes of acreage are influenced by trends in the silk industry which affect the supply areas of cocoons. The influence of farm management on annual change of acreage is less conspicuous. 1009. Saito Kanokichi JZ.t ~, "Yamgata-ken ni okeru s5en bumpu no henka ff ]~,, }tf ^ lS 2^Tt ~ ~~ 1 ^m Changes in distribution of mulberry fields in Yamagata Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 11, 1030-1042. The acreage of mulberry fields is decreasing rapidly in postwar Japan, as the silk industry declines generally. Yamagata Prefecture is located near the northern limit of this crop. The changes in acreage of mulberry fields in Yamagata Prefecture are studied, and the following conclusions are reached. The distribution of mulberry fields in this prefecture shows no close correlation with the location of silk reeling and weaving industries, but is affected by the diffusion of improved techniques and the amount of accumulated snow in winter. 1010. Saito Mitsunori it K, "Kengyo kara mita waga-kuni no nogy5 chiiki 4i ^X 4\ r- )X ax\% - v sa A C(Japanese agricultural regions wit special reference to part-time farming households)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 4, 200-221. Using data of the Provisional Agricultural Census of 1955, correlations are done

Page  160 160 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY concerning the percentage of part-time households of the size of farms, crude income, and labor involved. The coefficients are -0.58, -0.65, -0.73, respectively. The labor return and acceptability, and the scale of management proved to be the main factors. From the combination or these the following regional types are classified: 1) labor extensive region with low return. 2) labor extensive region with high return. 3) labor intensive region with low return. 4) labor intensive region with high return. Each of them is reclassified into four groups according to the size of the farms. Thus, Japanese farm villages have sixteen classifications. 1011. Saito Mitsunori A ~ft', "Tokei kara mita sanson oyobi gyoson no kengyo noka no seikaku tuft / St e i X t Wa (Special features of part-time farm ouseholds in the mountain and seaside villages)," Keizaichirigaku nempo, v. 7 (1961), 24-38. From the distribution of part-time farming householdsin 1950, regional characteristics of mountain and fishing villages are discussed. It is pointed out that the areas where the percentage of part-time farming households is high coincide with areas with a high proportion of farmers partly engaged in forestry and fishery. Areas in which secondary and Tertiary industries develop are not always coincident with areas where there is a high percentage of part-time farmers. 1012. Saito Ren'ichi +-f4 and Arai Takao i eAt, ed., Zenkoku nosakubutsu saibai bumpu zusetsu ^N- if7 *j (An atlas of the agricultural products of JapanT, T5kyo, Tokyodo, 1959, 188 pp. Selecting seventy-five important crops, the distribution of the acreage of cropped fields is mapped by shi and gun on the basis of the 1950 agricultural census. Statistics of the acreage by prefecture and various information on each of the crops are attached. In the appendix, a farming calendar and climatic tables of thirteen meteorological elements related to agriculture are included. 1013. Sakamoto Hideo a "Yuso engei no ritchi ni kansuru jakkan no kosatsu Vi T ) %I ff (Observations on the location of truck farming in Japan)," Jimbun chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 4, 351-375. It is generally considered that big cities lost their control over agricultural differentiation as the development of transportation minimized distances. All of the country is now like the suburbs of large cities. Sakamoto analyzes the relationship between consumption of the products of truck farming and transportation, and comes to the conclusion that the control of distance is still working far more than one imagines. 1014. Sat5 Kenz5o 4JHt, "Saikin no Shonai-nogyo no doko (1) ~ fi ) A 'jd (The recent trend in agriculture in the Shonai Plain, Yamagata Prefecture)," Nogy5 Sogn kenky, v. 14 (1960), no. 4, 185-20S. The Shonai Plain has been known as a typical area of single crop rice production, and the increase of rice yield per acre has continued after World War II. Recently, however, rice production has become stagnant, and hog raising and dairy farming have been introduced. This change was brought about by the increased possibility of second rice crops through land improvements and by the surplus labor created by introduction of agricultural machines. Pressure for cash incomes due to a rising standard of living has also helped to bring about change. 1015. Shirahama Hyoz5 t; \, "Toso daichi no hatasaku nogyo to sono kiban F..:JV ONI W 2^ eftlo t X (Upland farming and its basis in the eastern Shimosa Upland)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 6, 362-378. This article discusses the possibility of introducing vegetable and dairy farming in the eastern part of the Shim5sa Upland. This region was Japan's major peanut producing area during and immediately after World War II but has recently suffered considerable depression. 1016. Sugai Shiro AX: ^, Nihon nogy5 keizai chiri n (Agricultural geography of Japan), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1958, 46 pp. In this volume population and economic structure are first discussed as the basis of Japanese agriculture. Regional planning, adequate size of farms, and the distribution of labor are topics that follow. Chapters on arable land and land use comprise the main part of the book. Regional difference of crops and land use are described in detail. Finally, the relations of agriculture to urbanization and agriculture in mountain regions are explained. 1017. Suzuki Yoshihiro A, "Joban-chiku no nogyo seisan no ritchi-joken to kongo no mondai @ % pL, 69 J J,8 j / (An analysis of the local conditions and problems of agricultural productionin the Joban

Page  161 CROPS AND CROP SYSTEMS 161 area)," Tohoku kaihatsu kenkyu, v. 2 (1963), no. 3, 43-48. Agriculture in the Joban area is favored by the warmest climate in the Tohoku Region. However, poor soils, bad drainage and destruction of farms due to coal mining are its drawbacks. The changes taking place in this area due to industrialization are analyzed by classifying the area into city suburbs, intermediate areas, and mountain areas. In the suburban areas, the rise of land value surpasses the increased productivity and farm lands are changing into factory grounds and house lots. So far, little change is observed in other areas. The modernization of farming in the Joban area, however, should be promoted with emphasis on these latter areas. 1018. Takeuchi Toshimi ^ l XJ., Tohoku n5son no shakai hend5 Ax ^ it (Social changes in the farm villages of Tohoku), Tokyo, Todai Shuppankai 1963, 234 pp. Tohoku has long been a backward region, but is changing rapidly along with a fast increase in agricultural productivity. Prewar and postwar village systems and farm management are compared in seven Tohoku communities, and special reference is made to land reform and postwar development of agricultural management. The growth of new organizations is used as a main indicator. 1019. Ueno Fukuo L f 8X, "Nihon no urasaku no temb5 t^ X f (Second crops in the rice fields of Japan)," Chiri, v. 6 (1961), no. 2, 163-170. Second crops are mostly raised in rice fields, and here Ueno summarizes the ways they are grown. Along with the development of agricultural techniques, many of the situations which formerly prevented the use of land after the harvest of the main crops have been removed. Now the land as a resource has come to be used more rationally. 1020. Yamato Hideshige;p ~J, "T nsuiden-chiiki ni okeru nogyo no hemb5: Chibaken Kaij5-cho Takigo-chiku no baai.rK -- Ad.l 1 T k ~X,~ }t ied_ ked a (Changes of farming in the areas of rice fields depending on rain water)," Keizaichirigaku nempo, v.4 (1957), 53-62. Rice farming is strongly influenced by the security of its source of irrigation as well as success in drainage. In areas where irrigation canals were built and drainage systems were improved in the 1940's, conditions before and after the change are compared. Production increased and became steadier. Management also improved accordingly. 1021. Yokoyama Tatsuo 4f Jj A, "Sengo ni okeru Nihon nogy5 no chiiki koz5 no hend5 ni tsuite t \-zj ^ V k^ ^ AL = (Changes in the regional structure of agriculture in postwar Japan," Keizaichirigaku nempo, v. 1 (1954), 14-28. Many aspects of postwar farming such as yield, acreage, price, and production cost are compared to prewar aspects. Analyses are made concerning rice, the main crop and other crops. The contrast between eastern and western Japan is especially remarkable. Agricultural productivity in eastern Japan surpasses that of western Japan in postwar times; also, the improvement of the economic standard of farmers is greater in eastern Japan. It is pointed out that the management change from tenant to landed farmers is greater in eastern Japan. 1022. b. Specific 1022. Abe Kazuo T^ q Ax +, "Iwate-ken ni okeru Yosan chiiki no keisei y5in X tt}\-f)' ^s47 A^ T lf~f25(lk (Locational factors of sericulture in Iwate Prefecture)," Jimbun chiri, v. 13 (1961), no. 4, 283-296. Iwate Prefecture is divided into three regions in relation to sericulture. 1) the northern unirrigated field region, 2) the southern unirrigated field region, and 3) the Kitakami Basin rice field region. In the northern region sericulture was introduced as a cash crop into the self subsistence farming, and met little competition from other crops and other systems of management. In the southern region the introduction of sericulture was made against strong competition from other crops and rice farming, therefore, it was strongly influenced at the time of the depression of the silk industry after the war. In the Kitakami Basin region, which is the main rice producing area of this prefecture, the introduction of sericulture was difficult, and it still is the least developed area of sericulture. 1023. Ando Masuo S ^. ^7^ X-,, "Suiden takuetsu chiiki ni okeru kaju saibai no tenkai 4(jf ^ A L |- h'/fX^X^^/^^ft (Development of fruit growing in a rice field area in the alluvial plain)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 9, 460-473.

Page  162 162 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY Taking an example in Gifu Prefecture, the spread of fruit raising in rice field areas is discussed. When orchards develop in a rice field area, the percentage of orchards rarely surpasses 30 to 40% of the total arable land. That is to say, in farm management combining fruit raising and rice culture, the latter plays the predominant part except in lands unsuitable for rice. Because of the secondary position of fruit raising, it is hard to get cooperative systems in fruit farming, because of difficulty with labor, purchase of necessary tools and materials, and shipping. 1024. Birukawa Sh hei s V |, "Izu ni okeru tokushu sosal engei chiiki no keisei "\l — I"T i1 A; ~))' (The formation of the special vegetable horticulture region in Izu)," T5kyo Kyoiku ia gaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 2 (1958), 17-46. The raising of green peas in the Izu Peninsula is studied as an approach to the analysis of the processes leading toward an agricultural region. Stimulated by the demand of the T-kyo market, green peas are raised on this peninsula favored by warm climate. The core area of production shifted from the west and south coasts to the northeast coast, and there is also a trend of inner differentiation. The area as a whole has the nature of a horticulture area attached to Tokyo. At the same time, however, an area of greenpea truck farming attached to Shimoda is developing on a minor scale. 1025. Ebato Akira VJ2 ~t, "Saimo yosangy5 chiiki no hembo katei S L At }'tC'* d)^ (The process of transfiguration of the sericultural area in western Gumma Prefecture)," Keizaichirigaku nempo, v. 5 (1958), 45-73. The farmers in the western partof Gumma Prefecture are mainly engaged in sericulture. The development and the changes of sericulture in this area are historically described. The modernization of the industry started in this district, and many of the technical improvements were originated here. 1026. Hasegawa Norio ne )1] A, "Iwaki bonchi ni okeru ringo seisan bumpu no hatten katei ni motozuku area differentiation r~ = At )p - o e 4 "/8 '4}. < A4j-&Dt/ffete ttlot.u' (Areal differentiation in the process of the development of apple production in the Iwaki Basin)," Tohoku chiri, v. 7 (1954), no. 2, 55-62. Apple raising in the Iwaki Basin, Aomori Prefecture, had an early start and the Iwaki Basin is today a most important apple growing area in Japan. In the early stages, both production and cropped acreage fluctuated sharply, and they became steadier in accordance with the development of the area. With relation to landforms, production underwent three stages: first it spread into unirrigated fields along the natural levees of the Iwaki River; then hills around the basin were reclaimed; and finally, orchards came to invade the rice fields near the city. 1027. Hasegawa Norio A ]'1} )I, "Iwaki bonchi ringo seisan no shitsuteki haichi t^OL^ y)/j > + t@+it. j ^^4f(Qualitative dist ibution of apple production in the Iwaki Basln),' Tohoku chiri v. 7 (1955), no. 3, 79-93. The development of apple farming in the Iwaki Basin shows a supplementary relationship to the success and failure of the rice harvest. From the analysis of class differentiation of farmers, it is pointed out that the combination of apples and rice is more profitable to the farmers than the specialization of apple raising. 1028. Ichikawa Takeo "Nagano-shi seikatsu kankeiken ni okeru sangy5 k-oz: tokuni ein5 keitai ni tsuite v L ^^t IAft L T g A c l-a (Industrial structure of the rural area surrounding the city of Nagano), Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 1, 20-29. Farm villages near the city of Nagano, a medium-size city in Nagano Prefecture, are classified into three types: truck farming villages near the city, truck farming villages far from the city ( apples and flower raising), and villages with stagnant agricultural development (sericulture and commercial crops). The changes in the villages thus classified are described in relation to the development of the city of Nagano. 1029. Ic ikawa Takeo i)|,, "Zenkojidaira ni okeru ringo chitai no keisei ni tsuite A, I $ l 1,a Ap iO k\ (The formation of an aple-growing area in the Nagano Basin)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (l958), no. 3, 142-152. Apple raising in the basin of the Zenkojidaira, Nagano Prefecture, made rapid, progress after the panic of 1930. Today Zenkojidaira is the nation's second largest apple producing area, the Tsugaru Plain in Aomori Prefecture being the first. Apple raising was developed in the late nineteenth century and efforts to improve

Page  163 CROPS AND CROP SYSTEMS 163 techniques and shipping systems have facilitated its growth. Natural conditions and climatic limits within the area are also discussed. 1030. Ichinose Yoshimi 3 f, "Hompo koreichi suiden no bumpu to sono kionteki kaihatsu kano genkaii: VO ^ )i ^.^ iI t%%4 j y T M (Distribution of paddy fields at high elevations and in cooler climates in Japan; potential altitudinal limits based on air temperature)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 27 (1954), no. 3, 108-116. From the topographical maps of Japan, the distribution of rice fields by altitude is surveyed. The air temperature at each locality is estimated, and the correlation between the air temperature and the elevation of rice fields is analyzed. Ichinose thus obtains the theoretical upper limits of rice field air temperature in the major drainage areas of Japan. 1031. Kagose Yoshiaki RL B _ _, "Kurobe-gawa senjochi ryusui kyakudo jigyo jisshi no yoin J, )11/l ~. (K I D Introduction of new soil by means of transportation through irrigation canals at the Kurobe alluvial fan, Toyama Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 3, 168-192. In the alluvial fan of the Kurobe River, Toyama Prefecture, a large-scale land improvement engineering project was carried out. The thin and permeable soils of alluvial fans lose much of the irrigation water, which results in a drop in water temperature and ultimately in a decrease in yield. In this project, new soil was introduced into the rice fields through the irrigation canals, which lie unused in the winter. The direct impetus for the movement to reclaim land by introducing new soil was the labor shortage after the war. The postwar shortage of fertilizer and the assignment of a rich quota by the government strengthened it. A government subsidy made this enterprise possible. Rice fields are widely disributed in this area, because of its landforms. 1032. Koike Y5ichi;,,_, "Toshi nogyo chiiki no seitai: Kyoto-shi Kamigamo ni okeru 'suguki' saibai kako o chushin to shite a ~ A' 6dt Bf'lc f /-7"t t 4 I: X tJ'\U tZ (The ecology of an urban agricultural area: with emphasIs on the cultivation of suguki in Kamigamo, Kyoto)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 7, 339-353. In accordance with the development of Kyoto, former truck farming areas in the suburbs were taken into the city and urbanized. Kamigamo is an exception, being maintained as a farming area within the city and specializing in the production of suguki, a turnip for pickles. The reasons for not only the maintenance but the expansion of this area are analyzed in its yield per acre, labor relations, competiton with other crops, the shipping system, etc. 1033. Matoba Tokuz5 i l _,"Nishi-Nihon no kankitsu saibai to nogyo hatten Wl ^^^^ r^^Jf |L%^ (Citrus cultivation in western Japan)," N3gyo sogo kenkyu, v. 12 (1958), no. 1, 141-170, no. 2, 131-166. The major mandarine orange producing areas in Japan were in southern KyushU until the middle of the Meiji era. Kagoshima, Oita and Nagasaki Prefectures were the most important producing areas. In these districts citrus raising was carried on by indiviual landownersuninterested in technical improvement. On the other hand, in Ehime Prefecture citrus raising was started by general farmers who cooperated to establish shipping associations. Thus, the mandarine orange farming in southern Ehime developed fast, and now the western part of the Inland Sea Coast is one of the main orange producing areas in Japan. 1034. Osako Terumichi )SA 'X ~~. "Yuragawa r uiki ni okeru soen suitai no chiikiteki kosatsu ]~ )lI ^^ A —b rXjcl., dt J7$ (Geographical consideration of the decline of mulberry fields in the Aura Valley)," Jimbun chiri, v. 11 (1959), no. 6, 509-524. After the peak in 1930, mulberry fields continuously declined, in 1957 the drop was down 27% from the peak. The grade and speed of the decline vary according to region. The Yura Valley is one of the main areas of mulberry culture in western Japan. The decline is fast in the upper valley, and now the middle and lower reaches are the main producing areas. These areas are susceptible to destruction by frequent floods, and there is a close correlation between flood frequency and the distribution of mulberry fields. The gorwth of part-time jobs accelerates the decline. Decline is fast with small scale management. 1035. Saito Kanokichi "Xl^ p, "Kabura-gawa ryuiki ni okeru soen to tabako batake no ritchi kankei M j ' l itU % (On the relation between locations of mulberry fieldsand tobacco fields in the valley of the Kabura River, Gumma Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 6, 317-328.

Page  164 164 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY Tnbacco and mulberry farming conflict, both because nicotine from the tobacco leaves affects silkworms and because their peak periods of farm labor coincide. In the drainage area of the Kabura River these two kind of land use co-exist. The two crops require the same physical conditions. Usually somewhat better land is used for tobacco; but on the whole, the distribution of tobacco fields is subordinated to the mulberry fields. 103b. Saito Kanokichi + X hi P., "Kofu bonchi ni okeru seen to kajuen no ritchi kankei t ^ }. )^ l j -(The relationship between locations of mulerry fields and orchards in the Kofu Basin)," Jimbun chiri, v. 10 (1958), no. 2, 107-119. Generally speaking, land in the Kofu Basin is used for rice fields in the central areas, for orchards and vineyards to the east and west, and for mulberry fields along the margins. In about 1930 when the acreage of mulberry fields reached its peak, it was concentrated in the eastern part of the basin. The orchards now existing in the eastern part of the basin have mainly taken over former mulberry land. Grapes and peaches are raised here; the former is more profitable because of the steadiness of the market. However, it is more expensive to cultivate vineyards. Therefore, the farmers usually introduce peaches first and gradually shift to grape raising. 1037. Sakamoto,ideo; t, "Yumigahama-hanto ni okeru sosai no yuso-engei ff a ~ es% I-}- II 4 rt (Truck farming of vegetables in the Yumigahama Peninsula, Tattori Prefecture)," Jimbun chiri, v. 13 (1961), no. 3, 220-241. In the central part of Yumigahama in Tottori Prefecture intensive farming of vegetables for the markets of Osaka and other cities in the Kansai developed after World War II. At first onions were the main crop, but as the capacity of that market was limited, new crops such as taro, cabbage, carrot and pumpkin were added to secure and develop the market. 1038. Sasaki K5mei A Q f A, "Kita Tajima sanchi ni okeru yakibata nogyo keiei to sono hen'yo katei '^ fiL $tL I 3 yI4 ) J IX (The changing process of the shifting cultivation in the eastern part of the Chugoku mountains, central Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 10, 507-520. Milpa agriculture in Japan is a farming technique characteristic of certain types of mountain land. In the eastern part of Chugoku Mountains, the traditional milpa cultivation of millet, barnyard millet and buckwheat changed to the cultivation of wicker willow as a commercial crop in the middle Meiji era. In late Taisho to early Sh5wa era, it changed again to its former status as a stage in the cycle of forestation. Thus the old slash-and-burn subsistence agriculture developed in two ways, one to become commercial agriculture, and the other to become a part of the cycle in forestation. 1039. Soma Masatane j4 EfK, "Ehine-ken Nakakubo buraku ni okeru yakibata kosaku to tochi shoyu keitai t a -/,\,I ' XY $,h$' - —. J tt t (Shifting cultivation and land ownership in a mountain village, Takakub-, Ehime Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 8, 457-570. In the mountain villages of Ehime Prefecture, shifting milpa agriculture is still widely practiced. The factors that have worked to maintain this old agricultural system are investigated. In the villages where the milpa system is preserved, there also survives the traditional practice of communal land ownership. In combination with physical conditions, communal land ownership is the main factor that has preserved the milpa system. 1040. Soma Masatane 4W _g)i, Ehime no sanson f) ) 4 (Mountain villages of Ehime Prefecture), Matsuyama, Sh5gikudo, 1963, 132 pp. Aspects of secluded mountain villages are described taking examples in Ehime Prefecture. Umegaichi is an example of a wookworkers' village. The production of mitsumata (Edgeworthia chrysantn.) in the Shikoku Mountains and charcoal baking and the miners' life are described. Recent changes in the life of mountain villagers due to regional development planning are also discussed. 1041. Soma Masatane A t "Kchi-ken Terakwa buraku ni okeru yakibata keiei no k5zo ' k % (The structure of burned field cultivation in Terakawa Hamlet, Kochi Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 5, 229-246. Usually the shifting cultivation of burned fields inJapan is interpreted as a remn.nt of feudalistic farming practiced by the serfs. The shifting cultivation at Terakawa was organized in the later part of the feudal period by local lords

Page  165 CROPS AND CROP SYSTEMS 165 as part of the defense program of the feudal domain. It was a vell-organized system with collective ownerhsip and cooperative distribution, labor, and redistribution of land. For the maintenance of the system an organized community such as a mountain village was necessary. This system is fairly well preserved to this day. 1042. S5ma Masatane Ad, j~ Mt, "Shikoku sangaku chiho ni okeru yakihata keiei no chiiki kozo 1VJ t.. ] \..J At As. (The regional structure of shifting cultivation areas in the Shikoku Mountains)," Ehima Daigaku kiyo, shakai kagaku, v. 4 (1962), no. 1, 1-79. The Shikoku Mountains are the largest area where yakihata, the shifting cultivation of burned fields, widely survives. The yakihata area in Shikoku may be divded into two parts, the western area where the burning is done in the spring and the eastern areaof summer burning. Since the introduction of mitsumata as the raw material of Japanese paper, the eastern area has become the core of the yakihata area. Both areas developed separately. Cooperative labor is indispensable for yakihata agriculture;this influences the forms of landuse and landownership in the mountain villages. Different stages of development from the feudal system to a more democratic community system are to be seen. 1043. Takata Masanori, "Okayama-ken ni okeru kajunogyo no keisei katei iu4Y-i 'T1-X^ 'if f4 A % y f(Formation of the fruit farming area in Okayama Prefecture)," Jimbun chir, v. 15 (1963), no. 2, 159-173. Peach culture was introduced to the southern part of Okayama Prefecture in the middle of the Meiji era, and it developed rapidly from middle Taisho to the early Showa era, transforming this area into one of the major peach producing areas of Japan. 1942-48 was a period of stagnation; after 1949 fast growth resumed. Peach culture was introduced as a cash crop, and is characterized by small scale management and its close association with cereal farming. 1044. Yamamoto Shozo L j --, "Kyushu sanchi ni okeru yamacha no riy5 keitai M)1''11 iS-l^^-'^ gp4? ze[t ^ f(Wild-tea industry in the mountains of Kyushu)," Chlrigaku hyron, v. 30 (1957), no. 4, 275-289. The history of tea cultivation in Japan goes back to ancient times, and little is known about its origin from wild tea. In the mountain lands of Shikoku and Kyushu, the leaves of wild tea are stil collected, but the industry is declining and is gradually being replaced by cultivated tea. The wild tea industry in Itsugi district, Kumamoto Prefecture, is studied in detail. It is concluded that the collection of wild tea leaves correlates closely with the practice of milpa agriculture in mountain lands. Thus with the intensification of land use in mountainous areas, the wild tea industry is giving way to cultivated tea. 1045. Yamamoto Shozo / * V -, "Makinohara no chagyo ni tsuite no jakkan no kosatsu y /^ Z Ad^ t' f 0 Ptat^ 9 V (Some observation on the teaindustry on the Makinohara Upland in Shizuoka Prefecture)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 5 (1961), 53-78. Tea culture in Makinohara is typical of Japanese upland tea raising. Before the Meiji Restoration, there was no tea culture in this area. It developed under the combination of several circumstances, such as the general increase of exports, the need to give jobs to former samurai, the existence of a large undeveloped area of upland, etc. Almost all of the samurai-managed enterprises failed, and were succeeded by local farmers. Today, three types of management can be classified: individual cultivators and producers, cooperative cultivators and producers, and cultivators who sell the leaves for processing. The scale of management is smaller in the second and third types. 1046. Yamamoto Sh5zo 5J.KE: 7, "Shizuoka-ken chubu no sanchi ni okeru chagyo 6fl4 ^JW tf S ) l r - -t (The tea industry of mountains in the middle of Shizuoka Prefecture)," Tokyo Ky5iku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 4 (1960), 57-86. Tea raising in Japan may be classified into the upland type and the mountain type. This paper deals with the latter. A tea of excellent quality is produced in the mountain valleys which are covered with fog from the streams. Hand picking is preferable to maintain a high quality. In the mountain areas cash crops like tea, konnyaku, and lumber are grown to cover the low productivity of mountain agriculture. Forestry is more profitable than tea raising, and, therefore, the distribution of tea gardens is largely determined by the size of farm combined with the forest. In this mountain area the income from the tea often comprises 90-95% of the cash income. The crops raised on ordinary arable land are mainly for the purpose of self subsistence.

Page  166 166 JAPANESE GEOGhrPHY 1047. Yamamoto Sh~ozo l + E-, "Shizuoka-ken ni okeru chagyo no chiiki ni tsuite 4f ^In WEA t V] Y (The tea industry region in Shizuoka Prefecture)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 2 (1958), 95-118. The tea industry in Shizuoka Prefecture is regionally differentiated in various ways. Five regions are classified according to the percentage of tea gardens, farmers who sell the tea leaves, and factories processing the purchased leaves. In regional differentiation the inclination of land slopes plays an important part, especially in relation to competition with tangerine raising. Tea is cultivated on gentler slopes and tangerines on steeper slopes. Farms on the slopes combine the two crops depending on the grade of the slopes. This relationship is explained by land values and the income per acre of the two crops. 1048. Yamamoto Shoz5 L,, "Wa akuni no chagyo-keitai ni tsuite no yosatsuteki kosatsu t t) AI P ), jmn (A preliminary survey of the tea industry in Japan)," Jmbun chiri, v. 10 (1958), no. 2, 92-107. There are two types of management in tea growing in Japan. One is just to grow the trees and sell the leaves for processing. The other is to carry on processing using the leaves both self-produced and purchased. The former type is mainly seen in mountainous areas as a part of farming, and the quality of the leaves thus produced is good. The latter type was developed on a larger scale usually in diluvial uplands in accordance with the development of tea culture as a cash crop. 1049. Yano Yoko f, "Sendai shij6 kara mita kaki seisan chiiki no tokusei Ott l At #\f a r gtJ/i% it Ads(Geoglraphic character of flower producing areas viewed from the Sendai market)," Tohoku chiri, v. 12 (1960), no. 3, 55-61. As in most other cities, the supply areas for flowers marketed in Sendai may be clasified into two; those in the suburbs and those far from it. Flowers raised in the open air in the direct suburbs fill the demands of the city most of the year, but in winter flowers are imported from areas with warm climate, such as Shizuoka and Chiba Prefectures. At some times in the summer, the local supply is insufficient, and flowers are imported from areas with cool summers, such as Nagano Prefecture. 1050. Yokota Tadao a]tS A, "Kofu bonchi ni okeru kaju saibai no genkyo f X/)^^ ^j^ ^ i - Ad (Recent horticulture in the Kofu Basin, Yamanashi Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 12, 1119-1129. Traditionally, the K5fu Basin has been known as a representative fruit producing area, especially of grapes. The vineyards have been increasing rapidly since the war with the old vineyards as cores. Grape culture is more profitable to the farmers than rice farming or sericulture, but besides this there are other reasons for this change, such as the removal of mulberry trees enforced during the war, the decline of sericulture after the war, and the fact that farmers became the owners of land thanks to the postwar land reform and were then free to choose their crops and were able to save money. 2. Irrigation 1051. Fukui Hideo 1, "Tohoku chiho ni okeru nisan no kangai suiro suion no jittai ni tsuite;*r )Y, i j 2,3 V -4 a 'J < K Y S 2 J.?5 V nv (The water temperature of some irrigation water-ways)," Suion no kenkyu, v. 2 (1958), no. 2, 1-10. Regional differences of rice yield per acre become greater in the years of crop failure in T5hoku. The low temperature of irrigation water is one of the major reasons for this. Water temperature is influenced by the type of source and the canal through which the water is delivered. Diurnal changes of water temperature were observed at two places, one in the central part of Iwate Prefecture and the other on the Shonai Plain, Yamagata Prefecture. It was found that the temperature in the canals is affected, besides by radiation, by the water than transudes from rice fields. Both are alluvial fan areas and the soils are permeable. 1052. Fukui Hideo ft X gt, "Tohoku chih5 ni okeru nisan no kangai suiro suion no jittai ni tsuite A- 1Z Y — 2, 3 V) '9,ttg (The water temperatures of somme irrigation water-ways in the T5hoku Region),' T5hoku chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 4, 136-140. This is a report of the survey of water temperature carried out in 1955-56 in four Tohoku districts of different geographic environments. The temperature of irrigation water strongly affects the yields of rice, especially in northern Japan.

Page  167 IRRIGATION 167 Differences in water sources, namely springs at the margin of alluvial fans, rivers, irrigation ponds, mountain streams, irrigation canals, etc., are most influential conditions. Next in importance are the temperatures of the ground and the permeability of the land along the canals which are indirectly influenced by the nature of the landform. 1053. Horuchi Yoshitaka., "Kangai kozo yori mitaru Nara bonchi no chiiki seit AL AfftF) -fz 7d ^ 4^)W CA study on the irrigation system of the Nara Basin)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 7, 217-328. The Nara Basin is located in a region with relatively little rainfall. There are not many rivers from which irrigation water is available in the growing season, while the proportion of rice-fields in the basin is high. Thus much effort has been expended for irrigation. There are 13,800 irrigation ponds ii Nara Prefecture, and the average density is 6.3/km rising locally to 125/km. In the basin 72% of the rice fields are irrigated by ponds. Pond irrigation is an inefficient and expensive method. The intricate systems traditionally used to distribute the water are creating a bottleneck to the modernization of the agriculture. 1054. Horiuchi Yoshitaka y,"K/ toto heiya ni okeru gyakusui kangai no chirigakuteki kenkyu T, r- t)K~ 4 tt) J-1 ffo: 1 (A geographical study or reverse-stream irrigation on the plain to the east of Lake Biwa)," Chirigaku hy5ron, v. 32 (1959), no. 2, 70-82. The plain to the east of Lake Biwa is an important rice producing area, and techniques of irrigation are highly developed here. Reverse water irrigation is oneof these. Lake water is delivered inland by means of pumps and waterwheels sometimes as far as 4 km. This work is an elaborate description of the system. 1055. Horiuchi Yoshitaka 7& jt h, "Nara bonchi Katsuragi senjochi ni okeru yokoido kangai no kenkyu ( t4 |jt ^e 2' t )~,t a,t A CA study of the yokoido irrigation of the KaTsuragi Fan in the Nara Basin)," Jimbun chiri, v. 10 (1958), no. 1, 17-27. In the southwestern part of the Nara Basin, there is an area where water from wells is used to irrigate rice fields. This development of wells is explained by the reclamation of an alluvial fan, which is liable to drought damage. The rice fields newly developed since middle Meiji were not endowed with irrigation rights, and they were compelled to look for another source of water. 1056. Horiuchi Yoshitaka )AX^ A i X "Nara bonchi Umami kyury5 no tameike kangai ni kansuru kenkyu t7X^ j.~ - X^ v,Ti (The irrigation of rice fields in the mami Hills in the Nara Basin)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 10, 947-962. Of some 6,000 irrigation ponds in the Nara Basin about 1,500 are in the Umami Hills, which are a part of the larger basin. These ponds are an insufficient irrigation source for the rice grown in the area. Lower-class farmers are compelled to depend on private ponds, while those involved in larger development have access to communal ponds. As a result of this divergency, the rate of part-time occupation is high among poorer farmers. 1057. Horiuchi Yoshitaka o %, "Nara-ken Taisho-mura Narahara ni okeru suiri kanko to noson k-z5 E n tk t t, (Irrigation water treatment and rural organization in Taisho-mura, Nara Prefecture)," Chirigaku hySron, v. 29 (1956), no. 6, 328-339. In the villages around Nara Basin traditional rights concerning the use of irrigation water are strongly maintained. The feudalistic irrigation customs cause strong obstacles to the modernization of agriculture in this district. A typical example of this is chosen and studied in detail. In Taisho-mura the sources of irrigation water are very diversified. Each of the sources is regulated by a system of its own, and there is no accomodation between them. Water is strictly controlled and watched, and is distributed in accordance with kabu, the stocks. Kabu comprises a part of the property. There are many inequalities by person and by field. Water rights are minutely divided, and this prevents the improvement of fields and the modernization of agriculture. 1058. Horiuchi Yoshitaka At I N, "Nogyo suiri o chushin to suru Nara bonchi no kang5 shUraku no kenkyu; A _l } ^< + 0 i $ ct (A study on the moat-surroufied villages of he Nara Bssin, from the viewpoint of agricultural irrigation)," Chirigaku hyIron, v. 35 (1962), no. 4, 175-187. 171 examples of moat-surrounded villages in the Nara Basin are classified according to the types of moats and their functions. The function of irrigation is the most important, especially in the middle of the basin where meance of drought is the

Page  168 168 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY most serious, and also in areas where the irrigation canals have been intensely developed. Irrigation systems in the Nara Basin are very complicated with various kinds of sources, often depending on sources located in other villages. However, recent technological development has made it possible to construct large scale reservoirs and to use groundwater by pumping. The function of moats as sources of irrigation is thus losing its importance. 1059. Horiuchi Yoshitaka 9X: ' ~, "Osaka-fu Tojo-gawa ryuiki no kangai suiri no kenkyu X/k,)'1^ v jW 7 (The irrigation system in the drainage area of the Tojo River in Osaka Prefecture)," Jimbun chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 4, 337-351. In the drainage area of the Tojo River, in the southeastern part of the Osaka Plain, irrigation is controlled by traditional systems. Although canals are well developed, lower reaches are short of irrigation water and wells are used to increase the supply. The rights of sharing the water are different according to community; usually the communities in the upper reaches enjoy greater privileges than those in the lower reaches. The hierarchy in the privileges for irrigation is rooted in historical development of the area, and there are no means for changing this other than by the construction of new canals. 1060. Ichinose Yoshimi t, "Fujisan hokuroku Oshino-mura no suiri mondai ^<b J atAL dfIT a) 9* 0 t4^i (Water-supply in Oshino Valley at the north foot of Mr. Fuji)," Shigenkagaku kenkyu iho, Rice fields in Uchino-buraku, Oshino-mura, Yamanashi Prefecture, are irrigated by the Uchino Canal under contract with an electric company. Due to a shortage of irrigation water, it became necessary to renew the contract, and a survey was made to determine the adequate amount of water for irrigation. The supply under the old contract was short by 1.07 million cubic meters, but there was a leak of irrigation water from the id to be remedied. There was also a possibility of using grc e low temperature of the water created some difficulty. no. 38 (1955,, 35-41. 1061. Inami Etsuji i t,i> "Daichi no kaihatsu to suiri shisetsu keisei katei: Banshu Inamino no baai ) ^ ef j o ib_ -- l Wll^t 0 j (Relation between irrigation work and reclamation of Inamino Upland, Harima Province, Hyogo Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 2, 62-74. The diluvial upland of Inamino in the southern part of Harima Province has been rapidly reclaimed following the development of irrigation technology in the Edo period. The focus has been on the construction of irrigated ponds. The land contour and hydrology of this area are described, and the development of the intricate irrigation systems is then explained historically. 1062. Kaneko Ryo a}, Nogyo suimongaku j(Kk4 (Agricultural hydrology), Tokyo, Doboku Zasshinsha, 1957, 295 pp. The first part of this volume is a general text of the hydrology dealing with the relationship between rainfall and run-off water in the soil, groundwater, etc. In the later part, the water for agricultural use is discussed. The problems in areas where water is insufficient or superfluous are studied with abundant reference to examples of actual districts. It is pointed out that the majority of poorly drained rice fields in Japan exist in the lower reaches of large rivers. The reasons for their growth, the methods of improving such land, and the history of the reclamation are described. 1063. Moritaki Kentichiro Af y t F, "Aichi-yosui to Aichi-yosui chiiki *U )I _ A 1 9 4J NI-C (The Aichi irrigation system and region)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 2, 110-127. The Aichi Irrigation Canal Project is selected as an example of regional development planning with emphasis on the water resource. Its effects towards the overall aim of the encouragement of regional agriculture are analyzed. Only richer farmers could make the 6,o000-80,000 yen per tan charge a profitable investment, while to the farmers with less than 6-7 tan of land, who compose the majority in this area, it merely resulted in an increased production cost for self-subsistent farming. To accept the land improvement program, cooperation on the side of the farming community is required, but with the progress of commercial agriculture, the richer farmers are becoming more and more exclusive, which makes the fulfillment of this project difficult. On the other hand, the exapnsion of the Nagoya industrial area is invadeing the area of the Aichi Canal Project. 1064. Norin Daijin Kambo Sogo Kaihatsuka f \ Nihon no okeru hatachi kangai no tokushitsu t1 < i v Of / it

Page  169 160 IRRIGATION (Irrigation of fields for crops other than rice), Tokyo, Norin Daijin Kambo Sogo Kaihatsuka, 1954, 150 pp. Overwhelmingly strong emphasis has been placed on rice farming in Japanese agriculture. In relation to the development of the national economy, the importance of irrigation of non-rice fields cannot be overlooked. The results of a nationwide survey are classified as the following types: 1) irrigation of fruit orchards and vegetable fields in sanddunes, irrigation in alluvial fans, volcanic ash land, river terraces and uplands; 2) irrigation of crops like wheat, barley, rape seeds and pasture grasses to maintain the temperature of the soil in winter, and 3) irrigation for the purpose of adding fertility to the fields used for upland-rice, wheat, barley and sweet potatoes. It is pointed out that irrigation of fields in winter creates favorable conditions for the summer crops. 1065. Takeuchi Jogy~o `YTI *'A,4 "Kako-gawa Akashi-gawa kan daichi (Hyogoken) no kangai suiri no hattatsu ni tsuite A')1J f71 1 e (9M) 0 A K ^2 ) X _ (On the development of irrigation system in the uplands between the Kako-gawa and Akashi-gawa in Hyogo Prefecture)," Gakujutsu kenkyu, no. 3 (1954), 115-134. Notwithstanding its upland topography, this area contains well-developed rice fields irrigated by ponds. Surface landforms and soils are suitable for rice fields, and there are many depressions for ponds. Ponds areusuallysmall, and the management scale of farms is also small. 1066. Takeuchi Jogyo A' )? "Kangai shisetsu to shite no Chikugo-gawa karyu heiya no tamebori ni tsuite l 0.)L!k 6I At Em k (On tame-bori, canals for irrigation, in the plain of the lower part of the Chikugo River)," Keizaichirigaku nempo, v. 2 (1955), 52-62. A network of canals, locally called tame-bor has been developed in the plain along the lower part of the Chikugo River. The use of these canals as a source of irrigation water is explained in terms of distribution and ways of taking water; the smaller the capacity of water supply, the greater the network of canals. 1067. Takeuchi Jogyo I'JT T, "Kangai shisetsu to shite no kokyomo no kenkyu X~a.~^ *.. ~ ~ t -,l - Xt (On the network of moats originating in irrigation needs),' Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu, 1961, 448-469. In the Tsukushi Plain, of northern Kyushu, an extensive network of relatively wide canals has been developed. Hitherto these canals have been considered to function as a drainage system. This is a district with a shortage of irrigation, because the Chikugo River has too low a bed to draw irrigation water from it. The author concludes that the function of these wide canals must be as a reservoir of irrigation water. 1068. Takeuchi Jogyo t, "Matsumoto-daira no akngai to tochi riyo 9V @I^Jg AceAft| (Irrigation and land use in Matsumoto Basin)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 1, 1-21. Matsumoto-daira, Nagano Prefecture, is a fault basin covered with large and small alluvial fans. In this basin there are low-lying areas used predominantly for irrigated rice cultivation, and there are also upland areas used for dry farming. In order to explain the difference, the author describes the physical conditions in each river system, which he then correlates with the historical development of reclamation in this area. Since feudal days, enormous efforts have been made to build irrigated rice fields, and only lands that were hard to irrigate are now used for dry farming. 1069. Takeuchi Jogyo 4Vff 1 ) and Horiuchi Yoshitaka "Osaka-heiya nambu no tameike angai, toku ni Kahsii-gawa ryuiki ni tsuite A ^ f J 2 4si \*- t ~ 4 l 1 c\ ^ )71jl- 7 Z (On the irrigation ponds of the Osake Plain, especially in the Kashii River Valley),"Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (195Q), no. 11, 567-579. The numberous irrigation ponds of the southern Osaka Plain are usually attributed to the Mediterranean climate of the area. The rivers of the Osaka Plain have small catchment areas; there are no high mountains to supply water. The plain is large and river water is not sufficient for irrigation. Diluvial hills comprise much of the land and the water level is deep; therefore, groundwater is not available. The drainage area of the Kashii-gawa has several favorable conditions and the irrigation development there is a special one. 1070. Takeuchi Masujiro I7 1 t _, Tameike no kenkyu ~ ~ ~ (A study of irrigation ponds), Tokyo, Yuhikaku, 1959, 368 pp. This is a study of judicial problems of irrigation ponds. Included are discussions of the ownership of the ponds, rights of the use of the water, and the ownership of the water itself.References are also made with geogranhical interest. For instance,

Page  170 170 170 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY there are descriptions of the relationship between main ponds and attached ponds, interrelation between rivers and ponds, traditions concerning the use of water, etc. 1071. Yamato Hideshige ff4 ~ ', "Tensuiden chiiki ni okeru inasaku A*;gL *~C VZ 7l ^ At (Rice cultivation in paddy fields dependent on rain water)," Keizaichirigaku nempo, v. 3 (1956), 57-64. The effect of the insufficiency of irrigation water on rice culture is studied, taking the case of a part of Chiba Prefecture which depends upon rain water for its source of irrigation. A main influence is the instability of rice culture and the heavy dependence on the crops in unirrigated fields. To increase rice production in this area, improvement of a system of irrigation is indispensable. 1072. 3. Reclamation 1072. Chiba Tokuji t,, 4X, "Bungo-suid5 engan ni okeru kyusha kaidan kochi no seiritsu I i-.F rr/`02 ' t 4R yt z t. (A geographical analysis of terrace-cultivated landscape on the coast of the Bungo Channel)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 9, 447-462. Terrace cultivation makes remarkable use of land on the west coast of Shikoku. The development of this usage of land took place after the decrease of wild boars. Sweet potatoes are the only crop extensively raised in this type of fields. Reclamation became possible after the decline of the power of magistrates and local bosses and since the farmers were able to own land. 1073. Fukui Hideo Xj X, "Tohoku chiho no nogyo kaihatsu ni kansuru jakkan no chiriteki mondai MktAL ^ 3 I V2 /0] (Problems in the agricultural development of Tohoku)," Tomita Yoshiro sensei taikan kinen rombunshu (Kaihatsu ni kansur chirigakuteki shomondai), 1959, 150-156. Although Tohoku has been leading the nation in yield of rice per acre since 1950, the increased yield was brought about at the risk of lowering the resistibility of rice to the possible low air temperatures of summer. Improvement in early growing techniques is another factor that brought about the high yield, but diffusion of the new techniques is very uneven. Originally, cash crops were also introduced in Tohoku to supplement the unstable rice farming and to provide livelihood in areas where rice farming was impossible. However, since commercial crops are more profitable than rice farming, there are areas in which such crops are now replacing rice farming. 1074. Hattori Nobuhiko if~ ~ y, "Shirasu-daichi ni okeru mizu no shutoku ni kansurukenkyu;a ds ),~ I. e ' I i-', 7 (A study of the methods of obtaining water on the 'Shirasu' Plateau)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 38 (1964), no. 4, 223-240. There are uplands made of volcanic ash called shirasu in southern Kyushu. As the ash layers are very permeous, the inhabitants of the shirasu upland have a hard time in obtaining water. The water here is obtained from deep wells and from springs on the steep slopes of the valleys dissecting the uplands. The difficulty was recently removed due to the completion of a running water system. Technological developments and governmental subsidies enabled it. Thus, the nature of the environment in the shirasu uplands has been changed by technological development. 1075. Imoto Nobuyuki -%'j ZL, "Kantakuchi no chirigakuteki kenkyu f o iti *yp fH^% t in *fl(Polder lands, from the geographical point of view)," Sogo kaiyo kagaku, v.. (1960), 17-104; v. 3 (1961), 109-141; v. 4 (1962), 111-141; v. 5 (1963), 65-113. Major districts of reclamation by drainage in Japan are described and both manmade and natural factors are considered. These factors include location, landforms, geology, soils, range of water levels, irrigation and drainage, wind, waves, etc. Social conditions are handled in a very general way. 1076. Matsumura Yasukazu A t'.. "Kinsei shoki Musashino shinden kaihatsu ni kansuru ichini no mondai [,t ] M~ L f 3 /. 2 d M X (Some problems of shinden (the newer settlements) of the Musashino Upland in the 17th century)," Keizaichirigaku hemp6, v. 3 (1956), 48-56. Many shinden were founded in the western part of the Musashino Upland in the Seventeenth century. Matsumura analyzes the relatioship between reclamation and various land rights which existed in this area. The foundation of shinden villages was enabled by the disposal of the preceeding communal privilege of using the grass. 10 7 7 Minami Satoru L —~1, "Kojima-wan kantakuchi no tochi kairyo to noson kozo

Page  171 RECLAMATION 171 I* P'e )i v^cF,,> Ad AI Slav-^ (Reclamation of Kojima Bay polder land and the establishment of a farm village)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 8, 424-435. The area of study is not the major area of reclaimed land at Kojima Bay, but an area of earlier reclamation on a minor scale to the south of the bay. In 1912-14, there was trouble due to the shortage of irrigation water, which was solved by a rearrangement of the rice fields. However, the improvement was carried out by the landowners, who aimed at incresing their acreage and obtaining higher rents from their tennants by means of increased productivity; and no attention was paid to the fact that the farms thus created consisted of small, widely scattered plots. These problems were solved in 1922 by another land rearrangement, this time carried out by the farmers who owned the land they cultivated. 1078. Okamoto Jir5 A- qi, "Doko kumiai no setsuritsu to bumpu kara mita Hokkaido inasaku no chiikiteki tenkai j^ 4) / i~ /z i) ~4 ' 5 '_ 1 4 1^ ^ (The regional development of rice cultivation in Hokkaido and the establishment of Doko Kumiai, associations for irrigation)," Tohoku chiri, v. 14 (1962), no. 2, 35-41. Doko kumiai, associations for the construction of irrigation systems, played an important role in the development of rice producing areas in Hokkaid5 in the early part of this century. Okamoto gives attention to the value of materials concerning the Dok5 kumiai, and analyzes the development of agricultural regions in Hokkaido using such materials. In 1902 laws for the establishment of Doko-kumiai were enacted and played a leading role in the development of core regions, which later developed into widespread colonization. 1079. Sait5 K5kichi 4Jjg S, "Hompo ni okeru kosho-kantakushi no dampen (1) -,ffiJ ^)rV N - 'SAX pl*iT (I) (A note on the history of lakepo~dering in Japan, 1 )," Kafaz'awa Daigaku Hobungakubu ronshu, v. 10 (1962), 101-123. Introduction of power drainage machinery has enabled the reclamation of lakes and lagoons. This had been difficult due to the below sea level location and the steepness of lake bottoms. Most of the land with favorable conditions was reclaimed in the late Edo period; conditions are rather poor in areas that remain. It is necessary to subsidize the reclamation programs with national or prefectural funds. 1080. Sasaki Hiroshi /1t \, "Kambara-heiya ni okeru n5gyo shuraku keikan no hensen )t (Transition of landscape of rural settlements on the Kambara Plain, Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 1,2 650-662. The Kambara Plain to the east of i1iigata City is an important rice producing area. The reclamation of this area was carried out by the middle of the Seventheenth century, but most of the land is marshy and fields were divided into small patches of irregular patterns. Canals are used for irrigation, drainage, and transportation. AiL<-' World War II, a large-scale land improvement program was carried out, aiming at increased production by means of the rearrangement and consolidation of fields, rearrangement of the roads etc. The program fundamentally changed the landscape of the settlements in this area. 1081. Shirai Yoshihiko i X X, "Teishitsuchi ni okeru to-hi kairyo "itA' i O r' rp)l-@ cX Ct. t(Land improvement in swampy areas)," Keizaichiergaku nempo, V. 7 (1961), 56-71. In the swampy lowlands, most of the prewar land improvement projects were carried out selectively in relatively high and dry land. Postwar land improvement projects are related to drainage and irrigation, by means of rearrangement, field exchange and amalgamation, and covered draining. Contrary to the prewar tendency which was more or less exclusively converned with the profit of landowners, the postwar projects have brought about increased land productivity and a saving of labor. 1082. Tomita Yoshiro %, "Uchinuma no kantaku mondai to naisui haisui taisaku A- f A f 3v A/\ AK _h - (The reclamation of Uchimuma Lake and problems on the draining of "land water")," Sogo kaiyo kagaku, v. 2 (1960), 105-112. Uchinuma is a lake with an area of 134 ha in the nortnern part of Miyagi Prefecture. The lake was formed by the deposition of the rivers that dammed the drainage. Previously, the lake functioned as a reservoir for flood control, but the construction of a dam upstream for hydroelectricity changed to function of the lake, and reclamation of the whole area is now bein.g considered. This will cause the problem of inundation by inland water. The solution will be either drainage by pumping or the construction of drainage canals. The former is too expensive to maintain, and therefore, the latter is recommended.

Page  172 172 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 1083. Watanabe Shigezo; 7e A4, "Kaitaku noson no seikaku ~ ~~ $ i?e (The newly developed settlements at the west foot of Zao Volcano)," Jimbun chiri, v. 6 (1954), no. 2, 87-103. At the foot of the Zao Volcano, new villages were started after the war as a part of the national program of reclamation. The conditions of soils, irrigation, and climate are analyzed and compared to land use and agricultural management. It is pointed out that the crops are mainly for staple food, as a result of the influence of the general food shortage in postwar period. Due to physical conditions this area is not suitable for rice cultivation. It is demonstrated that there will eventually be room for other cash crops, and some suggestions are presented. 4. Animals 1084. Ishida Hiroshi 7] XL, "Hoboku to kaito y K (Cattle pasturage and 'Kaito')," Jimbun chiri, v. 12 (1960), no. 2, 111-126. The term kaito refers to a type of settlement surrounded by moats, fences or stone walls. There are various theories of the origin of kaito and no agreement has been reached. Ishida made field surveys in the Chugoku Mountains and Oki Islands, the districts where cattle raising is well developed. In these areas, fences are made to keep the animals from arable land. In the villages, there was a stage in which houses were surrounded by fences before it became the style to surround the whole village by fences. 1085. Ishihara Terutoshi,_~ 9K "Osaka kinko rakunq no h tten, rakunochi keisei ni tsuite: Senshu rakuno no baai \X2Xf a ~ 'j - t 4%/ (Dairy farming areas in the suburbs of Osaka: a study of the formation of dairy farming areas)," Keizaichirigaku nempo, v. 6 (1959-60), 35-53. The suburbs of Osaka have been areas of commercial truck farming, and the development of dairy farming was late. The delay was caused by the smallness of the milk market in Osaka and the monopoly of the market by local dairy farms who took advantage of the absence of large dairy industries. In postwar days such farms declined as the result of the encroachment of large capitalistic dairy industries. 1086. Kaneda Toshiz5, "Fukushima-ken ni okeru rankunogyo no hattatsu v et -? -f, Y, ^ (The development of the dairy in Fukushima Prefecture)," Tohoku chiri, v. 4 (1954), no. 4, 43-47. The distribution of the dairy industry in Fa.ushima Prefecture is very uneven. Instead of looking for the reasons in climatic factors or in the distance from the market, Kaneda tries to explain it in terms of the scale of farm management. In the mountainous inland areas, the size of the farms is small, and the farmers are compelled to introduce dairy industry, which uses labor more intensively. In the plains, on the other hand, farmers are engaged in rice culture, and the size of the farms is larger. As a result, the farmers here did not feel it necessary to introduce the dairy industry. 1087. Kikuchi ShOji A_44 =c "Tohoku chiho no rankino joken no hikaku to sono seibi ni kansuru ch5sa tt i 3 44 Ptt P ] i,, I_ (Factors affecting dairy farming and agricultura adjustment problems in Tohoku)," Thoku kaihatsu kenkyu, v. 3 (1963), no. 1, 43-57. Although the introduction of dairy farming is one of the targets in the modernization of T5hoku agriculture, its development is much slower here than in the Hokkaido and Kanto regions. From study of the pattern of milk collecting, three stages are distinguished. Along with the development of dairy farming the pattern of milk collecting becomes more stable. Thus, the distribution of dairies in Tohoku correlated with the stages of development. 1088. Watanabe Munenao l-, "Kyushu yosanson ni okeru nyugyu shiyo no tenkai 1A Je1l;A X X A ( A (Milk cow raising in former sericultural villages in Kyushu)," Nogyo sogo kenkyu, v. 10 (1956), no. 3, 127-173. Raising of milk cows in Kyushu is carried on mainly in villages where sericulture was formerly important. There are few households which are specialzied in dairy farming; dairy aspects of farming are carried on simultaneousely with other farming. The development of dairy farming was urged by the decline of sericulture and the urbanization of the market area of Kumamoto. Dairy farming is not particularly profitable in itself, but it facilitates distribution of labor and lessens the risks inherent in farming. 1089. Yasuda Hatsuo S A "Nippon ni okeru bokuya <ei'kan no chiikiteki tokusei h TJ - r f7 t' i I (Regional characteristics of the landscape of pastures and meadows in Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29

Page  173 FISHING 173 (1956), no. 2, 90-101. In the hilly and mountainous areas of Japan, sparse forests and natural grasslands are used for pasture. This study investigated the density and types of trees in such pasture areas. Characteristics of pasture land are described by region with reference to historical documents. E. Fishing 1090. Birukawa Shohei X )D1 A, "Nihon shuhen no senkai ni okeru tengusa no bumpu to hannU-hangyoson ni okeru tengusa saishU katsud5 ~ ~_ 0 ) } 1 T..1 4.~",V a - +%#t+ t I^ -- ~ r;^ r /,"' (Agar-agar: Its distribution in the sublittoral zone and collecting activities in coastal communities in Japan), T5kyo Ky5iku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu h~koku, v. 5 (1961), 1-32. Sea algae agar-agar, the raw material of gelatin, is mainly collected in the shallow sea near the Isu, Boso and Miura Peninsulas. The production varies from one year to another; this is due to the physical changes of conditions at sea. Diving is the main method of collection. According to a study of the east coast of Izu Peninuula, lower class farmers are engaged in part-time fishing and algae collecting, while upper class villagers are concentrated in farming. In the circulation of the algae, wholesalers and middle merchants are influential; this is because both the collectors and processors are small scale workers. 1091. Doi Senkichi 4j s A I, "Isei enyo sokobiki ami gyogy5 konkyochi no seisui > 'A A' S, t~~B ) a (Vicissitudes of the bases of trawl fishing, west of 128~ 30' E)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 1, 1-23. Trawling is typical of large scale capitalistic man-.agement in fishery. For the fishing ground to the west of 128~ E., trawling was an early development in the ports near the fishing ground, namely the Goto Islands, Nagasaki, Shimonoseki, etc. Gradually, however, as the size of boats and the scale of managment get larger, the bases for trawling are changing to larger cities, and those on small islands. are declining. 1092. Furukawa Shir5: ll \ p, "Kanagawa-ken Misaki gyoko no nattatsu ~, )Xl~ < 't,.^ -L ~ ~ (The development of Misaki Fishing-Port, Kanagawa Prefecture)," Chirigaku hy5ron, v. 32 (1959), no. 4, 179-192. As a result of the development of fishing techniques, numerous fishing ports scattered all over the Japanese coast have been rearranged. Fishing boats and fishing workers are now concentrated in few ports, and fishing bases are being established with well organized facilities. As an examples of this change the port of Misaki, an important base of tuna fishing, is described, and the concentration of boats and men is studied in detail. 1093. Ito Hisao "if \P., "Hokkaido gyogyo chiiki no chiriteki kubun ~_~lL'.~ A' ) i jf_ ^ C^ _ (Geographical division Qf the fishing areas around Hokkaid5)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 7, 377-386. Hokkaido was formerlyprosperous from the coastal fishery of herring, salmon, cod, etc. However, open sea fishery has become more important and regional differences have been enlarged. It5 divided Hokkaid5 into five fishery regions, on the basis of the statistics of 1955-1959. He uses kind and amount of catch and income from fishery as indicators. The regions are: 1) the Eastern part of the Pacific Coast, 2) the Okhotsk Coast, 3) the Central Pacific Coast, 4) the Western Pacific Coast, and 5) the Japan Sea Coast. 1094. Kakimoto Noriaki 'v * * 1, "Shimane hanto hokugan gyoson keizai chirigakuteki kenkyu Jh '- - \ L.to ~=f (An economic-geographical study of the fishing villages on the north coast of Shimane Peninsula)," Jimbun chiri, v. 11 (1959), no. 4, 321-339. Most of the fishermen in this area were those working onasmall scale and who were poor, but after World War II associations of fishermen were established. Trawl nets were introduced, and living standards were much improved. In some parts of this area, however, where expensive kinds of fish are more abundant, the fishermen still stick to the old ways. Thus, in this case, the more favorable natural condition works as a handicap against improvement in the standard of living. 1095. Kikukawa K5suke iLI11J %, "Kyushu Omuta kogyo toshi no nori y5shokugyo to kogyo to no kanren ^ 11f1 (Some effects of industry on the 0feen laver culture in Omuta City, Kyushu)," Jimbun chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 2, 139-158.

Page  174 174 174 JAPANESE GEOGFAPHY The aquiculture of shell fish, which has been important in fisheries along the coast of the Ariake Sea in northwestern Kyushu, has been declining recently, and the culture of laver, the sea weed, is being developed to replace it. On the other hand, in many places of coastal Japan programs for industrialization are in progress. The relation between the changes in fishing villages and the progress of industrialization as seen from an example of a fishing community in the northern part of Omuta City is discussed. 1096. Konuma Isamu J]\ j X, "Nihon gyogy5 no chiiki koz5 `B VX Up ^' (Regional structure in Japanese fisheries)," Chiri, v. 8 (1958), no. 8, 940-949. The recent development of large scale open sea fishing has influence the economy of various districts. On the other hand, coastal fishery is strongly affected by physical conditions, and is stagnant or declining in:.-ny places. Thus, Konuma asserts the importance of an analysis of these aspects in understanding the nature of Japanese fishery. 1097. Kusuhara Naoki X. A, 7 j f s "Akisamma no shukka kara mita Kita-Nihon gyoko no ichiteki kankei ni tsuite X 0; JP"$ tf k j ' d L, X (Localities of fishing ports in northern Japan from the viewpoint of shipment)," Thoku chiri v. 13 (1961), nos. 3 and 4, 73-80. Samma, the skipper, is one of the most important kinds of fish caught in the fishing grounds of northern Japan. Three major fishing ports, namely Hachinohe, Shiogama, and Choshi are compared concerning the landing and shipping of samma. Samma is a migrating fish, and the fishing ground changes by season, and accordingly the distance and shipping cost to the market vary by season. Kusuhara points out the quality, distance from market, and the development of the processing industry at the landing ports as factors governing the price of the fish. 1098. Kusuhara Naoki Ad /X X tt}, "En'yo gyogyo no mizuageko to shite no Shimizu X\8 it X^ 7K^ 'i t1t^ ^7(Shimizu: a landing port ftuna)," T5hoku chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 1, 23-28. Development of fishing in postwar Japan has been promoted by companies with large capital as well as medium- and small-size companies dependent on them. The marketing of products is increasingly concentrated in the hands of large processing and trade companies with large capital. Such a change in the structure of Japanese fishing industry has resulted in the differentiation of fishing ports. Kusuhara analyzes the change through the comparison of Misaki, a base for open sea fishing, Shimizu, a landing port. Development of Shimizu regardless of its insignificance as a fishing base, owes much to the existence of processing companies. 1099. Osaki Akira fk A t4, "Chuo Nihon ni okeru gyoson no hen'yo to gyofu shutsuro K),3 \| ~ XJo 4)X t i yX -' (Changing aspects of fishing villages and emigrant fishing),' Chirigaku hyoron, v. 35 (1962), no. 1, 1-16. The development of capitalistic fishing in Japan causing the reorganization of small-fishermen into employed laborers. The enigration of fishing laborers is a phenomenon which -preceded reorganization. There are two types of emigration. The fishermen of the Pacific Coast of central Japan have moved to the more important fishing bases in response to the development of large scale fishing at those bases. On the coast of the Sea of Japan, lower-class fishermen are being employed by locally established companies. 1100. Osaki Akira K ~ ~, "Teichiami gyogyo keiei no shokei to gyoson no sonzai keitai, 4, a as (Patterns of fishing villages dependent upon fish-traps), Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 7, 424-435. Coastal fishery in Japan is managed by fishing assocations. In the opinion of most specialsits in economic history these associations.are controlled by traditional bosses, political descendants of former amiroto. Osaki points out a sharp contrast between eastern and western Japan. The general view is valid concerning the more backward eastern Japan, but in the more developed western Japan, the leaders of the associations are middle class fishermen, and the fishery inthis district is managed more democratically by the union of the former community associations. 1101. Oshima Joji, t - "Hemb5 suru suisan yoshokugyo chiiki f ^ XX (Alternation between two kinds of maritime farming)," Jimbun cniri, v. 9 (1957), no. 1, 16-28. The embayments of Matoya-wan, Mie Prefecture, were once an important area in aquiculture of oysters, and were equal to Hiroshima Bay and Mtsushima Bay. Since the introduction of the culture of pearl oysters, which is more highly commercialized,

Page  175 FISHING 175 people switched to it as it is more profitable and as the techniques for both kinds are almost same. The aquiculture of oysters thus declined in spite of its favorable location close to the large markets of Osaka and Kobe. 1102. Shimada Masahiko A i ^ /, "Gyosen doryokuka no shinten yori mita gyogyo no chiikisei ni tsuite -I t, ~ S f6i t, ) Ra.f ff4W V V< (On some regional aspects of Japanese fishing from a viewpoint of mortorization of fishing boats)," Jimbun chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 5, 482-496. The percentage of fishing vessels with engines is used as an index to analyze the development of fishery in Japan. Distribution by prefecture of the powered vessels is analyzed for the years 1888, 1907, 1918, 1928, and 1938. The Pacific Coast is characterized by a high percentage of large vessels. The Japan Sea Coast has been characterized by predominantly medium size vessels. The Inland Sea lacks fishing vessels of larger size. Within the first two sea areas, again regional differences in the progress of mechanization are observed. 1103. Tanaka Toyoji MS ~ ~ {, "Oki ni okeru kindaiteki gyogy5 no shinnyu to sono eikyo. i3~ ' I-2 4X. noA in A(The influence of the fising industry of Oki Islands)," Chirigaku lyCron, v. 27 (1954), no. 5, 203-212. The islands of Oki, Shimane Prefecture, are an economically backward district, and the local fishery is still small scale coastal fishing. The fishermen are suffering from competition by the modernized fishing companies on the main island. The author describes the present aspects of the fishery on Oki Islands under such circumstances. 1104. Tanaka Toyoji V, "Nihon kai kitaku no gyogyo kozo to sono hembo katei IA i. ) 'e (Fisheries in the northern part of the Japan Sea)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 3, 156-169. The northern part of the Japanese sea coast from Aomori to Ishikawa Prefecture is a backward region in the Japanese fishing industry. Coastal fishery is not prosperous, and the total catch in this area is only 3% of the national total. Nevertheless, the number of fishermen in this area is fairly large, and many different methods of fishing are carried on. Methods of fishing are not modernized, and many traditional feudalistic customs still survive. Symptoms are seen signalling the start of modernization in accordance with the diffusion of a capitalistic economy. 1105. Tanaka Toyoji By, ~ ' ' "San'in chiho ni okeru shihon-sei gyogyo no hattatsu to sono eiky5 J ]t ' f (The development and influence of the capitalistic fishing industry in the San'in Region)," Chirigaku hySron, v. 28 (1955), no. 4, 159-170. The San'in Region, where small-scale coastal fishing used to be carried on in fishing villages which are strongly feudalistic in social structure, has been an underdeveloped fishery region. However, after World War II, the fisheries in this area underwent a radical change. The change was brought about by the introduction of a capitalistic fishing system. Fishing by trawl and seine nets and by ships with engines suddenly increased the catch, and as the fish were caught in the open sea, the coastal fishing catch radically decreased. These two elements worked together and changed all,spects of the fishery in the San'in Region. 1106. Yabuuchi Yoshihiko 1,?J 9 "Gyogyo-kyodo-kumiai-jiei en'yo gyogyo no keizai-chiriteki kosatsu -,V/ ],/ C f', a), I f Ias - f^i (A study of open sea fishing managed by the fishing cooperative association)," Jimbun chiri, v. 12 (1961), no. 1, 19-34. Open sea fishing by large fishing vessels is one of the solutions to the general decline of coastal fishing in Japan. The case of Oshima, Wakayama Prefecture, is used as an example. Coastal fishing in Oshima has been declining due to a decrease in resources and the use of the island as a radar base since 1953. The local fishing association accordingly started to build large fishing vessels and engaged in tuna fishing on the open sea; this helped to recover prosperity. This, however, is not a perfect solution. Association managed fishing is still under the control of companies with large capital for covering the shipment of the catch. There are also many limitations concerning the choice of fishing grounds. 1107. Yabuuchi Yoshihiko e 10;, Gyoson no seitai 4v 0 A (An ecology of fishing villages), Tokyo5, Kokon Shoin, 1958, 386 pp. The basic problems dealt with in the geographical study of fishing villages are regional division by fishing methods, and regional division by types of fishing boats. The development and historical changes of fishing rights are also important. The fishing villages in Kii Peninsula and on the Japan Sea coast of Hokuriku are taken as examples, and descriptions are given of various types of adaptation to different physical environments.

Page  176 176 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 1108. YabuuchiYoshihiko | ]V t D, "Sekai gyogy5-bunkaken settei shiron <tt x^^S^^^Ni~. St > t> -(A plan for establishing cultural regions for fishery in the world)," Jimbun kenkyu, v. 13 (1962), no. 11, 1055-1070. The fishing regions of the world are classified in various ways, such as European type fishery regions, East Asiatic types, etc. Yabuuchi asserts the necessity of a classification based on the traditional ways of fishing, that is, a classification on the basis of the total cultural background. 1109. Yabuuchi Yoshihiko i and Kakimoto Noriaki ~ B (Kyodo kumiai jiei gyogyo ni kansuru chirigakuteki kenkya u ] / a it ' ) 7 -vt fi ^ ~ (A geographical study of the self-managing fishery of fishermens' cooperative federations), Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 9, 517-535. Four examples of fishing villages are studied in Kinki and Chubu Regions where the fishing is managed by cooperative associations. As a whole, management under the new system is successful in higher adaptation to natural conditions, and a raised standard of living. The system is viewed as a means of self defense for the fisherman in the face of capitalistic large scale fisheries. 1110. Yamana Shinsaku L % F, "Hokkaido Mashike-machi no nishin gyogyo i 4t % > g j i )8 _ i/ -, (Herring fishery in Mashike Town, Hokkaido)," Keizaichirigaku nempo, v. 2 (1955), 40-51. Mashike has been known traditionally as a herring fishery port. The development and changes in herring fishery are described historically. There are two methods of fishing, by fish traps and by seine nets. For each of these methods, the class systems of fishermen and the part played by fishing associations are discussed. F. Mining and Minerals 1111. Kawasaki Shigeru ] )'1 f, "Kozangyo kindaika no kukanteki kozo tenkai ^igjtIA >4&a) tgJsq fJf _ (Changes of mining patterns during the industrial revolution in Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 12, 718-733. The mining industry in Japan was declining at the end of the feudal era. After Japan opened its doors to the world, the mining industry was also modernized. At first the government managed all of the mines, but after 1884 ownership was transferred to businessmen who had succeeded in establishing close relations with the government. The process of modernization of mines is analyzed regionally. Kawasaki concludes that the regional differences were mainly due to natural conditions such as the distribution of ore desposits and the physical environment of mines rather than to factors such as capital, technology, or management. 1112. Kawasaki Shigeru 11 A, "Rekishiteki k5zan machi no keitai to kino t 48RAj If) V i t (The forms and functions of mining towns in Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 7, 374-399. In mining towns settled before the Meiji era, the settlements consist of two elements; a traditional mining town and a newly developed "company settlement." In some cases these elements are intermingled, and in other cases they have developed separately. The latter type of mining town collapses rapidly after exhaustion of the ore. 1113. Marui Hiroshi ^ 4 j, "Joban tanden ni okeru sekitan seisanryoku no tenkai AI h Z1 7X T 1 X A /44 t d)_q (The expansion of coal production in the Joban Coal Field)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 1, 22-36. This book discusses the development of the coal mining industry in the J5ban Area since the late Nineteenth century. Production has been concentrated in two districts where the condition of coal deposits is more favorable. The expansion of production outside thesedistricts inevitably takes place under inferior producing conditions. This fact also causes the growth of medium-sized and small mines which are dependent upon larger mines. 1114. Marui Hiroshi At 14, "Nihon ni okeru shijo no jukyu knakei g1 I/-* i k t,,,d it (The consumption of coal and the supply system of the Japanese coal market)," Chirigaku hy5ron, v. 35 (1962), no. 5, 224-241. From an analysis of the demand-supply relations of coal, Marui classifies Japan into 16 market regions and explains the inflow of coal from three major coal producing areas, North Kyushu, Ihsikari, and Joban. For each of the markets, 17 major elements influencing demand were considered, such as steel, thermal electricity, gas, ceramics; and others. The scale and the characteristics of each market area were explained from the relative weight of such elements.

Page  177 INDUSTRY 177 1115. Sugi Jiro, "Seto-naikai to seien A ~tt Air X (The Inland Sea of Japan and the salt industry),"Chiri, v. 7 (1958), no. 7, 826-835. The Inland Sea has long been the center of the salt industry in Japan. The development of methods to obtain salt from sea water is historically explained, and present problems of the salt industry are discussed in view of the future. G. Industry 1116. Fujimori Tsutomu _i, "Toban k5gy5 chiiki ni okeru chusho shitauke kinzoku kogyo to chiiki kozo X J 1 t oX (The Toban (southwestern part of Hyogo Prefecture), industrial region: economic and regional structure of small scale metal industries)," Keizaichirigaku nempo, v. 8 (1962-63), 37-56. In the eastern part of Harima Province, in western Hy5go Prefecture, there are steel and machine industries which are surrounded by medium and minor factories of metal and machine industries. These smaller enterprises were associated or systematized among themselves as a countermethod against the invasion of large enterprises from the Osaka-Kobe Industrial Region. 1117. Fujimori Tsutomu os ~, "Zosen dokusen shihon no ritchi to chiiki kozo ^^' ^^^^^^ ^ )~ L at C _ t.t (The shipbuilding industry and its surrounding area)," Jimbun chiri, v. 12 (1960), no. 4, 302-325. The city of Tamano, Okayama Prefecture, developed in step with the establishment in 1919 of the Mitsui Ship-building Yard and its growth. In 1959 the population of the city was about 67,000, 7,000 of which were employees of the ship-building yard. This is 70% of the city population involved in the manufacturing industry. By family units, about half of the city population is related to the company. Thus, the economy of this city is strongly dependent upon a single enterprise, and the peculiarity of Tamano in this sense is analyzed here. Circumstances at the time of establishment and locational factors that influenced the establishment of the Mitsui Yard as well as its later development are discussed. 1118. Funabashi Yasuhiko i -A, "Wagakuni ni okeru seitetsu k5j5 no ritchi ^*T@ l^^M^X^;1p-R g; 6 (Location of the iron and steel industry in Japan)," Jimbun chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 6, 19-36. An iron and steel plant with a production capacity of two million tons a year was taken as a standard, and production costs were calculated concerning factory ground, industrial water, iron ore, and limestone. Sixteen places were selected from all Japan to satsify these conditions. Transportation costs were calculated on the basis of shipping costs of imported raw materials and domestic shipping costs of raw materials by railroads and ships. Through comparison of the locations suitable for the development of an iron and steel industry in Japan, it is concluded that the iron and steel industry in Japan is oriented to the market. 1119. Futagami Hiroshi -f PA, "Kyushu Koishiwara togyo no seisan kozo y)yPl]' X tSI4% d _^i L -- _* (The structure of production of the Koishiwara pottery industry in Kyushu)," Tsujimura Taro sensei koki kinen chirigaku rombunshu 1961, 574-583. In the northeastern part of Asakura-gun, Fukuoka Prefecture, the production of Koishiwara pottery has been carried on with techniques of Korean origin since the later part of the Sixteenth century. Formerly the wares were made for daily use, but recently the pottery as folk-art has been emphasized. The industry is closely combined with farming. When pottery production is in a depression the workers are engaged in farming, and when it is prosperous they still maintain some farming as well. This is why the local industry has survived for so long. 1120. Hasecgawa Norio rt )'i b A, "Tohoku chih5 no kogyo to kaihatsu X ~t-@ (Manufacturing industry and regional planning in the Tohoku Region)," Kaihatsu ni kansuru chirigakuteki shomondai (Tomita Yoshiro sensei taikan kinen rombunshu), 1959, 167-182 Regional development planning is one of the important problems in postwar Japan. The backwardness of Tohoku is seen especially in the low development of manufacturing industries. After a general description of industry in Tohoku, the influence of modern factories on neighboring areas is discussed. Because industrialization is necessary for the development of Tohoku, it must be considered within the total framework of Japan's industrial structure as well. 1121. Higaki Matsuo 3 P 2 k, "Kita Kyushu kogyo chitai ni okeru ko yoke no keitai to chiikiteki joken no ruikei Ap|141I t ^ % ) 2-_ ) aXhi D -M 6 VIi 9v SS (Forms and the types of industrial zones in North Kyushu)," Chirigaku hyoron,

Page  178 JAAnNEsE GEOGRAPHY v. 31 (1958), no. 12, 702-717. The structure of industrial zones is analyzed from the distribution of manufacturing industries. Locational factors are classified according to the regions. This industrial zone consists of several unit areas with large scale factories as their cores. The factories and industries are in various relations to each other, namely, dependence, control competition and coexistence. The factors that influence these relations are labor, power, and the ports for raw material, etc. 112,2. Ni hon along no rinkai kogyo chitai i X1 j1 (Japanese industrial zones the sea)," T5kyo, Tsuhosangy5 Kenkyusha, 1963, 305 pp. Japanese industry has developed in four major industrial areas: Tokyo-Yokohama, Csaka-Kobe, Nagoya, and North Kyushu. Recently, especially after World War II, the development of these major industrial areas has become stagnant. There is a trend of new industrial areas, like the Tokai and the Inland Sea areas, forming between the older are s. From these newly growing industrial areas, 32 districts located near the coast have been selected, and their present status and plans for the future are described with abundant maps and air photos. For each of them there are articles on factory land, industrial water, transportation facili ies, electricity, labor, etc. 1123. Itakura Katsutaka X X X, "Bumpu yori mitaru Nihon no kikai kogyo 4/,)^) a r-c; T f 44 a^ ^(' -(Distribution of Japanese machinery industry)," Tohoku chiri, v. 13 (1961), no. 1, 1-16. The distribution of machine factories of more than 20 employees is shown on a map. The great majority of the factories are distributed in a narrow belt from Hitachi in Ibaraki Prefecture in the east to Fukuoka City in the west, mainly_llong the Pacific Coast. Concentration is strong in the T5kyo-Yokohama and the Osaka-Kobe areas, and next, in the INagoya and Shimonoseki-Moji areas. In this narrow belt, conditions concerning railroads, streets, liaison with associated industries, the market and so on are favorable. Outside the belt, the locations of existing factories are related to fishing ports, mines or former military establishments. 1124. Itakura Katsutaka A f, "Kanto-chiho no kogyo chiiki kubun Mt (Industrial division of the Kanto district)," Tohoku chiri, v. 1 (1963), no. 3, 85-93. Industrial regions in Kanto may be divided into the Tokyo-YokohamaRegion and local industrial regions. The largest of the latter is the.orthern Kanto industrial region. In northern Kanto, the textile industry developed early, and during the war, investment was accumulated in the form of real estate, roads, communications, public welfare, etc. The eastern Kanto region including Tsuchiura was the former location of the armed forces, but was deficient in previous local industries. Between north Kanto and the T5ky5-Yokohama regions, there remain wide tracts of poorly industrialized area. Industrialization has not progressed along the Joban Railroad and National Highway no. 6. 1125. Itakura Katsutaka 4, "Nihon no kagaku kojo no bumpu Xr_ At ' (Distribution of chemical plants in Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 32 (1959), no. 7, 351-364. The development of the petroleum chemical industry in the near future will bring fundamental changes both in the distribution and in the nature of the chemical industry in Japan. Anticipating the change, Itakura tries to analyze the present status of the chemical industry. Of 89 chemical plants, management and labor relationsare analyzed. From the distribution of the plants, the factors that cause areal concentration and changes in distribution are studied, and classified into several types. 1126. Itakura Katsutaka `AD ^, "Suwa-bonchi ni okeru kogyo no henka l 4^'it$t g tl X~X, >g I 7 ` A (Industrial change in the Suwa Basin)," Jimbun chiri, v. 11 (1959), no. 3, 240-255. The Suwa Basin was one of Japan's largest centers of textile industry before WorldWar II. However, it is now entirely replaced by precise-machine and metal industries. This change was accompanied by changes in capital, labor, raw material and transportation relations. The following are locational factors favorable to the change: climate suitable to the development of precise-machine industry, diligent disposition of inhabitants, surplus labor from the farming area, and wartime evacuation of factories from larger cities. Other than these, and as an even more important factor, Itakura points out the existence of technicians who used to work at assemblage and repair shops attached to the textile factories.

Page  179 INDUSTRY 179 1127. Itakura Katsutaka By 0 P, Ide Sakuo X, Takeuchi Atsuhiko /_|.._ _, and Kitamura Y shiyuki -T-, "Keihin kogyo chitai no chiiki kozo A, AIL- -1 X 6' (An industrial geography of the Keihin area)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 8, 1-22. In the T5ky5-Yokohama Industrial Area the proportion of assemblage and miscellaneous goodsmanufacturing is higher than that of heavy industry. The boundaries of this industrial area are defined on the basis of the distribution of factories and historical development. From the distribution of factories as classified by their final products, the area is divided into five districts of which two are core areas characterized by the concentration of assemblage and miscellaneous goods. Industrialization of the marginal areas is rapidly progressing in relation to the core areas. 1128. It5 Kiei "iT~, "Nippon ni okeru chusho orimonogyo no chiikiteki seikaku Hi4. ):,5' r)d ijv <S (Regional characteristics of theminor textile industry of Japan)," Jimbun chiri, v. 9 (1957), no. 5, 339-357. There are two types of management system in the Japanese textile industry. One is the type in which spinning and weaving are carried on under the same system, and the other is the type in which weaving is carried on in dependenceon purchased yarn. The former developed since Meiji through introduction of the western system and is large in management scale. The latter is generally smaller in scale, and the enterprises are successors of those in the Edo period. Main cotton industry regions of Japan had already been formed in the Edo period; at that t ime there was little difference in characteristics between the regions, but when the new system was introduced each region accepted it in different ways, and regional differences werethus developed. 1129. Ito Kiei, "Waga-kuni ni okeru y5om bosekigyo no ritchi ni tsuite (h e r egi-on l t u tl ye of; itsuures (On the location of the woolen yarn spinning industry in Japan)," Jimbun chiri, v. 12 (1960), no. 4, 326-346. The T5kai Region with Nagoya as its center is Japan's greatest center of the woolen yarn industry. The industry started in the 1920's mainly in the western part of this region. By this time the cotton industry had developed in the eastern part of the region, and to compete with ithe ewoolen industry took advantage of the supply stoppage due to World War I, and the protection by customs, that followed the war. In prewar days, however, less than 10% of the product was exported, and the factories started as small and medium scale ones. 1130. Kagaku Gijitsucho Shigen Chosakai n Kogyo no kindaika to ritchi I w ^ t L (Modernization of the manufacturing industry and its localization), Tokyo, Shigen Kyokai, 1957, 378 pp. Localization factors like land, water, technology, and transportations are analyzed, aiming at the rearrangement of industrial regions. In established areas, the production costs rise and other basic _o:ditions deteriorate. From the analysis of the above mentioned aspects and also other accompanying problems, the ways of industrial regions are discussed and future problems are pointed out. 1131. Kasuga Shigeo, "Kogy5 no chitaiteki kesei 11 ~J X ~. i a4 t (The regional structure of industries: with special reference to the industrial region of North Kyasha)," Jimbun chiri, v. 8 (1956), no. 1, 20-33. Although the term "regional structure" has different meanings, Kasuga proposes to use it with the condition that the parts are closely tied to the total region. On the basis of this assumption, the Northern Kyushu industrial region is analyzed geographically. The Northern Kyushu industrial region came into existence as the result of agglomeration around core areas. Forms of the development of core areas are classified into eight types. 1132. Kasuga Shigeo 4 I 7 j "Shotoshi no kogy5 ritchi to shizei shunyu j) O 10 jttitt+4 g 2s _^ - (Industrial location in small cities and the revenue of city-taxes)," Osaka Shiritsu Daigaku jimmon kenkyu, v. 13 (1962), no. 11, 53-67. Aioi and Ak5 in Hyogo Prefecture are small cities with populations of about 40,000. In Aioi there is a shipyard, and in Ako a few small factories are located. The effects of factories on small cities are analyzed to compile basic data to determine policies used to attract factories. Correlation to per capita city tax is found with per capita industrial production, but not with production per workers in factories. It is also found that if an enterprise occupies a high ratio of city income, like the example in Aioi, finance becomes unstable. 1133. Kawasaki Satoshi )1J 4 k, "Bakumatsu yori Meiji shoki ni okeru Bisai kigyo no chiiki keisei N 9 ^ i - ^ l A

Page  180 180 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY (The formation of the Bisai textile industry area)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 6, 312-327. Bisai covers the western part of Owari Province. In this area, before the Meiji Restoration and in the early part of the Meiji era, the textile industry was carried on in various parallel forms such as self subsistent hand industry in the farm villages, home industry under the guild system, and a manufacturing system. Each of these developed towards modernization in regionally different ways. The wool industry, which is prosperous in this area now, was established on the basis of the cotton industry started before the Restoration. 1134. Kawasaki Satoshi )1 "Kigyo-chiiki no mondai: Owari seibu to Ryomo chiho af ^te2 M/ -A} i t L^v (Problems of textile industry regions: the case of western Owari and northern Kanto)," Chiri, v. 5 (1960), no. 4, 378-385. After the Meiji Restoration, the textile industry underwent a monumental development and became the foundation of Japanese industry. Northern Kanto (Shimotsuke and Kozuke Provinces) is a typical region for silk, rayon, staple fiber, and cotton industries. Western Owari Province is noted for its wool industry. Both of them started in farm villages and have a long history. The development of textile industiral regions in Japan is described by comparing these two districts. 1135. Kawasaki Satoshi )J If ", "Yuki kigyo no chiikiteki shuseki 7;t' Y 13) 53,,,. (Regional accumulation of the textile industry in Yuki)," Chigaku zasshi, v. 70 (1961), no. 1, 38-43. In an area within five kilometers of the city of Yuki, Ibaraki Prefecture, the production of handwoven silk has been carried on as a home industry in farming areas. The area expanded and shrank according to the time. There is a division of work between the core area of weaving and the marginal area of spinners of silk. In accordance with increased chances for employment, the silk industry in Yuki is becoming a job of middle aged and old women. 1136. Kazamaki Yoshitaka, "Denki kagaku kogyo no ritchi ~t I t) -Ai (Location of t e electrochemical industry)," Keizaichirigaku nempo, v. 1 (1954), 72-85. A typical example of the development of the eletroche.ical industry is found in the Hokuriku Region. Its location and development are explained in relation to economic and technological changes in the electric industry. Distribution of factories and their management are analyzed individually. The existence of cheap labor which hitherto has been an important locational condition has lost its importance. 1137. Kazamaki Yoshitaka A it jA, Koda Kiyoki X $, and Itakura Katsutaka;t4 ) )j, "Nihon kogyo chiiki no keisei i-A> f'-A( (The formation of manufacturing regions in Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), nos. 1 and 2, 1-14, 95-105. According to this study on the geography of the manufacturing industry in Japan, Japanese industries are classified into four groups: heavy and chemical industries, textile industry, miscellaneous industries, and a mixture of these. These groups are analyzed according to their distribution, the relationship between the scale of the factory and each group. The distribution of 623 large scale factories is also discussed. 1138. Kikuchi Ichiro, M- tp, "Koto (Tokyo-to) kogy5 ni chiiki koz5 ^ (5X i f)^ __1 f) Ae A jL* A (A characteristic pattern of industrial land use in the Koto District, Tokyo, with the history of its establishment)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 9, 555-565. From the distribution of factories in the Koto District, eastern Tokyo is subdivided into A) the Honjo-Fukagawra district of light industries; B) the Joto district of heavy and chemical industries; and C) the Mukojima district of miscellaneous industries. At the end of the feudal period, districts A and B were built-up areas, while C was a farming area. There were temples and houses of samurai in district A, the land of which was later converted into lots for shops and small plants for home industries. These small businesses were organized in line with the development of a capitalistic economy and light industries developed in the area. The labor thus accumulated in districts A and C offered a chance for the introduction of large scale modern industries, which started here and took advantage of the cheap land of a former farming area. 1139. Kikuchi Ichiro I it_ - F, "Nihon no nokigu kogyo no ritchi A tX A Ai A> eh & Y (The location of the agricultural machine and

Page  181 181 INDUSTRY 181 implement industry)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyU, v. 7 (1963), 84-116. The location of power cultivator industries and agricultural motor industries is analyzed on the principle that their locations move to the center of market areas in accordance with the growth of the area. In changes of factory location the trend has shown that factories are attracted by the market. In spite of the changes from heavy industry to the manufacturing of agricultural machines, and in spite of the trend of large enterpises to combine these aspects, the location factor of attracting factories to farming areas is still evident. 1140. Kikuchi Ichiro 4 9_-e -, "Nihon no semento kogyo ritchi Q^ y/'r%- X (Cement plant location in Japan)," Chirigkau hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 7, 361-373. The cement industry started in 1872 as a government managed factory. The location of this industry is discussed historically. In the early stage, the transportation for both raw material and finished product was the main locational factor, and the plants were concentrated in Kyushu. Monopolization of the industry by three major companies originated in Kyushu. In the postwar period, transportation shifted from sea to land, and petroleum is taking the place of coal; the market has enlarged to cover the whole country. The distribution of the plants is spreading to inland areas and to central Japan. 1141. Kitamura Yoshiyuki it4 t h 4 e, "Nihon yonrin jidosha kogyo no chiikiteki tenkai ^,k i t 1S; 0Atj t (The geographic structure and development of the four-wheeled motor vehicle industry in Japan)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 6, 326-343. The location, areal expansion, and the process of development of the automobile industry in Japan are described with emphasis on the Tokyo-Yokohama area. The location of the automobile industry is decided by the regional arrangement of attached factories with the assemblage factory as its center rather than by locational factors. The foundation of locational factors for the automobile industry is machine industry. Assemblage factories were established in the suburbs and reclaimed land on the outskirts of cities, and the main location factors were availability of the land and the relation to attached industries. An automobile industry area is accomplished by the growth of plants around the core. 1142. Kobayashi Tokisaburo "1', "Tsugaru-chiho ni okeru kogyo no tokushitsu Ct1 1U - XjL^'J 4 C(Some structural features of manufacturing industries in the Tsugaru area)," Tohoku kaihatsu kenkyu, v. 2, no. 1 (1962). The Tsugaru district is located in the western part of Aomori Prefecture. The main manufacturing industries in this area are food processing snd woodwork. Many of the products are sold directly to the consumers and retailers, and the proportion of the sale to wholesalers is low. Thus industry in Tsugaru is characterized by a heavy concentration on consumer goods and by their circulation within this district. 1143. Koda Kiyoki 3 vtX, "Amagasaki no kogyo S ^ A I t _ (Industry in Amagasaki)," Toky5 Kyaiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 7 (1963), 117-166. Amagasaki is one of the kernel cities of the Osaka-Kobe Industrial Region, and its situation is comparable with that of Kawasaki in the Tokyo-Yokohama Industrial Region. Therefore, a comparison of Kawasaki and Amagasaki comprises this study. Industry in the Amagasaki coastal area made rapid growth after World War I. In accordance with the growth of industry in Osaka, both factories and the number of laborers increased rapidly in Amagasaki; the metal industry with steel as its core and the machine industry developed here. Recently, however, Amagasaki has been suffering from serious problems typical of overcrowded industrial cities, such as the depression of the ground, contamination of the air and traffic jams. The larger the scale of the factories, the greater the dependence on Tokyo and Osaka rather than on Amagasaki. The main offices are strongly concentrated in Toky5. Labor is mostly supplied from within the city, and there is practically no inmigration from Osaka. As far as the labor supply is concerned, Amagasaki is an out-migrating city. 1144. Koda Kiyoki k 4., "Kawasaki no kogyo: chiiki no keisei to kozo )n (d16 gst ] — A l Hi -_ ~~ - (The industrial development and structure of Kawasaki City)," Tokyo KySiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 3 (1959), 17-50. After a general description of the industrial region of Kawasaki, the period of the foundation of the factories, the relations of the factory owners, laborers,

Page  182 182 JAPANESE GEOGRAPPY and capital are studied. The conclusion is that Kawasaki, as an industrial region, is subordinate to the industrial region of Tokyo, and the relation is particularly evident in the development of subcontract factories. Thus, the regional structure of this industrial region is explained through the subcontract system. 1145. Koda Kiyoki y 1 et "KjQo seirits ni tomnonau chiiki no hen 'y: Chibashi ni okeru Kawatetsu no baai y 1 ' ] ~.. ^ — '-t )'' )14 ];#" (Changes in a region after the location of a workshop: the case of 'Kawatetsu' in Chiba City)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 1 (1957), 57-86. A huge steel plant was established in Chiba on the coast near Tokyo; this fact strongly influenced the local community. The nature of this influence is analyzed. Main topics are: growth of business districts near the plant, new residential districts and accompanying business district, raised land value, expansion of urbanized area, changes in traffic, increased employment, and difference in standards of living between the employees and ordinary citizens. The ratio of employees from neighboring areas is high, and many of them came from farming villages. Increased consumer purchasing helped the development of local business. The development of related factories is not especially good. 1146. Koda Kiyoki l] it $ "Tokai chiho no okeru kojo busshi no ryudo to kojo ritc hi ni tsuite h e Iso Byh J C / \ Y. T L IL Z v.7 (On the flow of industrial materials and manufactured products, and the industrial location in the T5kai area)," TOkyo5 Kyoik. Daigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 8 (1964), 57-74. The relationship between transportation and the location of factories is analyzed using the results of the survey of industrial location conducted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Most factories rely on three kinds of transportation: trucks, railroads, and ships combined with either of the former. The larger the scale of the factories, the higher the dependence on the railroad. The range of the transportation is roughly bounded by the Tokyo-Yokohama area to the east and the Osaka-Kobe area to the west. Usually the older factories are located close to railroad stations. 1147. Kubota Tetsusaburo, "Do-seiren-kogyo no ritchi no hensen ^^^-L ^/) itL ^ ^ (Changes in the location of copper smeli e industry in Japan)," Jimbun chiri, v. 15 (1963), no. 1, 1-29. The factors influencing the location of the copper smelting industry have changed through e se of time. In the Edo period, crude smelting was carried on at major copper mines, and the refinement was done in Osaka. In the early part of the Meiji era, both smelting and refinement were carried out at the mines. From the late Meiji era to World War I, the major companies located their refineries in the Inland Sea area and dependepended upon purchased ore. After World War I, the copper industry shifted to establised industrial areas in a search for locations convenient to associated industries. 1148. Kuwabara Tadanori N~ G,/ "Tajima ni okeru koriyanrgai sangyo no chirigakuteki kenkyu X - t E (Wicker industry in the ajima area, Hyogo Prefecture)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 12, 1131-1142. In Tajima Province, there is a traditional industry of wicker work. The factors that preserved this old industry are explained as follows: snowy and mountainous land and and rainy fall season unsuitable for other activities, minute scale of farms (average 54 acres), and undeveloped communication and transportation. Formerly the culture of the plant Salix koriyanagi was almost monopolized by this area. However, the plant is spreading more widely as it is very sturdy and its products are in demand. Knowledge of traditional techniques in the wicker industry inspires the maintenance of this industry in the Tajima area. 1149. Kuwabara Yasuo lk Sda, h "Tohoku chiho no kogyo ritchi ni tsuite wil,) X-^tcb-t-: 1 V-o b (Conditions of the location of industry in the Tohoku district)," Tohoku kenkyu, v. 9 (1959), no. 2, 27-32. The Tohoku Region is abundant in raw materials and labor supply. If such were accompanied with traffic conveniences, electricity, ports, water supply, etc., there should be a promising future for the industrialization of the Tohoku. However, room for large scale industrial grounds along coastal areas is limited, and accordingly, future aspects of the industrialization of the T5hoku will be scattered in major cities like Sendai, Shiogama, Hachinohe, Akita, and Niigata. Thus, it will be different from the agglomerated industrial areas existing in other parts of Japan. 1150. Marui Hiroshi A ) I'a and Okadia Kiyoshi 14tf ~?."Saitama-ken

Page  183 INDUSTRY 183 seiroku ni okeru noson-k5gyo seiritsu no kiban S i'_ A I I^ A L I A 0X (Basis of rural industry at the foot of mountains: the case of western Saitama Prefecture)," Jimbun chiri, v. 11 (1959), no. 2, 132-148. Various home industries are developed in rural villages along the eastern foot of the Kanto mountains, especially in that part of Saitama Prefecture. Here the examples of Japanese paper production, house fittings, and silk industry are studied. Farming households are classified into three groups in accordance with the size of the farms. Farms with more than one cho are, besides cultivating, engaged mainly in sericulture and dairy farming. The class with less than 0.5 cho is interested in wage labor. It is the class with 0.5-1 cho who are mainly engaged in the home industries as part-time work. 1151. Matsuda Takashi / l, "Keihin kogyo chitai nambu no ch5sa \ 1 -1 f A4) F$0 (Research on a part of the southern Keihin (Tokyo-Yokohama) industrial region)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 7, 345-362. The southern part of the Toky~-Yokohama industrial region is characterized by the development of manufacturing industries of general machines, electric appliances, and machines and equipment for transportation. The industrialization of this area has been promoted since 1930, and today it has the heaviest concentration of machine industry in the nation. Main factors in its development have been the encouragement of heavy and chemical industry for military purposes, the use of the T5kyo-Yokohama canal, and the reclamation of land from the shallow sea. The scale of factories is small, the number of employees being less than 29 in most cases. About90% of the factories are subcontrators for the larger factories. 1152. Matsuda Takashi -2 A ~, "Meiji chuki ni okeru Tohoku chiho no kogyo ]vYt q *-%'^/SX IAOX?):r_ HE ff(Japanese industries in the T5hoku Region in the middle period o the Meiji era)," Sundai shigaku, no. 14 (1964), 24-43. In the middle of the Meiji era, T5hoku was not particularly backward industrially with respect to the growth rate of its factories and the increase in its use of motors. However industry in T5hoku was concentrated mainly in the manufacture of textiles and metals. The lack of variety in manufacturing was largely responsible for the backwardness of T5hoku in this period. 1153. Matsuda Takashi DAl? and Matsushima Kazuo -X "Keihin kngyo chitai nambu no ch5sa nokoku: dai nih5o t A'; (Research on part of the southern Keihin (T5ky5-Yokohama) Industrial Region: Part 2)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 36 (1963), no. 12, 695-708. In the survey area of the southern part of the Keihin industrial region, fisheries were a main industry before industrialization. The survey follows the changes of fisheries in accordance with the development of indsutry. Recent popualtion statisics by occupation show that work with fisheries concerns the largest percentage of working people born in this area, meaning that industrial development is due to the labor of immigrants from other districts. Traditional fisheries survive only as the aquiculture of sea weed, but that also is declining. 1154. Miyakawa Zenzo S }5 ] ' and Kawakami Mitsugi I 4, "Sen-En kogyo chiiki no seiritsu or ) Lj( _t (The formation of the Sendai-Shiogama Manufacturing Region),' Tohoku chiri, v. 12 (1960), no. 2, 21-32. T5hoku has been a backward region of Japan, but recently factories have been established in T5hoku and there are programs to build industrial areas. The SendaiShiogama district is one of them. The role played by the national and local governments in the formation of this industrial area is relatively important. The structure of the area does not show the nature of a nodal point with an industrial area as its core. 1155. Miyasaka Masaji ~ at ~, "Waga kuni sangyo kikai k5gy5 no ritchi: shijo k5z5 to seisanbutsu potential kara no k5satsu — ' )f N ' - A-:I ^~ 7 c/ */ V -}^ a vtJT (Status of the manufacturing machinery industry of Japan: A study of its market structure and production potential)," Keizaichirigaku nempo, v. 9 (1964), 1-17. Manufacturing of machiney developed rapidly in postwar Japan. The present status of the machinery industry is discussed on the basis of market structure and production potential. As to the market, the industry is mostly supported by the domestic market. Manufacturing of machinery for secondary industries is oriented towards the domestic market, while agricultural and mining machinery manufacturing does not show such a trend. Production potential of various kinds of industrial machinery was calculated by prefecture using a gravity model, and the distribution is shown by means of isopleths. The results were parallel to those obtained through

Page  184 184 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY former analyses. 1156. Murata Kiyoji ~AAl_ _, Kogyo chiiki no kenkyu XjL LJ dJ9/% (A study of industrial areas), Toky5, Sozosha, 1962, 466 pp. This is a theoretical study of industrial areas from the standpoint of economic geography. The locationof steel plants in Kamaishi and Yawata, and the zipper factory in Kurobe are described as examples. 1157. Murata Kiyoji 4 t] /f-,' i and Kaneda Shoji A/ 1 v Jg4, "Tan'itsu kogyo no ritchi to sono chiiki koka - 1z.L (The location of single industries and their regional effects)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 4, 193-204. Kurobe, Toyama Prefecture, is a new city that started in 1954 as the result of municipal amalgamation. As part of the program to develop the city, factories were offered 972,000 square meters of building land. The Yoshida Fastener Factory was thus founded. The production of fasteners, by nature, is influenced by markets as a locational factor, and in this respect Kurobe has no favorable conditons. In compensation the enterprise tried to raise its productivity by means of high efficiency. Direct influence of the factory on the local community is analyzed with regard to productivity, employment, and money circulation. 1158. Nakamura Muneharu f t X and Aoki Chieko _Z}4 4 J "Ibaraki-ken Kashima nambu ni okeru keizai chirigakuteki ichi kosatsu: kansho dempun kakogyo ni tsuite; }VI ' A m' - t (Economic geography in the osuthern part of Kashima, Ibaraki Prefecture: The sweet potato starch manufacturing industry)," Keizaichirigaku nempo v. 2 (1955), 62-71 In asanddune area of the southern part of Ibaraki Prefecture, a starch industry developed using sweet potatoes as raw material. Farming in this area has been traditionally combined with sericulture and fishery as sources of cash income. In accordance with postwar economic changes, the starch industry was started. At present there is management by farmers, by associations and by commercial capital. Products are used mainly to make candies. 1159. Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha (Japan Economist), ed., Nihon no kombinato M d 6) " -- - (Kombinat in Japan), Tokyo, Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha, 1962, 590 pp. The Russian term kombinat came to be used widely in Japan with slight modification. This is a general description of the so-called kombinat in Japan. First, the structure and the history of kombinat in Japan are explained in detail taking the case of the chemical industry as an example. In regard to the present status of kombinat in Japan, 13 cases of petroleum kombinat, 4 steel and chemical kombinat and other examples are discussed. 1160. Nihon K-gyo Ritchi Senta +$-: t At — >- (Japan Research Center for Industrial Location), Nihon ni okeru kogyo no chiiki kozo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu '] + If - )} gt}t-.t,;X'-~ Lr fX.. g [, (Research report on development and regional structure of modern Japanese industries)," Tokyo, Nihon Kogyo Ritchi Senta, 1963., 326 pp. First, the development of modern Japanese industry is discussed in each of the periods into which the epochs are classified. The geographic expansion of industrial areas is described for each period. The development of the four major industrial areas, as well as of a number of other areas, and the present status of industry in those areas are then described. A bibliography of materials related to regional economy is attached. 1161. Nippon Jimbun Gakkai 9^ t/ (Japan Cultural Science Society), Kindai kok5gy5 to chiiki shakai no tenkai a \' i- k. by _ /A ) _ (The growth of modern industry and its influence upon the local community), Tokyo, Toky5 Daigaku Shuppankai, 1955, 791 pp. Hitachi City in Ibaraki Prefecture is about 150 km. to the north of Tokyo. Until about 40 years ago it was a small village, but after the discovery of copper mines there it experienced rapid growth. The exploitation of copper ore and establishment of repair facilities for the electric machinery and instruments developed very rapidly, making Hirachi a large industrial city. The influence of this rapid growth on the local economy, society, education and culture are analyzed. 1162. Nohara Toshio t,, "Zairai kogyo no tenkai to chiiki keizai no yakuwari vXJ I It^ (The relationship between the development of the filature-industry and rural communities)," Keizaichirigaku nempo, v. 6 (1959-60), 21-35.

Page  185 185 INDUSTRY Nohara analyzes the relationship between the development of the reeling industry and the dissolution of the farming class in a small area of Gifu Prefecture. He points out the development of sericulture and the improvement of roads as the main economic effects. Nohara asserts the importance of an analysis of the system of capital, adaptation and influence of industry to the area, and the influence of traditional industries on other industries as criteria for judgement in the study of economic geography. 1163. Ogawa Hajime )\' 1 A_, Kogyo chitai keikaku _-r A -t t1 " (Industrial belt planning), Tokyo, Kokumin Kagakusha, 1964, 200 pp. In accordance with the rapid growth of the Japanese manufacturing industry a number of undesirable problems were brought about, working as obstacles for further growth. The book consists of three parts; location of manufacturing industries, industrial water, and reclamation by filling-in and dredge. Part two also deals with the problems caused by industrialization. 1164. Okochi Kazuo J if -A, Keihin kogyo chitai no sangy5 kozo f\ i '' At*) dX t^ B_ (The structure of industries of the Keihin industrial region), Toko, Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1963, 329 pp. An important part of the Tokyo-Yokohama industrial region is located in Kanagawa Prefecture and includes Yokohama, Kawasaki and Tsurumi. The economy of Kanagawa is characterized by the predominance of manufacturing industries. The largest percentage of these factories are heavy and chemical industries with their main offices mostly in Tokyo. Thus, Kanagawa Prefecture merely offers the land for the factories, while the profits are absorbed by the huge institutions with head offices in T5ky5. 1165. Okuda Toshio g Jt Be, Kog o chiiki kozoron: josetsu oyobi genkyo bunseki X tX ^ ^ X- ^ _^' ' ^ (Study of the structure of industrial areas: introduction and analysis of present conditions)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 6, 261-274. Saitama Prefecture is chosen as the field of a case study on the formation and structure of industrial regions. The area is located to the north of the TokyoYokohama Industrial Region, and is in the process of formation as an industrial region. Main issues discussed here are: 1) definition and subdivision of industrial regions; 2) analysis of the present status of industrial regions; and 3) formation and the changes of the regions. 1166. Ota Isamu 10 J, "Kogyo yosuihi no chiikiteki k5satsu _XJT i >a-9 ^^o A1~~ir? i~ ~(Survey on the prices of water for industry)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 34 (1961), no. 4, 187-200. Regional water economy has much to do with the localization of industry. Ota devised an index to show the water economy for the entire country. According to this, main heavy and chemical industrial areas of Japan are in an inferior condition in terms of availability of water. Such areas as T5kai and Hokuriku where industries are slow to develop are endowed with superior conditions for industrial water. In an area where water is abundant, accumulation of factories causes water shortage, and the factories are compelled to depend on an expensive civil water-works; this is the present situation of the four major industrial areas of Japan. 1167. Sait5 Kanokichi ^ JS t, "Kiryu kigyoken no seiritsu to hatten t lS ^ 7K L XEstablishment and development of the Kiryu textile industry region)," Jimbun chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 4, 1-16. Though the origin of the silk industry in Kiryu is ancient, it is only since about the Sixteenth century that its distribution can be seen on maps. In 1591, when Kiryu-Shinmachi was founded, no areal differentiation within the city was to be seen. With the development of a manufacturing system, guilds were established in Kiryu-Shinmachi, and under-workers and hired weavers were scattered all over th city. The differentiation became clearer from the late Edo period to the Meiji era when in the western and the northern part of the city raw silk industry was found, and Kiryu-Shinmachi was the center of dyeing and high grade weaving. Thus, Kiryu-Shinmachi became the core of the silk industry with the guilds and associated institutions, while the under-workers and weavers on wages were distributed in the outer areas. 1168. Sasada Tomosabur5 * I t, "Kogyo ritchi ni okeru gijutsu no denshosei: Kyoto ni okeru senshoku kogyo ni tsuite _t i_ L ], d):Z ~tK ~.~ 6. "-, T,)s. <tL m1 )- \ -s L.Tr,(Traditionali'sm of techniques as a factor of industrial location: dyeing industry in Kyoto)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 30 (1957), no. 3, 209-216.

Page  186 186 ~~~~~1896 ~JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY The dyeing industry is prosperous in Kyoto, but Kyoto is not a producing area of textile, nor is it particularly favored with good physical conditions such as good quality of water. From the analysis of the locational factors influencing the dyeing industry, Sasada concludes that highly developed techniques, in combination with other factors, are the important aspects. Such techniques, once developed in a given place, are passed on to the next generation and result in a positive locational factor. 1169. Sato Motoshige A t, Nihon no kogyo ritchi seisaku I J (Policies of indus rial location in Japan), Tokyo, Kobundo, 1963, 260 pp. This work deals with the development of location policies before and during World War II. In the 1930's, regional development of T5hoku was planned without success. After the Manchurian conflict, the scattering of the munitions industry was encouraged. During World War II much effort was made for regional planning of national land and for the development of industrial cities. In the later stages of the War, the evacuation of factories from major industrial areas was enforced. 1170. Sato Motoshige 4>i j, "Tennen-gau ka aku-kogyo no chiiki jumin ni oyobosu eikyoXt y f I B 1'T'-) 71' (Influences of the chemical industry using natural gas on the area concerned and on its inhabitants)," Tohoku kaihatsu kenkyu, v. 2 (1963), no. 2, 31-38. In 1957-62 a group of factories with a total of 869 employees and 770,000 square meters of factory ground was established in a rural part of Hiigata Prefecture where there is access to natural gas. The changes to rural communities caused by industrialization are analyzed. Favorable influence on local finance was expected to begin in 1964, but modernization of the towns started earlier. No farmers abandoned agriculture, as most of the factory grounds were former forests and grass land. The effect on farming is observed only in the existence of a few people who found jobs in the factories. On the other hand, local shops increased their sales. As the number of employees is small compared to the scale of the factories, the influence of industrialization on the local economy is rather weak, and most of the profit is absorbed by the main offices in big cities. 1171. Sawada Kiyoshi "Xlf A, "Ashikaga no tricot kogyo ni tsuite )4 cI)Y s. SIths v l_7 1 " (A study of the Ashikaga Tricot industrial estate in the Kanto Region)," Toky5 Ky5iku Daigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 8 (1964), 75-92. Two things are remarkable in the postwar development of the manufacturing industry in Japan: namely, the large scale combinat of petroleum and steel industries on one hand and the agglomeration of medium and minor industries on the other. The Tricot industry in Ashikaga is known as an example of the agglomeration of factories which made an early start. The Tricot industry in Ashikaga, started as a part of rehabilitation after the war, made rapid growth. In 1962 its production reached one third of the national total. The rapid growth caused many problems such as noise, difficulty of obtaining factory ground, degraded sanitation, etc. The factories thus moved out of the inner city and gathered to make an agglomerated factory area. 1172. Takeuchi Atsuhiko 'lV, V^ n "Nihon ni okeru jitensha kogyo ni ritchi ffi - Be 5 IS h ^ t i2 (Location of the bicycle manufacturing industry in Japan),"Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 8, 412-424. Three-quarters of the bicycle wholesale business is concentrated in Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya. The distribution of bicycle factories reflects the fact that the market is the strongest factor influencing the location of factories. However, within each area the location of factories is not strongly tied to dealers but is influenced by other factors like labor, tradition, and access to subcontractors. 1173. TLanabe Ken'ichi _t/ 2 -, "Chirigakuteki kenchi ni tatte miru toshi no sangyo seisaku: tokuni kogyo seisaku ni tsuite ~L t ItX- }: - A 6A9 Jt - ha:X,^ )-< 1 -7 v 7 (The industrial policy of municipal government froma geographical standpoint)," Toshimondai kenkyu, v. 6 (1954), no. 6, 50-62. Factories in Tohoku are classified according to the relation of capital, i.e., whether or not they are run by central or local capital. Factories supported by central capital are less predominant in Tohoku. The introduction of large factories must be accompanied with supplementary industries. 1174. Tanabe Ken'ichi Aj, "Sendai-Shiogama chiku no genjo to sono hatten keikaku ni taisuru hihan la k A f 3 P L - y) i L 7Y f 4 (The present states of the Sendai-Shiogama district and development planning)," Toshi mondai, v. 48 (1957), no. 5, 83-88. Sendai and Shiogama are trying to develop a joint industrial area, but the growth

Page  187 INDUSTRY 187 of industry is slow. The facilities of the port of Shiogama are not adequate for the entire program. It is necessary to establish a new development program which must include the construction of a new port. 175. Tanabe Ken'ichi i,2LA-, "Sen-en kogyo chitai keikaku ni tsuite 1A4 AX~L*'I75 7 —.' (On the industrialization plan of Sendai-Shiogama area)" Toshimondai kenkyu, v. 13 (1960), no. 2, 3-17. The so called Sen'en (Sendai-Shiogama) industrial zone with a concentration of factories includes the following four areas: southern Sendai, east Sendai, Tagajo, and Shiogama. The second and third areas were formed of land released from former military use. These four areas, however, are separated by wide rice field areas, enjoy no functional cooperation in production, and are hard to adapt as industrial areas. Except for fish net making and ship building in Shiogama, any connection of these areas with ports is weak. 1176. Tsujimoto Yoshir f., "Kanto seibu sanroku ni okeru kigyo no seisan k-oz5o V A f t t et A 1J bj 9_ (The production structure of the textile industry in the western part of the Kanto Region)," Chirigaku hy5ron, v. 28 (1955), no. 9, 435-449. The textile industry in the western and northwestern parts of the Kanto Region is an example of a traditional industry whose location is due to the former distribution of techniques. The concentrated textile industry area in the foot-hill district of western Kant5 consisted of small-scale plants. There the textile industry had been differentiated into different types before the introduction of a capitalistic economic system. In accordance with capitalistic economy, and especially according to the mechanization of the industry, the regional differentiation was much strengthened. The various ways of combination with farm villages had much to do with the differentiation into regional types. 1177. Tsujimoto Yoshiro It* tF, "Nihon no zairai chushokogyo 0k' J1' N-L:)t (Traditional minor and middle scale industries in Japan)," Chiri, v. 4 (1959), no. 5, 577-589. Tsujimoto classifies Japanese traditional industries into the following three types: 1. industries stagnant at the stage of family work, with no mechanization to be seen. 2. industries which were mechanized and were separated from agriculture, but are still dependent on family labor on a small scale in spite of their being based on a factory system. 3. industries in regional groups with a modern factory system which makes them strong enough to maintain their existence among modern industries. These traditional industries comprise regional groups, and by this means can compete with modern industries and are capable of mass production. 1178. Tsujimoto Yoshiro [ 3., "Tokai chiho ni okeru togy5 seisan no chiiki kozo LV 1) bD^'~Z ^ii A *t _^ _ (The regional structure of the pottery industry in the Tokai Region)," Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku kenkyu hokoku, chirigaku, v. 10 (1959), 1-13. Pottery production in Japan is heavily concentrated in an area within forty kilometers from Nagoya. Besides regional differentiation, there is also division of work among the areas as well as within an area. For instance, in Nagoya there are large factories that carry out whole processes, while in the areas on the outskirts, there are small- and medium-scale factories. 1179. Tsujimoto Yoshiro ~t I 4,Itakura Katsutaka a a, Ide Sakuo ok nb oke Takeuchi Atsuhiko /f[, OA, and Kitamura Yoshiyuki NteA in okyo ni okeru kogy5 no bumpu J-.: I- - '-.. Te industrial geography of Toky5), Chirlgaku hyoron, v. 35 (1962), no. 10, 477-501. Factories with more than 30 employees in Tokyo proper are classified into three groups (chemical, assemblage, and light), and their distribution is discussed. The factories are concentrated in four districts: Joto, Johoku, Jonan, Chuo. Enterprises in Toky5 are generally of medium and small scale, and basic industries like steel and chemical industries are relatively few. In the Chuo and J5t5 districts light industries are predominant, while assemblage and related industries prosper in the Jonan and Johoku districts. 1180. Tsusho Sangyosho A_*XJ% (Ministry of International Trade and Industry), Wagakuni no kogyo ritchi vb\_ g I) Ia it Industrial location in Japan), Tokyo, Tsusho Sangyo Kenkyusha, 1961, 587 pp., annual. Following the rapid growth of Japanese industry, it became an urgent necessity to rearrange existing industrial areas and to develop new areas. The Ministry of International Trade and Industry has been carrying on a detailed survey of industrial areas and the possibility of development of new areas. Part I of this book deals

Page  188 188 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY with existing areas; factors such as available land, water, labor, transportation facilities, etc. are described. In Part II, locational factors are discussed with reference to 166 areas which are candidates for future development. 1181. Watanabe Toshie A| 4] "Shitauke kojo no haichi koz5 ni kansuru shomondai F: r - 4 < (The distribution structure of subcontract plants)," Jimbun chiri, v. 14 (1962), no. 6, 482-504. Subcontract factories usually develop near the main factories. Daihatsu Automobile Factory is_located in Ikeda, Osaka Prefecture, not far from the industrial area of Osaka-Kobe. Unlike other cases, two-thirds of the subcontract factories are in the Osaka-Kobe area about 25 km. away. Only a third of the factories are within 10 km. from the main factory, and most of them are small enterprises with less than 20 employees and with capital below a million yen. 1182. Yotsu Ryuichi AW a -, "Tohoku chiho ni okeru sen'iban kojo no bumpu X St 1 '3t4 JI~'3 $JN32? L4 (The distribution and character of fiber board factories in the Tohoku Region),"Tohoku chiri, v. 16 (1964), no. 2, 77 —81. As compared with the Tokai and Kinki regions, the distribution of fiber board factories in Tohoku is more scattered. This is because the fiber board industry in Tokai and Kinki developed on the basis of existing pulp and lumber industries, and consequently is dependent on the technology and market of those industries. In Tohoku no such backgroundexisted, and the fiber board industry has been developed around areas where abundant raw materials are available. H. Recreation and Tourism 1183. Koike Yoichi o IjJ, "Shoken to yuranken kg ~ iLt L (Commercial and recreation spheres)," Jimbun chiri, v. 13 (1961), no. 5, 365-376. In this work the sphere of recreational activity beyond the areas of daily life is defined as a recreation sphere, and its relation to the commercial sphere is analyzed. Shirahama in Wakayama Prefecture and Koyasan in Nara Prefecture are taken as examples. Both of thei are tourist areas with a long tradition and have established commercial spheres of their own. In both cases, the commercial spheres are small, but their recreation spheres extend to wide areas. The distribution of the commercial spheres of these places are not similar to ordinary central areas and areas strongly influenced by them are found somewhat far away. 1184. Koike YOichi 4' A Vt I, "Toshi jumin no rekureshon keitai to sono chiikiteki kankei atn ~ ) 7V- k/ i k an n ke (Types and regional arrangements of recreation used by city-dwellers)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 33 (1960), no. 12, 615-625. Taking Osaka as an example, types and localities of recreation are analzed. More than 85% of the recreation of Osaka citizens is carried on within the city. Recreation within the city is mainly of a passive nature such as movie viewing. Excursions outside the city, such as those shorter than an hour aim for a rest stop, those less than three hours are one day trips, and those longer than three hours are overnight trips. Thus, the difference in the nature of the trips affects the type of recreation area. Within the city there are amusement centers. In the suburbs, there are rest houses and play grounds. Fartherout, places like hot-spring spas serve a recreational purpose. I Trade Areas 1185. Kiji Setsuro L/J otb "Daitoshi to kinks no kouri shoken no kankei: Kyoto-shi to San'in-sen ensen no baai f A f- - -, ft V e (Retail market areas of a large city and adjacent local trade centers)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 28 (1955), no. 6, 285-296. Large cities have larger market areas as compared to medium-size and small cities. If a small city is isolated, it has a chance to develop a market areaof its own apart from the influence of larger cities. The case of Kyoto and its adjacent cities is analyzed. The market area of Kyoto extends to the time distance of 100 minutes by train, and, including the districts surrounding the stations, the maximum limit of time distance is 150 minutes. Where there are more chances to come to Kyoto, the limits accordingly extend further. 1186. Kiji Setsuro A tL A s, "Shikai o sessuru chiho nitoshi kan no shoken kyogo ' Xif 0 '9Ad XAd (Retail trade areas o two neighboring cities, the case of Fukuchiyama and Ayabe)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 31 (1958), no. 5, 298-308.

Page  189 TRADE AREAS 189 Trade areas of cities extend beyond their administrative boundaries. In Japan, as the result of recent amalgamation, many cities are directly bounded by administrative lines, within which are included former towns-and villages. Taking the example of two cities, Fukuchiyama and Ayabe in Kyoto Prefecture, the relation of trade areas is analyzed. It is found that there is a tendency for people to do their shopping in the stores of the city in which their towns were amalgamated. 1187. Mizuno Hajime ~ f Ad, "Kouri shaken no koz5 ni kansuru kasetsu OafiX)@ A{ t ^ -Z -01 Af (A hypothesis on the structure of retail trade areas)," Jimbun chiri, v. 14 (1962), no. 4, 221-242. The influence of consumers' income, occupation, and educational background on the boundaries of trade areas is analyzed for Nagoya and four districts adjacent to it. It is asserted that such factors have much to do with the choice of goods and shopping centers, and thus strongly influence the trade areas of cities. 1188. Sakaguchi Yoshiaki T7 if, "New York metropolitan region nil okeru shogyo kin5 no bakuhatsuteki kakusan gensh5 ni tsuite --- -oa ' / )- 's,"/ )"'. A 4tg _Vi r -Rim - l" v~ (Explosive expansion of commercial activities in the liew York Metropolian Region)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 37 (1964), no. 4, 183-197. From an analysis of the number of retail shops and their sales in twenty-two countries in the Metropolitan New York Area, it is concluded that the relative importance of Manhattan is Declining in accordance with the growth of suburban shopping centers. At such centers in some counties, there are branches of department stores, banks, amusement centers, and companies equipped with large parking places. In relation to this change, there are changes at the urban center toward decline of the business function and development of the administrative function. 1189. Sawada Kiyoshi eAX, "Tedori senjochi ni okeru chiho shaken no hen'y5 0t4^^^ AA 1 Ak ^c I ' kr ^ A ^t^ A ]k 0 oX (Historical changes in the trade areas of local towns in the Tedori Fan area of Ishikawa Prefecture)," Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku chirigaku kenkyu hokoku, v. 4 (1960), 1-16. The alluvial fan of Tedori is located to the southwest of the city of Kanazawa. Formerly, this area was divided into the trade areas of local cities in the fan, but after the war, the trade area of Kanazawa expanded to include this area. The process of this change is explained by comparing conditions in 1936 and 1954. As a reason for this change, the development of faster and more efficient means' of transportation is suggested. 1190. Sugimura Nobuji, t,- ' "Chushin shotengai ni okeru tempo no kosei to haichi T^Av^ A 41h- *,* e, v- (Composition and arra.ngement of shops on central shopping streets)," Chirigaku hyoron, v. 29 (1956), no. 9, 550-558. The characteristics of central shopping streets are analyzed from examples from 20 cities with population sizes ranging from 50,000 to 5 million. The main types of shops include clothing, tailor, watch, jewelry, cameras, and musical instruments. Shops selling goods for daily use are less numerous. The larger the city, the more strongly emphasized is the above-mentioned tendency. The distribution of shops is strongly influenced by the proximity of department stores. Especially in larger cities, the specialized shops dealing in more expensive goods, such as the kinds mentioned above, tend to gather around department stores. 1191. Takeuchi Kiyofumi )4T X,, "Nagasaki-ken Goto-retto ni okeru seikatsu kankeiken ni tsuite ~ ^] j }-' ~ at, T $ (Areas of living relations in the Goto Islands, Nagasaki Prefecture)," Shakaiakgaku ronso, no. 21 (1963), 16-41. The Goto Islands of Nagasaki Prefecture have a population of about 160,000. There are seven major islands and forty-two other inhabited islands. Separated by the sea and the rugged topography of the islands, the islanders live in a very unique way. Arealrelations of their way of life are analyzed in relation to their shopping. The seven islands have their own shopping center, which is also the case on some of the smaller islands. The trade areas of these centers are small and complicated. For slightly more expensive shopping, dependence on the centers of the seven islands is heavier. The Fukae center is important for expensive and luxury goods. the eastern half of the island group has no center equivalent to Fukae, and from there people go to Nagasaki and Sasebo for shopping. 1192. Watanabe Shiro 1 t, "Shotoshi o chushin to suru jikan kyori to sabisuken to no kankei- 1lg Taf (Chronometric accessibility and the sphere of retail trade around small cities)," T5hoku chiri, v. 11 (1959), nos. 3 and 4, 43-48. Small cities lose their function as service centers of retail trade through compe

Page  190 190 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY tition from larger cities, such as the cities where prefectural governments are located. Four small cities in Fukushima Prefecture are chosen, and, in terms of time distance, their loss of predominance as service centers is analyzed. Strong competition results from their location within 30-40 minutes from the cities. It is safe to assume that the trade areas of local small cities is confined within a radius of 40-50 minutes.

Regional Descriptive Geography


pp. 191-233

Page  191 REGIONAL DESCRIPTIVE GEOGFAPHY 191 CHAPTER XI REGIONAL DESCRIPTIVE GEOGRAPHY In this volume of the bibliography a large number of titles have been added to the section on Regional Descriptive Geography. This was made possible in a number of ways. First, a reevaluation of many titles, not included in the first volume because the authors believed them to be too historical in nature or otherwise too strongly oriented in other non-geographical directions, found them to contain sound geographical information which warranted their inclusion. Secondly, users of the bibliography called to the authors' attention a number of titles which they believed should be included and on inspection these proved to have merit. Finally, access was gained to large collection formerly not accessible. Like most of the titles included in this section, in the first volume, the new titles herewith included, encompass small areas only. They could well be described as studies in local descriptive geography. For the most part they do not have the magnitude to meet the technical or even the ordinary concept of a region. These local descriptive studies are certainly the most numerous of all Japanese geographical writings. Some familiarity must be had with them to understand Japanese geographical thought. Where the main emphasis has been upon the physical, cultural, or other aspects of the area treated, the titles have been included under other and appropriate sections. It is believed that such procedure will prove to be of greater value, especailly to Western users of the bibliography. This leaves essentially only comprehensive, not topical, studies in this section. Of the material added in this section, it may be noted that there are four periods in which sutdies in the local descriptive geography of prefectures, cities, and counties were published in large numbers. These are 1912-20, 1923-25, 1926-30, and 1955-62 and correspond respecitvely to changes in Imperial reign, to the abolition of the gun system and to two periods in which the amalgamation of municipalities was carried out on a large scale. Publication of local descriptive studies was a part of the commemoration of such events. The compilers of these studies were usually government offices or local educational societies and the actual writers were seldom professionals but rather were government officials, local historians or primary school teachers. Consequently, few are of high scientific standard and most emphasize history rather than geography. Statistics are usually copiously used but seldom was there much analysis of them. Nevertheless, these studies are of immense value for the regional study of Japan, because they were written at much the same time and were organized and written in much the same style. The topical headings and order of procedure is usually: location, nature, history, politics, education, military affairs, sanitation, police, local customs, legends, shrines and temples, industries, economy, traffic, disasters, famous and historical places, well known local persons and chronological tables. Maps are few and generally poor in the prewar publications. Postwar studies include more maps of considerable higher quality. This is also true of the pictures included. Without these many local descriptive studies it would be impossible to understand the present status of geography in Japan. Furthermore, in these studies Japanese geographers have been laying an exceedingly firm foundation for future studies of a wider scope. They are perhaps displaying a degree of modesty not always apparent in the geographical profession A. General 1193. Aono Hisao ~ ~t., ed., Chiri chosaho ~ a NL ~ (Research methods of geography), [= v. 1 of Asakura Shoten's Shin-chirigaku koza], Tokyo, Asakura Shoten, 1953, 305 pP. This is a textbook for general study methods in geography. Explained here are map and air-photo interpretation, survey methods in geomorphology, climatology, soil science, hydrology, etc. The treatment of historical materials and statistics, and field survey preparation and practice are described. 1194. Fujioka Kenjiro jfi] _, and others, ed., Nihon to Tokyo l, rtX (Japan, general, and Tokyo) [= v. 1 of Taimeido's Nihon chishi seminal, Tokyo, Taimeido, 1962, 229 pp. This book consists of two parts: Japan as a whole and metropolitan Tokyo with its surrounding area. The first is arranged in the ordinary form of regional geography, with chapters on location, hydrology and the ocean, climate and vegetation, landforms and geology, population, cities and villages, and industry and traffic. The second part contains descriptions on location, natural disasters, urban climate, historical background, and the metropolitan area. Being a collection of articles

Page  192 192 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY by numerous authors, the contents are not well systematized. 1195. Ishida Ryujiro i-J I X _, "Kyozo no Nippon: gaikoku kyokasho no Nihon riaki X4 9 -4t 01 d 4A (Japan in virutal image: on understanding of Japan as seen in textbooks of other countries), Tokyo, Nihon Hyoronsha, 1963, 268 pp. References to Japan in the textbooks of other countries are reviewed. About 700 books publsihed in 37 countries during the period of 1950-62 are included. It is surprising to Japanese to discover how little and how erroneously Japan is understood abroad. Generally speaking, in many countries Japan of a century ago is confused with the Japan of today. 1196. Jimbun Chiri Gakkai A _f^^, Chiiki chosa '4 ^ tj (Regional survey), Kyoto, Yanaihara Shoten, 1955, 353 pp. It is suggested that this book is aimed at a discussion of the systems and the methods of cooperative regional surveys, but the contents comprise a collection of eight reports of cooperative surveys carried out by different university groups. These are the urbanization of mountain villages on the outskirts of Kyoto; the sociological meanings of reserve forest at the source of the Tama; the nature of Kii-Oshima, Wakayama Prefecture; low productivity of the fishery in Hokkaido; relation between regional structure and the river in the drainage area of the Yodogawa; the isolated village of Gokayama, Toyama Prefecture; contradictions in productivity and production, as in the case of Kojo-son in Okayama Prefecture; and geography of fishing in Wakasa Province. 1197. Kiuch' Shinzo XAt, "Chiiki kenkyu ni okeru hikaku kosatsu tj 4 1-,-h*j b Pt t Xfj (Comparative study as a method of regional research), Hikaku bunka kenkyu, no. 1 (1960), 55-68. The meaning and the methods of comparative study in geography are discussed. Comparative study is classified into systematic and specific comparisons. As a method of area study, the specific comparison is particularly effective. Kiuchi uses the following topics, to which the methods are applied, as examples: landscape in areas of Mediterranean climate, settlement types in Nambu Province with the magariya house-type, areas of transhumance, adaptation to a new environment. 1198. Nakamura Hajime ft -A, and others, ed., Toy5 no atarashii chizu ' ) Ifl"^K~ (A new picture of Asia), T5yo shishC koza.~~j ~ (Lecture on Oriental thoughts), v. 1, 8-382 pp. Tokyo, Shibund5, 1958 T5yo shiso koza consists of five volumes, devoted mainly to essays on the philosophy of Oriental thought. Volume one is devoted to the geography of Toyo, East Asia. Most of the volume is written by Kiuchi Shinz5 and Toshio Noh. the area defined as Toyo includes Japan, Korea, China, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. Both authors have traveled in the areas they describe: the descriptions are by region and follow the topics of ordinary regional geography such as physical, cultural and regional aspects. Cities are emphasized in the last part. 1199. Nihon no chiri (Geography of Japan), (entry 63), v. 2, Tohoku-hen -t (The Hokkaid5 section), T5kyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1961, 202 pp. Fifteen authors contributed the texts. Pictures and materials were offered by seventeen institutions. The topics particularly emphasized are: the colonization of Hokkaid5, land and soils, agricultural development and rice farming, forestry, and the fishing and manufacturing industries. Abundantly illustrated. 1200. Nihon no chiri (Geography of Japan), (entry 63 ), v. 2, Tohoku-hen ~ ~~ (The Tohoku section), T5kyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1961, 202 pp. The Tohoku District consists of various regions separated mainly by landforms. It has been a backward area of Japan, depending mainly on primary industries. Recently, however, the advancement of agricultural technology and the introduction of manufacturing industry are changing the character of this district. Main chapters are: single crop rice farming areas, fruit producing areas, fishery, mineral resources and manufacturing, and development of water resources. 1201. Nihon no chiri (Geography of Japan), (entry 63 ), v. 3, Kanto-hen Ad l (The Kant5 section), T5kyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1961, 230 pp. Toky5 and the Tokyo-Yokohama industrial area are the two topics on which special emphasis is given. There is a marked contrast between the overwhelming heavy concentration of economic activities in the TokyU and Yokohama areas, and the surrounding backward agricultural areas which are below the national average of productivity.

Page  193 193 TRADITIONAL REGIONS 1202. Nihon no chiri (Geography of Japan) (entry 63 ), v. 4, Chubu-hen f g (The Chubu section), Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1961, 222 pp. The Chubu District consists of heterogeneous areas, and it is necessary to handle separately the topics on which description are given. Thus, the topics selected are as follows: manufacturing areas of the Pacific Coast, rice producing areas of the Japan Sea Coast and inland, commercial crops of the Tokai and Tosan districts, forestry, use of water resources,and natural disasters. 1203. Nihon no chiri (Geographyof Japan) (entry 63 ), v. 5, Kinki-hen ~i (The Kinii section), Toky5, Iwanami Shoten, 1961, 204 pp. Since the Kinki Region is the cradle of ancient Japanese culture, it is necessary to pay attention to the historical background of numerous cities in addition to the present importance of the Osaka-K6be industrial area. Main chapters are: Osaka and Kobe, the Usaka-Kobe industrial area, Kyoto and Nara, cities in Kinki and their hinterlands, suburban farm villages, and life in mountain villages. 1204. Nihon no chiri (Geography of Japan) (entry 63 ), v. 6, Chugoku, Shikoku-hen t)]1A. f11i ((The Chugoku and the Shikoku sections), Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1961, 198 pp. Influenced by landforms split into minute plains and basins, the nature of the geographic regions in the Chugoku and Shikoku Regions is very heterogeneous. Descriptions are done by the problem approach, selecting characteristic regions such as reclamation of the Kojima Bay, fruit farming in the islands of Inland Sea, industrial regions along the Inland Sea, etc. 1205. Nihon no chiri (Geography of Japan) (entry 63 ), v. 7, Kyushu-hen tM1)'f1 (The Kyushu section), TUkyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1961, 228 pp. Northern Kyushu is characterized by industrialization and the coal mining industry. Other partsof Kyushu are rather backward in their economic development. International problems of fishery in the adjacent sea areas are also important in this district. The islands to the south of Kyushu, including Okinawa, offer another important problem of geographical interest. Abundant illustrations include pictures expressing the current situation of this district in the middle of such an international crossroad. 1206. Nihon no chiri (Geography of Japan), (entry 63 ), v. 8, Soron-hen ^ -6 (General), Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1961, 230 pp. In this volume the present conditions of Japan as an entity are discussed. Mutual relationships in the changing aspects of various industries are explained. Natural disasters and regional planning are also emphasized. Approaches are somewhat journalistic. 1207. Noh Toshio f t f X, Gendai no chishigaku p n, %_. tf (Regional geography of today, Toky5, Kokon Shoin, 1949, 122 pp. The essential qualities of regional geography as a branch of geography are discussed. After a brief history of geography, the problems that distinguish regional geography from other fields of geography are analyzed,and various methods and approaches to regional geography are explained, concentrating mainly onthe works of German and American geographers. A short bibliography of representative books or regional geography is attached. 1208. Watanabe Masao A X^, and others, Nihon n5gyo fudoki V**gLt itJ (A regional geography of Japanese agriculture), Tokyo, Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1959, 250pp. This is a description of thirteen characteristic agricultural areas by specialists in the field. The areas and the types of farming are as follows: Rice farming in the Shonai Plain, dairy farming in the Kitakami Mountains, farming in unirrigated fields in the Kant5 Plain, agriculture in areas with high altitude and cool climate in Nagano Prefecture, rice farmin!g in the Echigo Plain, tea culture in Makinohara, truck farming in the Osaka Plain, orange culture in Wakayama Prefecure, small-scale farming in the Inland Sea district, cattle raising in the Chugoku Mountains, rice farming in the Saga Plain, upland field agriculture in Kagoshima Prefecture, and recent re clamation in the Ihsikari and the Tokachi Plains. B. Traditional Regions: do and kuni 1209. Hattori Nobuhiko XXjA and others, ed., KyushE chih3o A1 11 (Kyushu Region) [ = v. 8 of Taimeido's Nihon chishi semina], Tokyo, Taimeido 1961, 241 pp. There are two parts, general and regional. In Part one, two authors contributed to the description of historical background and physical environment. The regional section consists of seventeen topical articles, such as coal mining areas, indus

Page  194 194 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY trial areas, Fukuoka, Nagasaki and other major cities, the islands of Iki and Tsushima, the Ryukyu Islands, agriculture in volcanic uplands, pasturing in foot slopes of volcanoes, etc. 1210. Hirabe Kyonan, f, Hyuga chishi ~{Xil^ (Geography of Hyuga), Miyazaki, Hyuga Chishi Kankokai, 1929, 1620 pp. The boundary of Hyuga Province is the same as that of present Miyazaki Prefecture. The author is a specialist in local history. This book is a kind of gazeteer of place names with abundant references to history. The province is divided into five gun, and comments are made for each of the villages and towns in respective gun under the following headings: area, administration, landforms, mileage, land, tax, population, live stock, boats and carts, meadows, forest, roads, tombs, shrines, schools, public offices, post offices, products, folklore, etc. 1211. Ito G5hei AB fi, and others, ed., Tokai chiho ~ (Tokai district) [= v. 5 of Taimeido's Nihon chishi semina ], Tokyo, Taimeido, 1963, 237 pp. Two authors explain the physical background and development of industries in the Tokai District and the Pacific coast of Central Japan. The regional section consists of eighteen articles, the topics of which are: prehistoric settlement; the Jori system; horticulture of tangerines, grapes, and tea; the industrial region of which Nagoya is the center; development of hydroelectricity in the central mountains, etc. 1212. Miyagawa Zenso5 )1) ' L, and others, ed., Hokkaido to Tohoku Jt ~-A t _ (Hokkaido and Tohoku Regions) [= v. 2 of Taimeido's Nihon chishi seminaJ, Tokyo, Taimeido, 1963, 237 pp. The book opens with a general description of the Hokkaido and Tohoku Districts in the same style of a regional geography. Following is a collection of twenty-one articles on selected problems related to these districts. Such problems are fishery in the northern sea area, colonization of Hokkaido, postwar reclamation in Tohoku, seasonal migration, industrial regions, etc. The contents are much more systematic than in other volumes of this series. 1213. Nara-Ken Kyoikukai AA A A /I (Nara Prefecture Educational Society), Yamato shiryo X At! <u$ (Documents of Yamato Province), Nara, Tenri Jihosha, 1944, v. 1, 620 pp. 4 ilus nd v. 2, 613 pp., 2 illus. Yotokusha, 1946, v. 3, 597 pp., 2 illus. This is a revised and enlarged edition of the book under the same title published in 1890. The area of Yamato Province is approximately the same as that of Nara Prefecture. Numerous documents on the history and geography of Yamato Province are collected and cited, making this an indispensable reference for the study of historical geography of Yamato. Contents are divided by gun, and for each of them, there are sections on history of towns and villages, mountains, rivers and fields, shrines and temples, forts, historical places, and ancient tombs. 1214. Niigata-ken Sado-gun-yakusho tftj ' Ad efT (Sado-gun Office, Niigata Prefecture), Sado kokushi C4 iX) 8 (A descriptive geography of Saao Province), Niigata, Sado-gun-yakusho, 1922, 568 pp. Chapter one concerns the history of Sado Province. Chapter two deals with administration and education in Sado Province. Chapter three is a description of the Aikwara gold mine. Geographical content is not very extensive. Aikawa was Japan's representative gold mine in the modern times, and there is a detailed reference to the mine which covers 39 pages. 1215. Noma Sabur5 N g a X, and others, ed., Hoku-Shin'etsu chih5 g tkE tah (Japan Sea Coast and Nagano Prefecture) [= v. 4 of Taimeido's Nihon chishi seminal, Toky5, Taimeido, 1962, 233 PP. Two authors describe physical and human geography in general. The regional section is contributed by twenty-one authors with articles on selected topics. Such topics are: accumulated snow on the Japan Sea Coast, mountain and basin landforms, major cities and the manufacturing industry, traditional industries, house types, rice farming agriculture in areas of high altitudes with cool climate, etc. 1216. Suitsu Ichiro IK At, and others, ed., Kinki chiho (Kinki district), [= v. 6 o Taimeido's Nihon chishi seminal], Tkyo, Taimeido, 1964, 277 pp. In the part on general description, three geographers have written articles on natural environment, economic foundation, and traffic and urban planning. There are comments on specific problems pertaining to industrial areas, the housing problem, Jori villages, traditional industries, etc.

Page  195 POLITICAL REGIONS 195 1217. Tokushima Shi-gakkai, % V t (Historical Society of Tokushima), Awa fudoki DoA jti (A fudoki of Awa Province), Tokushima, Tokushima-ken Kyoiku Shuppambu, 1964, 189 pp., 1 illus. Members of the Society contributed chapters in their own fields to compile this regional geography of Awa Province (whose boundary is identical with that of Tokushima Prefecture). Contents are history, climate and natural environment, short history of municipalities, local people, literature, annual events, folklore and dialect, shrines and temples, natural life, and fine arts. 1218. Yajima Jinkichi X 4-, and others, ed., Kanto chiho 5 ^ (Kanto Region) [= v. 3 of Taimeid5's Nihon chishi semina ], Tokyo, Taimeido, 1960, 245 pp. Part one is the Kanto Region exclusive of Tokyo, and Part two is a collection of articles on selected problems. Physical and human geography of the Kant5 Region is described, including references to its historical background. The T5ky5 -Yokohama industrial area is also described; material not relating to the area as an entity is excluded. Contributed by 18 geographers. 1219. Yamazaki Osamu 4 4A4, and others, ed., Chugoku to Shikoku Tg]~ 0 q (Chugoku and Shikoku Regions) [= v. 7 of Taimeido's Nihon chishi semina, Tokyo, Taimeido, 1961, 238 pp. After a general description of physical and human geography, there are nineteen articles on selected problems. The topics are: Chugoku in ancient times, sanddunes on the Japan Sea Coast, pastures in the Oki Islands, landforms of the Chugoku Mountains and cattle raising, reclamation of Kojima Bay, the Mediterranean climate of the Inland Sea Area, the salt baking industry, double cropping of rice in Kochi Prefecture, etc. C. Political Regions: ken, gun, machi, shi, fu, to 1220. Abe Tatsuro o Jtp, Irima-gun shi )\JA $l: (A descriptive geography of Irima-gun, Saitama Prefecture), Urawa, Kenjudo, 1912, 68- pp., 1 illus. An emphasis is given to historical and cultural topics. First, the area, population, settlements, administration, local customs, traditions, and religion, etc. are described in general. Then, the district is divided into eight parts, and each municipality of a respective area is explained in terms of history, geography, local customs, and religion. Kawagoe is the center of this district, and particularly detailed references are made to its historical changes. 1221. Abe-gun-yakusho q'ol Ytr [ (Abe-gun Office), Shizuoka-ken Abe-gun shi A"^pA8PTt At (A descriptive geography of Abe-gun, Shizuoka Preecture, Shizuoka, Abe-gun Jihosha, 1914, 1116 pp. Abe-gun is in the central part of Shizuoka Prefecture. This large volume consists of a general, comprehensive description of the gun. Main topics of geographical interest are the history of flood control of the Abe River, which flows through the gun; the history and present conditions of the farming of tea and tangerines and the history of highways and stage towns along Tokaido during the Edo period. Inserted maps are: a historical map of the gun in the Edo period, a geologic map, and maps showing the revised courses of the Abe River. Illustrated with many photos. 1222. Aichi-gun-yakusho (J,XJ/ Aichi-gun Office), Aichi-gun shi i [t S~f (A descriptive geography of Aichi-gun), Yagoto, Aichi-gun-yakusho, 1923, 980 pp., 1 illus. This is a publication to commemorate the abolishment of the gun office, and is a comprehensive regional geography of a gun, in the style which is the same as that of other books of this category. Physical environment, history, industry, traffic, education, shrines and temples, etc. are handled in a rather stiff style. The historical background of the gun as a whole and of the individual municipality is described in detail. 1223. Aichi-ken Nishikamo-gun Kyoikukai Nsi a(mfu h z CNishikamogun Educational Society, Aichi Prefecture), Nishikamo-gun sha v (A descriptive geography of Nishikamo-gun), Miyoshi, Aichi-ken Nishikamo-gun Kyoikukai, 1926, 605 pp., 1 illus. Nishikamo-gun is in the eastern part of Aichi Prefecture. This is a comprehensive description of the gun published to commemorate the abolishment of the gun office in 1923. The contents consist of physical geography, history, records of municipalities, administration, education, industry and traffic, historical places, noted men of this district, etc. It is illustrated with many photographs.

Page  196 196 JAPANESE GEOGHAPHY 1224. Aichi-ken Nishiasuga-gun (Nishikasugai-gun, Aichi Prefecture), Nishikasugai-gun shi jff7.a -jl- Hi>- (A descriptive geography of Nishikasugai-gun), Komaki, Aichi-ken, Nishikasugai-gun, 1923, 656 pp., 3 illus. Nishikasugai-gun is to the east of Nagoya. This is one of the publications to commemorate the abolishment of the gun office. The style of description is the same as for other books of this kind. Geography, history, industry, education, etc. are handled in a formal way. The portion of the gun annexed to Nagoya is described separately. In the chapter on industry, there is a detailed record of the work of reorganiztion of agricultural land. Many photos and tables are inserted. 1225. Aichi-ken Nukata-gun-yakusho s X X li Xf4 )'T (Nukata-gun Office, Aichi Prefecture), Mikawa-no-kuni Nukata-gun shi -;q -, )q I A (A descriptive geography of Nukata-gun, Mikawa Province), Ogaku, Aichi-ken Nukata-gun yakusho, 1924, 622 pp. In 1923, gun lost their function as administrative units, and this book was compiled to commemorate the occasion. As a whole, the contents are strongly historical. After a brief introduction covering physical geography and historical background, a descrition of the former rulers of this district is given. Population, administrative division, activities of municipalities, statistics of production, shrines and temples, famous people who have come from the district, and other miscellaneous information are given. Much of the contents are on history, especially that of shrines and temples. 1226. Aichi-ken Yana-gun-yakusho A-)-iJcAiT. CYana-gun Office, Aichi Prefecture), Yana-gun shi j\ (A descriptive geography of Yana-gun), Tomioka, Yana-gun-yakusho, 1956, 1656 pp., 7 illus. Yana-gun was located in the southeastern part of Aichi Prefecture, but ceased to exist in 1956 as the result of annexation mostly to Toyohashi City and partly to the adjacent gun. The contents are strongly historical, and the shrines and temples are described in special detail. There are references to the history of sericulture and the silk weaving industry. Divided into minute headings, this book will be useful as a place name dictionary. Many photos and tables are included. 1227. Aizawa Masahiko 4 ~3E -, Kishiwada shi i J (A descriptive geography of Kishiwada), Kishiwada, Osaka Prefecture, Izumi Kankokai, 1931, 427 pp., illus. This is a regional description with historical emphasis. The background of municipal amalgamation and the development of the cotton industry are described in detail. A map of the city, and photos of Kishiwada Castle and the port are inserted. Many tables. 1228. Akaiwa-gun Kyoikukai 0 B C Akaiwa-gun Educational Society), Akaiwa-,,un shi By l (A descriptive geography of Akaiwa-gun), Seto, Akaiwa-gun Kyoikukai, 1940, 1325 pp., illus. Akaiwa-gun is located in the eastern part of Okayama Prefecture. A chronolgical description of the gun occupies the major part of this work. There are fairly detailed references to the following topics: koaza names and sutdies on their place names, studies on remnants of the jori system, the traditional iron industry carried on in the Chugoku Mountains, and the history of transportation on the Yoshii River. Two maps of the jori system and four photos. 1229. Akita Joshishihan Gakko g*f1l t' St (Akita Women's Normal School), Kyodo chiri kenkyusho (G Y Lti 9LX^| CGeographical study of Akita Prefecture), Akita, Akita J6shishihan Gakko, 1932, 82 illus. This is a well organized and comprehensive regional geography of Akita Prefecture. The chapters on production are the most detailed. Sake brewing, lumbering, mining, petroleum refining, and lacquer ware-making are described with maps showing the areas of production and transportation routes. The work is illustrated with many photos and tables. 1230. Akita-ken C'0 6 (Akita Prefectural Office), Akita-ken shi ~x jt (A history of Akita Prefecture), Akita, Akita-ken, 1915-1917, 7 vols., 1 illus. Seven volumes constitute a voluminous work of the history. Information of geographical value is scattered throughout the volumes. The changes of population in Volume four, agriculture and fishery in Volume six, forestry, mining, industry, commerce, traffic, and natural disasters in Volume seven exemplify the foremost. Volumes one to three deal with history before the Meiji era, and the other four volumes contain history after Meiji. Throughout the volumes there is only one map and no photos.

Page  197 POLITICAL REGIONS 197 1231. Akita-ken Kawabe-gun-yakusho 4XaVtl (Kawabe-gun Office, Akita Prefecture), Kawabe-gun shi %ffi r (A descriptive geography of Kawabegun), Ushijima, Kawabe-gun-yakusho, 1917, 795 PP. Kawabe-gun is located in the western part of Akita Prefecture. There are detailed descriptions with photos and plans concerning famous and historical places, local clothing, and farm houses. In the chapter on agriculture, there are comments on the techniques of rice farming and the work of farm improvement. Attached are a list of dialects, maps of the distribution of historical ruins, and plans of farm houses. Many photos and tables. 1232. Ako-gun Kyoikukai -gun ikuai A gun Educational Society), Ako-gun shi i fA (A descriptive geography of Ako-gun), Ako, Ako-gun Kyoikukai, 1908, 360 pp. Ako-gun is in the western part of Hyogo Prefecture. After a brief comment on the history and geography of this gun, most of the volume is devoted to describing towns and villages. This being a salt producing area, deatiled comments are made on development and techniques of salk baking since the Edo period. Description by town and village is given in the style of a gazetteer. Five photos and many tables. 1233. Amagasaki-shi-yakusho il ~ 4 t (Amagasaki City Office), Amagasaki shi IC t 'M (A regional description of Amagasaki), Amagasaki, Amagasaki-shiyakusho, 1930-1935, 3 vols., v. 1, 715 pp., 5 illus.; v. 2, 858 pp., 9 illus.; v. 3, 465 pp. Volume one consists of history of temples with a map showing their distribution. Volume two deals with Shinto shrines and Christian churches. Volume three deals with Amagasaki Castle, including a description of the castle town, Amagasaki. This is a valuable source of information about Amagasaki before its rapid growth into a modern industrial city. 1234. Aomori-ken KyOikukai k ak (Aomori Prefecture Education Society), Aomori-ken shi t L %^ (A descriptive geography of Aomori Prefecture), Aomori, Aomori-ken Kyoikukai, 1920, 378 pp., 3 illus. The prefecture is handled as a whole in part one, and description is given according to the classification of landforms, geology, hot springs, nautral life, land and people, historical background, industry and commerce, and traffic. Part two is more regional; the prefecture is divided into Tsugaru and Nambu Provinces, and then into cities and their surroundings. Detailed descriptions on area and population, local industries and products, noted places in the district, etc. follow. 1235. Aomori-ken Nishitsugaru-gun-yakusho 9l * '.~' ff (Nishitsugaru-gun Office, Aomori Prefecture), Aomori-ken Nishitsugaru-gun shi *& ^ y$ (A descriptive geography of Nishitsugaru-gun, Aomori Prefecture), Ajigasawa, Nishitsugarugun-yakusho, 1915. Nishitsugaru-gun is located in the western part of Aomori Prefecture. Contents are mainly descriptions of the history of the gun and respective towns and villages. There is an article on coastal fishery, and a place-name study of oaza names. A, map of the gun from the Edo period is inserted. Four photos and tables. 1236. Beppu-shi Kyoikukai (] + CBeppu City Educational Society), Beppu-shi shi k \u.Is (A descriptive geography of Beppu City), Beppu, Beppu-shi Kyiikukai, 1933, 601 pp. Beppu is a famous hot spring resort town. This book consists of the description of its present conditions rather than its history. Special emphasis is given to the hot springs in relation to their geology, and chemical quality as well as to the development of the hot spring town. Pictogra:is of Beppu in the Edo period are inserted. Many photos and tables. 1237. Chiba-ken Ao4 f (Chiba Prefecture), Chiba-ken shi ~A - (A descriptive geography of Chiba Prefecture), Chiba, 1919, 2 vols., 812 pp., 2 illus., and 1044 pp., 5 illus. The first part of volume one consists of physical geography in which the landform, sea coast, oceanography, and the climate of Chiba Prefecture are described in detail. The later part of the volume concerns human geography including administration, religion, industry, and main cities, but their description is rather simple. Volume two is on the history of Chiba Prefecture, and on places and people of historical interest. 1238. Chiba-ken Awa-gun Kyoikukai 4f Ir j) ff.* C(Awa-gun Educational Society Chiba Prefecture), Chiba-ken Awa-gun shi j jf F=' (A descriptive geography of Awa-gun, Chiba Prefecture),Tateyama, Awa-gun Ky5ikukai, 1926, 1208 pp.. Awa-gun is located in the southern part of the Boso Peninsula, Chiba Prefecture.

Page  198 19P8 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY This comprehensive work was published to commemorate the anniversary of the coronation of the present Emperor. Emphasis is placed on a locally important industry, the fishery. There are also detailed comments on destruction by the great Kant5 earthquake of 1923 and the consequent reconstruction. Many photos and tables are inserted. 1239. Chiba-ken Ichihara-gun Kyoikukai (Ichihara-gun Educational Society, Chiba Prefecture), Chiba-ken Ichihara-gun shi J I i Y ) J hA (A descriptive geography of Ichihara-gun, Chiba Prefecture), Yawata, Ichihara-gun-yakusho, 1916, 1483 pp.. Ichihara-gun is located in the central part of Chiba Prefecture. Part one concerns the gun as a whole and contains descriptions of the aquiculture of sea-weed in T5kyn Bay and of the distribution of old tombs and other archeological sites. Part two, a description by town and village, divides the gun into three regions, and the towns and villages are described with an historical emphasis. Inserted maps include a geological map. No photos, many tables. 1240. Chiba-ken Imba-gun-yakusho A Z n E (Imba-gun Office, Chiba Prefecture), Chiba-ken Imba-gun shi (A descriptive geography of Imba-gun, Chiba Prefecture),'S arura,'mba-gun-yakusho, 1913, 2 vols, v. 1, 621 pp.; Imba-gun is located in the northern part of Chiba Prefecture. Volume one is a de-. scription of the gun as a whole, and Volume two deals with towns and villages. In Volume one, the local center, Sakura, is described in detail. Volume two is like a gazetteer with emphasis on history. 1241. Chiba-ken Katori-gun-yakusho 41 Q 4.^T (tKatori-gun Office, Chiba Prefecture), Chiba-ken Katori-gun shi vj4f (A descriptive geography of Katori-gun, Chiba Prefecturee, Sawara, Chiba-ken Katori-gun-yakusho, 1921, 897 PP. Katori-gun is in the northeastern part of Chiba Prefecture. This book is generally historical; there is an especially detailed description of the ancient Katori Shrine located in the present city of Sawara. Main chapters are as follows: 1. location and historical background. 2. geography including landform, geology, soil, climate, hydrology, and local diseases. 3. traffic. 4. settlements. 5. local cumstoms. 6-9. miscellaneous information about civil administration. 10. industry. 11. reclamation. 15-18. shrines and temples, historical places. etc. 25. natural disasters. 26. bibliography. 1242. Chiba-ken Kimitsu-gun KySikukai -f,4 4 t v tA (Kimitsu-gun Educational Society, Chiba Prefecture), Chiba-ken Kimitsu-gun shi (A descriptive geography of Kimitsu-gun, Chiba Prefecture), Kisarazu, Chiba-ken Kimitsu-gun Kyoikukai, 1927, 2 vols., 2156 pp. Kimitsu-gun is located in the southern part of Chiba Prefecture. This voluminous work is predominantly historical. The contents of Volume one are: a brief description of area, landforms, geology, climate, natural resources, and a history of the gun. Volume two is a collection of miscellaneous information including shrines, temples, history of people and families, public offices, education, traffic and economy, and a record of changes in administrative divisions. 1243. Chiba-ken Unakami-gun Kyoikukai f g t f y (Unakami-gun Educational Society, Chiba Prefecture), Chiba-ken Unakami-gun shi I ^;hjr _i (A descriptive geography of Unakami —gun, Chiba Prefecture), Choshi, Chiba-ken Unakami-gun Kyoikukai, 1917, 1458 pp., 6 illus. Unakami-gun is in the northeastern part of Chiba Prefecture along the Kujakurihama Beach. This is a comprehensive description of all the aspects of Unakami-gun. Main headings are land, history, administration, industry, education, police, traffic, public offices, shrines and temples, local customs. The main city in this gun is Choshi, and it is particularly described in detail. 1244. Chiba-shi + \ t (Chiba City), Chiba-shi shi ' f ( A descriptive geography of Chiba City), Chiba, Chiba-shi, 1953, 77-PP., 140 illus. This book was published as one of the commemorative programs of the thirtieth anniversary of Chiba City. Main chapters are on physical environment including landforms, geology, and climate, the process of historical development of urban and rural settlements, trends of population increase, economic development, traffic, the culture of Chiba City, city planning, etc. Since Chiba is rapidly progressing as a part of the Tokyo-Chiba industrial zone, city planning in its relation to industrialization is explained in detail. 1245. Chichibu-gun Kyoikukai * Q[A h i g E to (-Chichibu-gun Educational

Page  199 199 POLITICAL REGIONS9 Society), Saitama-ken Chichibu-gun shi e u r,~K KAXA (A descriptive geography of Chichibu-gun, Saitama Prefecture), Chichibu, Chichibu-gun Kyoikukai, 1925, 536 pp., 2 illus. Chichibu-gun is in the western part of Saitama Prefecture. Chapter one discusss physical geography and includes location, area, landform, geology, climate and natural resources. Chapter two, human geography, includes land, population, administration, education and industry. There is a detailed description of the silk industry in this district. Chapter three, history, concerns a greater portion of the total work. Chapters on local customs and a description of villages and towns in this gun follow. 1246. Chichibu-shishi Hensan Iinkai 4^, ~ t ~f X At P. (The Editing Committee of Descriptive Geography of Chichibu City), Chichibu-shi shi $ (A descriptive geography of Chichibu City), Chichibu, Saitama Prefecture, 1962, 1245 pp., 4 illus. A commemorative volume of the tenth anniversary of Chichibu-shi which is located in a basin of the same name as the city in the northwestern part of Gumma Prefecture, its contents are history, the process of amalgamation, general information about the city, administration, industry and economy, education and culture, folklore. About half of the volume pertains to history in which thehistory of the silk industry, an important product of the basin, is detailed. 1247. Date-gun-yakusho tejSgf ), ]r (Deate-gun Office), Date-gun shi f of _ (A descriptive geography of Date-gun), Kori, Date-gun-yakusho, 1923, 299 pp., illus. Date-gun is located in the northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. The contents are primarily historical, and the description of present conditions consists mainly of statistics and attached annotations. In the historical part, the history of municipal amalgamations is detailed. There is a section on local dialects. No photos, many tables. 1248. Ehime-ken X# A (Ehime Prefecture), Ehime-ken shiko st hX Ad kj (Manuscripts for the regional geography of Ehime Prefecture), Ehime-ken shi (A descriptive geography of Ehime Prefecture), Matsuyama, Ehime Prefecture, 1917, 2 vols., v. 1, 934 pp.; v. 2, 1299 pp. This is a comprehensive chronicle of Ehime Prefecture. Volume one is devoted to a description by shi and gun, in which physical geography and geology are detailed. In Volume two, there is a chapter on industry with detailed descriptions of the production of tangerines and the special cotton cloth called Iyo-gasuri. There are also references to Besshi (the most important copper mine) and other mines, including their history and references to the damages caused by smoke from the refineries. No maps and photos, many tables. 1249. Ehime-ken Nii-gun-yakusho A CNii-gun Office, Ehime Prefecture), Ehime-ken Nii- gn shi (A descriptive geography of Nii-gun, Ehime Prefecture), Sijo, Nii-gun-yakusho, 1923, 697 pp., illus. Nii-gun is located in the eastern part of Ehime Prefecture. In this comprehensive chronicle of the gun, the nationally important copper mine, Besshi, is described in detail. The history, geology, refinery, production, and problems caused by this mine are explained. There are also comments on the salt baking industry. Inserted are a historical map of the castle town, Saijo, and many photos including those of the Besshi Mine and salt fields. 1250. Emori Yasukichi i\l, Aso-gun shi CA descriptive geography of Aso-gun), Sano, Zenkoku Chijimirui Kyoshinkai, 1909, 94 pp., illus. Aso-gun is located in the southwestern part of Tochigi Prefecture. This is a comprehensive description of the gun. The history and present aspects of cotton weaving, an important local industry, are described in detail. The part dealing with towns and villages pertains mostly to their history. Inserted are the pictures of the main cities, Sano, Tanuma, etc. 1251. Fuji-gun-yakusho (-A f r (Fuji-gun Office), Shizuoka-ken Fuji-gun shi tgy^ S^? A~:(A descriptive geography of Fuji-gun, Shizuoka Prefecture), Dempo, Fuji-gun-yakusho, 1915, 230 pp., 1 illus. Fuji-gun is located in the eastern part of Shizuoka Prefecture. This is a comprehensive description of the history and geography of the gun. Since the southwestern part of Mount Fuji is in this gun, the history of climbing Fuji is described in detail. The divisional sections and their arrangement are largely the same as in many other books of this kind. 1252. Fukui-ken Imadate-gun-yakusho B it ~7~ nLF act (Imadate-gun Office, Fukui Prefecture), Imadate-gun shi,-ll Pd (A descriptive geography of

Page  200 2'-)0C JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY Imadate-gun), Sabae, Imadate-gun-yakusho, 1909, 415 pp., illus. Imadate-gun is located in the central part of Fukui Prefecture. The major part of the volume consists of the description of shrines and temples, making this book a kind of guide book for sight-seeing. Lacquer ware is an important local product, and there is an interesting chapter on its industry. Many photos and tables. 1253. Fukui-ken Mikata-gun Kyoikukai k t / -t B ~ Mikata-gun Educational Society, Fukui Prefecture), ukukui-ken Mikata-gun shi 1 ~ Jl '- Jp t (A descriptive geography of Mikata-gun, Fukui Prefecture), Mikata, Fukui-ken Mikata-gun Kyoikukai, 1911, 551 pp., 1 illus. Mikata-gun is in the southwestern part of Fukui Prefecture. Part one is a description of the gun as a whole, and part two is a description of towns and villages Esepcially detailed is the history of Mikata which was a stage town in the Tokugawa period. The order of description in part one is name, location, area, landforms, coast, geology, climate, local customs, etc. The order in part two is name, location, oaza, population, public offices, industrial associations and companies, shrines and temples, etc. A bibliography is attached. Although there are no tables, 23 photos are included. 1254. Fukui-ken Qi-gun Kyoikukai B fft@ (Oi-gun Educational Society, Fukui Prefecture), Fukui-ken Oi-gun shi (A descriptive geography of Oi-gun, Fukui Prefecture), Takahama, ukui-ken Oi-gun Kyoikukai, 1931, 740 pp., 3 illus. Oi-gun is at the western end of Fukui Prefecture. In part one the gun is generally described in terms of landform, geology, history, army, famous men from the gun, education, industries, taxes and budgets, police and disasters, traffic and transportation, shrines and religion, famous places, historical spots and monuments, the local customs and people. In part two villages and towns in the gun are described. The main town of this gun is Takahama; it started as a castle town, became a stage town, and then changed again into a fishing port. There are many photos and tables. 1255. Fukui-ken Ono-gun Kyoikukai 11 (t7A T _ (Ono-gun Educational Society, Fukui Prefecture), Fukui-ken Ono-gun shi X ~f (A descriptive geography of Ono-gun, Fukui Prefecture), -no, Ono-gun Kyoikukai, 1912, 2 vols., v. 1, 450 pp., 2 illus., and v. 2, 1031 pp., 1 illus. Ono-gun is located in the eastern part of Fukui Prefecture. Volume one is a chronicle description of the gun, and Volume two is a description by machi and mura. There are several maps showing the conditions of the gun in the Edo period. The history of Onodani, the main copper mine of the area, is also described in Volume one. Volume two has the nature of a gazetteer of place names for this gun, and is especially detailed in explanations of shrines and temples as well as the biography of persons from the gun. The work is illustrated with many photos and maps. 1256. Fukui-ken Sakai-gun Kenkyukai? 4 g B# By Bf y tzA e t 2fA (Fukui-ken Sakaigun Social Studies Society), Shinko Sakai-gun shi I \ (A revised descriptive geography of Sakai-gun), Fukui-ken Sakai-gun Iimura Ii-shogakko, 1953, 890 pp., 51 illus. Sakai-gun is in the northern part of Fukui Prefecture. Sakai-gun shi was first publsihed in 1912, and this is an entire revision. There are three chapters. Chapter one is on the natural environment and its contents deal with area and location, landforms, climate, natural resources. and natural disasters. Chapter two deals with historical environment, and includes population of modern times along with local customs and famous people from the gun. Chapter three treats social environment, and the contents deal with land, population, industry, culture, communication, reclamation, cultural monuments, and regional description. Sakai'gun is divided into six districts and des miption are given for each of the districts. 1257. Fukui-ken Tsuruga-gun-yakusho By 1. (Tsuruga-gun Office, Fukui Prefecture), Tsuruga-gun shi T If v, (A descriptive geogrpahy of Tsurugagun), Tsuruga, Tsuruga-gun-yakusho, 1915, 1211 pp., 5 illu.s Tsuruga-gun is located in the central part of Fukui Prefecture. The book consists of a regional description emphasizing history. The history of Tsuruga, an important port in the Edo period, is especially detailed. The description by town and village is done by oaza; this part will be useful as a gazetteer. There is a map of Tsuruga and another map of old castles. Many photos and tables. 1258. Fukui-ken Yoshida-gun-yakusho 6 31f 4 1 VT. Yo (Yoshida-gun Office), Fukui-ken Yoshida-gun shi jig-4l Wl r buI (A descriptive geography of Yoshida-gun, Fukui Prefecture), Fukui, Yoshida-gun-yakusho, 1909, 628 pp., illus.

Page  201 POLITICAL REGIONS 201 Yoshida-gun is located in the northeastern part of Fukui Prefecture. Consisting of two parts, this work deals with the gun as a whole and the respective villages. Silk weaving as an important industry is emphasized. There is a famous Zen temple, Eiheiji, in the gun, and the history of this temple is described. Maps of the distribution of old tombs, a tourist map of Eiheiji, and a map of the distribution of the local products are inserted. 1259. Fukuoka-ken Itoshima-gun Kyoikukai AW X Af f (Itoshima-gun Educational Society, Fukuoka Prefecture), Itoshima-gun shi (A descriptive geography of Itoshima-gun), Maebara, Itoshima-gun Kyoikukai, 1927, 1398 pp., illus. Itoshima-gun is located in the western part of Fukuoka Prefecture. Part one is a description of the gun as a whole; contains records of work on the rearrangement of cultivated fields and the history of sericulture. Part two is a description of towns and villages, including a detailed history of their amalgamation. 1260. Fukuoka-ken Kokura-shi-yakusho shi0 J' J e (Kokura Municipal Office, Fukuoka Prefecture), Kokura-shi shi, hoi '\ ^ (A descriptive geography of Kokura City, supplement), Kokura, Kokura-shi-yakusho, 1955, 967 pp. This book was publsihed for the fiftieth anniversary of the municipality as a supplement to Kokura-shi shi published in 1941. Kokura City is now a ward in Kitakyushu City. An emphasis is put on a description of the ten years after World War II. Main chapters are on history, municipal amalgamation to Kokura, industries, shrines and temples, local customs, and a chronolgocial table. Many tables and 25 photos are included. 1261. Fukuoka-ken -gun ikuai Miike-gun Kykukai Educational Society, Fukuoka Prefecture), Miike-gun shi _ 5 (A descriptive geography of Miike-gun), Miike, Miike-gun Kyoikukai, 1926, 792 pp.. illus. Miike-gun is located in the southwestern part of Fukuoka Prefecture. This work consists of two parts: general, and towns and villages. Emphasis is given to the latter. In Part one, the important coal mine of Miike is described in detail. The description by town and village is a collection of information without much geographical interest. 1262. Fukuoka-ken Mizuma-gun Shogakko Kyoiku Shinkokai ~~ - 4}T t (Fukuoka Prefecture Mizuma-gun Association for the Advancement of Primary School Education), Shinko Mizuma-gun shi rX a ^' lp_ (A new geography of Mizuma-gun), Okawa, Fukuoka-ken Mizuma-gun Shogakko Kyoiku Shinkokai, 1953, 840 pp., 8 illus. Mizuma-gun is in the southwestern part of Fukuoka Prefecture along Ariake Bay. This is an enlarged revision of Fukuoka-ken Mizuma-gun shi published in 1925. This district is well known for its large scale reclamation of shallow sea and developed netwDrk of irrigation canals. They are described in detail with many photos and maps. Three chapter are on physical environment, people's life, and history. 1263. Fukuoka-ken Sawara-gun-yakusho 4d - e c -g pf f (Fukuoka-ken Sawara-gun Office), Sawara-gun shi u k k eS (A descriptive geography ofSawara-gun, Fukuoka Prefecture, Higashiirube, Fukubka-ken Sawara-gun-yakusho, 1923, 942 pp., 1 illus. Sawara-gun is in the western part of Fukuoka Prefecture adjacent to Fukuoka City. The book consists of two parts. Part one handles Sawara-gun as a whole, and part two is a detailed description of the various towns and villages in this gun. Part two comprises two thirds of the volume which makes it a handy place name dictionary For both parts, the order of description is general (area, landform, climate, land, population and history), administration, traffic, industries, education, public welfare, shrines and temples, and historical places. 1264. Fukushima-ken Minamiaizu-gun-yakusho ~f9j A* vf ATAtFr (MinamiaizuOffice, Fukushima Prefecture), Minamiaizu-gun shi- r PU19S5 (A descriptive geography of Minamiaizu-gun), Tajima, Minamiaizu-gun-yakusho, 1915, 459 pp., illus. Minamiaizu-gun is in the western part of Fukushima Prefecture. More emphasis is given to the description of present conditions than to the history. Local industries are described with special care, especially the formerly important sericulture. A map of the road network is inserted. Instead of statistics, graphic representation is frequently used to explain econom ic conditions. many photos and tables. 1265. Fukushima-ken Nishishirakawa-gun-yakusho At i ~ A ~ /Tqr Nishishirakawa-gun Office, Fukushima Prefecture), Nishishirakawa-gur shi JQ 1 ~ A Hj} (A descriptive geography of Nishishirakawa-gun), Shirakawa, Nishishirakawa-gun-yakusho, 1916, 585 pp., illus. Nishishirakawa-gun is in the southern part of Fukushima Prefecture. The work consists of two parts, twons and villages and the gun as a whole, emphasis being on

Page  202 202 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY the latter. The history of the ancient barrier of Shirakawa is very elaborately explained. Also detailed is the history of the castle town of Shirakawa. Present conditions are represented only by statistics. There are maps of Shirakawa Castle and Shirakawa. Four photos. 1266. Fukushima-ken Yama-gun-yakusho 4T 7i ' (Yama-gun Office, Fukushima Prefecture), Fukushima-ken Yama-gun shi (A descriptive geography of Yama-gun, Fukushima Prefecture), Kitagata, Yama-gun-yakusho, 1919, 984 pp., 18 illus. Yama-gun is located in the northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. Particularly detailed are the descriptions of the great explosion of the volcano Bandai in 1881, and of irrigation engineering using the water of Lake Inawashiro as the source. There are also maps of local central towns, Inawashiro, Kitagata, and Shiokawa, as well as a map showing the distribution of lava flows due to the explosion. Illustrated with many photos. 1267. Funai-gun Kyoikukai 4f'i'/ (Funai-gun Educational Society), Funai-gun shi kukai (A descriptive geography of Funai-gun), Sonobe, Funaigun Kyoikukai, 19, 64 pp. Funai-gun is in the central part of Kyoto Prefecture. This volume consists of two parts. Part one, general, mostly deals with the history of the gun, and includes a record of the area, owners and yields of farmland just before the Restoration. Part two of the volume is a description by town and village in a comprehensive style, and will be useful as a gazetteer. No illustrations. 1268. Gifu-ken Chiho Kairyo Kyokai Yoro-gun shikai ~*. l~ ~ ^^/aJ (Yoro branch of the Association of Regional Improvement, ifu Prefecture), Yoro-gun shi X.1^ _ged (A descriptive geogrpahy of Yoro-gun), Takada, Gifu-ken Chih- Kairyo Kyokai Yoro-gun-shikai, 1925, 1096 pp. Yoro-gun is located in the southwestern part of Gifu Prefecture. This is a regional description with emphasis on history. Since Yoro-gun is situated in swampy lowland, there are many references to relcamation and flood control. Descriptions of towns and villages are devoted entirely to the gun's history in the Edo period. At the end of the volume, statistics as of 1921 are given to elucidate the period. Two maps and many tables are included. 1269. Gifu-ken Kamo-gun-yakusho ^A X f (Kamo-gun Office, Gifu Prefecture), Mino-no-kuni Kamo gun shi -VT. A fi E it %A (A descriptive geography of Kamo-gun, Mino-no-kuni), Ota, Gifu-ken Kamo-gun-yakusho, 1921, 1186 pp., illus. Kamo-gun is located in the southeastern part of Gifu Prefecture. In this comprehensive description, there are detailed explanations of the three main industries of the district, the sericulture, silk reeling, and lumbering. The history of the gun is also explained in detail with two historical maps inserted. Main sections are: general (including physical geography, products, traffic, etc.), history, finance, transportation, products, religions, education, famous places, etc. 1270. Gifu-ken Mashida-gun-yakusho Aik 4 lf rt (Mashida-gun Office, Gifu Prefecture), Gifu-ken Mashida-gun Gifu Prefecture (A descriptive geography of Mashida-gun, Gifu Prefecture), Hagihara, Gifu-ken Mashida-gun-yakusho, 1916, 641 pp., 2 illus. Mashida-gun is located in the northeastern part of Gifu Prefecture. The structure and arragement of this book are common. However, the headings are comparatively detailed, making this work useful as a lexicon of place names. There are selections on horticulture, prehistoric findings, mineral springs, natural disasters, riots, historical documents, etc. 1271. Gumma-ken Azuma-gun Kyoikukai Af t+ rf$ Em 3 is (Azuma-gun Educational Society, Gumma Prefecture), Gumma-ken Azuma-gun shi )0f J4439 If (A descriptive geography of Azuma-gun, Gumma Prefecture), Nakanojo, Azuma-gun Kyoikukai, 1929, 1503 pp., illus. Azuma-gun is located in the northwestern part of Gumma Prefecture. This book consists of two parts, physical and human. In the former there are description of hot springs including their history, chemical and physical characteristics, and medical utility. The history of the large eruption of Volcano Asama in 1873 is also included. The history of towns and villages is presented by oaza. 1272. Gumma-ken Gumma-gun Kyoikukai J (Gummagun Educational Society, Gumma Prefecture, Gumma-ken Gumma-gun shi qA. 4 ~ E pus (A descriptive geography of Gumma-gun, Gumma Prefecture), Minowa, Gumma-gun-yakusho, 1925, 1624 pp., 3 illus.

Page  203 POLITICAL REGIONS 203 Gumma-gun is in the western part of Gumma Prefecture. This is a publication commemorating the abolishment of the gun office in 1923. The style and the order of the headings are the same as for those in books of the same nature. References to the locally important silk industry are somewhat detailed. 1273.Gumma-ken 0 Ora-gun Kyoikukai V^'. X A t a >, (nra-gun Educational Society, Gumma Prefecture), Gumma-ken Ora-gun shi _ (A descriptive geography of Ora-gun, Gumma Prefecture), Tatebayas h, Ora-gun Kyoikukai, 1917, 1342 pp., illus. Ora-gun is in the southeastern part of Gumma Prefecture. This book consists of two parts: the gun as a whole, and towns and villages. The part on towns and villages is more detailed. The Watarase River flows across the northern part of this gun, and the changes of the river course, their revisions, and the floods caused by them are described in detail. The work is illustrated with many photos and maps including a soil map and an irrigation map. 1274. Gumma-ken Sawa-gun-yakusho ^ - ~ ~4&. p (Sawa-gun Office, Gumma Prefecture), Sawa-gun shi /XA pp _W. (A descriptive geography of Sawa-gun), Isezaki, Sawa-gun-yakusho, 1923, 255 pp., 1 illus. Sawa-gun is in the southern part of Gumma Prefecture. This is a publication commemoratingthe abolishment of the gun office in 1923. Part one is a description of the gun as a whole, and part two deals with the villages and towns. Especially detailed are comments on the silk industry with Isezaki as its center. The order of the headings is history, division, landforms, area, climate, population, administration, traffic, police, sanitation, industry, irrigation, education, finance and economy, charity institutions, shrines and temples, religion, famous places, local customs, etc. 1275. Gumma-ken Tone-gun Kyoikukai XT f 4 X 01 % * 4 (Tone-gun Educational Society, Gumma Prefecture), Tone-gun shi t (A descriptive geography of Tone-gun), Numata, Tone-gun Kyoikukai, 1930, 15 3 pp., 23 illus. Tone-gun is in the northeastern part of Gumma Prefecture. This voluminous work is a comprehensive collection of materials related to the gun. Arrangement of the contents follows the general order of chronicles of this type, providing the book with the rature of a gazetteer. Geological and other distribution maps are inserted, and there is a somewhat detailed description of hot springs in the gun. 1276. Hagi-shi shi Hensan Iinkai i ty, s h (Compilation Committee of a Descriptive Geography of Hagi City), Hagi-shi shi (A descriptive geography of Hagi City), Hagi, Hagi-shi-yakusho, 1959, 639 pp., 26 illus. This book consists of three parts natural, historical and human. Because Hagi is a city which developed as the castle town of the Mori clan, there are detailed references to the history of the city with illustrations of many old maps and pictograms. Part one deals with nature including landforms, geology, climate, and natural life. Part two is historically divided by age, i.e., ancient, medieval, recent, and modern. Part three, human geography, includes traffic, administration, industry, education, and other miscellaneous information. 1277. Hamada-shi-yakusho X fr (Hamada Municipal Office), Hamada \\9 (Hamada), Hamada, Hamada-shi-yakusho, 1931, 675 PP., 1 illus. Hamada is the central city of the Iwami district in the middle of Shimane Prefecture. This is a commemorative publication of the tenth anniversary of the municipality. Comprehensive information about the city is classified into physical geography, history, industry, education, well known places, etc. 1278. Hanishina-gun-yakusho m J /l~fi (Hanishina-gun Office), Hanishinagun shi * A (A descrptive geography of Hanishina-gun), Matsuhsiro, Hanishinagun-yakusho, 1910, 537 PP., illus. Hanishina-gun is located in the northern part of Nagano Prefecture. This volume contains a very detailed chronological table. The contents pertain to physical geography, human geography, description of towns and villages, and well-known people from this gun. In the chapter on human geography, there is a detailed explanation of the history and present status of sericulture. Chapter three is only a list of the sites of local government offices. A list of koaza names is attached at the end of the volume. There are many illustrations. 1279. Hazu-gun-yakusho P Ad M. (Hazu-gun Office), Aichi-ken Hazu-gunshi '1. Yj A A (A descriptive geography of Hazu-gun, Aichi Prefecture), Nishi6, Hazu-gun-yakusho, 1923, 538 pp. Hazu-gun is located in the southern part of Aichi Prefecture. Present conditions are more emphasized than history. The contents primarily consist of miscellaneous

Page  204 204 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY information, and there is little of geographical interest. Most detailed are the descriptions of agricultural associations and the rearrangement of farmland. There are pictures of salt fields, tea gardens, and fish ponds. 1280. Hekikai-gun Kyoikukai a? (Hekikai-gun Educational Society), Hekikai-gun shi, W D X (A descriptive geography of Hekikai-gun), Chiryu, Hekikai-gun Kyoiku, 1917, 1000 pp. Hekikai-gun is in the middle of Aichi Prefecture. Main chapters are area, landforms, climate, history, administration, population, education, industry, traffic, and shrines and temples. There is a chapter on local customs which includes a detailed reference to local dialect. 1281. Higashikasugai-gun-yakush9 ^ aatrTA (Higashikasugai-gun Office), Higashikasugai-gun shi jl t ^ - (A descriptive geography of Higashikasugaigun), Nagoya, Higashikasugai-gun-yakusho, 1923, 1377 pp., 2 illus; Higashikasugai-gun is in the northwestern part of Aichi Prefecture. The book was compiled to commemorate the abolishment of the gun office. Main sections are a collection of official information published by the office. Main sections are area and landforms, climate, history, population, administration, industry, noted people from the district, shrines and temples. The contents are mainly historical, and the history of shrines and temples is espcially detailed. 1282. Higashikubiki-gun Kyoikukai " C' (Higashikubiki-gun Educational Society), Higashikubiki-gun shi - 4 6pt t, (A descriptive geography of Higahsikubiki-gun Ky5ikukai, 1923, 1246 pp., 5 illus. Higashikubiki-gun is located in the southern part of Niigata Prefecture. This huge volume consists of a comprehensive collection of information on the gun. Because the Niigata oil field is located in this gun, the history, technical development, and the present status of the oil industry in the gun are explained in detail. Eighteen photos and many tables. 1283. Horii Jin'ichiro )Vk -'T, Nara-ken chishi t t $t (A descriptive geography of Nara Prefecture), Nara, Yamato Shiseki Kenkyukai, 1961, 470 pp. This detailed geography of Nara Prefecture is a valuable source of information. Individual chapters deal with physical conditions, industry, traffic, tourism, regional planning, population, settlement, and geographic regions. Statistics and a bibliography are included. 1284. Horie Kenji _J ~ a -, Tokyo-fu chishi isJ-t (A descriptive geography of Tokyo-fu), Tokyo, Kokon Shoin, 1931, 252 pp., 65 illus. Tokyo Prefecture, which was formerly called Tokyo-to, is divided into two portions, greater Tokyo under aprogram of city planning, and the rest of the prefecture. Concerning the former, descriptions are given in geology, expansion of the urban area, electricity, population, industries, and the old wards and newly annexed wards. The latter is divided into four districts, Kanto Mountains, basins, hills, and the Musashino upland, and descriptions o? each are given. This is a well organized geogrpahy illustrated with many maps and tables. 1285. Hyogo-ken Inami-gun-yakusho (Inami-gun Office, Hyogo Prefecture), Zotei Inami-gun shi A- -,. (A descriptive geography of Inami-gun, revised and enlarged), Sone, rnami-gun-yakusho, 1916, 1014 pp., 1 illus. Inami-gun is located in the southern part of central Hyogo Prefecture. This is an enlarged revision of Inami-gun shi, published in 1903. Especially detailed description is provided on salt baking in the Inland Sea area, and also on work on rearrangement of cultivated fields in association with the revision of rivers. A pictogram of the gun in the Edo period is inserted. 1286. Hyogo-ken Sayo-gun-yakusho jk 1 s 16- 4'P (Hyogo-ken Sayo-gun Office), Sayo-gun shi /1~ ) D 9 (A descriptive geography of Sayo-gun), Sayo, Hyogo-ken Say5-gun-yakusho, 1926, 704 pp., illus. layo-gun is located in the western part of Hyogo Prefecture. This volume consists of four chapters, among which chapter four is the most important. The chapters are: 1) general (location, landforms, climate), 2) history of the gun, 3) present status of the gun (administration, police, population, industry, tax, traffic, finance, etc.), 4) villages and towns (location, landforms, settlements, history, population, number of households, occupation, economy, traffic and transportation, religion, historical and other famous places). The work is illustrated with 41 photos. 1287. Hyogo-ken Shiso-gun li -JUP (Shisho-gun, Hyogo Prefecture) Hyogo-ken, Shisho-gun shi t s;I 7 f'f, i (A descriptive geogrpahy of Shiso-gun

Page  205 POLITICAL REGIONS 205 Hyogo Prefecture), Yamasaki, Hyogo-ken, Shiso-gun, 1923, 308 pp. Shiso-gun is located in the western part of Hyogo Prefecture. This book was compiled to commemorate the abolishment of the gun office in 1923. Present status of the gun is emphasized rather than history; the contents are comprehensive, and there is little geographical analysis. 1288. Ibi- un Kyoikukai A Y 7 A (Ibi-gun Educational Society), Ibi-gun shi ip (A descriptiv geography of Ibi-gun), Ibi, Ibi-gun Kyoikukai, 1924, 844 pp. Ibi-gun is in the southwestern part of Gifu Prefecture. This is a regional description of the gun and is predominantly historical. A history of flood control of the Ibi River that flows across the gun is provided in detail. Description of towns and villages is given by oaza in the style of a gazetteer. Inserted maps are those of jori land allotment, and a map from the magistrate's office in the Ido period. Many photos and tables. 1289. Ibusuki-shi-yakusho t - "i f IT (Ibusuki Municipal Office), Ibusuki-shi shi ~a ' >jAl (A descriptive geography of Ibusuki City), Ibusuki, Ibusuki-shiyakusho, 1958, 553 Pp., 12 illus. Ibusuki City is located near the southern end of the Satsuma Peninsula, Kagoshima Prefecture. The contents are strongly historical, archeology is especially detailed with many photos of excavated implements. Four chapters are an outline of Ibusuki City, a history of the city, industry and economy, and education and culture. A chronological table is attached. 1290. Inoue Masao ft l1_j4-PS, Osaka-fuzenshi Be Bt /t (A descriptive geography of Osaka-fu_), Osaka, Osaka-fu-zenshi Hakkosho, 1922 5 vols., v. 1, 1247 PP.; v. 2, 1270 pp.; v. 3, 1387 pp.; v. 4, 1508 pp.; v. 5, 1044 pp. In Volume one the changes of administrative divisions in Osaka Prefecture are described in detail. Other volumes deal with historical descriptions of administrative units by province, county, city, and town and village. Osaka Prefecture consists of three former provinces, Settsu, Kawachi and Izumi. The location, area, boundary, landforms and traffic are first explained by province. The chances in administrative divisions and old shrines and temples are next explained in detail. This work is strongly historical; however, abundant information concerning the historical geography of the prefecture is contained. 1291. Ishikawa-ken Fugeshi-gun-yakusho jl)1 A Rt - t B (Fugeshi-gln Office, Ishikawa Prefecture), Ishikawa-ken Fugeshi-gun si (i)g| sA hAi- g O (A descriptive geography of Fugeshi-gun, Ishikawa Prefecure), Anamizu, Ishikawa-ken Fugeshi-gun-yakusho, 1923, 1324 pp. Fugeshi-gun is in the central part of the Noto Peninsula. Out of 37 chapters, the first 13 are on the gun as a whole, and the rest are on the various municipalities. The system of description is general considerations (land, household, ciimate, landforms, history, administration, education, shrines and temples, industry, traffic, dialect and folklore. Emphasis is placed on description of municipalities, which comprises more than 70% of the work. 1292. Ishikawa-ken Hakui-gun-yakusho )X 21A444 j P/| If (Hakui-gun Office, Ishikawa Prefecture), Ishikawa-ken Hakui-gun shi /vJ1\ 4ve Ads, (A descriptive geography of Hakui-gun), Hakui, Ishikawa-ken Hakui-gun-yakusho, 1917, 1160 pp. Hakui-gun is in the southern part of Noto Preninsula in the central part of Ishikawa Prefecture. Part one is a description of gun as a whole, and part two is about the respective towns and villages in this gun. Unlike other books of this kind, history is mentioned only very briefly. Arrangement of the contents is the same in both parts as follows: general (land, population, geomorphology, mountains, rivers, waterfalls, coast line, changes in landforms), history, administration, traffic, industry and economy, sanitation, military affairs, charity, shrines anld temples, and dialects. 1293. Ishikawa-ken Kahoku-gun-yakusho 7111J 4 jt V& B.~ (Ishikawa Prefecture Ishikawa Prefecture), Ishikawa-ken Kahoku-gun shi 1^ij - (A descriptive geography of Kahoku-gun, Ishikawa Prefecture), Tsubata, Ishikawa-ken Kahoku-gun-yakusho 1920, 995 pp., 1 illus. Kahoku-gun is in the central part of Ishikawa Prefecture, to the north of Kanazawa City. The contents are divided into thirty chapters of which more than half are descriptions of villages, towns, and cities. The description includes a general explanation of history and physical geography, followed by administration, education, industry, traffic, shrines and temples. The system is used for both the gun and for the individual municipalities.

Page  206 206 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY 1294. Ishikawa-ken Kashima Jichikai r ati I V t (Self government society of Kashima-gun, Ishikawa Prefecture), Ishikawa-ken Kashima-gun shi 1 ] X J % (A descriptive geography of Kashima-gun Ishikawa Prefecture), Nanao, Ishikawa-ken Kashima Jichikai, 1929, 1752 pp. Kishiima- gun is located in the central part of the Noto Peninsula. This book consists of two parts. Part one is on the gun as a whole, and Part two handles its towns and villages. The order of description is approximately the same in both parts. It is as follows: general (physical goegraphy), history, administration, industry, traffic, education, social work, religion, shrines and temples dialect, folk songs, legends, and famous persons from the district. The contents are classified into small headings, which makes this book useful as a gazetteer. 1295. Ishikawa-ken Suzu-gun-yakusho 1,j\ 11|)X j'jf (Suzu-gun Office, Ishikawa Prefecture), Ishikawa-ken Suzu-gun shi %^ I f (A descriptive geography of Suzu-gun, Ishikawa Prefecture), lida, Ishikawa-ken Suzu-gun-yakusho, 1923, 611 pp. Suzu-gun is near the tip of the Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture. The book consists of two parts, gun as a whole, and towns and villages. The same style is used for both parts. Chapters one to twelve comnprise part one, and the descriptions are in the ordinary order of formal regional geography. In part two, consisting of chapters thirteen to twenty-three, descriptions concerning each the municipalities are given. No maps and no illustrations are included. 1296. Ishino Akira > f 3, Kanagawa-ken taikan X11 J(A comprehensive view of Kanagawa Prefecture), Yokohama, Mus5 Shuppansha, 1952-1956, 4 vols., v. 1, 129 pp.; v.2, 305 pp.; v. 3, 564 pp.; v. 4, 492; illus. Kanagawa Prefecture is divded into twelve areas. A predominantly historical description of these areas is given. There are some references to both physical and cultural geography. Volume one deals with the whole prefecture and is subdivided into the natural aspect (landform, natural life, climate, etc.), and the human aspect (history of the prefecture). Volume two includes the Tama hills to Yokohama City, the Miura Peninsula and the Shonan District. Volume four handles Sagamihara, the aFtano Basin and the Yurugi District. Volume five is not yet published. 1297. Isumi-gun-yakusho T TT (Isumi-gun Office), Isumi-gun shi X a V \Z (A descriptive geography of Isumi-gun), Otaki, Isumi-gun-yakusho, 1923, 918 pp. Isumi-gun is located in the southeastern part of Chiba Prefecture. This book is a detailed history of the gun, including present conditions explained by statistics with annotations. Shrines and temples in the gun are emphasized. There is a collection of records engraved in monuments. No illustrations are given. 1298. Ito Oshiro r f u LW i Miyako-gun shi (A descriptive geography of Miyako-gun), Yukuhashi, Osada Takashi, 1931, 341 pp. Miyako-gun is in the eastern part of Fukuoka Prefecture. This book is a chronicle of the gun with emphasis on history. Very detailed accounts are given on the history of the changes of administrative boundaries and the reclamation in modern times. Industries and the economy are represented only by statistics. Many pages are devoted to history, few to geography. Numerous citations from old documents are valuable for the study of historical geography. 1299. Iwate-gun Kyoikukai ~ Al f / (Iwate-gun Educational Society), Shizuokaken Iwata-gun shi e)M' /v \ ~ (A descriptive geography of Iwate-gun, Shizuoka Prefecture), Mitsuke, 1wate-gun-yakusho, 1921, 1302 pp., illus. Iwate-gun is located in the western part of Shizuoka Prefecture. This is a rather encyclopedic description of the gun. The contents are classified into twenty-five sections and resemble that of many other books of this kind. 1300. Iwate-ken Kyoikukai % j ~ (Iwate "refecture Educational Society), Iwate-ken Kyodoshi X -^ 2-aJ (Chronicles of Iwate Prefecture), Tokyo, Nippon Shobo, 1940, 164pp. This is a commemorative publication of the 2600th anniversary of Japan. The contents include descriptions of the cities, towns, and villages of Iwate Prefecture. In this sense the book is a kind of gazetteer. For each of the municipalities the area, population, and representative industries are explained. Most of the contents however, deal with a description of shrines and temples and other kinds of wellknown places. 1301. Iwate-ken Kyoikukai Kamihei-gun Bukai % I a A t- M Af / a (Kamihei-gun Branch of Iwate Prefecture Eudcational Society), Kamihei-gun shi 1'I74fA (A descriptive geography of Kamihei-gun), Tono, Iwate-ken Kyoikukai Kamihei-gun Bukai, 1931, 339 pp., 2 illus.

Page  207 POLITICAL REGIONS 207 Kamihei-gun is located in the central part of the Pacific coast of Iwate Prefecture. Contents are more historical than geographical. Description by town and village is also mainly historical. The develooment of Tono, the central town, is explained by comparing a map of the castle town Tono in the Edo period with a presentday map. Among eleven photos inserted, there are photos of Tono and Kamaishi. 1302. Iwate-ken Kyoikukai-gun Bukai % fT i / r (Kunohe-gun Branch of Iwate Prefecture Educational Society), Kunohe-gun shi AtA (A descriptive geography of Kunohe-gun), Karumai, Iwate-ken Kyoikukai Kunohe-gun Bukai, 1936, 616 pp., illus. Kunohe-gun is located in the northern part of Iwate Prefecture. Chapters of geographical interest pertain to: destruction by tsunami, tidal waves, locally important horse raising, and fisheries. There are also references to old forts and other historical places. Many photos and tables. 1303. Iwate-ken Kyoikukai Shiwa-gun Bukai t I ll /J V "I I (Shiwa-gun Branch of Iwate Prefecture Eudcational Society), Shiwa-gun shi, ' (A descriptive geography of Shiwa-gun), Hizume, Iwate-ken Ky5ikukai Shiwa-gun Bukai, 1926, 502 pp., illus. Shiwa-gun is located in the central part of Iwate Prefecture. This book is strongly historical and is abundant with information on historical geography. There are historical studies on the divisions and areas of administrative units in former times as well, on the location and size of fortresses, etc. The section on towns and villages also consists of the history of places. The work is illustrated with many photos. 1304. Izumi-gun-yakusho ~? AK ' 4 t (Izumi-gun Office), Izumi-gun shi A; fZF, (A descriptive geography of Izumi-gun), Mikasa, Izumi-gun-yakusho, 1923, 408 pp., illus. Izumi-gun is in the northwestern part of Kagoshima Prefecture. This book resembles an annual report of the gun office, and the contents are mostly statistics with brief explanations. Pictures inserted are mostlyphotos of shrines and temples. 1305. Izumo-shi-yakusho ] A f t (Izumo City Office), Izumo-shi shi A3.(A descriptive geography of Izumo City), Izumo, Izumo-shi-yakusho, 1951, 1006 pp., 2 illus. A commemorative publication for the tenth anniversary of the municipality. The city of Izumo is located in the center of Hikawa Plain not too far from the ancient Izumo Shrine. Main chapters are on nature, settlements, administration, industry, traffic, education, natural disasters, religion, etc. Hikawa Plain is known for its characteristic disseminated villages, and there is a survey of the villages shown on a map. 1306. Jobo-gun Kyoikukai t (Jobo-gun Eudcational Society), Jobo-gun shi Ai X At >R^ (A descriptive geography of Jobo-gun), Takahashi, Jobo-gun Kyoikukal, 1913, 1267 pp., illus. Jobo-gun is located in the central part of Okayama Prefecture. The present status of this gun is described, but the description is perfunctory. Items are minutely classified, making this book useful as a gazetteer. Part one deals with landforms geology, climate, mines, mineral springs, natural resources, relics, and historic places. Part two deals with history, population, finance, education, occupation, products, traffic, public and private institutions, and banks. Part three covers religion, shrines and temples, local customs, old documents, famous people from the gun, etc. The work is illusrated with many photos. 1307. Joto-gun Kyoikukai 32 )tJAA("4 (Joto-gun Educational Society), Jotogun shi } | H?>* (A descriptive geography of Joto-gun), Saidaiji, Jot7-gun Kyoikukai, 2T22, 1041 pp., 4 illus. Joto-gun was in the southern part of Okayama Prefecture, and is now the area of Saidaiji City. The book consists of physical and human geography, but only forty pages are given to the former. Human geography includes administration, industry and traffic, army, education, social security, religion, shrines and temples, famous places, economy, well-known people from this gun, etc. 1308. Kagawa-ken Kyoikukai Kida-gun Bukai 4 )l] ~ sfit~i GAFF (Kida Branch of Kagawa Prefecture Educational Society), Kida-gun shi A(A descriptive geography of Kida-gun), Hirai, Kagawa-ken Kyoikukai Kida-gun Sukai, 1940, 1162 pp., illus. Kida-gun is located in the northeastern part of Kagawa Prefecture. This work is predominantly historical. Only Chapters one and seven are of a more geographical nature. Chapter one deals with the origin of place names in the gun and an outline of physical geography. Chapter seven is titled "The Description of Human Geography," and includes the following sections: population, local customs, annual events,

Page  208 ~~~~~~'208 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY dialects, folk songs, legends, education, police, industry, finance, traffic, engineering, and public and private institutions. Other chapters deal with the history of the gun, machi and mura, and of shrines and temples. 1309. K Kagawa-ken Shodo-gun-yakusho ) 1\ (Shodo-gun Office, Kagawa Prefecture), Shodo-gun shi ]] t'f (A descriptive geography of Shodo-gun), Tonosho, Shodo-gun-yakusho, 1921, 909 pp. Shodo-gun is located in the northeastern part of Kagawa Prefecture and consists of Shodo Island and the small islands adjacent ot it. There is a detailed description of the production and trade of shoyu sauce which is an important product of the islands. There are also comments on marine traffic and the development of ports. The section on the towns and villages is very simple. At the end of the volume is a collection of statistics. There are many photos of islands. 1310. Kagoshima-ken Kaseda-shi-yakusho 1t MA X ai - t3T (Kaseda Municipal Office, Kagoshirna Prefecture), Kaseda-shi shi t -Q1^ f $ (A descriptive reography of Kaseda City), Kaseda, Kaseda-shi-yakusho, 1964, 2 vols., 776 pp., and 908 pp., a illus. Kaseda City is in the southwestern part of Satsuma Peninsula, Kagoshima Prefecture. This is a commemorative publication on the tenth anniversary of the municipality. The composition of this book is largely the same as for many of the books of this kind, but with a slight emphasis on economy, especially the main products of this city, agriculture and the brewery of shochu (an alcoholic beverage). Volume one includes physical geography, history, administration, industries, especially agriculture, traffic and engineering. Contents of Volume two are education, culture, religion, famous places in the city, and a chronological table. 11il. Kaho-gun-yakusho /, M. (Kaho-gun Office), Kaho-gun shi (A descriptive goegray of Kaho-gun), lizuka, Kaho-gun-yakusho, 1924, 1124 pp. * 11lus. Kaho-gun is located in the central part of Fukuoka Prefecture and is an important coal producing area. TLhs work is historical, and there is a detailed account of the development of the coal industry. The project of farm land rearrangement is also emphasized. Descriptions by town and village consist of locolhistory. A map of the central town, lizuka, is inserted. There are many photos and tables. S112L-.* Kamitakai-gun Kyoikukal i-S i7 7tOFt (Kamitakai-gun Erucational Soclety), Kamitakai-gun shi A q i j Egg (A descriptive geography of Kamitakai-gun), Susaka, Kamitakai-gun Ky ikukai, 915, 899 pp. Kamitakai-gun is located in the northern part of i'agano Prefecture. This work is divided into detailed headings which make it useful as a gazetteer. The main sections deal with boundary, area, changes in administrative divisions, landforms, geology and soils, climate, minerals, plants, animals, population, economy, agriculture, industry, traffic and commerce, education, shrines and temples, local customs and dialects, historical and tourist places, etc. The section on historical and tourist places is the most detailed, and there are studies on the location of old castles in the gun. 1313. Kamo-gun Kyoikukai A Fa (Kamo-gun Educational Society), Kamo-gun shi Uf'1 iu sA (A descriptive geography of Kamo-gun), Saijo, Kamo-gun Kyoikukai, 1916, 651 pp., 4 illus. Kamo-gun is located in the southern part of central Hiroshima Prefecture. Contents are mostly historical. dIodern industries and the economy are indicated by statistics and tables. The section on towns and villages is also a juxtaposition of items classified into boundaries, landforms, history, administration, and education. Maps inserted include a historical map of the entire prefecture in the Edo period, a map of the changes of administrative boundaries since the Meiji period, and a map of villages of the gun of the Edo period. Many photos and tables. 1314. Kanagawa Kencho -f ) J'J (Kanagawa Prefectural Office), Kanagawa-ken shi lf u A t(A descriptive geography of Kangawa Prefecture), Yokohama, Kanagawa Knecho, 1913, 580 pp., 2 illus. Yokohama Harbor is described in detail and given much emphasis. Main topics of consideration are history, geography including population, landform, geology, climate, historical places, present status of the prefecture, and social problems. 1315. Kanagawa-ken Miura-gun Kyroikukai tt 7^ tj TO;t 'y t% X (Miura-gun etducational Society, Kanagawa Prefecture), Miura-gun shi -v, (A descriptive ooegraphy of Miura-gun), Uraga, Miura-gun Kyoikukai, 1918, 192 pp., 1 illus. Miura-gun is the major part of the Miura Peninsula. Part one of this book is the history and geography of the gun. Part two is the description of towns and villages in which the history of 'Jraga, the main center of this gun, is explained in detail.

Page  209 POLITICAL REGIONS 209 Part three contains the records of famous people the gun has produced. There is a detailed history of the locally powerful clan, the Miura family. 1316. Kanao Sohei % 4, Fukuoka-ken chishi 5,Q3AI3C (A descrptive geography of Fukuoka-ken), Tokyo, T-kyo Shoin, 1935, 393 pp., 151 illus. This is an excellent geography of Fukuoka Prefecture. Part one is a geography of the prefecture as a whole. In Part two, the prefecture is divided into five geographic regions and described respectively. Many maps are provided. Part one consists of four chapters: 1) Natural environment, 2) distribution of population, 3) settlement, and 4) economic life. Geographic regions in Part two are: 1) the Genkai-nada Slope, 2) the northern plain, 3) the southern part of Tsukushi Province, 4) Chikuho Coal Mine district, and 5) the Inland Sea Slope. 54 photos and numerous tables are inserted. 1317. Kaneko Shuntichi 33/ -,Oita-ken no chin r (A geography of 5ita Prefecture), Fukuoka, Kobunkan, 1962, 383 pp., 286 illus. This is a well organized regional geography of Oita Prefecture, consisting of three parts. Part one is regional, in which the prefecture is divided into seven geographic regions and described by a topic approach. Part two is general, and is subdivided into nature as a scene of human acitivty, historical background, and various aspects of people's living. Part three consists of statistics and a bibliography. 1318. Kasai Ransui t ti4K, Shinpen Mima-gun shi |, p (A new edition of the descriptive geography of Mima-gun), Waki-machi, Mima-gun Kyoikukai, 1957, 487 pp., 31 illus. Mima-gun is located in the central part of Tokushima Prefecture, along the midstream of Yoshino River. Kasai previously published a regional geography of this gun, Mima-gun shi, in 1915. This is a revised and enlarged edition. Part one handles the gun as a whole, and Part two is the description of its villages and towns. Throughout the book historical descriptions predominate and no reference is made to the present conditions of economy and production. Sectionsin part one are: geology and geomorphology, natural history, history, folklore, human geography (populaiton, land, public offices, transportation, history of traffic, settlement and groundwater, special products, natural disasters), and famous places. Part two consists of the history, well-known places; shrines and tmeples, and local legends. 1319. Kasai Ransui ~ ~ 7, Tokushima-ken shi. ~ J SAE (A descriptive geography of Tokushima-ken), Tokushima, Yoshikawa-do, 1929, 236 pp., illus. Kasai is a local historian, and history is emphasized in this work on regional description. Chapters are: 1) physical (geology, mountains, rivers, lakes, ocean, earthquakes, and tsunami), 2) historic and prehistoric relics, 3) history, 4) study of place names and local customs, and 5) famous places. This work is illustrated with many photos. 1320. Katao Akinojo A I Z, Wake-gun shi pp ' (A descriptive geography of Wake-gun), Okayama, San'yo Shimposha, 1909, 705 pp., illus. Wake-gun is located in the eastern part of Okayama Prefecture. The book consists of two parts, history and geography. In the section on geography, there are data on irrigation concerning methods, area, source, etc. as well as historical studies on the sites of old castles and forts. The section on history includes history of shrines and temples, biographies of well-known persons from the gun and changes in administrative divisions. There are no illustrations, but there are many tables. 1321. Kato-gun Kyoikukai tl f Je/w (Kato-gun Educational Society), Kato-gun shi By ~ M- (A descriptive geography), Yashiro, Kato-gun Kyoikukai 1923, 964 pp._, 1 illus. Kato-gun is located in the central part of Hyogo Prefecture. This large volume consists mainly of history. Present conditions are represented mostly by statistics. There is a section on towns and villages, but this part also consists of local history and place-name study. A pictogram of the gun from the Edo period is inserted. 1322. Kawasaki-shi Kankokai )jj ^Xl- ^T/ (Publishing Committee of Descriptive Geography of Kawasaki), Kawasaki shi )1] ^ OX (A descriptive geography of Kawasaki), Kawasaki, Shisei Kinen Kawasaki-shi Kankokai, 1925, 277 pp. This book was published to commemorate the municipality of Kawasaki City. In 1925, Kawasaki had not started its rapid growth which since then has entirely changed its character. Therefore, this book is a valuable source of information concerning the status of Kawasaki before industrialization. The contents consist

Page  210 210 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY of four chapters 1. places of interest, shrines and temples, 2. history of Kawasaki, 3. commerce and manufacturing, and 4. public institutions. The work is illustrated with many photos. 1323. Kitaadachi-gun-yakusho J~- s~F [ (Kitaadachi-gun Office), Kitaadachi-gun shi jt ^.p>in (A descriptive goegraphy of Kitaadachi-gun), Tokorozawa, Kitaadachi-gun-yakusho, 1923, 206 pp., 2 illus. Kitaadachi-gun is in thesoutheastern part of Saitama Prefecture. This book was published to commemorate the abolishment of the gun office. Main contents are landform, geology, hydrology, history, administration, population, and detailed information about the structure and activties of the gun office. There are detailed references to the process of the abolishment of the gun office and lists of laws concerning the gun system. 1324. Kitano Takaharu 3t- u, Nagasaki kyodo shi ~ ~ (A descriptive geography of N'gasaki), Nagasaki, Nagasaki-shi Shbgakko Shokuinkai, 1911, 354 pp., illus. This book consists of two parts, history and geography, and greater emphasis is put on the former part. There are detailed explanations of the history of Nagasaki as an international trade port. The section on geography is divided into minute sections and is useful as a gazetteer. A map of the city based on a survey in 1907 is inserted. Three photos and many tables 1325. Kitatoshima-gun Nokai ilt-..A (Kitatoshima-gun Agricultural Association), Tokyo-fu Kitatoshima-gun shi ^ TV (A descriptive geography of Kitatoshima-gun, Tbkyo-fu), Tokyo, Kitatoshima-gun Nokai, 1918, 614 pp. Kitatoshima-gun is now a part of Tokyo, making Toshima-ku. The description is of the gun as a whole and of respective municipalities, the latter taking up more than two-thirds of the volume. The contents are geography, history, and administration. There are detailed references to shrines and temples, and other famous places. The work is illustrated with many photos. 1326. Kogure Hidieo )J44 t., Musashi-no-kuni Kodama-gun shit i ' l Airk (A descriptive geography of Kodama-gun, Musashi-no-kuni), Honj5, Kodama-gun-shi Hensansho, 1927, 811 pp., 1 illus. Kodama-gun is located in the northwestern part of Saitama Prefecture. Kogure is a local historian, and this work is strongly historical. Since Kodama- gun is an important sericultural region in the northern Kanto, history of the silk industry in this district is also of geographical interest. Main chapters are: geography (location, adminstration, landforms, rivers, and geology), climate, prehistoric times, history of the gun, history of towns and villages, shrines and temples, and famous persons from the gun. 1327. Kojima-gun Kyoikukai )t$#BjP (Kojima-gun Educational Society), Okayama-ken Kojima-gun shi 1 Aisj l!SJ 8-t (A descriptive geography of Kojima-gun, Okayama Prefecture), Kotoura, Kojima-gun-yakusho, 1915, 664 pp. Kojima-gun is located in the southern part of Okayama Prefecture. Kojima Bay in this gun is well known because of its large scale reclamation work started in the Edo period. Detailed of the Edo period reclamation are described together with the processes, related place names, and other information. Salt baking is another industry of importance, and its history is also described. Many photos and tables. 1328. Kokubu Kyodoshi Hensan linkai IgA+ f /0~~ ~i" (Compilation Committee of a Descriptive Geography of Kokubu), Kokubu kyodoshi I/' (A regional description of Kokubu), Kokubu, Kokubu Shiritsu Toshokan, 1960, 258 pp., 2 illus. Kokubu-shi is at the head of Kagoshima Bay. This book was compiled to commemorate the fifth anniversary of the municipality. More emphasis is given to history rather than to the present status of the city. Chapters are 1. regional geography in which location, landforms, and climate are briefly described, 2. ancient times, 3. medieval times, 4. recent times, and 5. modern times in which administration, education, industry of the present day are explained. 1329. Kumamoto-ken Kyoikukai Tamana-gunShikai t (Tamana-gun Branch of Kumamoto Prefecture Educational Society), Kumamoto-ken Tamana-gun shi:r^X3^ A d*P (A descriptive geography of Tamana-gun, Kumamoto Prefecture), ~akase, Kumamoto-ken Kyoikukai Tamana-gun Shikai, 1923, 1414 pp., 2 illus. Tamana-gun is located in the northwestern part of Kumamoto Prefecture. Contents are predominantly historical. In the chapter on natural geography, there are lists of the plants, animals, and mineral products of the gun. In the chapter on human geography, comments pertain mostly to shrines and temples, and little is written about the present status. There are a geological maps and a pictogram of this gun

Page  211 POLITICAL REGIONS 211 in the Edo period. 1330. Kumamoto-shi-yakusho Hi (Kumamoto City Office), Kumamoto-shi shi (A descriptive geography of Kumamoto City), Kumamoto, Kumamoto-shiyakusho, 1917, 506 pp., illus. There are two parts: physical and human. The physical section is detailed only in the listing of the names of animals and plants. The human part contains mostly the names of local people, shrines, temples, and anrient tombs. Throughout the volume, geography is poorly represented. Industries and economy are indicated mostly by statistics. An attached map of the city and its environs in the scale of 1:9,000 is accurate according to the survey in 1912. Ten photos and many tables. 1331. Kume-gun Kyoikukai A+ a /3 (Kume-gun Educational Society), Kumegun shi AAArP Vad (A descriptive geography of Kume-gun), Kami, Kume-gun Kynikukal, 1923, 1200 pp., 1 illus. Kume-gun is in the center of Okayama Prefecture. Because the book is a collection of miscellaneous information, it is a useful source of knowledge concerning the gun, but it is not an organized regional geography. Out of some thirty headings, the more important ones are landforms, geology, climate, natural disasters, history, shrines and temples, monuments, population, public offices, military affairs, transportation and traffic, industries, banks, famous people, old documents, and place names. 1332. Kurate-gun Kyoikukai f4g f C (Kurate-gun Educational Society), Kurategun shi tn 9 3 e (A descriptive geography of Kurate-gun), N5gata, Kurate-gun Kyoikukai, 1934, 1620 pp., 2 illus. Kurate-gun is located in the northern part of Fukuoka Prefecture. This voluminous work is divided into many headings, and the work will be of use as an encyclopedia of the gun. This being a coal producing area, the history of coal mining and present condition of the mines are described in detail. A map of the gun in the Edo period is inserted. Many photos and tables. 1333. Kurihara-gun Kyoikukai X /, ta (Kurihara-gun Educational Society), Kurihara-gun shi 5 A\1Aft^ (A descriptive geography of Kurihara-gun), Tsukitate, Kurihara-gun Kyoikukai, 1918, 962 pp., 7 illus. Kurihara-gun is in the northern part of Miyagi Prefecture. This book consists of two parts, Part one covering the whole gun, and Part two covering its towns and villages. The order of description is as follows: history, geography (physical geography, changes in administrative divisions, population, traffic, etc.), administration, finance, industry, education, religion, local customs, natural disasters, etc. The contents of Part two are strongly historical. 1334. Kurihara Shinsui ift #1,, Yakushin Gumma-ken shi ^Xfi A" (A descriptive geography of the progress of Gumma Prefecture), Maebashi, Yakushi Gumma-ken shinkokai, 1955, 1440 pp., 1 illus. This is a revision of the work which was first published in 1940. Main contents are the history of Gumma, the nature and the people, culture, traffic, and industry, sight-seeing, administration, regional description, and well-known people from this prefecture. The last mentioned topic occupies 875 pages, being a collection of biographies of ancient and modern people. 1335. Kurume-shi-yakusho A V t \ l f (Kurume Municipal Office), Kurume-shi shi Ag * V4,(A descriptive geography of Kurume City), Kurume, Kurume-shi-yakusho, 1932-33, 4 vols., v. 1 800 pp.; v. 2, 96800 pp.; vv. 2, 9768 pp.,; v. 4, 6 maps. Volume one contains information on the geography, history, politics, religion, shrines and temples, and education of Kurume. Geography consists of a general explanation of location, landforms, climate, etc. In the chapter on history, the development of the city is explained using air photos. Volume two includes sports, fine arts, engineering, finance, industries, the work of the city office, etc. In the chapter on industries, there is a detailed description of cotton weaving, an important industry of the city. Volume three consists of records of famous persons from this city and citations from old documents. Volume four consists of maps and photos representing different historical periods of the city. 1336. Kurume-shi-yakusho ffs (Kurume Municipal Office) Zoku Kurume-shi shi l t i X ^t AF(A descriptive geography of Kurume City, continued), Kurume, Kurume-shi-yakusho, 1955, 2 vol., 769 pp., 1 illus.; and 768 pp., 1 Illus. This book was edited as a supplement to Kurume-shi shi published in 1932 to commemorate the sixtieth anniversary of the city; therefore, an emphasis is given to the period after 1930. There are detailed explanations of the two main indus

Page  212 212 JAPANESE GEOGRAPHY tries of this city, the rubber industry and cotton weaving. Volume one contains general description, administration, municipal amalgamation, education and public welfare. Volume two includes industry and finance, traffic and transportation, wars and destruction due to the last war, reconstruction, the heavy flood in 1953, an appendix, and a chronological table of 140 pages. There are many photos and tables. 1337. Kyoto-fu Ikaruga-gun Kyoikukai ~~~ X p I1A/ (Ikaruga-gun Educational Society, Kyoto-fu), Ikaruga-gun shi (A descriptive geography of Ikaruga-gun), Ayabe, Kyoto-fu Ikaruga-gun Kyoikukai, 1926, 536 pp. Ikaruga-gun is in the northwestern part of Kyoto Prefecture, and the silk reeling industry is prosperous here. The first chapter is regional geography in which the physical geography of this gun is explained with short references to population. Following are chapters on history, finance, shrines and temples, education, religion, industry, traffic, local customs, natural disasters, etc. 1338. Kyoto-fu Kii-gun-yakusho /V l t (Kii-gun Office, Kyoto Prefecture), Kyoto-fu Kii-gun shi X (A descriptive geography of Kii-gun, Kyoto Prefecture), Fushimi, Kyoto-fu Kii-gun-yakusho, 1915, 344 pp., 2 illus. Kii-gun was in the southern part of Kyoto Prefecture, and is now a part of Kyoto City, comprising Fushimi-ku. Part one consists of a description of the whole gun, and Part two is that of towns and villages. Part two is more emphasized. This work is strongly historical and there are few comments of geographical interest. 1339. Kyoto-fu Kitakuwada-gun-yakusho 4%f,2R L#t f [ (Kitakuwada-gun Office, Kyoto Prefecture), Kurio, Kyoto-fu Kitakuwada-gun-yakusho, 1923, 733 pp., illus. Part one consists of geography, including landforms, climate, soils, population, industries, administration, etc. Part two consists of tables and statistics. Parts three to five are devoted to history, of which Part three is the history of towns and villages. Part four is a description of themain historical events related to this district. Part five contains historical materials and old documents. 1340. Kyoto-fu Kumano-gun-yakusho Dft f If o ~1 (Kumano-gun Office, Kyoto Prefecture), Kyoto-fu Kumano-gun shi tf (A descriptive geography of Kumano-gun, Kyoto Prefecture), Kumihama, K'uman6-gun-yakusho, 1923, 712 pp., illus. Kumano-gun is located in the northwestern corner of Kyoto Prefecture. Part one deals with the whole gun, and Part two the towns and villages. The contents are strongly historical. Articles in Part two are written by oaza, giving this book value as a gazetteer. Inserted are a map of the distribution of archeological sites and a photo of Kumihana Bay in the late Tokugawa period. 1341. Kyoto-fu Kyoikukai Kasa-gun Bukai /4f A A hlAv J /t S (Kasa-gun Branch of Kyoto Prefecture Educational Society), Kasa-gun shi DlJA Ad i (A descriptive geography of Kasa-gun), Maizuru, Kyoto-fu Ky5ikukai Kasa-gun Bukai, 1925, 260 pp., illus. Kasa-gun is located in the northern part of Kyoto Prefecture. 200 pages are devoted to history. Geographical descriptions are simple. The main center, Maizuru, is explained with a map of the city. Many photos and tables. 1342. Kyoto-fu Kyoikukai Minamikuwada-gun Bukai T, 7 4A & (Minamikuwada-gun Branch of Kyoto Prefecture Educational Society), Minamikuwada-gun shi t (A descriptive geography of Minamikuwada-gun), Kameoka, Kyoto-fu Kyolkukai Minamikuwada-gun Bukai, 1924, 349 pp., illus. Minamikuwada-gun is located in the southern part of Kyoto Prefecture. Although there is a brief ex