Japanese literature of the Shōwa period : a guide to Japanese reference and research materials
Yamagiwa, Joseph K. (Joseph Koshimi), 1906-

Frontmatter


pp. N/A

Page  I CENTER FOR JAPANESE STUDIES BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SERIES NUMBER 8 JAPANESE LITERATURE OF THE SHOWA PERIOD: A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS

Page  II Composition and Lithoprinted by BRAUN-BRUMFIELD, Inc. Ann Arbor, Michigan

Page  III JAPANESE LITERATURE OF THE SHOWA PERIOD: A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Joseph K. Yamagiwa ANN ARBOR * THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PRESS * 1959 Published for The Center for Japanese Studies

Page  IV Copyright ( 1959 hv The University of Michigan Published in the United States of America by The University of Michigan Press and simultaneously in Toronto, Canada, by Ambassador Books, Ltd. Manufactured in the United States of America

Editor's Foreword on the Bibliographical Series


pp. v-vi

Page  V EDITOR'S FOREWORD ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SERIES The Bibliographical Series of the Center for Japanese Studies has for its main purpose the listing and evaluating of the major Japanese works pertaining to the humanities and social sciences, particularly as they deal with Japan and the areas immediately adjacent to Japan. It is assumed that Western materials pertaining to Japan are adequately covered in the bibliographies of Pages, von Wenckstern, Nachod, Praesent-Haenisch, Pritchard, Gaskill, the annual bibliographies of the Association for Asian Studies (formerly the Far Eastern Association), etc., and that Western specialists in the several fields will know how to get at the Western materials in their respective fields. The bibliographies in the present series are intended to serve as an introduction to the native research materials in the several disciplines and hence as an aid to research for teachers and students. In each case an attempt has been made to describe or to evaluate each work that is listed, or at least to justify the inclusion of each item. Scholars and librarians will perhaps find that the several bibliographies in this series will serve as useful guides to buying programs which they may wish to initiate. The bibliographies are selective. Each item listed is believed to be of some value or interest to the scholarly user. In those cases in which it has been impossible to examine a book or article of known value, it still is included. A book or article is thus included if it is written by a competent scholar, if it is included in a bibliography which is itself competently compiled, if it appears to treat its subject matter in detail and with an approach to completeness, if it is frequently quoted, if it is well reviewed, or if it is referred to as being authoritative. Wherever possible, notes as to why an item seems to be of value have been given. The scope of each bibliography is defined by the compiler or compilers in their introductions, but in general each of the bibliographies lists (a) important source materials, and (b) secondary sources dating from a fixed date in the recent past, as, for instance, the Meiji Restoration, 1900, 1910, etc. Although the materials in most cases deal with the Japanese islands, each compiler has set the limits of the geographical area which his materials cover. In certain cases expansion into areas that lie outside Japan appears to be justified by the fact that Japanese research has been the dominant research for these areas. Hence one or more of the bibliographies will cover Japanese materials on Formosa, Korea, Manchuria, and the Mandated Islands. The format is uniform within each volume. In general the name of each author or compiler is given both in romanization and characters. The surnames are given first and the given names next, as the practice is in Japan. The names of corporate authors, such as government offices, are given in romanization and characters; they are then translated. The title of each book or article is given in romanization and characters; it is then translated. The place of publication and the name of the publisher are given in romanization alone, but a separate listing within each bibliography gathers together the names of the publishers, with the characters used in writing their names. This listing is found as an appendix in each volume. 1. Long a, o, and u are indicated by macrons over the vowels. 2. Only the first letters of initial words and proper nouns are capitalized. 3. In the bibliographical data, the compilers have given both the edition and the printing of the work cited. Significant textual variations sometimes occur between different printings of the same edition of a given work. 4. When dealing with an item composed of one volume, complete pagination is generally given for that volume, including all separately paged sections. If any title is in more than one volume, only the total number of volumes is given, without paging. 5. In the event that the item cited happens to be part of a series or collection, the compilers have given in brackets introduced by an equals sign the title, characters, and translated title of that series or collection and the number of the volume concerned. 6. Works such as encyclopedias, dictionaries, yearbooks, series, and collections are cited by title; the name of the editor or compiler, in romanization and characters, is usually given after the title. 7. In the case of articles found in journals, quotation marks surround the Japanese title, characters, and translated title. 8. Abbreviations are explained in lists, if necessary. 9. If any volume of a journal is continuously paged, number and month may be omitted. If it has both continuous volume pagination and separate pagination for each issue, only the volume, year, and the continuous volume pagination may be given. If more than one volume appears in any single year, and each is separately and continuously paged, the procedure has been to give the volume, inclusive months of the issues in the volume, year, and continuous volume pagination (the last where easilyascertainable). 10. If an article comprises a chapter or a section of a book which is a compilation of articles by a number of authors, this fact is shown by inserting the word "in" between the title of the article and the compilation in which it is found. Following the "in," a complete citation of the book in question is given. 11. All descriptions, evaluations, criticisms, and comments pertaining to a volume or article follow the citations in separate, indented paragraphs. 12. A list of the standard professional journals is given whenever found to be convenient. v

Page  VI These remarks revise in a few particulars the Editor's Foreword appearing in numbers 1-6 of the present Bibliographical Series. When the Series was begun in 1950, it was hoped to indicate for each of the items listed in each bibliography, the American libraries which own it. However, Far Eastern libraries in the United States have recently made such substantial additions to their Japanese collections that it is no longer possible or necessary to show the location of each item. The key libraries today possess union catalogues that indicate where particular volumes may be found. Joseph K. Yamagiwa vi

Author's Introduction


pp. vii-x

Page  VII AUTHOR'S INTRODUCTION The present volume is a guide to Japanese literature of the period 1926 to date. This volume is therefore a guide to the literature of the Showa era, which began when the present Japanese emperor ascended to his throne upon the death of his father, Emperor Taisho. The years that have since passed include some of the most exciting times of Japanese history. Following the First World War, liberal, progressive, and even radical ideas flourished in Japan. But as the military, supported by the great financial, industrial, and mercantile combines later condemned as zaibatsu, began to gain ascendancy, literature as well as politics became more and more nationalistic. In the words of liberal critics, it fell into a "dark ravine," and it was only in the first years after World War II that it began once more to show its former vitality and diversity. The first chapter of this work consists of a brief history of twentieth-century Japanese literature, covering in turn the major schools, coteries, and movements associated with the development of the several literary genres, namely, fiction, drama, the shi or long poem, tanka or 31-syllable poem, and haiku or 17-syllable poem. Although literary criticsm might have been separately treated, it seemed easier to include it with the genres with which it was concerned. The theorists of fiction are therefore mentioned in connection with the genres and the schools on which they write, either in sympathy or in opposition. Similarly, the writers on poetry are mentioned in connection with the poetic forms and movements which they discuss. Often it was the poets themselves who most eloquently set forth their own poetics. Chapter one therefore indicates the variety of movements, ideological, artistic, or merely popularizing, which has moved Japanese literature since the turn of the century, and names the authors associated with these movements. Chapter two is an annotated listing of the basic reference works. These include bibliographies; publishers' annuals, periodical indices of new publications, yearbooks, and handbooks; dictionaries and encyclopedias; histories, studies, and essay series; chronological tables; and journals. Together these works show the variety of work on Sh6wa literature done by Japanese students. Chapter three consists of a bibliography of Showa literature, as written by the many authors who have received something more than passing attention in the works listed in chapter two, and chapter four is a listing of anthologies and of the authors of the Sh6wa era represented in these anthologies. Two appendices, consisting of a list of publishers and an index of authors, complete the volume. The index of authors and editors, it is hoped, will be of particular value in referring to those literary movements described in chapter one with which the writers are specifically related, those reference works in chapter two in which they figure as author, editor, contributor, or subject; those works, creative or critical, listed under their names in chapter three; and those anthologies, analyzed in chapter four, in which at least a portion of their works is reprinted. The index of authors and editors, therefore, will assist the user of this volume in arriving at an estimate of the particular role, large or small, which a particular writer has played in contemporary Japanese literature. Something of the history and bibliography of Showa literature is already known in the West, through the writings of devoted students and translators. The Bibliographie de la litterature japonaise contemporaine, published by Georges Bonneau as volume 9, numbers 1-4, of the Bulletin de la Maison Franco-Japonaise, Paris, Paul Geuthner, 1938, is of particular importance to the present work because it covers the bibliography of Japanese literature from the Meiji Restoration of 1868, which is frequently taken as the starting point for discussions of Japan's modernization, to 1936. For the history of modern Japanese literature, Bonneau's work becomes a treasure-house of information. Its introduction describes the materials used by the author in compiling his bibliography; the critical, philosophical, and historical works published in Japan which serve to paint in the background of the literature; the translations into Japanese through which the influence of Western literature came in; and the classification of Japanese fiction, poetry, and drama in terms of the degree of affinity they show, on the one hand, to tradition, and on the other, to a spirit of innovation and even of experimentation. The main body of the Bonneau bibliography lists the writings of 451 authors. Under each author's name is given his date and place of birth, together with the death date wherever the author is no longer living, and, next, the writings themselves under such categories as fiction (roman), drama (theatre), poetry (poesie), essay (essai), criticism (critique), and collections (recueils d'ensemble). The arrangement throughout is eminently satisfactory, and Western students owe greatly to Bonneau's work. The latest entries in the Bonneau bibliography come from the year 1936. The present bibliography therefore overlaps for the first ten or eleven years of its coverage with the work by Bonneau. This duplication, however, appears to be justified on several counts. The Bonneau bibliography includes 3507 items taken from a span of about 70 years. Virtually the same number of items are found in the present bibliography, but taken from a period of 30 years. The Bonneau bibliography is perhaps more selective; but it may also have missed some important items published during the last years of its coverage when no consensus had as yet been reached concerning the ultimate worth of a particular literary work. Bonneau was well aware of the existence in Japan of a literature of social criticism, for one of the chapters in his introduction has to do with "la litterature sociale." Living in Japan, as he did, in the latter thirties, when militarism was already in the saddle, he may not have recognized with equal perspicuity the volume of writings which represented a renunciation of liberal, progressive, and radical views and an acceptance of more conservative and even nationalistic ideas. The problem, whether a particular recent piece of writing merits inclusion in a bibliography, has puzzled the present compiler too. To be on the safe side, the principle has been followed of including every title given some degree of attention beyond the mere mentioning in the many Japanese reference works that have been laid under contribution. Thus almost all of the items listed in the chronological tables given as appendices to various treatments of modern Japanese literature are recorded in the present bibliography, along with the titles to which vii

Page  VIII special treatment is given under the respective authors in various dictionaries of Japanese literature. The policy has been to err on the side of inclusiveness, and to escape if possible the charge of over-selectiveness. Actually, as the number of entries will show, one of the features of Showa literature is its almost staggering voluminousness, The books and other sources first scanned at the University of Michigan in compiling this bibliography are listed at the end of this Introduction. The heavy burden of noting on cards the thousands of entries that have gone into this volume was accomplished by Mrs. Noriko Kakiuchi, who worked with great ardor and high efficiency. Mrs. Hiroko Quackenbush too helped in the initial gathering of titles. Taken to Japan in the summer of 1957, the first listing of titles received a thorough scrutiny by Professor Seiichi Yoshida, acknowledged authority in the field of modern Japanese literature, who swiftly accorded to the present writer his most considerate counsel and guidance. Under Professor Yoshida's direction, his younger colleagues and graduate students at Tokyo University undertook the important task of providing data on the main trends of Showa drama and poetry, analyzing the contents of various anthologies, journals, and books relating to Showa literature, and revising in particular the entries in this bibliography in the field of poetry. Specifically, Mr. Megumu Maeda provided materials on the history of drama in the Sh6wa period, Mr. Masatoshi Kawamura materials on the history of the shi or long poem, tanka, and haiku in Showa times, Mr. Takashi Nomura the analyses of scholarly works pertaining to Showa literature, Mr. Uchida and Mr. Yukio Miyoshi the analyses of the contents of anthologies, and Mr. Uchida, Mr. Maeda, Mr. Yasuhiko Tsukamoto, and Mr. Akira Yamada the analyses of journals. Mr. Kawamura and Mr. Masaru Sato also contributed many suggestions on the final choices of items to be entered in chapter three. Mr. Yoshiki Hoshi no and Miss Haruko Kishimoto provided translations for some of the foregoing materials, working especially hard on the problem of reading properly the various personal names. Mr. Sadayoshi Tanabe's staff at the Tokyo Shisei Chosakai provided a mass of bibliographical information. Mr. Tanabe himse has given me a new appreciation. Mr. himslf hs giv m w pprcitio of his deep concern with cooperative scholarly activity between students who happen to reside on opposite sides of the Pacific. To each of these persons I owe a deep debt of gratitude for their thoughtful, efficient, and courteous collaboration. I also have the very pleasurable duty of making my acknowledgments to the various agencies and persons who have made the prosecution of this work possible. To the Center for Japanese Studies of the University of Michigan I am indebted for a grant covering research assistance both in the United States and Japan. To the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies at the University of Michigan I am grateful for the provision of travel funds to Japan. From the General Library of the University of Michigan I ha ived a grant permitting the purchase of a collection of books in the field of modern Japanese literature which are now found on the shelves of the General Library's Far Eastern Collection. I should like to acknowledge my special thanks to Professor John W. Hall, Director of the Center for Japanese Studies, and to the Executive Committee and staff of the Center for continued encouragement in compiling this volume. This work owes heavily to various Japanese publications. The basic printed sources are the following: 1. Hisamatsu Sen'ichi t $ - and Yoshida Seiichi ed., Kindai Nihon bungaku jiten AK tex Jiten -~ (Dictionary of modern Japanese literature), T5kyo, Tokyodo, 1954. This work was used as a fundamental source. The single best one-volume dictionary of modern Japanese literature, it is full of information on authors, movements, journals, and representative works. The coverage is for Meiji, Taisho, and Showa literature. A good bibliography of writings on this literature is included. The chronological table refers to authors only by their given names, and publishers' names are not mentioned in the case of books. However, the names of the magazines are always given in connection with the magazines are always given in connectioncles and creative works that appeared in them. The listing of literary events too is very useful. Z Kataoka Yoshikazu W - and Nakajima Kenzo t}7 A, the editorial supervisors, Bungaku gojunen )c, ' z- t - (Fifty years of literature), Tokyo, Jiji Tsuishinsha, 1955. This work too was used as a basic source. The chronological table lists authors by surnames. Many translations into Japanese are listed. Unfortunately, the table does not mention the names of the magazines which printed the listed articles and creative works. Nor are the publishers given, and the genres to which the titles belong are not shown. 3. Fujimura Tsukuru h t 1 and Nishio Minoru 7 /7 Xs, the editorial supervisors, Nihon bungakushi jiten iQ ba-f- -^ (Dictionary of the history of Japanese literature), Tokyo, Nihon Hyoron Shinsha, 1954. The chronological table names authors only by their given names and includes only a few translations into Japanese. However, the genres to which particular works belong are clearly shown, and the section on poetry is strong. Social and political events are stated in great detail. viii

Page  IX 4. Kindai Bungakusha i/- AW'_ -._ U, ed., Gendai Nihon bungaku jiten A, s^ j u. (Dictionary of contemporary Japanese literature), Toky6, Kawade Shobo, 1951. This volume was the source for the titles of a large number of works. A certain tendentiousness is evident in favor of leftist authors and journals. 5. Fujimura Tsukuru ~ tit 4, ed., Nihon bungaku daijiten: bekkan aElt /f ]+. '1 / (Dictionary of Japanese literature; supplementary volume), Toky6, Shinchosha, 1952. This volume contains a number of articles providing extensive information on Showa literature. The significant literary works mentioned in these articles are included in the present work. The articles include: (a) "Showa no engeki zasshi V, t a) -Al 1 | PA (Magazines of drama during the Showa period)," p. 140. (b) "Sh6wa no gaikoku bungaku kenkyu q - e t (Studies in foreign literature during the Showa period)," pp. 142-150. (c) "Showa no kadan ~ ^ /}' (The tanka circles of the Sh6wa period)," pp. 151-152. (d) "Showa no kiroku bungaku 9 Ad 6 F ~r/i (Documentary literature during the Showa period)," pp. 152 -153. (e) "Sh6wa no shidan *itz 69 i (The poetical circles of the Sh6wa period)," pp. 162-165. (f) "Sh6wa no joryi bungaku j e} 0,i_ (Literature by women during the Showa period)," pp. 168-169. (g) "Sh6wa no zuihitsu bungaku g z 4 o j (Miscellanies of the Showa period)," pp. 169-172. (h) "Showa no sengo bungaku g ou 0 It_+ (The post-war literature of the Sh6wa period)," pp. 174-179. (i) "Sh6wa no taishi bungaku, Ik (Popular literature during the Showa period)," pp. 179-181. (j) "Showa no donin zasshi f -~ ( /. (Literary coterie magazines during the Showa period)," pp. 181-183. (k) "Showa no nomin bungaku % 2 e V ) (Farmer literature during the Showa period)," pp. 184-185. (1) "Sh6wa no haidan 6 ) /1 rjc (The haiku circles of the Shbwa period)," pp. 185-186. (m) "Showa no hihy6 bungaku ~ 7 I Jt q x i (Literary criticism during the Showa period)," pp. 188-190. (n) "Showa no bungaku ^Sq ^ e (ShOwa literature)," pp. 190-193. (o) "Showa no besuto sera shosetsu ~ a v C X- 7- /,J A (Best-seller novels during the Sh6wa period)," pp. 195-196. 6. Ara Masahito, -J- A-, ed., Showa bungaku juniko r I A - +- (Twelve lectures on Sh6wa literature), Tokyo, Kaizosha, 1950. This work was used to check dates of publication and the names of publishers. Descriptions of literary events were provided in great detail. This was the only book which included to any extent the works of Korean writers published in Japanese in Japan. The part on poetry was especially helpful. 7. Hisamatsu Sen'ichi z. to --, editorial supervisor, Gaisetsu Nihon gendai bungakushi.,t a ~-S4 L^ (A general statement on Japanese contemporary literature), Tokyo, Hanawa Shobo, 1950. The several fields were covered by responsible authors, such as Ara Masahito, Fukuda Tsuneari, and Nakamura Mitsuo. The part on criticism was especially useful. 8. Ito Sei If T k., Nihon no bungaku q > t: (The literature of Japan), Tokyo, Mainichi Shimbunsha, 1951. The part on criticism yielded many titles. The section entitled "Sengo no bungaku +X it 6 (Postwar literature)" was the source for a number of titles in dramatic and critical literature not referred to in other books. Used to check dates and places of publication, publishers' names, the readings of authors' names, and as sources for the anthologies listed in the present volume were: 9. Nihon Kindai Bungaku Kenkyukai e - k 4 < 4t f ~ (Society for the Study of Modern Japanese Literature), ed., Gendai Nihon shosetsu taikei - 4, e $ /, K 7, (An anthology of contemporary Japanese fiction), Tokyo, Kawade Shobo, 1951-1952, introductory volume+60 volumes+4 supplementary volumes. 10. Kadokawa Shoten i "| t 1, ed., Showa bungaku zenshiu M /t /r 4. (An anthology of Sh5wa literature), Toky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1952-1955, 58 plus 2 supplementary volumes. 11. Kaiz6sha JL d_ -~, ed., Shin-Nihon bungaku zenshii -r s 4! " /,t (An anthology of new Japanese literature), T6ky6, Kaizosha, 1939-1942, 26v. 12. Nakano Shigeharu -e " m and others, ed., Gendaishi taikei TJ 4't I ~: (An anthology of the contemporary long poem), T6kyo, Kawade Shobo, 1950-1951. 13. Nihon Bungeika Kyokai e, a t |t t4 / (Association of Japanese Literary Men), ed., Bungei nenkan t 14(Literary yearbook), 1949-1956 editions, Toky6, Shinch6sha, 1949-1956. 14. Nihon Chosakken Kyogikai qa - X - ~ 'e 1 / (Japan Copyright Council), ed., Bunka jimmeiroku x/, L/,4~l(Who's who in Japanese culture), 1953-1955 editions. ix

Page  X 15. Shuppan Nydsusha ~1, -; 74~~, ed., Shuppan nenkan J' ~1.AS (Yearbook of publications), 1951-1956 editions, T~ky6, Shuppan Nyfisusha, 1952-1957. 16. T6ky~d6 ~. -7. 41, ed., Shuppan nenkan 11O - ~ (Yabo o ulcain) 1932-1939, 1941 editions. J. K~ Y. x

Page  XI TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Editor's Foreword...................................... v Introduction......................................... vii Entries I. AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE A. FICTION 1. Introduction.............................. I 1 2. Naturalism (Shizenshugi)........................ 2 1 3. First-person Fiction (Watakushi-sh6setsu, shish6setsu) and the Fiction of Mental Life (Shinkyo-sh5setsu).................... 3 2 4. Neo-romanticism (Shin-romanshugi)................... 4 2 a. The Aesthetic School (Tambiha) b. The Leisure School (Yoyuha) c. The White Birch School (Shirakabaha) 5. The Neo-realist School (Shin-genjitsuha)................. 5 4 6. Proletarian Fiction and its Offshoots.................. 6 4 a. Proletarian Fiction b. Agriculturalist Literature (N6min bungaku) c. The Literature of Conversion to Orthodox Thinking (Tenk6 bungaku) 7. The Artistic Opposition to Proletarian Literature and to the Rising Tide of Nationalism.......................... 7 6 a. The Neo-impressionist School (Shin-kankakuha) b. The Newly Rising Aesthetic School (Shink6 Geijutsuha) c. The Neo-psychological School (Shin-shinrishugiha) d. The Neo-socialist School (Shin-shakaiha) e. Actionism(Kod6shugi) f. The Literary-Liberal Opposition to Authoritarianism in the Journals Bungakkai (The Literary World) and Jimmin bunko (People's Library)......................... 8. The Literature of Nationalism...................... 8 7 a. The Japanese Romantic School (Nihon R6manha) b. War Literature (Sens6 bungaku) 9. The Literature of Non-conformance to Nationalism during World War II. 9 8 a. The Literature of Decadence b. The Artistic Resistance to Nationalism 10. The Postwar Revival of the Older Non-proletarian Writers........ 10 8 11. The Revival of Proletarian Literature.................. 11 9 12. Related Ideological Trends....................... 12 9 a. The Academic Liberals b. The Modern Literature (Kindai Bungaku) Group 13. Popular Literature (Taishu bungaku)................... 13 10 a. Adventure Stories b. "Mid-way" Fiction (Chiikan Sh6setsu) c. The Humorous Story (Kokkei Shosetsu) d. Detective Fiction (Tantei Sh6setsu) e. The Fleshly School (Nikutaiha) f. The New School of Fiction (Shin-gisakuha) B. THE DRAMA 14. The Traditional Forms of Drama: N6, Kabuki, and Shimpa....... 14 11 15. The Beginnings of Modern Drama................... 15 12 16. The Tsukiji Little Theatre (Tsukiji Sh6gekij6).............. 16 12 17. Proletarian Drama........................... 17 13 18. The Drama-writing School (Gekisakuha).................. 18 13 19. The Drama Prior to World War II................... 19 14 20. Drama during World War II and in the Postwar Era........... 20 15 C. THE SHI OR LONG POEM 21. The Background............................ 21 16 a. The Shintaishish6 (Selection of Peoms of New Form) b. The Pseudo-classical School (Gikoha) 22. The Romantic Movement........................ 22 17 23. The Naturalist School......................... 23 17 24. The Decadents............................. 24 17 25. The Idealists...................... 25 17 26. Intellectualist Poetry.......................... 26 17 xi

Page  XII Entries Page 27. The Older Poets in the Early Sh6wa Era................ 27 18 28. Dadaism and Similar Influences from the West............. 28 18 29. Proletarian Poetry........................ 29 18 30. The Surrealist Movement and the Magazine Shi to Shiron (The Long Poem and Poetics)........................ 30 19 31. The Long Poem in the Thirties................... 31 19 32. The Long Poem in the Postwar Era.................. 32 20 D. THE TANKA 33. The Tanka in the Early Meiji Era................... 33 21 34. The Asakasha (Light Fragrance Society) and Chikuhakukai (Bamboo and Oak Society)......................... 34 21 35. The Myojo (Bright Star) School..................... 35 21 36. The Araragi School in its Earliest Years................ 36 22 37. Naturalistic Tanka........................... 37 22 38. Decadent Trends........................... 38 22 39. The Araragi School as the Dominant School of the Tanka........ 39 22 40. Tanka in the Spoken Language (Kogoka)................. 40 22 41. The Independents........................... 41 23 42. Further Developments in Tanka in the Spoken Language......... 42 23 43. Proletarian Tanka........................... 43 44. Araragi and Tama.......................... 44 23 45. The Tanka in World War II...................... 45 24 46. The Tanka in the Postwar Era..................... 46 24 E. THE HAIKU 47. The Haiku in the Early Meiji Era................... 47 25 48. The Japan School (Nihonha)....................... 48 25 49. The Lesser Rivals of the Japan School................. 49 26 50. The New Tendency Haiku (Shin-keiko-ku)................ 50 26 51. The Hototogisu School in the Taish5 Era................ 51 27 52. Deviant Tendencies.......................... 52 27 53. Idealism............................... 53 27 54. The Haiku at the End of the Taisho Era................ 54 27 55. The Hototogisu School in the Showa Era................. 55 28 56. Proletarian Haiku........................... 56 28 57. The Newly Rising Haiku (Shinko Haiku) Movement........ 57 29 58. The Haiku during World War II..................... 58 29 59. The Haiku after World War II..................... 59 30 II. THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS A. BIBLIOGRAPHIES............................. 60-66 31 B. PUBLISHERS' ANNUALS, PUBLISHERS' NEWS, YEARBOOKS, AND HANDBOOKS............................... 67-86 32 C. DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS................... 87-122 35 D. HISTORIES, STUDIES, AND ESSAY SERIES................ 123-235 41 E. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES....................... 236-240 56 F. JOURNALS............................... 241-383 57 III. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE................. 384-1150 82 IV. ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE................. 1151-1248 162 APPENDIX I: List of Publishers......................... 190 APPENDIX II: Index of Authors and Editors................... 194 xii

An Outline History of Twentieth Century Japanese Literatue and Fiction


pp. 1-30

Page  1 CHAPTER ONE AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE A. FICTION 1. Introduction Many Japanese authors seek simply to entertain, and do not strive for more than a general readability. Others tend to group themselves into schools which gravitate around one or more leaders, proclaim a set of ideals, either artistic or ideological, and often publish their writings in special coterie magazines. It also seems typical of a Japanese writer to follow basically the same set of principles, artistic or ideological, with which he started his literary career. Thus Tanizaki Jun'ichiro's latest works, like Sasameyuki (The delicate snow), Shosho Shigemoto no haha (The mother of Lesser Commander Shigemoto), and even Kagi (The key), a novel widely discussed for its theme of diminishing sexual vitality on the part of an aging hero, show a concern with literary art reminiscent of his very earliest works which too exhibit an art for art's sake attitude. Miyamoto Yuriko was at first inspired by the idealistic Shirakaba or White Birch School. She then went to Marxism but was wooed back toward orthodoxy in the days before and during World War II. Following the war she once more began to write under the banner of humanitarian and proletarian literature. Through these changes, however, an idealistic strain runs through her writings. This is not to say that a Japanese author will always follow the same stylistic and rhetorical qualities and the identical complex of ideas that he has once adopted. Shimazaki Toson, who was at first a naturalist, became attracted to romanticism before returning to a more realistic vein. Kikuchi Kan, the leader of the Neo-realist movement during World War I, eventually became a writer of popular fiction, to which Yokomitsu Riichi, first classed as a Neo-impressionist, also retreated. The same literary work may in fact be viewed for its artistic qualities, its ideology, and the amount of success it achieves simply for its readability. We should not wish, therefore, to say that each author's work is marked by a strict and persistent adherence, throughout his career, to the tenets of any school of which he was once a member. Rather, if his name is mentioned under any of the groupings that follow, it is to be taken that his work followed the basic aims of that school at the time when it was prominently identified on the Japanese literary scene. The same author's name may thus be found under more than one school. When two or more of these schools are found to agree in their basic characteristics, we should not be surprised if a particular author is mentioned under each of them. To be sure, some of the schools have a temporary, faddistic aspect to them, but the ties which bind Japanese writers into more or less congenial fraternities repeat in the world of literature the associations found elsewhere in Japanese society, whether they be schools, banks, textile firms, hospitals, government offices, or political parties. An important part of Showa literature is written by authors who gained their first fame in the earlier years of the century. Continuing to write to the present day are a number of writers who were involved in the basic conflict that had developed in literature, between a naturalistic view of life on the one hand and an idealistic or romantic view on the other. The opposition between these points of view is, in fact, basic to literature from the time of the Russo-Japanese War, fought in 1904-05, up to the great earthquake of the Tokyo-Yokohama area in 1923. The opposition was continued between the writers of proletarian literature and the authors to whom the artistic values of literature seemed more important, but with the rise of nationalism in the thirties both were silenced and literature like the nation went to war. It is in the postwar era that a rich literature based on a variety of ideological and aesthetic concepts is being revived. 2. Naturalism (Shizenshugi E.*- E X ) At the beginning of the twentieth century one group of writers was strongly influenced by French naturalism. Although their European models had enjoyed their first popularity in Europe at least thirty years before, the writers of Japan now agreed that the methods of science and positivism should be employed in studying man. Like Zola and de Maupassant they believed that a man's personality was related to his physiology. With Darwin they agreed that the character of living beings was governed by heredity and environment. The naturalists stood against the shallow idealisms of romantic literature and stated very frankly that man was a member of the animal kingdom. On the other hand, the romanticists who wrote at the end of the nineteenth century in the journal Bungakkai (Literary world) also contributed to the rise of naturalism by searching into the truths of the individuality and by rejecting the ideals and formal morality of earlier times. Shimazaki Toson, Tayama Katai, and the critic Kitamura Tokoku thus anticipated the naturalists. The naturalist movement also received part of its impetus from the interest in native things and values that came after the heady victory won in the Russo-Japanese War. The critics Uchida Roan and Hasegawa Tenkei praised Zola. Among the first examples of naturalistic writing was Hatsusugata (First rendezvous), written by Kosugi Tengai in 1900. This work was a copy of Zola's Nana; the heroine, a chanter in the kiyomoto style, is faithless to her lover, though not through her own volition. Nagai Kafui in Jigoku no hana (Flowers of hell), written in 1902, dealt with the distressing experiences encountered by a girl of pure feeling who becomes the governess in a rich man's family. In Hakai (The breaking of the pledge), published in 1906, Shimazaki was a naturalist

Page  2 2 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS dealing with a social problem, that of the parish eta class. But Tayama in Futon (The quilts), written in 1907, told the story of a writer, Tayama himself, who falls in love with a girl disciple and sends her back to her home in the country when she becomes attracted to another man. After her departure the author throws himself on her bedding in an excess of mortification and sexual desire. Following Tayama's example many of the naturalists began to write confessional literature devoid of the social significance found in the works of their master, Zola. Some, like Masamune Hakuch6, were despairing nihilists. Others like Iwano Homei were more optimistically inclined. The roster of naturalist writers must also include Oguri Fiuy, Shimamura Hogetsu, Chikamatsu Shuk, Mayama Seika, Tokuda Shuisei, and Kunikida Doppo. Chikamatsu, Tayama, Tokuda, Shimazaki, Mayama, and Nagai survived to write in the Showa era. Starting later, that is, in the Taisho era (1912-1926), were Hirotsu Kazuo, Tanizaki Seiji, Kasai Zenzo, and Soma Taiz6, who all contributed to the journal Kiseki (Miracle). These authors were referred to as the Waseda realists, from their association as students at Waseda University. Uno Koji also became known as a naturalist writer about the time of World War I, and in the Showa era came Inoue Tomoichir6, Miyauchi Kan'ya, Yagi Gitoku, and Hojo Makoto. Waseda bungaku (Waseda literature) and Bunsho sekai (The world of writing), both begun in 1906, were early journals of the naturalist movement. These were followed by Shumi (Taste). These magazines were opposed by Mita bungaku (Mita literature), published by a group of writers educated at Keio University who took an art-above-all attitude. In addition to Uchida and Hasegawa, the naturalist critics included Katagami Noburu, Soma Gyofa, Nakamura Seiko, Maeda Akira, and Homma Hisao. 3. First-person Fiction (Watakushi-shosetsu, shish6setsu 4X AJ,;t ) and the Fiction of Mental Life (Shinky6 -shosetsu -,t /), t ) Some of the naturalists began to ask themselves what it was that they could best write about. The answer seemed to lie in autobiographical materials which would describe the happenings and reflections of a man's daily life. The romantic emphasis on the ego also helped to create a confessional type of literature describing the author's own experiences. The result was a kind of fiction which has come to be known as watakushi-sh6setsu or shishosetsu, which are terms that may be rendered "first person fiction" and recall the Ich Roman in Germany. Equally introspective is the shinky6-sh6setsu or fiction of mental life. First-person fiction and the fiction of mental life were also influenced by the emphasis given to the ego in the Shirakaba or White Birch School. Limited in their scope since their authors are literary men writing chiefly about themselves, they left untouched the larger social scene. Criticism and a spirit of reformation are missing, and naturalism becomes mainly a means of representation. Attacled with great vigor by critics like Nakamura Murao, Ikuta Ch6ok, Hirabayashi Hatsunosuke, Sato Haruo, and Nakamura Mitsuo who look for a more creative and more socially significant honkaku-sh6setsu or real novel, first person fiction has also had its defenders in writer-critics like Kume Masao who say that its value lies in the emphasis it gives to unusual awarenesses, often of danger to human existence, which only sensitive literary men may discover and express, Tayama Katai, Tokuda Shulsei, and Kasai Zenzo, who were naturalists, and Mushakoji Saneatsu, who was a member of the Shirakaba or White Birch School, anticipated the writers of first-person fiction. Among its innovators were Chikamatsu Shuk6 and Kimura S6ta. These authors published Giwaku (Suspicion) and Ken'in (Pulling), respectively, in 1913. Kamura Isota too belongs to this group, while Shiga Naoya, associated with the Shirakaba school in his earlier years, turned to the fiction of mental life. In general, the writers of firstperson fiction take a pessimistic view of life, and the writers of the fiction of mental life, more apt, like Shiga, to be influenced by such schools as the Shirakaba, seek a harmonizing between their literary lives and the claims of society. To the former belong Kasai, Kamura, Dazai Osamu, Tanaka Hidemitsu, and Kawasaki Ch6tar6, and to the latter Shiga, Takii KOsaku, Ozaki Kazuo, Kajii Motojir6, Tonomura Shigeru, and Ishizuka Tomoji. Midway between the two are Kambayashi Akatsuki and Amino Kiku. 4. Neo-romanticism (Shin-r5manshugi f't j'- _ A, ) The challenge hurled by the naturalist writers was met by a flurry of activity on the part of writers belonging to various romantic schools. In general these "neo-romantic" writers were much more hopeful in their general outlook than their predecessors in Japanese literature of the nineteenth century. They wanted to find strong stimuli in a vigorous and lively existence. They too were participants in the exuberance built up in Japan after her victories over China and Russia, annexation of Korea, and participation on the winning side in World War I. a. The Aesthetic School (Tambiha W t -i ) One of the neo-romantic groups was named the Tambiha or Aesthetic School because it believed in an artfor-art's sake philosophy. The senses and artistic taste were centrally important to these authors. They reveled in emotion. Influenced by the work of such Europeans as Oscar Wilde, Arthur Symons, Walter Pater, Aubrey Vincent Beardsley, James A. M. Whistler, Charles Pierre Baudelaire, Maurice Maeterlinck, Hugo von Hofmannstahl, and Mme. de Stael,this school achieved a peak of popularity from about 1912 to 1914. The emphasis in Japan was on aestheticism, although decadence, hedonism, and a general fin de siecle sentiment also were discernible. The name Neo-romantic, capitalized, seems appropriate because it came after the earlier romantic efforts found in the journal Bungakkai (Literary world) at the end of the nineteenth century, and in the poetic magazine Myojo (Bright star), published at the beginning of the twentieth. The principal Neo-romantic journals were Subaru (The Pleiades), Zamboa, named after the plant, the Pride of India, and Okuj5 teien

Page  3 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE 3 (Rooftop garden). Mita bungaku (Mita literature), published at Kei6 University under the editorship of Nagai Kafuf and Sawaki Kozue, was considered to be the rival of Waseda bungaku. The precursors of the Neo-romantic movement were Mori Ogai and Ueda Bin. Among its members were Nagai Kafu, Tanizaki Jun'ichiro, Nagata Mikihiko, Suzuki Miekichi, Morita Shohei, Chikamatsu Shuko, Sato Haruo, Kubota Mantar6, Osanai Kaoru, Izumi Ky6ka, Minakami Takitar6, and Tamura Toshiko. It also gathered to itself the poets of the Shinshisha or New Poetry School, in particular Kitahara Hakushui, Kinoshita Mokutaro, Nagata Hideo, Takamura Kotaro, and Yoshii Isamu, some of whom wrote plays as well as poetry. The Neo-romanticists were friendly with such painters as Ishii Hakutei and Kimura S6hachi, who respectively wrote poems and essays. Pan no Kai (The Pan Society) was their club. The group was devoted to the pursuit and enjoyment of sensual beauty. The city rather than the country, and foreign countries instead of Japan, drew their interest; they found solace in Bohemian cafes and bars. Imaginary worlds were deliberately created in order to seek liberation from the pains of reality. Social concerns were rejected. The sensitive perception of formal beauty became allimportant. The writings were chic and flashy. Too frequently without substance, the writers were attacked by critics like Abe Jiro and Akagi Kohei; Ishikawa Takuboku, Takamura, Kitahara, and Kinoshita soon fled the group. The more idealistic Shirakaba school began to overshadow the Aesthetes, but the two had in common the priority they gave to the human individuality and to art. b. The Leisure School (Yoyuha t '' - ) A second romantic school is given the name Yoyuha or Leisure School. The leader was the famous Natsume Soseki who was at first a scholar of English literature and poet of the haiku, in which he was a disciple of Masaoka Shiki, perhaps the most important poet at the turn of the century. In the year 1900, Natsume went to England for a stay of more than two years and became deeply engrossed in the works of George Meredith. In his earliest work he tried to seek freedom from the pains and anxieties of a poverty-stricken existence by laughing them down. He always took, however, the point of view of an objective outsider. His aloofness distinguished him from the writers of private fiction. In his later work Natsume became increasingly concerned with psychological problems surrounding the ego. Representative of several works that dissect egoism in man are K6jin (Those who pass by), Kokoro (The heart), Michigusa (Grass on the side of the road), and Meian (Light and darkness), which were published between 1912 and 1915 and came near the end of a distinguished career. In these works Natsume describes the torments which egoism creates in man, and concludes that man should seek to reconcile the contradictions between his ideals and actuality, search for a higher ethics and art, but suppress his ego, and resign himself to his destiny. Among Natsume's pupils were Suzuki Miekichi, Morita S6hei, Komiya Toyotaka, Abe Jiro, Abe Yoshishige, Uchida Hyakken, Akutagawa Ryunosuke, and Kume Masao. The style favored by Natsume in his earlier works was called shaseibun, "imagistic writing." Masaoka Shiki had supported the writing of shaseibun. Among its practitioners were Takahama Kyoshi, Yoshimura Fuyuhiko (Terada Torahiko), It6 Sachio, Nagatsuka Takashi, Suzuki Miekichi, Nogami Yaeko, and Kawahigashi Hekigoto. Except for It6 and Nagatsuka, who were poets of the tanka, these were authors of the haiku. It6 in particular was drawn to a naturalistic style more concerned with social problems and less like "that of an adult contemplating a child, sympathetically but with a hidden smile." The term Yoyflha was a pejorative title. c. The White Birch School (Shirakabaha Ek4ik) Still another important idealistic group was made up for the most part of graduates of the Peers' School. Belonging to the propertied and even aristocratic class, they were among the few Japanese of the time to whom an almost complete freedom of thought and action was permitted. They placed the highest value therefore on the development of the individuality. They were also stimulated by examples of idealism in foreign lands. Their leader, Mushak6ji Saneatsu, had already engrossed himself in the works of Tolstoy. Although for a time he rejected the humanitarianism of his Russian teacher, he returned to it when he established a community called Atarashiki Mura or New Village in Kyifshil. Arishima Takeo, influenced more by Whitman, distributed his lands in Hokkaid6 among his tenants and gave his house in Tokyo and his shares in the Nippon Yusen Kaisha (Japan Mail Steamship Company) to his family's servants. Associated with Mushak6ji and Arishima were Shiga Naoya, Satomi Ton, Kojima Kikuo, Yanagi Soetsu, Kori Torahiko, Arishima Ikuma, Kinoshita Toshiharu, and Nagayo Yoshiro. Later members included Ozaki Kihachi, Kimura S6ta, Inukai Takeru, the poet Senke Motomaro, Kurata Hyakuz6, and Kishida Ryusei. The entire group, including writers of fiction, drama, poetry, and literary and art criticism, took its name from the journal Shirakaba (White birch), which was published between 1910 and 1923. The school reached its peak of influence in 1916-17. Its writings were affirmative, subjective, and moral, and still included an epicurean strain. Though rough and unpolished, the style of composition was entirely free and invigorating. The group introduced or made better known such Western authors as Walt Whitman, August Strindberg, Maurice Maeterlinck, and Romain Rolland, and published translations of Western literature. Concerned also with Western art, the Shirakaba School introduced Cezanne, Rodin, Rubens, Manet, Gauguin, van Gogh, and Rembrandt to the Japanese through reproductions in their journal. Later magazines branching off from Shirakaba include Dai-chowa (The great harmony), Juk6 (Multiplied light), and Kokoro (The heart). Related to the Shirakaba School is the broadly humanistic work of the philosophers and thinkers of the time. Abe Jiro, Abe Yoshishige, Watsuji Tetsur6, Komiya Toyotake, Tsuda Sokichi, and, in some of their work, S6ma Gyofu and Katagami Noburu, should be mentioned here, because of the relationship their works bear to literature. Some of these writers held that man and the universe were one and that the development of each individual man, contributing to the whole of humanity, made the universe richer. Others felt that the human race was ever reaching

Page  4 4 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS for a higher destiny, and that man contributed most by striving for his own perfection. The emphasis was on man's relationship with the whole of humanity or with the universe, with very little attention paid to "society." 5. The Neo-realist School (Shin-genjitsuha Xr it t ( ) The various idealistic schools were answered by the Shingenjitsuha or Neo-realistic school, which held a prominent place in literature from about 1918 to 1923. Except for Kikuchi Kan, most of the writers were influenced by Natsume in their literary style and in their view of life. Writing, it was felt, should not be merely autobiographical. As men in society, most of the authors of the Neo-realist School tended to enjoy themselves and to regard physical health and wit as attributes of a good life. They believed that technique and art were needed to heighten reality. They also went not only to society but to the older legends of the nation in their search for interesting subject matters. In addition to Kikuchi the major writers included Kume Masao, Akutagawa Ryunosuke, Toyoshima Toshio, Yamamoto Yiuz, Hirotsu Kazuo, Kasai Zenzo, Satomi Ton, Sat6 Haruo, Uno K6ji, and Muro Saisei. Akutagawa, the author of the two stories Rashomon (The Rashomon gate) and Yabu no naka (In the the thicket) which went into the movie Rashmon, paid close attention to the details of writing. His works exhibit a high degree of intellectual control over his materials, which tend to run to the strange, grotesque, unreal, and fantastic. Kikuchi too found his subject matter in past history, but after 1920, when he published Shinju fujin (Madame Pearl), he became more and more a writer of popular fiction. As editor of the magazine Bungei shunji (Literary annals), he became the arbiter of the Japanese literary world. One word of praise from Kikuchi virtually opened the doors to success for any ambitious young writer. The high degree of intellectual control exercised over their materials by Akutagawa, Kikuchi, Kume, Toyoshima, and Yamamoto led to their being named the Shinrichiha (Neo-intellectual School) and Shingik6ha (New Technique School). Also, their association with the third and fourth revivals of the magazine Shinshicho (New trends of thought) gave them the name Shinshich6ha. 6. Proletarian Fiction and its Offshoots Japan, like most of the nations of the world, was caught in the economic depression which followed World War I. In literature the major result was the development of a vigorous proletarian movement which threatened for a time to monopolize the activities of an entire generation of writers. Proletarian literature in Japan had for its background the growing concern with human rights which came with the breakdown of feudalism in the Meiji period. As early as 1902, Tokutomi Roka in Kuroshio (Black current) had exposed corruption in government as controlled by the Satsuma and Choshuii clans, and had suggested that the lesser classes should throw off the fetters which tied them to a freedom-less existence. Shimazaki T6son's Hakai (The breaking of the pledge) had pictured the life of a young man unfortunate enough to be born into a family of eta, the most conspicuous of the pariah groups in Japanese society. The Japanese Socialist Party was founded in 1906 by Sakai Kosen. Kinoshita Naoe had written socialistically inclined novels and had fought for human rights in the courtroom. The poet Ishikawa Takuboku too had sung of the poverty of the farmers of northern Japan, and of his hardships as a struggling young teacher in the city of Morioka. From the literary historian and critic Homma Hisao had come an essay on the meaning and value of a people's literature, and Osugi Sakae, after translating a treatise on "people's drama" by Romain Rolland, had written about "an art for a new world." Writers like Miyaji Karoku and Miyajima Sukeo had already come from the laboring class and a democratic poetry inspired by Whitman had been written by poets like Fukuda Masao. On the social scene Japan had also witnessed a series of rice riots and strikes in the period of depression that followed World War I, and the time was ripe for the coming in of Communism. a. Proletarian Fiction It is generally agreed that proletarian literature per se came into being when the magazine Tane maku hito (Planters of seeds) was established in 1921 to publish a literature of the working class. From the beginning this magazine included the writings of advance guard thinkers, including anarchists. Gradually it took on a Communist coloration and became an organ for anti-capitalist intellectuals rather than the anarcho-syndicalists who were vocal at that time. Hirabayashi Hatsunosuke,Muramatsu Masatoshi, and Aono Suekichi were the chief theorists. The Japan Communist Party was established in 1922. Attacked by traditionalist thinkers and by authors like Kikuchi Kan who proclaimed the value of literature as art, proletarian literature declined in the nationalistic period following the great earthquake of 1923. It was at this time that Tane maku hito and its sister journals Bungaku sekai (Literary world), Shink5 bungaku (Newly rising literature), and Kaiho (Emancipation) were forced to stop publication, at least temporarily. However, Bungei sensen (Literary battleline) appeared in 1924 and the Nihon Puroretaria Bungei Remmei or Japanese Proletarian Literary League was formed in 1925. The subsequent history of proletarian writing in Japan is marked by many fissions among the authors and by the successive rise of new groupings most of which boasted a magazine in which their compositions could be published. Proletarian literature was by its very nature a literature of social problems rather than of art. Communists, socialists, and anarchists were involved; their purpose was to incite the proletariat into a class struggle against the bourgeoisie. The principal theorist writing for Bungei sensen was Aono Suekichi, who argued along Marxist lines. Hayama Yoshiki, Kuroshima Denji, Hayashi Fusao, and Satomura Kinz6 were some

Page  5 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE 5 of the leading writers of fiction. The anti-Marxists and anarchists left the Proletarian Literary Leaugue as Aono began to pronounce his Marxist ideas and formed the Rono Geijutsuka Remmei or Laborer and Farmer Artists' League, taking Bungei sensen with them. This league, however, was soon split into two camps, so that a total of three organizations emerged, each with its own journal. The R6n6 Geijutsuka Remmei had its Bungei sensen, the Zen'ei Geijutsuka Domei or Advance Guard Artists' Federation its Zen'ei (Advance guard), and the older Proletarian Literary League, which was now renamed the Nihon Puroretaria Geijutsu Remmei or Japanese Proletarian Art League had its Puroretaria geijutsu (Proletarian art). In March, 1928, the last two were merged into the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei or All-Japan Proletarian Art League which became better known as NAPF from the initials of its Esperanto name. This organization's journal was Senki (Battle flag). The rival Laborer and Farmer Artists' League included such writers as Hayama, Kuroshima, Hirabayashi Taiko, and Iwado Yukio, but gradually lost precedence to NAPF, which became known as the stronghold of Marxist writers. One of the leading Marxist theorists was Kurahara Korehito, whose opinions on the popularization of art were contested by Nakano Shigeharu. Kobayashi Takiji and Tokunaga Sunao were two of the better writers of fiction in NAPF, which was represented at the second International Revolutionary Writers' Congress by Katsumoto Seiichir6 and Fujimori Seikichi. Kurahara next insisted on a Communist rather than social democratic criticism of literature. This did not receive complete support. Nevertheless, he succeeded in bringing about the organization of the Nihon Puroretaria Bunka Remmei or Japan Proletarian Cultural League, which included industrial workers and farmers and became better known as KOPF from the initials of its Esperanto name. This group, however, soon met official disapproval. Kurahara and Nakano were arrested and Kobayashi and Miyamoto Kenji went underground. In February, 1933, Kobayashi met his death at the Tsukiji police station in Tokyo, and in March, 1934, KOPF announced its own dissolution. Proletarian literature thus suffered its greatest blow with the rise of nationalism following Japan's invasion of Manchuria. Miyamoto, once apprehended, spent the years of Japan's continental adventures in prison, as did Kurahara. Outside, Nakano, Tokunaga, Miyamoto Yuriko, and Kubokawa Tsurujiro were silenced by the authorities but maintained as best they could their allegiance to proletarian ideology. Biding their time until the end of World War II, they again spearheaded Japan's "democratic literature" movement. The proletarian theorists had hoped to nourish literary men among the laboring class, but only a few authors, like Hayama and Tokunaga, have come from the working class to achieve reputations as writers of fiction. Rather, most of the authors belonging to the movement have come from bourgeois and intellectualist backgrounds. The most important include Fujimori, Kobayashi, Nakano, Hirabayashi Taiko, and Miyamoto Yuriko. b. Agriculturalist Literature (N6min bungaku r/ l><+ ) One of the sub-groups of the Nihon Puroretaria Sakka Domei was the Nomin Bungaku Kenkyikai or Society for the Study of Agriculturalist Literature, established in April, 1931, in accordance with the proposals of the conference held at Harikov in November of the preceding year. The amelioration of the lot of the farmer as one of the objectives of proletarian literature had already been taken up in Kobayashi Takiji's Fuzai jinushi or Absentee landlord. Now Sui Hajime, Tateno Nobuyuki, Hirata Koroku, and Shimagi Kensaku wrote in the same vein and leftist concern with the problems of rural Japan began to overshadow the literature of another group, that of the Japanese physiocrats, which was initiated in 1926 when Waseda bungaku published a special number on tsuchi no bungaku or "literature of the soil." The writings of the physiocrats were continued in the journal Nomin (Farmers), with such writers as Yoshie Takamatsu, Nakamura Seiko, Kato Takeo, Sasaki Toshiro, Inuta Shigeru, and Wada Tsut6. These authors belonged to the N6min Bungeikai or Society for Agriculturalist Literature. The importance of the food problem at a time when Japan was engaged in aggressive overseas adventures next drew attention to the short stories of Wada Tsuto and to the drama by Kubo Sakae entitled Kazambaichi (The pace covered with volcanic ashes). But the authorities frowned upon all leftist ideas. The Nomin Bungaku Konwakai (Conversation Group on Agriculturalist Literature) was formed under the aegis of Arima Yoriyasu, then Minister of Agriculture, in 1938. The works of Ito Einosuke, previously a leftist writer, described the farmers of Akita prefecture. Later, as more and more farmers helped to colonize Manchuria, a kaitaku bungaku or colonial literature made its appearance. The writers of this period included Maruyama Yoshiji, Iwakura Masaji, Uchiki Muraji, Moriyama Kei, Yarita Ken'ichi, Ishihara Fumio, and Sat6 Mimp6. During World War II, a Nomin Bungaku Iinkai (Committee on Agriculturalist Literature) was formed by the Nihon Bungaku H6kokukai (Patriotic Association of Japanese Literature), and on-the-spot reports of farming activities were reported along with the biographies of efficient farmers. The Arima prize named after the Minister of Agriculture went to Maruyama Yoshiji, Kanno Masao, Iwakura Masaji, Aoki K6, and Sawa Soichi in the five years 1939-43. The postwar years have seen very little by way of agriculturalist literature; it seems clear that Japanese writers, even though they had evacuated into the rural areas during the period of the fighting, prefer urban settings for their writing. Although the Mugi no Kai (Wheat Society), formed in 1950, gathers together the authors concerned with the problems of the countryside, only Miyazawa Kenji, with his poems and stories for children, appears to have any real following. c. The Literature of Conversion to Orthodox Thinking (Tenk6 bungaku f X I ) When Kobayashi died, many of the leftist authors who were then in jail were swiftly reconverted to more conservative lines of thought. The change of heart experienced by the Communists is exemplified in an essay entitled "Kyodo hikoku d6shi ni tsuguru sho," which might be rendered, "A Document Addressed to our Comrades

Page  6 6 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS who are Jointly Accused with Us." The authors were Sano Manabu and Nabeyama Sadachika. Published in the magazine Kaizo (Reconstruction) in July, 1932, this article was followed by a long series of essays and fiction asserting or implying the impossibility of following the Communistic line of thought and action, however sincerely believed in, when Japan was engaged in war. Most of the writing was autobiographical and confessional. The resulting tenko bungaku or "literature of conversion" implied that the writer should remove himself from political activity, and yet act as progressively as he could within the bounds of law. Sometimes the writing indicated a deep concern with the restrictions imposed on a man's ideas and conscience by an authoritarian environment. Sometimes it represented complete submission to authority. Among the writers of the literature of conversion were Fujisawa Takeo, Murayama Tomoyoshi, Tateno Nobuyuki, Fujimori Seikichi, Kubokawa Tsurujiro, Tokunaga Sunao, Nakano Shigeharu, Shimagi Kensaku, Hayashi Fusao, Takami Jun, Takeda Rintaro, and Miyamoto Yuriko. Since the degree of compliance with authority differed with the different authors, incriminatory and recriminatory accusations, overt or implied, were voiced in the period after World War II. However, resistance to fascistic authority is discoverable in many of these authors, notably in Nakano, Tokunaga, Kubokawa, and Miyamoto Yuriko. The last two, along with Miki Kiyoshi and Nogami Yaeko, viewed the rising tide of war from the point of view of an alarmed humanism. Necessarily, the work of these authors was carefully guarded in its tone. 7. The Artistic Opposition to Proletarian Literature and to the Rising Tide of Nationalism In the twenties the writers of proletarian literature did not go unchallenged by the writers to whom literature was an art. On the other hand, as Japan in the thirties invaded Manchuria and China, coalitions of artistic and liberal authors tried vainly to stem the rising tide of nationalism. a) a. The Neo-impressionist School (Shin-kankakuha 4AT;K -f. ) Yokomitsu Riichi and Kawabata Yasunari were the leaders of the Neo-impressionist school in which literature was likened to music and painting. Fresh images, full of movement, were recorded by these authors. Their descriptions are therefore sensual and lively, subjective and psychological. The ego receives a larger emphasis by far than is found in naturalist and proletarian writing. Poets of the highly imagistic haiku, like Bash6, inspired the Neo-impressionsits, who were also deeply affected by the newer literary and artistic movements of the West; they looked for a fresher view of life and nature in cubism, futurism, and Dadaism. The Neo-impressionists were considerably influenced by Horiguchi Daigaku's translation of Paul Morand's Ouvert la nuit. Their concern with images, even though it was reinforced by Western influence, agreed with the livelier world brought about by mechanization. Images, in fact, were considered to exist at the very core of literature. Neo-impressionism had its origins in a group of authors writing for the journal Bungei jidai (Literary age), which began publication in October, 1924. The chief representatives are Yokomitsu Riichi, Kawabata Yasunari, Nakagawa Yoichi, and Kataoka Teppei. Later adherents included Kon Toko and Inagaki Taruho. Considering its emphases, it seems natural that the work of the Neo-impressionists should be described by Ikuta Choko as being decadent and by Kataoka Yoshikazu as being a literature standing for dissection of reality and for the forfeiture of humanity. b. The Newly Rising Aesthetic School (Shink6 Geijutsuha - -:f ( ) Yokomitsu and Kawabata next took an active part in the work of the Shinko Geijutsuha Kurabu or Newly Rising Aesthetic School Club, which in 1930 developed from the Juisannin Kurabu or Thirteen People's Club, a group headed by Nakamura Murao, Narasaki Tsutomu, and Sasaki Toshir6, and including, besides Yokomitsu and Kawabata, such authors as Asahara Rokuro, lijima Tadashi, Kato Takeo, Kamura Isota, Kuno Toyohiko, Okina Kyuin, Okada Saburo, Ozaki Shir6, and Ryutanji Yui. To this group came Funabashi Seiichi, Abe Tomoji, Kon Hidemi, and Ibuse Masuji, who had been associated in the journal Bungei toshi (Literary city), and Nagai Tatsuo, Fukada Kyfiya, and Kobayashi Hideo, who had written for Bungaku (Literature). Other members included Serizawa Kojirof, Nakumura Masatsune, and Yoshiyuki Eisuke. Tsunekawa Hiroshi stated the principles of the school in "Geijutsuha sengen (Proclamation of The Artistic School)," in the April, 1930, issue of Shincho. The entire membership, numbering thirty-two writers, was joined by its opposition to Marxism at a time when proletarian literature was enjoying its greatest vogue and in its insistence that art, neglected by the Marxists, was autonomous and integral. However, no set combination of literary ideas was advocated. The Marxists accused this group of being bourgeois in its attitudes, and condemned its work because it was merely entertaining and dealt mainly with the more garish aspects of city life. The charge was made that it was filled with "eroguro-nansensu," that is, eroticism, the grotesque, and nonsense. c. The Neo-psychological School (Shin-shinrishugiha - ' i: - ) Soon the Newly Rising Aesthetic School developed two offshoots. One, led by Ito Sei, took the name Shinshinrishugiha or Neo-psychological School. This school came into being as the teachings of Sigmund Freud and the literary works of James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, Marcel Proust, and Dorothy M. Richardson became known in Japan. The attempt to describe the ego through the stream of consciousness attracted Ito Sei and Hori Tatsuo. Ito was one of the translators of Joyce's Ulysses, and, along with Haruyama Yukio, discussed the stream of consciousness in writing. Yokomitsu and Kawabata were partial users of this device, as were, in the period after World War II, Nakamura Shin'ichiro, Shiina Rinz6, and Noma Hiroshi.

Page  7 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE 7 d. The Neo-socialist School (Shin-shakaiha - X- (X ) A second grouping of authors formerly associated with the Newly Rising Aesthetic School included Asahara Rokuro and Kuno Toyohiko who looked for a wider concern with social problems than those espoused by most of their associates. This group is known as the Shinshakaiha or New Socialist School. e. Actionism (K6d6shugi XT 41 i A ) Following the decline of proletarian literature, literary circles in Japan felt the general unrest that seemed to seize a world waiting for war. On the one hand, the anxious philosophy of Lev Shestov had gained currency in Japan; and, on the other, the Japanese were attracted to the writings of Andre Malraux, author of Les conquerants, La voie royale, and La condition humaine, and of Andre' Gide, author of Retour de L'U. R. S. S. These French examples inspired some of the members of the Newly Rising Aesthetic School, notably Abe Tomoji and Funabashi Seiichi, to think anew of the role literary men might play in society. The hope was felt that the intellectuals of Japan, from a humanist point of view, might work toward the betterment of society. Abe and Funabashi established the journal Kodo (Action) in 1933 and won the support of Aono Suekichi, Kubokawa Tsurujiro, and Moriyama Kei, who had all played major roles in the proletarian literature movement, but the group was submerged under the nationalistic thought which prevailed in the thirties. Except for Funabashi's Daivingu (Diving), nothing of stature remains of this K6d6shugi or Actionist movement. f. The Literary-Liberal Opposition to Authoritarianism in the Journals Bungakkai >-l,/ (The Literary World) and Jimmin bunko /A U, L / (People's Literature) With the decline of proletarian literature, one group of authors seeking to preserve literary values joined in publishing Bungakkai (The literary world) in October, 1933. Prominent in the pages of this journal were the organizers, Kobayashi Hideo, Hayashi Fusao, and Takeda Rintar6, and their first colleagues, Uno Koji, Fukada Kyuya, Kawabata Yasunari, Hirotsu Kazuo, and Toyoshima Yoshio, a combination of authors who had previously shown realistic, Marxist, and modernistic tendencies and who were now joined in opposing the rising tide of nationalism. When Hayashi, who had been imprisoned, was freed in 1936, the older authors Uno, Hirotsu, and Satomi Ton left the group, but a number of new ones joined it, so that the membership in 1939 came to twenty-nine in all. Writing literary criticism were Kobayashi, Nakamura Mitsuo, and Funabashi Seiichi, and contributing important pieces of fiction were Abe Tomoji, H6oj Tamio, Nakayama Gishu, Dazai Osamu, Nakajima Atsushi, and Tanaka Hidemitsu. By 1935, Takeda, alarmed at the oppressions which a Fascistic spirit was bringing about, started a second journal, Jimmin bunko (People's literature). The writers who had formerly published Genjitsu (Reality) and who had not gone over to the nationalistically inclined Nihon Romanha (Japanese Romantic School) joined forces with Takeda, as did the authors writing for the journal Nichireki (Solar calendar). The principal members of the Jimmin bunko coterie included Takami Jun, Nitta Jun, Shibukawa Gyo, Tamiya Torahiko, Araki Takashi, Honjo Rikuo, Yada Tsuseko, Enji Fumiko, Tateno Nobuyuki, Inoue Tomoichir6, Tamura Taijiro, Hirabayashi Hyogo, Minamikawa Jun, and Yuasa Katsue. A toughly realistic prose was demanded and a degree of social criticism was achieved but as the nation became engulfed in war the group turned more and more to genre fiction describing with very little criticism the manners and customs of the day. Bungakkai itself suspended publication after the April, 1939, issue, and was not revived till June, 1947, after World War II, when Hayashi, Funabashi, Niwa Fumio, Kon Hidemi, and Kawakami Tetsutar6 became some of the core authors. 8. The Literature of Nationalism a. The Japanese Romantic School (Nihon r6manha 0 ) { j _ rK ) Japan's writing took a nationalistic turn in the years before World War II. Some of this rightist literature is to be found in the journal Nihon romanha (The Japanese Romantic School) which was established in March, 1935, and included the works of Ogata Takashi, Nakatani Takao, Jimbo Kotaro, Yodono Ryiiz6, Yasuda Yojur6, Kamei Katsuichiro, Honj6 Rikuo, Haga Mayumi, Asano Akira, Nakatani Takio, and later, Nakamura Jihei, Midorikawa Mitsugu, Dan Kazuo, and Yamagishi Gaishi. Yasuda had been one of the writers represented in the coterie journal Kogito (Cogito), which had placed a high value on the Japanese classics and in particular had introduced German romanticism. Nakajima Eijir6 and It6 Sakio too came from Kogito. Kamei and Honj6 had formerly belonged to the group that had published Genjitsu (Reality), and Dazai, Dan, and Yamagishi had been associated in Aoi hana (Blue flowers). More than thirty writers were joined in the Nihon R6omanha. Shunning realism and seeking a new romanticism, the group pronounced itself as being anti-progressive. Taking up the older literary classics and arts of Japan, it tried to restate the nature of "the Japanese spirit" and to work toward its revival. A Fascistic tendency was made apparent in Nakagawa Yoichi's work Minzoku bunka shugi (The principles of a people's culture), published in 1937, and went hand in hand with a rebirth of interest in Kokugaku, the "national learning" dating back to the eighteenth century. Financial difficulties brought about the demise of Nihon r6manha, but some of its authors joined with Hayashi Fusao, the former proletarian writer, in forming the Shin-Nihon Bunka no Kai (Society for a New Japanese Culture) whereas others went to the rightist Dait6juku (Far Eastern School). Kamei sought the solace of Buddhism, and Yamagishi became a Christian as the Chinese war expanded.

Page  8 8 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS b. War Literature (Senso bungaku A -' Zt ) The wars in China and the Pacific gave birth to a copious documentary literature characterized by realistic descriptions of battles and sieges, military occupation, the care of the sick and wounded in field hospitals and on hospital ships, and life on the home front. The output during the heat of the fighting was necessarily nationalistic. After the war, however, some of it began to express anti-militaristic ideas. In point of style, the writing emphasized a concise and graphic realism influenced by the neue Sachlichkeit advocated in Germany in and around 1930. The battles in China were covered by a large number of writers sent by the Army, the Naikaku Johobu or Information Section of the Japanese Cabinet, and by a group of magazines. These writers included Ishikawa Tatsuzo, Niwa Fumio, Hayashi Fumiko, Sakakiyama Jun, and Fukada Kyuya. Writing as soldiers were Hino Ashihei, Ueda Hiroshi, Hibino Shiro, Ogawa Shinkichi, Taniguchi Masaru, Nakayama Masao, Muneta Hiroshi, Fujita Sanehiko, Matsumura K6jiro, Hayaba Sakae, and Takashima Masao. The fighting at Nomonhan, the stories of nurses at the front, accounts of the wounded, and stories of war widows made their appearance at this time. Just before the attack on Pearl Harbor a group of twenty-seven authors were sent to the South Seas. This expedition resulted in various works by Takami Jun, Ozaki Shiro, Abe Tomoji, and Niwa Fumio. Both the Army and Navy next issued detailed descriptions of battles in which the Japanese had emerged victorious. Writing for the services were Hino Ashihei and Iwata Toyoo. With defeat came various accounts of lost battles, fruitless strategy, evacuation from surrendered areas, life as prisoners of war, attempts at escape, the destruction wrought by American bombing including a literature of the atom bomb, and the misery of life on the home front. The authors included Okada Seizo, Toyoda Minoru, Umezaki Haruo, Komada Shinji, Sunouchi Toru, Ito Keiichi, Nakayama Gishui, Maeda Suminori, Hara Tamiki, Takagi S6kichi, Yoshida Mitsuru, Hosokawa Sokichi, Ooka Shohei, Tsuji Ryoichi, Takasugi Ichir6, and Yamada Seizabur5. Writing on the atomic bombing were Agawa Hiroyuki and Ota Yoko, and telling of the incendiary bombs that fell on a provincial city was Maeda Sum i no koe (Listen to the vocies of the sea) was a widely read collection of letters written by students who had died at the front. Writing on the basis of his experiences as a prisoner-of-war was Ooka Shohei. Telling of the situation faced by the Japanese in post-war Manchuria were Tsuji Ryoichi and Takasugi Ichiro, and reciting the trials of those returning to Japan was Shinowara Seiei. Documentary war literature continues to be written down to the present day. 9. The Literature of Non-conformance to Nationalism during World War II The humanistic-proletarian and literary-liberal resistance to the rising tide of nationalism has already been noted. During World War II it was evidenced more by silence than by active opposition to authoritarianism. a. The Literature of Decadence Evidently feeling uneasy over the nationalistic atmosphere generated in connection with the war effort were several authors who devoted their talents to the production of a literature of decadence. Among these authors were Niwa Fumio, Kitahara Takeo, Takami Jun, Dazai Osamu, and Oda Sakunosuke, although it must be said that Niwa, capitulating to the times, also wrote Kaisen or Sea battle. b. The Artistic Resistance to Nationalism A group of authors insistent on artistic ideals also wrote a literature implicitly resistant to nationalist policy. These included Hori Tatsuo, Nakayama Gisha, Kobayashi Hideo, Katayama Toshihiko, and Ishikawa Jun, though here again Nakayama became a writer of war literature in his Teniyan no matsujitsu or The last days of Tinian. 10. The Postwar Revival of the Older Non-Proletarian Writers With the end of World War II came a reinvigorated freedom of expression. Writers of every persuasion, including those who had languished in prison during the war years and those who had maintained a silent loyalty to literature as an art once more resumed their work. The older magazines, suspended during the war, were revived, and new ones begun; for a period of five or six years the only constriction felt by most of the publishing houses seemed to consist in the limited supply of paper. The postwar period found many of the older writers breaking the silences that they had maintained during the war years. Although changes are found in style and ideology, these changes for the most part consist in some small modification toward a heightening or amelioration of characteristics found in each author's earlier work. Among the members of the Neo-romantic school resuming their activity in the postwar years are Nagai Kafu, Kubota Mantar6, Sato Haruo, and Tanizaki Jun'ichir6. The first, it is said, no longer has the same penetrating strength that he had shown in Bokuto kidan (Strange story east of the Sumida River), and Tanizaki, after producing Sasameyuki (The delicate snow) and Shosho Shigemoto no haha (The mother of Lesser Commander Shigemoto), wrote a work entitled Kagi (The key) in which a middle-aged man, fearful of his loss of virility, and his over-sexed wife, who seeks the company of a younger man, write out their stories in a pair of diaries that are alternately quoted. Also writing and publishing anew were Shiga Naoya, Nagayo Yoshir6, and Satomi Ton of the Shirakaba school; Masamune Hakucho, Hirotsu Kazuo, and Uno Koji of the naturalist school; Kambayashi Akatsuki, Ozaki Kazuo, Tonomura Shigeru, writers of private fiction; the independent, Muro Saisei;

Page  9 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE 9 Toyoshima Yoshio, formerly of the Neo-realists but now showing a penchant for fantasy; Yokomitsu Riichi and Kawabata Yasunari of the Neo-impressionist school, with the latter evincing a tendency to depict darker shades of solitude than before; Ibuse Masuji, who at one time was a member of the Newly Rising Aesthetic School and now fills his descriptions of the lives of farmers and fishermen with pathos and humor; Abe Tomoji, a former member both of the Newly Rising Aesthetic School and of the Actionists, who added a deepening humanistic mood to his work; and Nogami Yaeko, partial from before the war to liberal ideas, whose major postwar work is Meiro or Labyrinth, a long novel which has for one of its principal themes the brutalizing effects of war. Like Kambayashi in writing private fiction are Ozaki Kazuo, Tonomura Shigeru, Takii KosakuAmino Kiku, Kawasaki Chotaro, and to a less consistent degree, Nakayama Gishui, Tamiya Torahiko, Shimagi Kensaku, Tanaka Hidemitsu, Inagaki Taruho, and Dan Kazuo. Genre fiction depicting the manner s and customs of the day but concerned only to a limited extent with social criticism is written by a number of authors including Ishizaka Yojiro, Niwa Fumio, Ishikawa Tatsuz Hayashi Fusao, Hayas hi Seiichi, Inoue Tomoichiro, Hayashi Fumiko, and, to some degree, the humorous writer, Shishi Bunroku. Genji Keita, who deals with the office workers of downtown Tokyo, should also be listed among the writers of genre fiction. 11. The Revival of Proletarian Literature One of the most vigorous of the schools to be revived in the postwar period was the school of proletarian literature. This, however, was presented as "democratic literature" by the Shin-Nihon Bungakkai (Society for a New Japanese Literature), which gathered together authors who held liberal and progressive as well as radical views. Shin-Nihon bungaku, first published in March, 1946, was the organ for the society; except for Ozawa Kiyoshi and Atsuta Goro, its authors came largely from those writers who had already established a name for themselves in the past. Also, as time passed, those writers who did not hold to Marxist ideology seceded from the group, and among those who remained in the Shin-Nihon Bungakkai, there were certain authors who did not hold strictly to Marxist doctrine. These included Kurahara Korehito, Nakano Shigeharu, and Miyamoto Yuriko. Insisting on a literature that would truly serve the people and avoid "an obvious sectarianism and tendentiousness" were Ema Nakashi and Fujimori Seikichi who established the journal Jimmin bungaku (People's literature) in November, 1950, shortly after the Cominform criticized the activities of the Japan Communist Party. Among the established proletarian authors who resumed their work in postwar Japan are Miyamoto Yuriko, Tokunaga Sunao, Nakano Shigeharu, Hirabayashi Taiko, and Sata Ineko. Tokunaga later identified himself with the Jimmin bungaku group, which also received Noma Hiroshi as a member. Writing for both Shin-Nihon bungaku and Jimmin bungaku are Ozawa Kiyoshi, Atsuta Goro, Kin Tatsuju, Yamashiro Tomoe, Inoue Mitsuharu, and Onishi Kyojin. Independent of the two groups but writing in a similar vein is Kubo Sakae. 12. Related Ideological Trends a. The Academic Liberals Taking a more flexible view of society and literature are a group of liberal critics, including a number of university professors of Japanese and foreign literature, whose works, dealing with Japanese literature or with literature in general, are liberally sprinkled with examples from foreign writings. From the teachers of Japanese literature have come Yoshida Seiichi and Asami Fukashi; from English literature Fukuhara Rintaro, Nakano Yoshio, and Nishimura Koji; from French literature Kuwabara Takeo, Watanabe Kazuo, Nakajima Kenzo, and Kawamori Yoshizo; from German literature Takahashi Yoshitaka, Takeyama Michio, and Tezuka Tomio; and from Chinese literature Yoshikawa K6jir6, Okuno Shintaro, and Takeuchi Yoshimi. Aono Suekichi, independent of the ShinNihon Bungakkai, continues to write social criticism. Kobayashi Hideo has moved from literary criticism to criticism of music and art. The older and aristocratic ideals of beauty to which Kobayashi was attracted are reflected in Usui Yoshimi's literary criticism. Kawakami Tetsutaro and Kamei Katsuichiro evidence a faith in religion. Writing on various figures in Meiji, Taisho, and Showa literature are Nakamura Mitsuo, Hirano Ken, Senuma Shigeki, Hirata Jisabur6, and Honda Shugo, and modern Japanese literature and its various aspects have become the subject of works by Masamune Hakucho, Sato Haruo, Senuma Shigeki, and Ito Sei. Delving into comparative literature and emphasizing the relationships between Japanese and non-Japanese literature are Shimada Kinji, Nakajima Kenz6, Itagaki Naoko, Yano Hojin, and Yoshida Seiichi. Nakamura Shin'ichiro, Kato Shuichi, and Fukunaga Takehiko collaborated in Sen kyuhyaku yonjui rokunen bungaku-teki kosatsu (Literary observations for 1946), and Hanada Kiyoteru distinguished himself with a paradoxical criticism of literature and culture in Sakuran no ronri (The logic of distraction). Fukuda Tsuneari, a dramatist as well as critic, is known for his paradoxical and ironic style and for his clear anti-Marxist stand. In 1949 Nakamura Mitsuo's criticism of the genre novel engendered an argument with Niwa Fumio and Inoue Tomoichiro. Nakamura next fought a literary battle with Hirotsu Kazuo with respect to Camus' L'Etranger, and has more recently analyzed the works of Shiga Naoya and Tanizaki Jun'ichiro from the point of view of a critic well versed in Western literature. b. The Modern Literature (Kindai Bungaku if\ ) Group Antedating Shin-Nihon bungaku by two months was Kindai bungaku (Modern literature), founded in January, 1946. Gathered in this journal were a group of writers who attempted to harmonize the attitudes which Marxism, other West European ideologies, and modern Japanese literature take with respect to art. A higher role was given to individual human dignity than in the case of the writers of the Shin-Nihon Bungakkai. Thus Hirano Ken

Page  10 10 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS and Ara Masahito of the Kindai bungaku group opposed Nakano Shigeharu, Odagiri Hideo, and Iwakami Jun'ichi. Supporting the former are Sasaki Kiichi, Honda Shugo, Yamamuro Shizuka, Hirata Jisabur6 and the critic and dramatist, Fukunda Tsuneari. Among the writers of fiction who are ideologically aligned with Kindai bungaku are Mishima Yukio, Shiina Rinzo, Umezaki Haruo, Haniya Yutaka, Noma Hiroshi, Nakamura Shin'ichiro, Takeda Taijun, Shimao Toshio, and Abe Kobo. Mishima has dealt with the subject of homosexuality, not because this aberration is new to Japanese society, but because its manifestations in this age appear to require objective and critical treatment. Shiina is known as the Japanese existentialist. Perhaps his most famous work is Eien naru josho (Eternal preface), in which a wounded ex-soldier, told that he is also suffering from tuberculosis and a weak heart, nevertheless attempts to spend his last three months aiding as best he can those who are included in his circle of acquaintances. Umezaki is the author of the war tale Sakurajima. Some of his writings are characterized by a wry humor. Independent of the preceding were the new writers Ooka Shohei, Tamiya Torahiko, Hara Tamiki, Komada Shinji, Yagi Yoshinori, Fujiwara Shinji, Aoyama Koji, Kobayashi Tatsuo, Funayama Kaoru, and K6 Haruto. Ooka, author of Furyoki or Record of a prisoner of war and of Musashino fujin or The ladies of Musashino plain, is especially well known for his description of subtle psychological states recalling Stendahl. La rouge et le noir is said to be the prototype for The ladies of Musashino plain. 13. Popular Literature (Taishu bungaku A f t ) Popular literature in Japan takes several forms. Although it is possible to condemn it on artistic grounds, its better examples deserve attention. Exciting plots, conventional ideas, and a style full of cliches mark most of the stories. Frequently illustrated with pictures, they attract wide readerships in magazines like Kingu (King) and Oru yomimono (All kinds of reading matter). a. Adventure Stories One group of adventure stories is set in the past and owes a large part of its popularity to graphic descriptions of sword-fighting on the part of samurai. The writers include Nakazato Kaizan, Yada S6un, Yoshikawa Eiji, Osaragi Jiro, Mikami Otokichi, Shirai Kyoji, Naoki Sanjugo, Hayashi Fubo, Hasegawa Shin, Shimozawa Kan, Kunieda Kanji, Juichiya Gisaburo, Muramatsu Shofu, Kimura Ki, Haji Seiji, Tanaka Kotaro, Kunieda Shiro, Nomura Kodo, Sasaki Mitsuzo, Yamamoto Shugoro, Yamate Kiichiro, and such winners of the Naoki prize, named after Naoki Sanjugo, as Kawaguchi Matsutaro, Washio Uko, Kaionji Chogoro, and Murakami Genzo. Some of their stories deal with famous heroes of the past who invariably have the quality of derring-do and often a profound sympathy for the plight of the masses. Popular novels set in the present and frequently joining elements of romantic love and adventure are known as tsuzoku shosetsu (popular fiction). Very often the characters written about are unconventional in type; they may be hoboes, judo-men, Eurasians, or men and women frequenting the Asakusa and other entertainment areas. This type of fiction was first attempted by a number of authors who were concerned with more artistic types of writing but were also motivated by a desire to raise the level of "pulp" fiction. Kikuchi Kan and Kume Masao took the lead and were followed by Ishizaka Yojiro, Ishikawa Tatsuz6, Kojima Masajiro, Shimomura Chiaki, and Kishi Yamaji. Other authors whose works belong even more consistently to this type of fiction include Osaragi Jiro, Tomita Tsuneo, Tachibana Sotoo, Kitabayashi Toma, Hamamoto Hiroshi, Misumi Kan, Masaki Fujokyu, Yamanaka Minetar6, Takeda Toshihiko, Hisao J0ran, Yamaoka S6hachi, Minato Kuniz6, Imai Tatsuo, Minamikawa Jun, Obayashi Kiyoshi, and the women writers Hasegawa Shigure, Yoshiya Nobuko, Tsutsumi Chiyo, Yokoyama Michiko, and Koyama Itoko. The large number of writers here included points to the wide acceptance of popular writing. b. "Mid-way" Fiction (Chukan Sh6setsu c ~ ), t, ) Kume Masao and Kikuchi Kan were also innovators in the field of chukan shosetsu, a type of novelette lying between pure literature and the worst of the "pulp" variety. Here they were followed by Yamamoto Yuzo, Kishida Kunio, and Hirotsu Kazuo. The purpose was to create a readable literature, which, however, was to be done by experts in the literary craft. Takeda Rintaro, Ozaki Shiro, Ishikawa Tatsuzo, Niwa Fumio, and Fujisawa Takeo also tried their hand at this type of fiction. Hayashi Fusao argued for the writing of literature which millions would read, and the magazines Sh6setsu shincho (New tides of fiction), Oru yomimono (All kinds of reading material), and Sh6setsu k6en (Garden of fiction ) provided the stage for such works. Critics like Nakamura Mitsuo, however, attacked this "mid-way fiction," saying that it was merely a means of escaping from the responsibility of writing more artistic literature and that its tendency to be satisfied with descriptions of society, without criticism, came in reality from an unsuccessful attempt to escape the practice followed in "private " fiction of describing the author's own actions and feelings. The writers of chukan sh6setsu include Niwa Fumio, Funabashi Seiichi, Ishizaka Y6jiro, Ishikawa Tatsuzo, Hayashi Fusao, Hayashi Fumiko, Hirabayashi Taiko, Hino Ashihei, Tamura Taijiro, Inoue Tomoichiro, Kon Hidemi, Hojo Makoto, Funayama Kaoru, Umezaki Haruo, Fujiwara Shinji, Inoue Yasushi, and Shishi Bunroku.

Page  11 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE 11 c. The Humorous Story (Kokkei Sh5setsu -.? J',' - ) Humorous literature originated with Okuno Tamio and is written by Sasaki Kuni, Ubukuta Toshir6, Tatsuno Kyfishi, Tokugawa Musei, Otsuji Shir6, Iguchi Seiha, Sato Hachir6, Shishi Bunroku, Nakano Minoru, Ui Mushu, Taoka Norio, Yagi Ryuiichir6, Nakamura Masatsune, Ima Harube, and Miki Toriro. d. Detective Fiction (Tantei Shosetsu JT 4th, J ) The detective story, strongly influenced by the work of such Western writers as Arthur Conan Doyle and Richard Austin Freeman, has a history going back to the Meiji era. After 1920 one of its principal homes was the magazine Shin-seinen (The new youth), founded by Morishita Uson. Elements of mystery and science creep into the stories, as in the West. The authors advocating the detective story proper belong to the Kenzenha or Healthy School, and include Koga Sabur6 and Hamao Shir6. The Fukenzenha or Unhealthy School, also called the Henkakuha or Irregular School, includes Edogawa Rampo, a pen-name, appropriately enough, taken from the name of Edgar Allan Poe, Kozakai Fuboku, Oshita Udaru, J5 Masayuki, Yumeno Kyiisaku, Unno Juza, Yokomizo Masashi, Mizutani Jun, and Tsunoda Kikuo. All of these writers made their start before 1933. Coming since that time are Oguri Mushitaro, Kigi Takataro, Hisao Juran, Aoi Yu, and Watanabe Keisuke. In the years after World War II the writers include Takagi Akimitsu, Kayama Shigeru, Shimada Kazuo, Yamada Kazetaro, Iwata San, Otsubo Sunao, Okada Shachihiko, Miyano Murako, Sakaguchi Ango, Ooka Sh5hei, Okamoto Kid6, Sasaki Mitsuzo, Nomura Kod6, Haji Seiji, and Nagon Taihei. In detective fiction as written in Sh6wa Japan, it is possible to see the influence of such Western writers as Poe, Feodor Dostoevski, John D. Kerr, Guy de Maupassant, 0. Henry, Andre Gide, and S. S. Van Dine. Edogawa Rampo, contending that the detective story must not only possess high literary quality but contain evidences of the use of logic in solving riddles, is perhaps the leading critic as well as writer of the detective story. He is the president of the Tantei Sakka Kurabu (Detective Writers' Club). The Torimono Sakka Kurabu (Club for Writers Describing the Capturing of Criminals) is a second organization in this field. e. The Fleshly School (Nikutaiha J 4 K ) In the first years of the post-war era one group of writers of genre fiction gave emphasis to the description of sexual desire. Known as the Nikutaiha or Fleshly School, this group includes Niwa Fumio, Tamura Taijir6, Funabashi Seiichi, and Inoue Tomoichiro. The sensualness here is depicted for its own sake whereas in the writings of Sakaguchi Ango a somewhat more critical attitude is expressed; that is to say, Sakaguchi proposes that the fullness of youth can be realized and enjoyed only in dissipation. f. The New School of Fiction (Shin-gisakuha -F / 1; ) Another group of authors, including Dazai Osamu, Takami Jun, Ishikawa Jun, Oda Sakunosuke, and Ito Sei often took as their subject matter the decline from status and prestige, during and after World War II, of persons belonging to the aristocratic and propertied classes. A mildly critical spirit informs the work of this group, which has been labeled the Shin-gisakuha or New School of Fiction. Sakaguchi Ango is sometimes classed with this group, and related tendencies are shown by Kitahara Takeo and Isonokami Gen'ichiro. B. THE DRAMA 14. The Traditional Forms of Drama: N6, Kabuki, and Shimpa The kabuki was the principal dramatic form at the time of Perry's arrival in Japan and has since continued to enjoy the highest popularity among all the Japanese drama types. The n6 drama, joruri or marionette play, and shimpa or "new school" drama, on the other hand, have continued a precarious existence. The n6 drama was preserved because of the support it received at various temples and from members of the aristocracy, and the j6ruri because of the patronage that came from its dwindling audiences at Osaka. Especially damaging to the n6 was the bombing of Tokyo during World War II when most of the no theatres were destroyed. The marionette theater too has survived in postwar Japan chiefly because of the subsidies it has received from the national government. Except for a few new plays and a few dramatizations of older fiction (such as the Tale of Genji), the repertory of the kabuki too has remained unchanged. The kabuki, no- and joruri thus continue as the classical dramatic forms. Standing in a very anamolous position is the shimpa, a strange kind of drama, now performed only a few months a year, in which men may play the roles of women as well as of men, and women too may appear as women. These illusory procedures are accepted by the devotees in the audiences in the same way that the all-male cast is received in the kabuki and the puppeteers, dolls, samisen players, and chanters in the puppet drama. In the shimpa theater, the use of men in women's roles comes from the fact that in the latter part of the nineteenth century, when shimpa had its beginnings, it was still difficult for women to find a place on the stage. The use of men in women's roles is reminiscent of the kabuki; the larger attention given to the individual desires of the characters depicted on the stage suggests a form that might develop into the modern play. Shimpa includes in its background not only the kabuki but the political novel and drama that enjoyed a brief vogue in the early years of the Meiji era. Breaking from kabuki it included in its repertoire the plays

Page  12 12 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS of such entrepreneurs as Kawakami Otojiro and Ii Yoho in which were treated various political events, legal judgments in criminal cases, and the battles of the Sino-Japanese war; and dramatizations of such novels as Tokutomi Roka's Hototogisu or Cuckoo and Ozaki Koyo's Konjiki yasha or Gold demon. Shimpa even enjoyed a golden age in the first decade of the twentieth century when three of the greatest actors of the kabuki stage, Ichikawa Danjuro the ninth, Onoe Kikugoro the fifth, and Ichikawa Sadanji the fourth died at almost the same time and shimpa began to attract some of the surviving kabuki actors. However, Kawakami's death in 1911 foreshadowed a decline in shimpa's fortunes. The plays reflected the sense of giri (obligation to a second person) and ninj6 (human feelings) accepted in Meiji and Taisho times. In the Sh6wa period an attempt has been made to incorporate into the shimpa repertory plays that in form and substance are modern dramas. Shimpa thus stands half-way between the kabuki and modern play. That it survives at all is something of a miracle, although in morality and sentiment, in its transvestite features, and in its interest as a museum for Meiji customs it no doubt makes a varied appeal. 15. The Beginnings of Modern Drama Modern drama in Japan began in and around 1907, about twenty years later than its European counterpart. Various developments stimulated its growth. Tsubouchi Shoyo's Shingakugekiron (Treatise on a New Drama) was written in 1904 in protest against the traditional forms of drama. Asking for a more realistic type of drama, Tsubouchi characteristically tried to put his theories to practice and wrote Kiri hitoha (One leaf of the paulownia) in the same year. This play, regarded as a "new" historical drama, was not entirely successful, but became the model for other plays by Mori Ogai, Okamoto Kido, Takayasu Gekk6, Oka Onitaro, Yamazaki Shik6, and Mayama Seika. The first plays given by the Bungei Kyokai or Literary Association, formed in the same year in order to study drama as an art and to produce actors, included translations of Western dramas like Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice and Hamlet and Ibsen's Doll's House. The kabuki actor, Ichikawa Danjuro, following a trip to Europe, established the Jiyu Gekij6 or Free Theater with Osanai Kaoru. Here for the first time native playwrights and actors worked in cooperation with each other. Still another organization was the Geijutsuza or Art Theater, and a further development came when the shimpa actor, Fujisawa Asajiro, established a school for actors and the graduates started the Doy6 Gekij6 or Saturday Theater. At least ten new drama companies were formed by 1910 or 1911. But by 1913 deficiencies in acting, stage technique, and management brought about the demise of most of the companies devoted to the modern play, but not before some of the leading actors of the kabuki and shimpa stages had felt impelled to act in the plays written by the newer dramatists. Modern drama was swiftly revived during World War I, when important authors of fiction began to devote a major part of their energies to the writing of plays. The important authors were Kikuchi Kan, Mushak6ji Saneatsu, Nakamura Kichizo, Kinoshita Mokutar6, Akita Ujaku, Kubota MantarO, Nagata Hideo, Yoshii Isamu, Tanizaki Jun'ichiro, Kume Masao, Yamamoto Yuzo, and Osanai Kaoru. Most of the palys dealt with realistic social problems and Kikuchi for one showed an inclination toward iconoclasm, but few of the plays achieved the significance of the fiction of the time, and too many of the authors seemed to wish only to entertain. Among the interesting developments of the time was the Shinkokugeki or New National Drama which was in part a throwback to the kabuki or at least to some of the historical dramas produced on the kabuki stage because it specialized in sword-fighting. The swordsmen in Nakazato Kaizan's Dai-Bosatsu t6ge (The mountain pass of the Great Buddha) and Yukitomo Rift's Kunisada Chuji, named after its Robin Hood-like hero, became the rage. Aside from the swordplays, the Shinkokugeki gathered together whatever else might be popular in appeal. Exciting dramatizations were thus staged of works as various as Dostoevski's Crime and punishment, Tolstoy's Resurrection, plays by Kikuchi Kan and Nakamura Kichiz6, and historical plays from the kabuki theatre. Popular appeal based on physical conflict was of the essence of these productions, which are still given from time to time. The great earthquake of 1923 destroyed most of the theatres. But from the ruins rose almost twenty small theatrical groups. Although most of these failed, the Tsukiji Sh6gekij6 or Tsukiji Small Theatre soon earned a measure of popularity. 16. The Tsukiji Little Theatre (Tsukiji Sh6gekij6) The Tsukiji Sh6gekij6 or Tsukiji Little Theatre was first opened in June, 1924, under the joint efforts of Osanai Kaoru and Hijikata Yoshi. Osanai had already worked vigorously at the importation of Western drama into Japan, and Hijikata had studied the work of the expressionist school in Germany during his travels abroad. Although seating only 600 viewers, the Tsukiji Little Theatre became the focal point for the development of the modern play in Japan. Prior to its opening Osanai had stated that modern Japanese plays meriting production were non-existent and that for a long time it would be his intention to produce only translations of Western drama. This called forth a violent reaction from such dranatistis as Kikuchi Kan, Yamamoto Yuz6, Kubota Mantar6, and Kishida Kunio who were already associated as regular contributors to the theatre magazine Engeki shincho or New tides in drama. A large number of plays had been written since about 1917, and these writers had all produced notable examples of their craft. Among their plays were Kikuchi's Chichi kaeru (The father returns), Yamamoto's Sakazaki Dewa-no-kami (Sakazaki, Lord of Dewa), Kubota's Fuk6 (Bad fortune), and Kishida's Chiroru no aki (Autumn in the Tyrol). Since the authors had considered the period prior to 1924 to have been a kind of golden age in modern drama, Osanai's statements were felt to be unnecessarily severe. But as Osanai saw it,

Page  13 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE 13 the little regard with which modern drama was in general held, the small number of fixed customers (who were also restricted to the intelligentsia), and the shortness of the runs enjoyed by most of the plays made the Tsukiji Little Theatre primarily "a laboratory for the drama." After about two years Osanai retreated from his decision to produce nothing but translated plays, and added the works of Tsubouchi Shoyo, Kubota Mantaro, and Mushakoji Saneatsu to a repertory that finally included the works of Chekhov, Gorki, Ibsen, Gogol, Wedekind, Shakespeare, Goering, and Kaiser. The Tsukiji Little Theatre came to an end in 1929, a year after Osanai's death. Its varied offerings had served to introduce Western dramaturgy into Japan, and the publication of the two series entitled Sekai gikyoku zenshui (Anthology of world drama) and Kindaigeki zenshQ (Anthology of modern drama), in the inexpensive "yen-books," too had served to stimulate the Japanese dramatists. 17. Proletarian drama The years during which Osanai and his supporters isolated themselves in their "laboratory for the drama" and worked for the development of modern drama in Japan was also a time when the proletarian literature movement was receiving its start. The Senkuza (Advanced Theatre) was an early leftist group. After the earthquake in 1923, it was replaced by the Zen'eiza (Advance Guard Theatre) and by a traveling theatrical troupe,the Toranku Gekij6 (Trunk Theatre). In 1926 the latter group joined with the Proletarian Literary League in producing a version of Tokunaga Sunao's novel of the printing trade, Taiyo no nai machi (A street where there is no sun). Toranku Gekij6 had at first been a mere gathering of amateur players. Presently adding the playwrights Hisaita Eijiro and Murayama Tomoyoshi, it developed into the Zen'eiza or Advance Guard Theatre Group, and in December, 1926, produced Kaiho-sareta Don Kihote (A liberated Don Quixote) at the Tsukiji Theatre. Although this play was given for only three days, the tremendous applause with which it was greeted astounded Osanai and his group; in the following year, Fujimori Seikichi's Nani ga kanojo o so saseta ka? (What made her do it?) became the first drama written by a leftist writer to be presented by the Little Theatre. The walls of the "laboratory" had been broken. In Fujimori's play the daughter of a poor farmer undergoes many trying and even degrading experiences and at the end sets fire to a Christian church. Social evils are attacked by the author from a humanitarian viewpoint. The play strongly affected its viewers and immediately assured for Fujimori a position in the front rank of dramatists. On March 15, 1928, orders were issued for the arrest of all Communist Party members. In opposition, the writers and artists of the proletarian movement joined in establishing the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei or All-Japan Proletarian Art League, also known as NAPF from the initials of its Esperanto name. Specifically organized for the field of drama was the Nihon Puroretaria Gekij6 Domei (The Japanese Proletarian Theatre Federation). The Zen'eiza which had once been dissolved now became the Sayoku Gekij5 or Left-wing Theatre, and took the initiative from the Proletarian Theatre Federation as far as the presentation of proletarian dramas was concerned. On the other hand, Osanai's death in 1928 brought about an aggravation of the internal troubles that had begun to upset the Tsukiji Little Theatre. The members of this theatre company were now split into two groups, the first being the Gekidan Tsukiji Shogekijo (Drama Troupe of the Tsukiji Little Theatre), which followed Osanai's wishes and worked for an academic theatre, and the second being the Shin-Tsukiji Gekidan (The New Tsukiji Drama Troupe), which supported Hijikata Yoshi and devoted itself to political drama. It was to be expected that the Shin-Tsukiji Gekidan, which became a part of the Proletarian Theatre Federation, should take direction from the Sayoku Gekijo (Leftist Theatre) in the kind of plays that were produced, and this was also true for a time of the Gekidan Tsukiji group. The period up to August, 1932, when the authorities ordered the dissolution of the Sayoku Gekijb and Shin-Tsukiji Gekidan, was one in which leftist drama enjoyed its greatest prosperity. Among the most noteworthy productions were Murayama Tomoyoshi's B6ryokudanki (Record of a gang of racketeers), produced in 1929; Murayama's T6y6 Shary6 K6oj (The Oriental Rolling Stock Factory), produced in 1931; and Kubo Sakae's Chugoku Konan-sh6 (Hunan Province, China), produced in 1932. Although these plays are defective in structure and too obviously written for agitation and propaganda, they had the virtue of presenting subjects taken from actual society and of expressing strong feelings that could not be confined within the walls of a theatre. It was at this time that the theatre began to appeal not only to the intellectual classes but to the proletariat. In Murayama's Boryokudanki, which had for its subject the differences between the warlords in control of the Peking-Hankow railroad in China and the laborers working on it, the workers act self-sacrificingly in order to bring the military to its heels. Although the characters are mechanically contrived, the structure harmonizes rather well with the stringency inherent in the subject matter. In its depiction of the proletariat as hero, Murayama's play was hailed as an epoch-making work. 18. The Drama-writing School (Gekisakuha,4') /i i-f ) Upon his return from abroad in 1923, Kishida Kunio was swiftly welcomed by the dramatistis writing for Engeki shincho (New Currents in Drama) and wrote a series of plays combining French intellectuality and fantasy including Furui gangu (An old toy), Chiroru no aki (Autumn in the Tyrol), and Kamifusen (Paper balloon). In 1928 came Ushiyama Hoteru (Ushiyama Hotel), in which he sculptured in detail the Japanese residing in French Indo-China. The delicate diction with which this play reveals the subtle psychological moods found among the characters has retained its freshness down to the present day. In this respect it is like Odera gakko (Odera's school), written in 1927 by Kubota Mantaro. Both agree in the appeal of their writing styles. However, Kishida's plan, to bring into Japan a fresh dramatic beauty inspired by the modern play in France, could not be realized at a time when the theatre-going public was still unprepared for it, and Kishida stood isolated both from the Tsukiji Little Theatre then enjoying a dominant position in Japan and from the leftist theatre. It seemed inevitable that he should turn to the writing of novels after Ushiyama Hoteru.

Page  14 14 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Kishida, however, again played an important role in the history of Showa drama when he assumed the editorship of the magazine Gekisaku (Dramatic composition), which was first published in March, 1932. Gathered around Kishida in this venture were Sakanaka Masao, Kawaguchi Ichiro, Tanaka Chikao, Uchimura Naoya, and Sugahara Takashi; later additions included Morimoto Kaoru, Koyama Yushi, and Taguchi Takeo. The entire group was anti-leftist. Emphasizing paychological realism, their plays were concerned with the delicate interplay of thought and feeling found among the lesser citizens of a city. Among the representative plays of the Gekisaku group are Nijurokubankan (Building number 26), written in 1932 by Kawaguchi Ichiro, in which the playwright recreates with great skill the life of some Japanese living in New York; Ofukuro (Mother), written in 1933 by Tanaka Chikao, a play distinguished for the subtlety of its dialogue; Seto naikai no kodomotachi (The children of the Inland Sea), by Koyama Yushi, a play likewise composed in 1933 and notable for its lyrical atmosphere; and Hanabanashiki ichizoku (A prosperous family), by Morimoto Kaoru, 1935, a light comedy full of psychological subtleties. Among these playwrights, Morimoto in particular is known as a many-sided genius. It was at the Tsukijiza that the plays of the Gekisaku group were usually performed. There the husband and wife team of Tomoda Kyosuke and Tamura Akiko were the producers, and Kishida and Kubota the directors. 19. The Drama Prior to World War II When Japan began her ventures on the Asian continent in 1931, the government immediately took steps to quell the leftist movement and the Japanese Proletarian Theatre Federation was forced to disband along with the other proletarian groups. Under these difficult circumstances, the members of the leftist theatre groups began to ask themselves whether their emphasis on political ideas had been proper. Taking his cue from the second Soviet Writers' Congress, which had discussed the theme of socialistic realism, Murayama Tomoyoshi proposed the amalgamation of all the groups working in modern drama. In response to Murayama's call, the Shinky6 Gekidan (Newly Associated Theatre Troupe) was formed in November, 1934, and an era dawned in which this new organization and the newly reorganized Shin-Tsukiji Gekidan (The New Tsukiji Drama Troupe) became the two rival producing organizations. The works of such dramatists as Kubo Sakae, Hisaita Eijir6, and Miyoshi Juro, who had worked industriously since the beginning of the Showa era, were all produced by these two theatre groups. Hisaita's Hokuto no kaze (A northeast wind), written in 1937, took for the model of its chief character the textile manufacturer Muto Sanji, and showed how his warmly paternalistic attitude toward his workers, caught between the coldly calculating power of the capitalists and the growth of the proletariat, finally brought him to ruin. Hisaita's play seeks to show in miniature the whole development of capitalism in Japan, and so has a largeness of subject matter unusual in Japanese drama. Kubo's work, Kazambaichi (The ash terrace of a volcano), written in 1937-38, has for its background the farming areas of Hokkaid6. Among the characters in this play are tenant farmers, makers of charcoal, and managers of farms, and a conscientious agricultural specialist working at the improvement of farms. The special characteristics of Japanese farming life are developed in this play, which is perhaps the most conspicuous example of socialistic realism in Japanese drama. Miyoshi Juro's Bui (Buoy), written in 1940, may not exhibit the same concern with social problems found in Hokuto no kaze and Kazambaichi, but it boldly takes up the problem of conversion faced by the leftists at the time of their suppression and searches deeply into the feelings and motivations of the people involved. Reflecting on the proletarian movement which had been ruthlessly destroyed by the authorities, these authors still dealt with sociological problems and with the characters of men caught in them. In part too they constituted an artistic resistance against the approaching fascistic age. Among the more progressive social scientists and historians of the day, the nature of the development of Japanese capitalism was then being hotly debated. The dramatists, however, wrote such works as Fujimori Seikichi's novel, Watanabe Kazan, and Nagata Hideo's play, Daibutsu kaigan (The opening of the eyes of the great image of Buddha), in which may be seen an unwillingness on their part to deal with modern-day problems at a time when freedom of expression was being severely restricted. The Tsukijiza, which had been overshadowed by the Shinkyo Gekidan (Newly Associated Drama Troupe) and by the Shin-Tsukiji Gekidan (The New Tsukiji Drama Troupe), made a fresh start as the Bungakuza (Literary Theatre) in 1937. Because of its insistence on the artistic nature of its efforts and its refusal to deal with social and political problems, it was permitted to continue its existence even during the Pacific War. It was the Bungakuza that produced Morimoto Kaoru's Doto (Surging waves) in October, 1943, and his Onna no issho (The life of a woman) in April, 1945. These were successful plays in which he deliberately emphasized a traditional morality and an exciting plot, and so appealed directly to public favor. In September, 1934, Mafune Yutaka's Itachi (The weasel) was produced by the Sosakuza or Creative Theatre, which had separated from the Tsukijiza. This work, delving deeply into the feudalistic relationships found among the families of a farming village, suddenly established its author's position as a front-rank dramatist. First concerned with rural life, Mafune now turned his attention to the city and portrayed a number of urban character-types, satirically, in a series of plays. These included Hadaka no machi (A naked town) and Mishiranu hito (The stranger). The last half of the 1930s was a period during which the Gekisaku circle headed by Kishida Kunio was opposed by the dramatists gathered in the Shinky6 Gekidan and Shin-Tsukiji Gekidan groups. This opposition repeated in drama the conflict between the artistic and ideological groups found in fiction. The playwrights, nevertheless, mutually influenced each other and the age was one of considerable fruitfulness. However, both the Shinkyo Gekidan and Shin-Tsukiji Gekidan groups suffered severe restrictions in 1940, and Gekisaku too was obliged to cease publication. This was the situation in 1941, when the Pacific War began.

Page  15 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE 15 The authors who were more or less removed from the modern theatre movement might now be named. By about 1935 the older playwrights who had written for the kabuki theatre had almost all died. These writers included the famous Tsubouchi Shoyo, Okamoto Kid6, Ikeda Daigo, and Oka Onitar6. Only Mayama Seika remained to complete Genroku chishingura (The Genroku treasury of loyal retainers) in 1941. Among the younger men Uno Nobuo, ably depicting the feelings of city folk in Edo times, was the principal successor to these playwrights. The writers of popular dramas intended only to thrill or amuse their audiences included Kikuta Kazuo, Yagi Ryfuichir6, and H6j6 Hideji. 20. Drama during World War II and in the Post-war Era During World War II many plays were written with the intention of raising popular enthusiasm for the fighting, but almost nothing remains of any consequence. However, Iizawa Tadasu's Choken kassen (War between the birds and beasts), written in 1944 and lightly satirizing the war effort, gave a measure of entertainment to the citizens of Tokyo who were already under bombardment. The real legacies of the wartime period were published only after the war was over; these include Kinoshita Junji's Fiiuro (Wind and waves) and Kato Michio's Nayotake (Pliant bamboo). Furo depicted a group of young samurai in Kumamoto in the early years of the Meiji era anguished over the problem how they might best live at a time when society was suffering so many changes. Nayotake, based on the ancient Taketori monogatari (Tale of the bamboo-cutter), unfolded a beautiful fantasy. Although differing in their structure the two plays agree in crystalizing the sentiments of young dramatists filled with anguished thoughts during the dark years of the war. Kinoshita also wrote a masterful play based on an ancient legend, Yuilzuru (The crane in the evening), in 1949, but it was still not so important, ideologically, as Furo. Kat6, believing that his creative years had come to an end, committed suicide in 1953. It is possible to argue that the path followed by Kinoshita and Kato depicts in brief the history of drama after World War II. The playwrights were faced with the problem of surpassing the socialistic realism of Kazambaichi and the psychological realism of the Gekisaku school. This they discovered to be a virtually impossible task. Most of the theatres of Tokyo, including the Tsukiji Little Theatre, were destroyed in the wartime bombing. The revival of drama in the postwar period therefore faced unusual difficulties. Still, Chekhov's Cherry Orchard was produced jointly by the several theatre companies in late 1945, and in 1946, the Shinkyo Gekidan, reorganized after the war, the Bungakuza, which had continued production even during the wartime period, and the Haiyuza, formed in the latter years of the war, were able to resume their work. It was as if the public were placing great expectations in the modern play with the changes that had come about in society. Later, the Shinky6 Gekidan, which might have been expected to show the greatest amount of activity, suffered the resignation of many members. The Tokyo Geijutsu Gekijo or Tokyo Art Theatre group, formed after the war, was reorganized as the Mingei or People's Drama group in 1949. This became one of the three principal drama companies along with the Bungakuza and Haiyuza. The Bungakuza continues to stand on the platform enunciated at the time of its formation, that it would provide spiritual entertainment for educated adults, and has enjoyed the support of a fairly large audience. The Haiyuza, holding that the drama should not be made the servant of politics, attempts to build a new dramatic tradition after experimentation with various stage techniques. Today it commands the highest position among the Japanese dramatic companies. At the beginning, Mingei appeared to be only a chance assemblage of actors, but it has now settled down to a fixed program of production. In addition, the Bud6 no Kai, led by Kinoshita Junji, is attempting to establish itself as a fourth important producing group. Giving support to these dramatic companies, which today are responsible for a more active modern theatre than Japan has ever enjoyed, are many small amateur companies, and it is possible to state that modern drama has at last established itself. Not to be outdone by the two young playwrights, Kato and Kinoshita, the dramatists who had already established their positions in the years before the war have also resumed their writing. Thus Kishida Kunio wrote Hayami jojuku (The Hayami private school for girls) in 1949 and some other works, but the lively dialogue of his earlier plays is gone, and his most important work in the postwar years seems to consist in the establishment of the Kumo no Kai (Cloud Society), an organization that seeks an interchange of views between the writers of fiction and drama. Mafune Yutaka composed the satirical comedies Kiiroi heya (A yellow room) and Tatsu no otoshigo (A sea-horse) in 1948 and 1949 respectively, but has since become lost in the writing of radio dramas. Kubo Sakae wrote Ringoen nikki (A diary about an apple orchard) directly after the war, and in 1953 produced Nihon no kish5 (Japan's weather), but without too much response from his audiences. In Sono hito o shirazu (We don't know the man), Miyoshi Jur6 pictured a number of desperate people living an almost animal-like existence in the first postwar years, but was unable to escape the criticism that his work was artistically crude. Those who had previously belonged to the Gekisaku group made a late appearance in the years after World War II. Uchimura Naoya, after one or two attempts at serious drama, turned to radio and television, and Koyama YUshi, who won critical approval for Futari dake no but6kai (A dance party for two only) in 1956, is perhaps too lyrical for the complicated dramatic tastes of the postwar world. Tanaka Chikao, who wrote Bizen fudoki (Record of Bizen province) in 1956, seems, on the other hand, to possess a wider appeal. Deserving special mention is the work of the newest dramatists appearing in recent years. Coming from the world of fiction and criticism are such writers as Mishima Yukio, Fukuda Tsuneari, Shiina Rinzo, and Abe Kobo, all of whom possess qualities that are not to be found in the authors coming from before the war. Mishima's collection of modern no plays are one-act masterpieces abounding in a mystic symbolism. In Ryu o nadeta otoko (The man who stroked the dragon), Fukuda borrowed his plot from T.S. Eliot's Cocktail Party and

Page  16 16 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS and James Thurber's Unicorn in the Garden, and produced a kind of intellectual comedy not previously seen in Japan. Shiina and Abe too are writers of dramas with high intellectual content. This section should perhaps close with a roster of the dramatists whose plays have been produced by the various theatrical groups. The Shinkyo Gekidan has produced the plays of Murayama Tomoyoshi, Osawa Mikio, and Suzuki Masao; the Bungakuza the plays of Kubota Mantaro, Kishida Kunio, Morimoto Kaoru, and Fukuda Tsuneari, together with a dramatization of Ooka Sh6hei's novel, Mushashino fujin or The Musashino lady; the Haiyfza the works of Mafune Yutaka, Kubo Sakae, Kishida Kunio, Tanaka Chikao, Fukuda Tsuneari, and Kat6 Michio; and the Tokyo Geijutsu Gekijo and its successor, the Mingeiza, the plays of Kinoshita Junji, Mushakoji Saneatsu, Kubo Sakae, and Miyoshi Juro. These groups have also produced translations of plays by Tennessee Williams, Gogol, Rolland, Kleist, Chekhov, Ibsen, and Wilder. The Bunkaza or Culture Theatre, one of the smaller groups, has given the works of Miyoshi Juro, and another troupe, the Baraza or Rose Theatre, the plays of Kikuta Kazuo, Hisaita Eijir6, and Kikuoka Kuri. The S6sakugeki Kenkyukai or Society for the Study of Creative Drama, finally, has given recognition to the plays of Kinoshita Junji, Akimoto Matsuyo, Tanaka Sumie, and Mishima Yukio. C. THE SHI OR LONG POEM 21. The Background Many of the older poets writing in the Shbwa era began their careers in the early years of the twentieth century. A review of the influences under which they worked shows the close relationship which obtains between the history of fiction and the history of poetry. In both genres, the principal developments seem to follow one on the other in virtually the same chronological succession. For poetry the years 1895-1905 were characterized by romanticist writing; 1906-1910 by naturalism; 1911-1914 by evidences of decadent tendencies; 1915-1919 by an idealist reaction; and 1920-1925 by intellectualist and ideological concerns. By and large these predilections are as evident in fiction as in poetry. The long poem in the Sh6wa era is rather sharply distinguished from the long poem in the Meiji and Taish6 periods. This is true not only of the long poem but of literature in general; however, since the long poem is by nature a form of advanced art in Japan, the distinction seems to be most conspicuous here. Both the tanka and haiku also belong in the realm of poetry, but as they follow traditional forms they do not show the same sharp changes found in the history of the long poem. When the Meiji era opened, the thirty-one syllable tanka and the seventeen-syllable haiku were the dominant poetic forms in Japan; moreover, their overwhelming popularity had long been accompanied by a strange reluctance on the part of the poets to try poems of greater length. Having ceased to write the choka (long poems) in the early tenth century or thereabouts, the Japanese waited until the impact of Western influence to attempt poems in their own language that were longer than the tanka and haiku. a. The Shintaishish6o - 4 T (Selection of Poems of New Form) It was the Shintaishish6 (Selection of Poems of New Form), published in 1882, which marked a major turning point in the history of Japanese poetry. For it was in this work, with its fourteen translations from Western poetry and five Japanese originals, that the three collaborators, Toyama Chuzan, Yatabe Ry6ichi, and Inoue TetsujirO dramatically demonstrated to their readers that a revolution in Japanese poetry had taken place. Included in the Shintaishish6 were the translations (in whole or in part) of Tennyson's Charge of the Light Brigade, Grey's Elegy in a Country Church-yard, Longfellow's Three Fishers, and four extracts from Shakespeare. The Japanese poems too reached far beyond the limits of the tanka. Included were a war song, a poem "on the principles of sociology," some verses written before the Buddha at Kamakura, an ode to the four seasons, and a poem on the encouragement of learning. The Shintaishish6 opened the way to great activity in the long poem. A pronounced vigorousness, unknown to the tanka and haiku, is found in the works of Yuasa Hangetsu, Komuro Kutsuzan, Ochiai Naobumi, and in the translations of Ochiai, Mori Ogai, and other poets found in Omokage (Images), a collection published in 1889. Christian hymns, songs written in the manner of the Buddhist imayo (ballad-like hymns), popular songs, and war songs were written, and the work entitled Shintaishisen (Selections of poems of new form), published in 1886 by the Ken'yuiisha or Society of Inkstone Friends, followed the light and clever rhythms of the folk-song. b. The Pseudo-classical School (Gikoha V St <) The heavy hand of convention, however, was rarely lifted. The shi or long poem adjusted itself to Japanese poetic tradition in its tendency to favor the alteration of lines containing seven syllables and five. Up to the end of the Sino-Japanese War in 1895, the long poem was in fact characterized by a strongly archaic or classical emphasis. The so-called Gikoha or Classical School was composed of Inoue and Toyama, already memtioned, Omachi Keigetsu, Takeshima Hagoromo, Shioi Uko, and Ueda Mannen. Although Toyama wrote some prose poems and free verse, and Inoue, Shioi, and Takeshima were not without their poetic moments, most of their work was characterized by trite diction, fixed rhythms, and a poverty-stricken imagination. Since this poetry was published in Teikoku Daigaku (Imperial University), the poets were known as the Daigakuha or University School. Contributing to Joj6shi (Lyric poetry and Kokumin no tomo (Friend of the people) were certain poets of the Waseda School who wrote more simply and innocently, and with more pitiable effects. These poets, more than the Teikoku Daigaku poets, anticipated the romantic movement, but it must be said that they too preserved traditional rhythms and diction.

Page  17 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE 17 22. The Romantic Movement It was the romantic movement centered in the journal Bungakkai (Literary world) that finally created a poetry that was truly modernized in its content. To quote Shimazaki Toson, "It was like a beautiful dream... All of the poets seemed to be intoxicated with their brightness, their new voices, and with their fancies." The principal romantic poet was Shimazaki himself. Love and the beauties of nature, sentimentally viewed, were the principal subjects, but Tsuchii Bansui gave voice to nationalist ideals. Yosano Tekkan wrote "masculine" poems, and in November, 1899, organized the Tokyo Shinshisha or Toky6 School of the Long Poem, with the magazine Myojo (Bright star), first published in April, 1900, as its organ. Yosano's wife Akiko soon became the principal representative of the Myojo group, with her burning feelings expressed both in the long poem and in the tanka. The romanticist movement held sway from about 1895 to 1905; Kitamura Tokoku was the major theorist. Outside Myojo, Susukida Kyukin wrote quiet, elegant, and highly refined verse, sometimes in the sonnet form. Kambara Ariake was a symbolist poet, delicate and dreamlike in his melancholy. Finally, in Kaich6on or Sounds of the Ocean Tide, published in 1905, Ueda Bin introduced the theories of the European symbolists and of the French Parnassians. 23. The Naturalist School Even as romanticism achieved its highest popularity, a naturalist reaction became evident in Mori Ogai's Uta nikki (Poem diary), published in 1907. Ogai was copied even by such poets of the Myojo school as Yosano Tekkan, Kitahara Hakushui, and Ota Masao. These poets took the humbler objects of everyday life for their subject matter and adopted an impressionistic technique. A vigorous realism and directness in feeling were demanded. Some, like Iwano H6mei, combined naturalism and symbolism. Many believed in free verse and the use of the spoken language; Katayama Koson, Kawaji Ryuko, Soma Gyofu, and the poets of the Waseda School, Kat5 Kaishun and Hitomi Tomei, belonged to this group, which was supported by the critical writings of Hattori Yoshika, Shimamura H6getsu, and Katagami Tengen. Kitahara Hakushu and Nagata Hideo, who left the Shinshisha when Myojo published an article attacking naturalism in December, 1907, were influenced by the plein-air or open air school of painting. Analyzing the world of phenomena into color and sound, they seemed to distort them in their representations. They looked for humble subject matters and wrote free verse, but not in the spoken language. 24. The Decadents The poetry of the decadent school, predominant in the years 1911-1914, is a prolongation of the romanticism found in Myojo. This decadent poetry was centered in three magazines: Subaru (The Pleiades), Okujo teien (Rooftop garden), and Zamboa (named after a plant, The Pride of India). Two other magazines, publishing the work of splinter groups, were Mita bungaku (Mita literature) and Shinshicho (New currents of thought). The principal poets were Nagai Kafu, Kitahara Hakushu (a poet extremely sensitive to changes in poetic fashions), Kinoshita Mokutar6, Nagata Hideo, Takamura K6tar6, Miki Rofu (not entirely a decadent poet in his tendency to lapse into common-sense explanations), Sat6 Haruo, Horiguchi Daigaku, Hagiwara Sakutaro, Muro Saisei, Saijo Yaso, Yanagisawa Ken, and Hinatsu K6nosuke. Influenced by naturalism, the decadents found beauty in things that were corrupt, degenerate, or decayed, and believed that realistic pains and disturbances might be swept away through sharp observation and intense stimulation. Nature was judged to be illusory, the world clothed in rampant, almost pathologically distorted colors. Immoderate fleshly pleasures became a favorite subject matter. The past was recalled with pleasure; at the same time, both the poet and reader were carried into areas of feeling associated with the city and with foreign lands. 25. The Idealists The poetry of the idealists was at first characterized by the same kind of spirit that moved the Shirakaba or White Birch school. It was based on strongly human feelings and hopes as opposed to the nihilism of most of the naturalists and the love of enjoyment that moved the decadents. Takamura K6tar6's D6tei (Itinerary), published in 1914, Kitahara Hakushi's Hakkin no koma (Platinum top), published in 1914, and Miki Rofu's religious poetry are all idealist in their tendencies. Senke Motomaro and Ozaki Kihachi represented the Shirakaba school, which was not noted for its poetry. Mur5 Saisei, like Kitahara, came from the school of decadence. Also, from about 1916, a democratic poetry inspired by Walt Whitman, Edward Carpenter, and Horace L. Traubel and written in free verse rose in the works of Shiratori Shogo, Fukuda Masao, Tomita Saika, Momota Soji, and Kato Kazuo. Takamura, Senke, Ito Sonosuke, Kawaji Ryuko, and Yamamura Bocho were soon attracted to this group. Yamamura, somewhat like Takamura, became a Christian. Fukushi Kojir6 and Noguchi Yonejir6 also belong to this somewhat diverse group of idealists. 26. Intellectualist Poetry Combining a free verse form with poetic images and everyday language with unusual ideas and perceptions were a group of poets who prided themselves on their symbolist and classical styles. According to Hinatsu K6nosuke, poetry "points the way toward discovery of the high road to the temple of God," but much of his ideology was heretic, and in general he followed an art-above-all philosophy. Hagiwara Sakutaro joined

Page  18 18 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS pathological perceptions and pessimistic fancies, expressed, however, in a apoken language idiom that is carefully chosen for rhythmic qualities and becomes a fine poetic diction. Sorrow and nihilism characterized his spirit. In his poems around 1923-1925, he recorded his anarchistic anger in poems descriptive of Japanese scenery. With Kambara Ariake he ranks as Japan's finest symbolist poet. Also following symbolist, perceptive, and classical styles are Saijo Yaso, Yanagisawa Ken, Ikuta Shungetsu, Sato Haruo, and Sato Sonosuke. 27. The Older Poets in the Early Showa Era With the advent of the Sh6wa period many of the poets of the long poem who had begun their careers in Meiji and Taisho times continued to produce works of outstanding quality. These poets include Takamura Kotar6, Hagiwara Sakutaro, and Horiguchi Daigaku, all of whom published anthologies that enhanced their fame. Other important poets from the past include Kawai Suimei, Kitahara Hakushui, Kawaji Ryuko, Muro Saisei, and Sato Haruo. However, there is no real change evidenced in the work of these poets. They continued their writing outside of the newer trends found in the long poem. 28. Dadaism and Similar Influences from the West The newer developments in the long poem came through the influence of the various fresh views of art arising in Europe both before and during World War I. In December, 1921, Hirado Kenkichi issued his Nihon miraiha dai-ikkai sengen (First proclamation of the Japanese futurist school). The Japanese Dadaist movement arose somewhat later when in 1923 Takahashi Shinkichi published Dadaisuto Shinkichi no shi (The long poems of Dadaist Shinkichi). The same year saw the first publication of the journal Aka to kuro (The red and the black), in which Hagiwara Kyojiro, Okamoto Jun, Tsuboi Shigeji, and Ono Tosaburo joined in pursuing the aims of Dadaism. Both in spirit and in form of representation, these poets denied completely the artistic tenets of the older schools; anarchistically, they demanded the destruction of these ideals simply for the purpose of destruction. Similar to Aka to kuro is A (Ah'), in which Kitagawa Fuyuhiko, Anzai Fuyue, Takiguchi Takeshi, and Haruyama Yukio collaborated, and Gei gimugigamu purururu gimugemu, in which Kitazono Katsue and others published their work. These poets differed greatly from the more popular people's poetry which made up the main current of verse in the Taish6 era. Coming in at almost the same time with Dadaism were compositionalism, representationism, and cubism. Dadaism lasted only a few years. As the Showa period dawned, two main streams of the long poem became evident. The first is found in the proletarian school which denied all artistic assumptions and tried to dissect Japanese society with a highly critical eye, and the second in the artistic schools that looked toward a revolution solely in the spirit in which poetry is composed. 29. Proletarian Poetry The birth of proletarian poetry is found in the journal Bungei sensen (Literary battle-line) which was first published in 1924. Its development continued in Aozora (The blue sky) and Roba (Donkey), first issued in 1925 and 1926 respectively. However, with the exception of Nakano Shigeharu of the Roba group, none of the poets was able to write a poetry of ideas based on the existence of the social classes, and most of their work resulted from a broadly humanistic point of view. At the beginning of the Showa era, the proletarian poets divided themselves into two main groups. The first was made up of the poets of Aka to kuro who were now joined by Uemura Tai, Akiyama Kiyoshi, Kikuoka Kuri, and Kusano Shimpei. Standing on a platform of anarchism, they wrote long poems that were characterized by a completely iconoclastic spirt. The second group, more representative of the entire group of proletarian poets, adopted Marxism for its ideology. The Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei (All-Japan Proletarian Art League), also known as NAPF from the initials of its Esperanto name, was formed in 1928, with the journal Senki (Battle flag) as its organ. The leading poets were Nakano Shigeharu, Ueno Takeo, Miyoshi Jur6, Moriyama Kei, Nuyama Hiroshi, Matsuda Tokiko, Kubokawa Tsurujiro, Taki Shigeru, Miyagi Kikuo, It6 Shinkichi, and Hasegawa Shin. In time Tsuboi likewise shifted from anarchism to this group. In 1929, after NAPF's reorganization, the publication of Senki passed to the Senkisha, and in 1930 a new journal, Nappu, became the organ for the league. In addition, the journals Puroretaria-shi (Proletarian poetry), Puroretaria bungaku (Proletarian literature), and Bungaku shimbun (Literary news) also published the works of the proletarian poets, who looked upon their poems as being weapons in the war between the classes. Invading the factories and farms, they began to have a nation-wide influence. One of the literary fruits of their endeavors was the publication of the Nihon puroretaria shishlu (Anthology of the Japanese proletarian long poem), which was first issued in 1927 to commemorate the anniversary of the Russian revolution. Later editions were published in 1928, 1929, 1931, and 1932. Among the newer poets gaining recognition at this time were Onchi Terutake and Oe Mitsuo. Proletarian poetry enjoyed its greatest vogue from about 1928 to about 1931 or 1932. But its political coloration hastened its prosecution by the authorities and swiftly brought about its decline. The various journals were forced to cease publication; Senki came to an end in March, 1931. The Nihon Puroretaria Sakka D6mei (Japanese Proletarian Writers' Federation), which had been at the center of the proletarian literary movement, was dissolved in 1934 under the oppressions it suffered at the hands of the government following the outbreak of the Manchurian war. Inevitably, proletarian poetry declined until it reached the stage of near demise.

Page  19 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE 19 In general the proletarian poets had very little interest in poetry as an art. They also paid little or no attention to the newer movements current in foreign poetry. For them art was only an accessory to politics. Although there was a great deal of vigor in the proletarian poetry movement, the results were uniformly poor. 30. The Surrealist Movement and the Magazine Shi to shiron. t t (The Long Poem and Poetics) It was the journal Shi to shiron which became the central gathering point of the poets who constituted the largest and most important group in the first years of the Sh6wa era. In this magazine are found the major developments of modern poetry, especially poetry inspired by surrealism. Surrealism was introduced into Japan through Gekka no ichigun (Group under the moon), a collection of translations from French poetry published in 1925 by Horiguchi Daigaku. In 1928 Horiguchi and Hinatsu Konosuke joined in bringing out the first issue of the journal Panteon (Pantheon). Here Tanaka Fuyuji, Iwasa ToichirO, Aoyagi Mizuho, JO Samon, and others developed an urban and elegant poetic style. Panteon came to an end in 1929 after ten issues and Horiguchi became the editor of a new magazine Orufeon (Orpheon). The poet who became most conspicuous here was Hishiyama Shuzo, the author of poetic prose characterized by a previously unknown intellectualist flavor. Okazaki Seiichir6 and Iwasa T6ichir6 also attempted to write poetic prose. The final issue of Orufeon came in 1930 after Miyoshi Tatsuji, Haruyama Yukio, and Anzai Fuyue too had contributed to its pages. Panteon and Orufeon both seemed to lie somewhat outside the mainstream of poetry, but they stood in sharp opposition to proletarian poetry and reflected one of the phases of society in the early Showa era. It was the quarterly magazine Shi to shiron which actually introduced, put into practice, and gave unity to the doctrines of surrealism. Published for the first time in 1928, it appeared somewhat later than Panteon. Coming to a temporary end in December, 1931, after fourteen issues had been published, it was republished in March of the following year under the name Bungaku (Literature), which too was a quarterly and ran through six issues. All of the artistic ideologies then current abroad were introduced through Shi to shiron and put into practice. Andre Breton's proclamation on Dadaism, translated by Sato Saku, was published in the third number, and a proclamation on surrealism, by Kitagawa Fuyuhiko, in the fourth and fifth numbers. Bungaku took on the appearance almost of a journal devoted to the publication of studies of Western literature. The eleven poets who from the first belonged to the coterie publishing Shi to shiron were Anzai Fuyue, Iijima Tadashi, Ueda Toshio, Takenaka Iku, Kambara Tai, Kitagawa Fuyuhiko, Kondo Azuma, Takiguchi Takeshi, Toyama Usaburo, Haruyama Yukio, and Miyoshi Tatsuji. With the publication of the fifth issue in September, 1929, these poets renamed themselves the kikosha or contributors and added the following names to their number: 6no Shun'ichi, Sasazawa Yoshiaki, Sat5 Ichiei, Sat6 Saku, Takiguchi Shuzo, Nishiwaki Junzabur6, Hori Tatsuo, Yokomitsu Riichi, and Yoshida Issui. Kitazono Katsue, Sakamoto Etsuro, and Hishiyama Shuzo also contributed. Murano Shir6 and Ando Ichiro are other poets who stand close to the Shi to shiron group. It is by no means true that all of these poets were necessarily agreed in all the details of their practice. Haruyama and Kitazono, who were two of the leaders, made formalism their aim, Ueda Toshio and Takiguchi Shuzo aimed at the representation of their psychological reactions, and Takenaka Iku worked at the writing of cinepoems. But in giving shape to a new spirit in poetry, these poets agreed. And the poet who gave the strongest theoretical support to their activities was Haruyama,who denied all the musical and lyric qualities in poetry and emphasized an intellectualized composition depending on images and the combination of images. Kitagawa tried to give actuality to this new spirit in poetic prose. Nishiwaki, like Haruyama, became known as an introducer of surrealist principles and as a poet who realized these principles in his works. Remaining from this period are Ken'onki to hana (A thermometer and flowers) and Senso (War) by Kitagawa, Ambaruwaria (Ambarvalia) by Nishiwaki, Zoge kaigan (The Ivory Coast) by Takenaka, and Sokuryosen (Survey ship) by Miyoshi. The surrealist movement achieved its highest vogue during the first two years or so of its existence. After June, 1930, when the eighth number of Shi to shiron came out, Kitagawa and Miyoshi left the movement, which thereupon fell into a gradual decline. But the surrealist movement continued for a long time thereafter to influence many poets and its members still rank in the forefront of present-day poets. 31. The Long Poem in the Thirties Kitagawa and Miyoshi, who had left the Shi to shiron group, joined in publishing Shi, genjitsu (Poetry, reality) in June, 1930, and tried to recapture the humanness which surrealism had lost. Other poets coming to this new journal included Hishiyama, Kambara, Moriyama, Nishizawa Ryuiji, Maruyama Kaoru, and Ito Shinkichi. As a whole, they were characterized by a strong Marxist tendency; this is particularly evident in the works of Ito and Moriyama. In Kogito (Cogito), first published in 1932, were assembled Tanaka Katsumi, Kurahara Shinjiro, Ito Shizuo, and Yasuo Yojiir6, who all worked toward a return to an elegant classicism. In Shinshiron (A new poetics) were gathered the lyric poets Yoshida Issui, SatO Ichiei, Oki Atsuo, and Hemmi Ydkichi. In May, 1933, was published Shiki (The four seasons) which served as the organ of a group of poets newly arriving on the literary scene after the end of Shi to shiron. It was intended to be a quarterly, but in October, 1934, after the first two issues had come out, it became a monthly, and for a period of about ten years, held the center of the stage, at least as far as the long poem was concerned. Miyoshi, Maruyama, and Hori Tatsuo were the announced editors of this journal, but actual control resided in Hagiwara Sakutaro. All of the poets were anti-proletarian; they were also critical of surrealism, and developed a new lyrical style which attempted the harmonizing of the intellect and feelings. This may perhaps be regarded as the proper development of the poetry of the Meiji and Taisho eras. The models may be seen in the freshly lyrical styles of Tachihara Michizo and

Page  20 20 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Nakahara Chfya. From about this time Miyoshi evidenced more and more a return to a classic style. In addition, Shiki drew to its membership such poets as Tsumura Nobuo, Sakamoto Etsur6, Jimbo Kotar6, Tanaka Fuyuji, Oki Minoru, and the former members of the Kogito coterie, and each retained his own special characteristics. Shiki continued into the post-World War II era, but it was most significant as the organ of a new poetic movement only in its first few years. About this time, in the group of journals publishing lyric verse were Shiki and Kogito; among the avantgarde magazines were VOU, Shinryodo (New territories), and Bungei hanron (Outline of the literary arts); and among the proletarian poetry journals were Shiseishin (The spirit of the long poem) and Shijin (The poet). A new group now arose, independent of the poets publishing their work in these magazines. This new group, led by Hemmi Yukichi and Kusano Shimpei, first published Rekitei (Progress) in May, 1935. More than anything else, an anti-academic spirit, refusing to accept any given set of tenets, characterized this group, which is hardly to be called a coterie. Thanks to this breadth of interest, Rekitei has persisted to this day. The principal contributors include Hijikata Teiichi, Takahashi Shinkichi, Okazaki Seiichiro, Yamanoguchi Baku, Fujiwara Sadamu, Ogata Kamenosuke, 6e Mitsuo, Hishiyama Shuzo6, Kikuoka Kuri, Yoshida Issui, Kaneko Mitsuharu, and Ono Tosaburo. Independent of all the coteries and groups was Miyazawa Kenji, who devoted his entire lifetime to the welfare of the farmers in northern Japan, and Yagi Jukichi, the Christian poet. The first ten years of the Showa period were thus characterized by many shifts and changes in the long poem. But as the war clouds began to gather, most of the poets collaborated with the nationalistic demands of the times. Some became silent. The leftist poets Oguma Hideo, Tsuboi Shigeji, Kikuoka Kuri, Okamoto Jun, and Ono Tosaburo hid their thoughts under a cloak of satire. It was only Kaneko Mitsuharu who severely ciriticized the emperor system and fascism in Same (A shark), a collection published in 1937. His work, however, was written in a highly obscure and abstract style, a fact which permitted it to escape the eyes of the censors. Kaneko continued to write poetry denouncing war, and in the post-war period published collections such as Rakkasan (Parachute), Ga (A moth), and Oni no ko no uta (The song of the devil's child). He is perhaps to be described as a superior poet who most effectively expresses a modern critical spirit. 32. The Long Poem in the Postwar Era The long poem was the first of the literary forms to be revived in the period following World War II. At one time the anthologies of the long poem that were being printed reached a confusingly large number; perhaps this was due to the fact that the writers were trying to ease their depressed and anguished spirits by composing poetry. A broadly humane approach, lost during World War II, was also being revived. One of the developments in the postwar period was the organization in 1949 of the Gendai Shijinkai or Modern Poets' Association, an organization which gathered into its membership all poets without restriction as to ideology. A second development was the publication of the magazines Yutopia (Utopia), which ran from 1946 to 1947, and Shigaku (Poetics), first published in 1947. Both journals are known for their inclusion of long poems irrespective of the poets' affiliations. The first poets to become active were the proletarian poets who had been forced to remain silent throughout the war years. Publishing their works in Shin-Nihon bungaku (New Japanese literature) and Shin-Nihon shijin (The new Japanese poet), they found abundant support in society and threatened for a time to become the main current in Japanese poetry. But in spite of the fact that the proletarian poets were extremely active as polemicists and published poems in astounding numbers, they failed as far as creating works of high quality was concerned. As new poets, Noma Hiroshi and And6 Tsuguo received some attention and Ono T6sabur5 distinguished himself with his essays. But for the most part proletarian verse consisted of exclamations and abjurations falling far short of poetic excellence, and in point of technique differed very little from their predecessors of early Showa times. Okamoto Jun's Ranru no hata (A tattered flag) and the works of Nakano Shigeharu and Tsuboi Shigeji in collected form merit mention but in each case were only reprintings of publications dating from before the war. Amigasa (A braided hat) by Nuyama Hiroshi is a collection of impromptu verses composed during the war when the author was in prison, and is important because it is the record of a man, torn in flesh and spirit and suffering the sharpest torments, who still tries to find a way of life in which he can sincerely believe. Gembaku shishui (A collection of poems on the atomic bomb), by T6ge Sankichi, sings of the destruction of Hiroshima, but its appeal comes more from its subject matter than from any excellence as poetry. Especially characteristic of post-war poetry are the works found in Arechi (Waste land). Gathered here are the new poets Ayukawa Nobuo, Kitamura Tar6, Kihara Koichi, Kuroda Sabur6, Tamura Ryuichi, Nakagiri Masao, and Miyoshi Toyoichir6. At first a monthly magazine and then published only once a year, Arechi seeks a new humanity in the midst of a devastated reality and reveals an existentialist mood. The collection Shiijin (Prisoner), by Miyoshi, is representative of this group. Among the other magazines in which realistic poetry is printed are Nihon miraiha (The Japanese futurist school), the magazine of a coterie including Ikeda Katsumi, Uemura Tai, Kikuoka Kuri, Kambayashi Michio, Oikawa Hitoshi, Takami Jun, Ogiya Yoshio, Nagashima Miyoshi, and Takahashi Munechika; Shi to shijin (Poetry and the poet), with Asai Jfsabur6; and Jikan (Time), edited by Kitagawa Fuyuhiko and Sakurai Katsumi. In Rekitei, edited by Kusano Shimpei, the work of the new poets Anzai Hitoshi and Mabuchi Miiko is conspicuous. Showing an intellectualistic approach that goes back to surrealism are VOU, edited by Kitazono Katsue, and GALA, in which Nishiwaki, Murano, Kitazono, and Ando Ichir5 are the principal poets. These magazines go back to the time of World War II but are not the result of any effort to organize the poets that are associated with them. Aiming at a lyric poetry whose structure is controlled by an intellectualist effort is the Machine Poechikku or Matinee Poetique coterie including Nakamura Shin'ichir6, Kat6 Shuiichi, Fukunaga Takehiko, and Kubota Keisaku. Opposed to the free verse rhythms so far employed and emphasizing a fixed metric scheme, these poets worked

Page  21 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE 21 vigorously in the period between 1946 and 1948, but produced almost nothing of value. After the publication of the Machine Poechikku shishiu or Matinee Poetique Anthology in 1948, the members all turned to fiction and criticism. Shiki too was republished shortly after the war, but it was rather inconspicuous and came to an end after five issues. Miyoshi Tatsuji became even more concerned with the older Japanese classics and Maruyama became more realistic. Both wrote lyric verse. The various circles of poetry thus moved in various ways, but the poets who have left the most enduring works are the older ones. Included are Takamura Kotar6, with Tenkei (A model); Sat6 Haruo, with Saku no kusabue (The grass flute of Saku); Horiguchi Daigaku, with Ningen no uta (The songs of man); Kusano Shimpei, with Kaeru (Frogs), containing Kusano's poems in their final revised form; It6 Shizuo, with Hankyo (Reverberations); Nishiwaki Junzabur6, with Tabibito kaerazu (The traveler has not returned); Miyoshi Tatsuji, with Rakuda no kobu ni matagatte (Straddled on the bump of a camel); Maruyama Kaoru with Hana no shibe (The stamens and pistils of a flower), and Yoshida Issui, with Raten bara (Rosae latinae). Shaku Ch6kf, known better as a poet of the tanka and as a student of Japanese literature, suddenly published two volumes, Kodai kan'aisha (Songs in deep affection of ancient times) and Kindai hish6shi (Songs of lament for modern times), and expressed in full the feelings of a modern man although using the form and vocabulary of the classic choka, the long poem of the eighth and earlier centuries. The classical styles of Naka Kansuke and Nakanishi God6 have also attracted attention. D. THE TANKA 33. The Tanka in the Early Meiji Era In the early years of the Meiji period, the long poem, unhampered by the rigid 31- and 17 -syllable forms respectively taken by the tanka and haiku, blossomed under the influence of Western literature. The poets of the tanka were followers of the Keien school of Kagawa Kageki (1778-1843) and were haunted by the melodies of the Kokinshu. The Imperial Poetry Bureau, which had controlled the annual poetry competitions since 1874, took a position of dominance after Takasaki Masakaze became its head in 1888. Some of the poets associated with the bureau were Saisho Atsuko, Koide Tsubara, Kuroda Kiyotsuna, and Majima Fuyumichi. Continuing to find their subject matter in nature, they wrote flatly and monotonously of the flowers and the moon. Some called for a break from tradition. Thus Majima declared that the sexual urge lay at the basis of poetry and makoto or sincerity was the quality through which poetry made its appeal; the works Yokomoji hyakunin isshu (One poem from each of a hundred poets, in horizontal writing) and Kaika shindai kashu (A collection of poems with new titles for a civilized age), were published as early as 1878; Suematsu Kench6 and Sasaki Hirotsuna, calling for poems based on a respect for tradition but inspired by actual scenes and emotions, suggested that the steamship and the wireless might be called in the tanka by their Sino-Japanese names instead of by the awkward circumlocutions based on native Japanese words; and Unagami Tanehira asked for a revival of the Man'yoshu. 34. The Asakasha 2~ ~i- (Light Fragrance Society) and Chikuhakukai r-F t /~ (Bamboo and Oak Society) It was not, however, till 1893, when Ochiai Naobumi formed the Asakasha or Light Fragrance Society, that a group of poets began to find their inspiration in the living present. Ochiai himself was deeply rooted in the classics. Reserved and retiring in his personality, he nevertheless possessed a romantic flair that greatly attracted the members of his school who included Yosano Tekkan, Sasaki Nobutsuna, Onoe Saishui, Kaneko Kun'en, Hattori Motoharu, and Kubo Inokichi. Among these poets Onoe, Hattori, and Kubo formed the Ikazuchikai or Thunder Society and tried to bring about a revolution in the tanka. One of the branches of the Asakasha was the Chikuhakukai or Bamboo and Oak Society, led by Sasaki, whose poems in the journal Kokoro no hana (Flowers of the heart), founded in 1898, were known for their combination of an easy grace and quiet subjectivity learned from the classics of the Heian age. Among Sasaki' s followers were Ishigure Chimata, Kinoshita Toshiharu, Kawada Jun, Kujo6 Takeko, and Yanagiwara Byakuren. 35. The My~ojo e ': (Bright Star) School Yosano Tekkan at first decried the writing of love poetry as leading to a corruption of morals but he also wrote fiercely vigorous poems, inspired by the Sino-Japanese war, whose language led to their being called "the poetry of tigers and swords." His wife, Akiko, on the other hand, wrote poems that were marked by an unrestrained admission of fiery emotions which came in the end to influence not only Yosano but even Yosano's master, Ochiai. Under Yosano the society known as the Shinshisha (New Poetry School) was formed in 1900, with My6j6 (Bright star) as its journal. Both the tanka and shi or long poem were written in a highly romantic style, with the poets claiming for themselves the right to describe life and love in all their emotional outbursts. For a time it was held that no one deserved the name of poet unless he belonged to the Myojo school. Achieving its highest prosperity in the years 1904-1906, it nurtured the tanka poets Yamakawa Tomiko, Mizuno Y6shu, Kubota Utsubo, Ishikawa Takuboku, Yoshii Isamu, Kitahara Hakushi, S6ma Gyofu, Hirano Banri, Onuki (Okamoto) Kanoko, Takamura K6taro, and Kinoshita Mokutaro.

Page  22 22 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 36. The Araragi School in Its Earliest Years Also asking for a revivifying of the tanka but opposed to the excesses of the Myojo school was Masaoka Shiki, who formed the Negishi Tankakai or Negishi Tanka Society. Favoring the straightforward style of the Man'y6shu, he wrote poems which were made up of tightly knit images. Masaoka's poetry was not completely unmarked by the influence of the Myojo school, but his preference for nature as a subject matter, and soberer technique, distinguishes him from poets like the Yosanos. Like Masaoka in faithfully picturing the scenes of the countryside were Katori Hotsuma, Oka Fumoto, Ito Sachio, Nagatsuka Takashi, and Morita Yoshir. Masaoka' s emphasis on shasei, the portrayal of nature by means of a sketch-like technique, was later changed by Ito, who spoke of shajitsu, "truth to reality," and sakebi, "a shoutingness." Nagatsuka, on the other hand, believed that hie,"a coolness," was proper to the poet. Ashibi,Akane and Araragi, named after various trees, were the journals in which this group of poets published their work. Associated with It6, who was editor of Araragi from 1908 till his death in 1913 were Saito Mokichi, Shimagi Akahiko, Koizumi Chikashi, Ishihara Jun, Nakamura Kenkichi, and Tsuchiya Bummei. 37. Naturalistic Tanka Onoe Saishiu's Obakosha (Greater Plantain Society), which was founded in 1905, nurtured the naturalist poets Maeda Yugure and Wakayama Bokusui, and soon began to reflect impressionistically the fin de siecle feelings that were then current. Onoe himself wrote an article in the journal Sosaku (Creation), entitled "Tanka metsub5 shiron (Private thoughts on the decline of the tanka), in which he declared that the tanka should no longer be composed as an independent poem but only as a unit in a series of poems, that its thirty-one syllables were too restrictive for the needs of the modern age, and that a more modern idiom should be used in place of the older literary language. Ishikawa Takuboku and Kitahara Hakushu felt that the tanka was a means more suitable for the expression of some genteel taste than of one's individuality. The influence of naturalism is found in Maeda's earliest work; later he cultivated a more impressionistic and sensuous style. Wakayama passed from high lyricism to a description of life's hardships. Especially in Ishikawa's work is found the sensitive reactions of a poet subjected to a lifetime of poverty. Toki Zemmaro and Ishikawa anticipate the rise of the Seikatsuha or Life School, which numbered Kubota Utsubo, Matsumura Eiichi, and Handa Ryohei among its members. 38. Decadent Trends Decadent ideas in the tanka are next found in the works of Yoshii Isamu and Kitahara Hakushu. From the self-abandonment first characteristic of his poetry, Yoshii passed on to a somewhat more subdued insistence on the right of a man to enjoy himself. The pleasure quarters of Gion in Ky6to were a favorite subject matter for Yoshii. Kitahara, more delicate, imaginative, and pessimistic, borrowed from the theories of Arthur Symons and from the French symbolists and decadents, and used the newer words of the day in creating a modernistic poetry. 39. The Araragi School as the Dominant School of the Tanka Following It5 Sachio's death in 1913, the editorship of Araragi passed to Shimagi Akahiko, who swiftly made Araragi the central school of the tanka in the Taish6 and Showa periods. In this he received the full support of Koizumi Chikashi and Sait6 Mokichi. The emphasis on imagism and a style based on that of the Man'yoshiiu, stressed by Masaoka, were now combined with a deeper reflectiveness. Among the poets gathered in Araragi were Nakamura Kenkichi, Tsuchiya Bummei, Oka Fumoto, Shaku Chokui, Hirafuku Hyakusui, Nagatsuka Takashi, and Ishihara Jun. Nakamura insisted that true imagism came when the poet was able to see into the inner "life" of whatever he observed and was able to sing automatically about it. Shimagi too looked for a process of refinement, a gathering of "life's power in one point" whenever any subject matter for poetry was being observed. An "Oriental" quietude appears to settle in his later works. Shimagi's pupils included Moriyama Teisen, Tsuchida Kohei, Takata Namikichi, Imai Kuniko, Tsukiji Fujiko, and Kubota Fujiko; Saito's included Yuki Ais6ka, Kan6 Akatsuki, and Sugiura Suiko; and Koizumi's numbered Migashima Yoshiko and Hara Asao. The Araragi school was the dominant one by 1917 or 1918. Although it was attacked by the symbolist Ota Mizuho, Shimagi and Saito argued effectively in its defense. Leaving for the magazine Nikko (Sunlight) in 1924 but still retaining a cooperative association with Araragi were the poets Ishihara, Koizumi, Shaku Chokuii, Kitahara Hakushfi, Toki Zemmaro, Maeda Yugure, Kawada Jun, and Kinoshita Toshiharu. 40. Poems in the Spoken Language (Kogoka IP c - ) Among those who felt that the modern tanka should be written in the modern spoken language were the following poets at the beginning of the twentieth century: Aoyama Kason, Nishide Chofu, and Narumi Y6kichi. Later poets of the same persuasion included Yasunari Jiro, Yashiro Toson, Nishimura Y6kichi, and Watanabe Junzo. Kinoshita Toshiharu, who began as a disciple of Sasaki Nobutsuna and was the only tanka poet of the idealist Shirakaba or White Birch group, also is known for his use of everyday language, and even slang forms, in his poetry. Nishimura, on the other hand, was a socialist and poked fun at the Shirakaba school.

Page  23 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE 23 41. The Independents Ota Mizuho, who found his ideals in Basho, Ry6kan, and the Shin-Kokinshu, built up a symbolist style as editor of the magazine Ch5on (Sounds of the tide). Soliloquizing freely and without ornament on his personal affairs was Kubota Utsubo. Oyama Tokujiro, Kawada Jun, Yoshiue Sh6ry6, and Matsumura Eiichi too were developing their own styles. And Onoe Saishui, who had established the journal Mizugame (Water jar) in 1914, was cultivating a genteel and crystal-clear style with a coterie including Iwaya Bakuai, Ishii Naosabur6, Okano Naoshichir6, Akagi Kohei, and Koizumi T6zo. 42. Further Developments in the Tanka in the Spoken Language In 1926 the writers of tanka in the spoken language formed a nation-wide organization known as the Shinko Kajin Ky6kai or Society of Newly Rising Poets of the Tanka and adopted for their organ the journal Geijutsu to jiyu (Art and freedom) which Nishimura Yokichi had published from before. Among the members were Watanabe Junzo, Aoyama Kason, Asano Jun'ichi, Shimizu Shin, Tsuchida Ky6son, and Ishihara Jun. But as a result of the demands that Watanabe and Asano made with respect to revolutionizing the contents, vocabulary, and form of the tanka from the point of view of the proletariat, Shimizu, Tsuchida, and Ishihara seceded from the group and adopted a surrealist tendency. Watanabe argued for the use of a free verse form, as did Maeda Yugure in the journal Shiika (Poetry). Soon Tanka kensetsu (Tanka construction) became the specific organ of the writers of free verse tanka. 43. Proletarian Tanka When Shimagi Akahiko, who had been the leader of the Araragi school throughout the Taish6 era, died in March, 1925, the leadership passed to Saito Mokichi, who had just returned from a trip abroad. Standing opposed to the Araragi school was Ishigure Shigeru of the journal Kokoro no hana (Flowers of the heart), who in the February, 1928, issue of Tanka zasshi (The tanka magazine) wrote an article entitled "Araragi no hand6ka (The growth of opposition to the Araragi school)." Ishigure's point of view was that of materialistic dialectic. Vigorously replying to Ishigure was Saito, whose rejoinder appeared in the May, 1928, issue of Araragi, and the controversy continued throughout the year, causing a sensation in tanka circles. Ishigure's attacks were next directed against the tanka written in the spoken language by Nishimura Y6kichi, the free verse movement as sponsored by Ishihara Jun, the symbolism in the journal Ch6on (Sounds of the tide), edited by Ota Mizuho, and the modernism emphasized in Shiika (Poetry), edited by Maeda Yugure. One result was that the non-proletarian tanka poets were moved to sudden and intense activity. However, a new association of progressively minded poets was formed in October, 1928. This was the Shink6 Kajin Remmei or League of Newly Rising Tanka Poets. More than twenty members were drawn to this league, including Ishigure, Watanabe Junzo, Toki Zemmaro, Okuma Nobuyuki, Yashiro Toson, Maekawa Samio, and Tsubono Tekkyi. For their slogans they chose such phrases as "Unity in the battleline of the revolutionary movement!" "Destruction of the master poet system"' "A cleanup of the contradictions in content and form"' But this new society too was dissolved when Watanabe, Tsubono, and some dozen other members following the proletarian line resigned and formed the Musansha Kajin Remmei or League of Proletarian Poets, with the journal Tanka sensen (Tanka battleline), first published in December, 1928, as its organ. This was the first organized association of proletarian poets in Japan. In the following year it developed into the Puroretaria Kajin Domei or Association of Proletarian Tanka Poets, and published Tanka zen'ei (Advance guard tanka) a journal which was later renamed Puroretaria tanka (Proletarian tanka). The members of this association included Maekawa, Tanabe Shun'ichi, Hayashida Shigeo, Ichij6 Tetsu, Goto Miyoko, and Muramatsu Michiya. Their work was conducted in the light of intense criticism from within, and from about this time the doctrine that the tanka was a form that could never escape a feudalistic sensibility and that it should now develop into the tanshi or "short poem" began to gain wide acceptance. Many of the members adopted the free verse form. But although the literary doctrine thus became unified, the tanka was regarded as being almost devoid of content, and the result was a series of poems separated from and unattractive to the populace. When the problem of poetic form was given renewed consideration, the time was already too late. The Manchurian War was followed by the Chinese and Pacific Wars and the proletarian literary movement was driven to virtual extinction under official control. 44. Araragi and Tama Even when these developments involving the proletarian poets were taking place, it was still the Araragi school that held the highest place among the tanka poets. In a symposium published in the July, 1926, issue of Kaiz6 (Reconstruction), Shaku Chokui, who had come to feel a lack of rapport with the other members of the Araragi group, answered the question "Can the tanka keep from dying?' by saying that the tanka, as a lyrical form using classical diction, was a type of poetry which man in modern society could not be expected to write in his own modern idiom, and that its original status as an impromptu form, permitting a poet to sing easily and extemporaneously of his everyday life, had placed the emphasis more on techniques of expression than on criticism in any broad sense. Nevertheless, the Araragi school was the one which continued to boast the largest number of adherents and its members at the beginning of the Showa era included Saito Mokichi, Tsuchiya Bummei, Takata Namikichi, Yuki Aisoka, Sugiura Suiko, Hara Asao, and Migashima Yoshiko. Saito nurtured Sato Sataro, Yamaguchi Mokichi, and Fujimori Tomoo. Among Tsuchiya' s pupils were Gomi Yasuyoshi and Kagoshima Juz6. After his controversy with Ishigure, Saito dueled with Ota Mizuho with respect to whether imagism or symbolism should have the principal role in poetry. Sait' s "Tanka shasei no ~

Page  24 24 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS setsu (The theory of imagism in the tanka)" was published in 1929. In it he stated his doctrine that the poet looks into reality and pictures the life of unified origin enjoyed by nature and the individual. Here SaitO clarified his own widely accepted extension of the theory of imagism advanced in the Meiji era by Masaoka Shiki. Opposing this realistic and direct approach of the Araragi school was Kitahara Hakushi who in 1935 formed the Tama Tankakai (Tama Tanka Society) and issued the magazine Tama from June of that year. What Kitahara had in mind was the shaping of a new romantic spirit under the catchword shin-yugen or "a new mystic profundity," joining together the spirit of yugen which Kitahara found in the Shin-Kokinshi, Bash6, and the My6oj School. Kitahara's proposals meant the revival of a kind of art-for-art's sake attitude. Although somewhat deficient in an understanding of historical detail, Kitahara agreed with the many Japanese of the time who were seeking a new understanding of Japanese forms of beauty and looking for a revival of ancient values. Thus Tama soon -began to rival Araragi. Among the poets writing in Tama were Hozumi Kiyoshi, Kimata Osamu, Nakamura Shoji, Kitami Shioko, Araki Nobuo, Sakai Hiroji, Yoshino Shoji, Mochida Katsuho, Miya Shuji, Iwama Masao, and Kubota Nobuo. After Kitahara's death in 1942, the members of the Tama coterie began to publish their journal under joint discussion. It was not till 1947, after World War II, that Tama was finally dissolved. Independent of these movements within the circles of the tanka was Shaku Choku, who continued to write poems in a pure and individualistic style appealing to the intellectual classes. Often he took the life of the artisans for his subject matter. 45. The Tanka in World War II As the authorities took stricter political and economic control over the populace and calls were sounded for the strengthening of the national spirit, the suggestions to write tanka in free verse form and in the spoken language began to lose favor and the traditional 5-7-5-7-7 form regained its dominance. The Shin-Man 'yshf or New Man'y6shi, a collection of tanka published by Kaiz6sha in 1937-38, expresses the new spirit found throughout the land. As with the whole of literature, so with the tanka: a dark age dawned as the entire nation went on emergency footing., Despite its name the Dai-Nihon Kajin Ky6kai or Association of Tanka Poets of a Great Japan, formed in 1936, was declared to be too liberal in its thinking and forced to disband in 1940. Under these circumstances, many writers of fiction and the long poem fell into silence or undertook a negative kind of resistance through the writing of satires filled with obscure metaphors, but in the case of the tanka, virtually all of the poets, led by Sait6 Mokichi and Kitahara Hakushu, composed poems in praise of war or resounding with patriotic fervor. Writing in a traditional medium, these poets found nationalistic ideas most congenial to them. Perhaps the only collection worth mentioning is Shimpu junin (Ten poets in the new style), published in 1940 and including the work of the newer poets Ikadai Kaichi, Goto Miyoko, Saito Fumi, Sato Sataro, and Maekawa Samio. 46. The Tanka in the Postwar Era Revived immediately after the war were the two magazines of the tanka printing the work of poets irrespective of their schools: Tanka kenkyu (Tanka studies) and Nihon tanka (The Japanese tanka). Next came the journals of the coteries that boasted established histories: Araragi, Ch6on, and Mizugame (Water-jar). The desire was frequently voiced to reorganize the circles of the tanka. But it was not possible soon to raise the poets from the confusions, anxieties, and despair that had come with Japan's defeat in war and destruction through the bombing. But even as the poets of the tanka were still disorganized, the tanka itself was suddenly attacked in a number of works written by scholars in the universities. In this group of works are Odagiri Hideo's "Tanka hiteiron (Essay denying the tanka its existence)," published in the March, 1946, issue of Jimmin tanka and Usui Yoshimi's "Tanka ketsubetsuron (Departure from the tanka)," published in the May, 1946, issue of Temb6. These articles carried even further the points made by Shaku Choku in the symposium in Kaiz6 in 1926 relative to the question, "Can the tanka keep from dying?" Right or wrong, these new essays stimulated the tanka poets into reexamining their work and soon brought about a fresh burst of creative activity. In order to attempt the solution of the several problems besetting the tanka, Kimata Osamu and Kubota Masabumi reestablished the journal Yakumo (Eightfold clouds) in December, 1946. In this journal appeared a number of articles dealing with the proposition that the tanka should be abolished. The editors tried to increase the amount of contact between the tanka poets and the other literary men and intellectuals. They hoped in this way to break down the barriers with which the tanka coteries had previously surrounded themselves. They tried also to support experimentation by publishing the works of new poets and by indicating the directions in which the tanka should advance. It is possible to say that a large majority of the newer poets composing tanka in the postwar period were first introduced to the reading public through the pages of Yakumo. After thus fulfilling its function as a catalyst in the advancement of the tanka, Yakumo ceased publication in March, 1948. By 1948, virtually all of the prewar magazines had been revived. Among the newer journals were Hod6 (Sidewalk), edited by Sat6 Sataro, and Ch6seki (Ebb and flow), edited by Kagoshima Juz6. In order to meet more effectively the demands of a new age the followers of Kitahara who had continued to publish Tama dissolved this journal on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of their master's death. From their number came Kosumosu (Cosmos), edited by Miya Shuji; Keisei (Formation), by Kimata Osamu; Ch5usen (The Chuo line), by Nakamura Shoji, and Ch6of (Distant breeze), by Suzuki Kosuke. Common to all of these journals is the effort to picture real society and real men, and to show with all the powers at the command of the poets the sufferings of humankind living in a world devastated by war. In the earlier years of the postwar period, the tanka poets as well as the rest of the literary world were almost entirely captured by the proletarian literary movement. The Shin-Nihon Kajin Ky6kai or Association of New Japanese

Page  25 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE 25 Poets of the Tanka, formed directly after the war, first published Jimmin tanka (People's tanka) and then its successor, Shin-Nihon kajin. For a time Jimmin tanka seemed to take all the initiative as far as the tanka was concerned. However, as society became more stable and as the poets, attacked by the critics of the tanka, considered how their poems might be shaped, they found themselves more and more dissatisfied with the proletarian tanka, tied as it was to a particular political persuasion. The attitude arose, however, of trying to look as carefully as possible into the shapes of men living in an actual society, and this realistic approach has remained predominant. Among the poets who have composed superior works in the postwar period are Kond6 Yoshimi, Miya Shuji, Ono Nobuo, Kogure Masaji, Kimata Osamu, Fukuda Eiichi, Got6 Miyoko, Sait6 Fumi, Takayasu Kuniyo, and Ogihata Tadao. Kond6, Kogure, Takayasu, and Ogihata belong to the Araragi School. Also, independent of the several movements, guarding jealously the world of the small citizen and writing poems of high artistic merit is Sat6 Sataro. Among the older poets, Yoshii Isamu, with his purely lyrical style, was warmly welcomed by readers seeking time-honored supports in a confused postwar world, but with increased stability both in society and in tanka circles he has receded once more into partial oblivion. Finally, it is necessary to record the deaths of three poets who were acknowledged leaders in their respective circles throughout the Taish6 era: Sait6 Mokichi and Shaku Ch6ku, both of whom died in 1953, and Ota Mizuho, who died in 1955. E. THE HAIKU 47. The Haiku in the Early Meiji Era The haiku, like the tanka, was a well established poetic form when Perry arrived in Japan. As in the case of the tanka, the rules and conventions which governed its composition tended to constrict its development. The poets today referred to as tsukinami s6sho or "masters of the commonplace" followed tradition in their alternation of 5-7-5 syllables and in referring in each poem to one of the four seasons. The haiku, however, responded to the newer conditions of life brought about by Japan's modernization in the years following the SinoJapanese War, and was renovated under Masaoka Shiki and his followers. (In this section we shall follow the Japanese practice of referring to each poet by his given name, that is, his poetic name, once he is identified by surname and given name.) The further history of the haiku shows two outstanding movements. The first was the development of the shinkeiko haiku or "haiku of new tendency" which had for its background the changes in society that accompanied the establishment of the capitalist system after the Russo-Japanese War. Related to the shinkeik6 haiku were the jiyuritsu haiku or "haiku in free rhythms." The second important twentieth century development led to the composition of shink5 haiku or "newly-rising haiku" in the early years of the Sh6wa era, followed by a full blossoming in the days before World War II. In the first years of the Meiji era, Sokyu (1760-1843) and Baishitsu (1768-1852) were the models for the haiku poets. Baishitsu's pupil, Tsukinomoto Isan (1804-1878),became the head of the Haikai Kyorin Meisha or Society of Haikai Masters, who were the writers of tsukinami hokku or "hokku of the commonplace." Because of the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in place of the older lunar one, the seasons of the year to which the haiku referred began to include a different series of months. Otherwise the haiku merely repeated the practices of former times and the haiku poet was a kind of entertainer who measured his popularity in terms of the number of poetic contests to which he was invited. 48. The Japan School (Nihonha 0; -( ) Some of the members of the Ken'yusha or Society of Inkstone Friends concerned themselves with the haiku and in 1886 the newspaper Hochi gathered some haiku in a volume and so helped to pave the way for its revival. It was Masaoka Shiki, however, who gave it new life. Having joined the staff of the newspaper Nihon, from which his school eventually took its name, he published the first of many essays on the haiku in 1892. Calling for a renunciation of the commonness and the personal, argumentative style then current, he said that the poet should follow the older masters Bash6 (1644-1694) and Bakusui (1720-1783) in adopting the elegant and even stiffish style and diction of Chinese poetry. At the same time, he argued for the expression of new ideas and tastes and wrote of trains, steamships, overcoats, and straw hats —whatever met the eyes of a man living in the modern Meiji era. He thus took the haiku out of the barbershop and away from those living in retirement, and breathed a new romantic and revolutionary spirit into the form. As his studies progressed, he became more and more attracted to the flourish which the use of Chinese expressions and reliance on vivid imagery gave to the poetry of Buson (1715-1783). Despising the corporate composition of linked verses in which Basho had participated as being beneath the dignity of a poet's individualistic spirit, Shiki asserted that the poet should rely more on the impressions he received through his own eyes and ears than on any conceptions of right or wrong procedure. Sent to China as a war correspondent in 1894, Shiki returned with an aggravated case of tuberculosis. Attempting to recuperate, he stayed for a time in his native city, Matsuyama, on the island of Shikoku. It was here that Yanaibara Kyokud6 began the haiku journal Hototogisu in 1897. This magazine was named after Shiki since the characters used in writing Shiki's name could also be read Hototogisu. When it was brought to Tokyo in 1898, it became even more truly than before the organ of Shiki's school. Takahama Kyoshi was the editor. Among Shiki's disciples who contributed to it were Fujino Kohaku, Ioki Hyotei, Kawahigashi Hekigot6, Takahama Kyoshi, Ishii Rogetsu, Sakamoto Shihota, Yoshino Saemon, Nait6 Meisetsu, Sat6 K6roku, Otani Kubutsu, Murakami Seigetsu, Samukawa Sokotsu, and Natsume S6seki. These poets followed Shiki in finding their ultimate model in the

Page  26 26 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Nihonha or Japan School. In 1898 they published their first anthology, Shin-haiku (The new haiku). This was followed by Shunka shuto (Spring, summer, autumn, winter) in 1901. In the meantime the journal Hototogisu (Cuckoo) and the newspaper Nihon shimbun (The Japan news) became the principal organs of the poets of the Nihonha, publishing not only their haiku but shaseibun, "the pictorial style" of prose characterized by the use of an impressionistic technique. Shiki, who had made a principle of shasei, "the picturing of life," was often excessively objective, so that the individuality of any poet following his precepts ran the danger of becoming rarefied. The imagery tended to be superficial; in their poems dealing with human affairs, Shiki and his followers did not succeed in picturing or suggesting the realities of man's inner being. Basically, Shiki's poetry was intellectual. Delighting in whatever was strange, new, or changeable in natural phenomena, he tended to exaggerate them, so that his sketches took on the aspects of things created by man rather than by nature. In Shiki's later years, this led to his insistence that a reference to one of the seasons, as held by former poets, was essential to the haiku. 49. The Lesser Rivals of the Japan School Shiki's school was opposed, although ineffectively, by two schools. The Tsukubakai (Tsukuba Society) was headed by Ono Shachiku and was more concerned with academic study and appreciation of the haiku than with creative activity; and the Shuiseikai (Autumn Voices Society) was led by Ozaki Koyo and Tsunoda Chikurei and looked for "a true elegance" based on a harmonizing of old and new attitudes. The Shuseikai's immediate predecessor was the Murasaki Ginsha (Purple Voices Society), headed by Ozaki. 50. The New Tendency Haiku (Shin-keiko-ku + Ato (1 ) After Shiki's death, the haiku poets began more freely to express their individualities. One group gravitated around Hekigoto, who became responsible for the choice of poems in Nihon; the other followed Kyoshi, who was the editor of Hototogisu. But since Kyoshi for a time concerned himself mainly with the development of shaseibun and made Hototogisu a general cultural and literary magazine, it was Hekigoto who worked the more energetically in the creation of a new haiku. More progressive than Kyoshi, Hekigoto ultimately gave impetus to the Shin-keiko or New Tendency movement. In 1906 Hekigoto edited the collection Zoku shunka shuto (Spring, summer, autumn, and winter: continued), which started this movement. In 1910, he published his poetic record of a trip to Hokkaid6 under the title Sanzenri (Three thousand ri). His record of a second journey, takent in 1909 to the Kansai district, was entitled Zoku sanzenri (A new three thousand miles) and was published in 1914. His elevated style and rural themes appealed greatly to the poets in the provinces. The journal Nihon oyobi Nihonjin (Japan and the Japanese) was issued as a successor to Nihon and to a second journal Nihonjin (The Japanese), and became the organ of Hekigoto's group. According to Hekigot6, it was necessary to devote oneself to objective imagery, but, in contrast to Shiki's impressionism, which almost any poet could imitate, Hekigoto's was one which was "rich in subjective taste." Hence, the poet is to "look at nature through the window of his own senses and perceptions," and his purpose is to express " a taste higher than for nature alone." For the Shinkeik5 movement, Hekigoto took the following for a motto: "a dynamic representation depending on an awakened individuality." The tendency in Hekigot6 was to progress from reality to symbolism, from declarative to more suggestive statements. It was Osuga Otsuji who first used the term shin-keiko to describe the new style. This came in an article published in the January-February, 1908, number of Akane and entitled "Haikukai no shin-keiko (New tendencies in the world of haiku." Speaking of Hekigot6, Kitani Rikka, and Hiroe Yaezakura, Otsuji declared that "by pointing out a special characteristic they cause the actuality to appear dimly; consequently, the range of association of ideas becomes wider and more free." Agreeing with Otsuji, Hekigoto tried to cut himself off from every association of idea connected with the seasons of the year, and worked toward the presentation of the individual characteristics of his subject matter. A consciously subjective and symbolistic style was thus born which also received the influence of naturalistic thought. Illustrating the new type of haiku is Nihon haikush6 daiisshu (A selection of Japanese haiku, number one), edited by Hekigot6 and containing the poems of Otsuji, Rikka, and Anzai Okaishi. The newer style agreed with "the movements of the poet's spirit" and "the special customs of his native province." Toward the end of 1910 many of the poets began to apply what they called muchushinron, "the theory of centerlessness." According to this theory, the haiku was simply a one-line poem in seventeen syllables. In the older haiku, the abstract feelings associated with the seasons had been illustrated by natural scenes. Now, by beginning with an accurate description of a natural scene, the attempt was made to suggest the appropriate abstract feeling connected with it. Ogiwara Seisensui next argued for a revision of the haiku's 5-7-5 form as being too much inclined toward dividing a haiku into three parts. He therefore proposed a 5-5-7 form and also advocated the writing of poems containing 5-5-3-5 and 5-5-5-3 syllables, with each poem having a caesural break coming at the end of the second line. The haiku, he said, would thus have two "centers" and would suggest "limitless" feelings and atmospheres. This was the background against which Nihon haikush6 dainishi (A selection of Japanese haiku, number two) appeared in 1913. In this collection of "new tendency" haiku are found disordered arrangements, strange word uses, and out-of-the-ordinary contents. It was inevitable that a naturalist attitude, giving high value to actual impressions and to the individualistic characteristics of whatever was observed, should gain favor. Gradually, also, the restriction to seventeen syllables was broken and a form close to that of free verse was adopted.

Page  27 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE 27 51. The Hototogisu School in the Taish6 Era As the New Tendency haiku supported by Hekigoto began to win favor Kyoshi discontinued the writing of haiku and converted Hototogisu into a general literary magazine publishing essays and fiction, in particular the image-filled shaseibun. But in January, 1913, Kyoshi returned to the haiku determined to rescue it from the New Tendency movement which appeared to him to call for a renunciation both of the seventeen-syllable form and of the references to the seasons. What Kyoshi wanted was the development of a new haiku within these ageold limitations. The method to be followed was Shiki's, with the emphasis on imagism. In "Susumubeki haiku no michi (The road on which the haiku should advance)," published in the July, 1918, issue of Hototogisu, Kyoshi discussed the work of thirty-two haiku poets and praised in particular the poems of Watanabe Suiha, Iida Dakotsu, Maeda Fura, Hara Sekitei, and Hasegawa Reiyoshi. This article opened up a floodtide of activity in haiku writing. Tanaka Ojo and Suzuki Hanamino joined the Hototogisu School. Although Kyoshi himself recognized a subjective quality in much of their work, they on their part tried to preserve the objective imagery that Kyoshi required and together made the Hototogisu School the dominant school of the haiku in the Taish5 era. 52. Deviant Tendencies In general Kyoshi, as leader of the Hototogisu group, is to be regarded as one of the staunchest supporters of traditional practices in the haiku. However, it is possible to argue that he paved the way for a brief vogue of extremism both in perceptions and form in the haiku found in and around 1915. This comes from Kyoshi's advocacy in 1904-1905 of the "negativism" of the haiku of the Genroku era (1688-1702). Kyoshi's arguments amounted to a revision of Shiki's proposals that the haiku of the Temmei period (1781-1788), especially as composed by Buson, be taken as models by the modern poet. In proposing the composition of haiku in series and of long poems in haiku form, he also seemed to think of the haiku as an escapist form. Matsuse Seisei's Tsumagi (Firewood), published in 1905, and Shin-shunka shuto (The new spring, summer, autumn, and winter), published in 1908, illustrate Kyoshi's principles, but the style is abstract and lacking in freshness. A deviant spirit, however, continued to be expressed in Murakami Kij6, a poet afflicted with an ear ailment who wrote piteous poems coming from his poverty-stricken existence. Kubota Mantar6 fondly described the "downtown"'areas of Tokyo, whose citizens still reflect an older Edo taste. It was in the magazine Shisaku (Trial composition), edited by Nakatsuka Ippekiro, that the poets abandoned completely the practice of referring to the seasons and forsook also the three fixed lines of 5-7-5 syllables. Saying simply that a poem of approximately seventeen syllables was all that was required, they expressed themselves with epoch-making freedom. In the magazine Kaiko, named after a kind of orange and first published in 1915, Hekigoto, who had by then parted company with Seisensui and was soon to break with Otsuji, agreed with the trend of the times in giving a heavier emphasis to human personalities than to nature. Although at first Hekigoto still composed poems of fixed form, by 1916 and 1917 he too began to depart from the 5-7-5 form, and thereafter observed only the rule of referring to the seasons, which he held to be at the very core of haiku. Gradually it became almost impossible for many of the poets to express themselves in ways other than a free formlessness. An individualistic realism was in the air. Among the poets of the past, it was the warmly human Kobayashi Issa (1763-1827) who was now given the greatest attention. His influence marks the poems of the time of World War I. 53. Idealism The poet who first denied the traditional form of the haiku from an idealist's point of view was Ogiwara Seisensui. In the magazine S6un (Stratus) he began to voice his dissatisfaction over the New Tendency haiku. These, he said, came close to nature and were touched with the actuality of life but still did not savor nature as did the haiku of old and did not have the all-pervasive flavor of human life which he would like to see in the haiku. The spirit of the haiku, he said, was missing, this spirit consisting of a harmonized "brightness" and "strength." Short poetic forms, "tense" words, and strong rhythms, he said, were needed in order to catch this "brightness" and "strength." There was no need to refer to the seasons, or to maintain the attitude of a man of taste. The inner life of whatever was observed should be captured. Individualism and an insistence on humanity rather than "national character" should be developed. To Seisensui, Hekigot6's absorption with the traditional form of the haiku seemed ridiculous and the two parted company in 1915. The haiku of decadent tendency too seemed to Seisensui to come from a senile spirit enjoying a darksome sweetness. The haiku, he said, was a poem for the young. It "shouts one's dignity in the face of the storm." Seisensui thus agreed with Mushak6ji Saneatsu of the Shirakaba or White Birch School both in words and ideas. In composing superior haiku, the poet should ask, said Seisensui, whether his own life was sincerely and maturely lived and whether his observations went deep into the essence of things. The form which a poem took was thus of secondary importance. Following Seisensui were Nomura Shurind6, Serita H6sha, Akiyama Shukory6, Kuribayashi Issekiro, Ozawa Takeji, Ohashi Raboku, and Ozaki H6sai. 54. The Haiku at the End of the Taish6 Era By the end of the Taisho era Hototogisu was catering to too many people to whom the haiku was only a fashionable undertaking. The flat and plain images of the Hototogisu group, therefore, could not completely satisfy its more individualistic members. Kyoshi himself actually recognized the validity of a subjective quality based on a fulsome experience, but it was through an emphasizing of this subjective quality that some of the

Page  28 28 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS members of the Hototogisu school drew away from their master. Among these dissident poets were Watanabe Suiha, lida Dakotsu, Usuda Aro, Yoshioka Zenjido, and, in time, Mizuhara Shuoshi and a number of others. In the period following World War I, Seisensui again called for a departure from the regular 5-7-5 form. Aro, however, opposed him when he declared himself in favor of a return to the haiku of Basho. Here he agreed with Otsuji, who had died in 1920. Still opposing the classical and traditional poets and espousing a free verse form for the haiku was Hekigoto, who began publishing the journals Heki (Green) and Sammai (Absorption) upon his return from foreign travel in 1923. In the latter he even gave up the term haiku for his poems, which he began to call tanshi or "short poems." In his essays he declared that poetry should not be limited to the stimulation of the senses, but should be "the manifestation of the eternal qualities rooted in man's life." Through his efforts the haiku began to reflect the personal lives of its poets. Despite his impatience he served as a touchstone for the modern haiku. At the end of the Taisho era, the traditional schools were thus represented by the journals Hototogisu, centered in Kyoshi, Shakunage (Rhododendron) in Ar6, and Kench6 (Tired bird) in Matsuse Seisei. S6un, edited by Seisensui, and Kaik6, edited by Ippekir6, represented the journals devoted to the free verse form. The two groups differed, as we have seen, in the emphasis they gave to references to the seasons and to the seventeen-syllable form. 55. The Hototogisu School in the Sh6wa Era In the December, 1926, issue of Hototogisu, Kyoshi noted that the haiku had become even more surely than before a form of poetry characterized by objective imagery. This was followed by his pronouncement in the following year that the haiku was above all a form of nature poetry. In the first article he also described Mizuhara Shuoshi, Awano Seiho, and Yamaguchi Seishi as being three poets in whom objective imagery might be expected to find a further development. As if in answer, these poets ushered in the "period of the four S's," so named from the happenstance that their poetic names, and that of a fourth compeer, Takano Sujui, all began with the letter S. Among the four S's, it was Suju who most faithfully illustrated Kyoshi's belief in objective imagery. Seiho too tried to concentrate on the contemplation of nature despite the warm sympathy with which he regarded human life. Contrasted with these two were Shuoshi and Seishi whose poems showed far greater revolutionary significance. In addition, Hototogisu was enriched by the contributions of Tomiyasu Fusei, Tanaka Oj6, Yamaguchi Seison, Hino S6j6, Kawabata B6sha, Matsumoto Takashi, Nakamura Kusatao, Ky6goku Kiy6, Hasegawa Sosei, Takahama Toshio, Hoshino Tatsuko, Ikenouchi Tomojiro, Nakamura Teijo, Shiba Fukio, and Goto Yahan. Fukio had begun publishing his poems from about the end of the Taisho era in Amanokawa (The River of Heaven), a magazine 'edited by Yoshioka Zenjid6. In his poems his impressions and feelings are given concrete form by means of a very precise style. Metaphors abound in Bosha's work in which ideas become important. Yahan, who had studied under Seiho, sang quietly of the things he observed in nature. Takashi's poems are marked by much stylistic refinement. Especially noteworthy is Kusatao, who conceived of the haiku as being one of the forms of modern literature, and attempted to describe in its small compass all of the feelings and reactions which an individual might possibly experience. The recognition that the haiku might serve as the medium of expression of a modern man begins with Kusatao. His very first collection, Ch6shi (The oldest son), published in 1936, is filled to overflowing with the thoughts of a young man who has deliberately taken to himself all of the social responsibilities that come with being the oldest son and heir to his family. Many women poets began to appear at this time. Sugita Hisajo and Hasegawa Kanajo wrote elegant verses filled with feeling, and Takeshita Shizunojo tended toward general social criticism. But it was not till the postwar period that these women poets began to develop their individualistic qualities. 56. Proletarian Haiku The proletarian movement in the haiku came at about the same time that it did in the long poem and in fiction. Toward the end of the Taisho era, a tendency to deal with the problems of society and of daily living had become evident in S5un (Stratus), the journal edited by Ogiwara Seisensui. This tendency was especially noticeable in the work of Kuribayashi Issekiro, and became even more pronounced when in 1930 Issekiro, Ozawa Takeji, and Hashimoto Mudo began publishing the journal Hata (Flag). This magazine was combined in the following year with Haiku zen'ei (Haiku advance), a magazine then being published by a group of leftist students including Yokoyama Rinji, and the resulting publication was soon renamed Haiku. Later in 1931, a further affiliation with Haiku kenkyu (Haiku studies), published by the S6dai Haikukai or Waseda University Haiku Society resulted in the appearance of Haiku no tomo (Haiku companions), and the proletarian haiku movement was at last unified. The poets all wrote ideological verse using everyday diction and the free verse form. Although they were undoubtedly satisfying to their composers, they never reached the point of having artistic value. In 1932, in accordance with NAPF's aims, the doctrine arose that both the tanka and the haiku should be subsumed under a single new form, the tanshi or "short poem," and for a time the proletarian haiku movement suffered a series of internal arguments. Opposing the proposal to write tanshi, Issekiro, Rinji, and Mud6 began publishing Haiku seikatsu (Haiku life) in 1934. But this was already at a time when freedom of expression was being curtailed, and it was all these poets could do to write of society as it was. Taking the life school), established in 1931 by Kuroda Chujiro and his associates, who also used everyday speech and the free verse form.

Page  29 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPANESE LITERATURE 29 57. The Newly Rising Haiku (Shinko Haiku e:e 4\- J ) Movement When Hino Sojo was still a student at the Third Higher School in Kyoto, he organized the Kyodai Sanko Haikukai (The Kyoto University Third Higher School Haiku Society) and published the journal Kyokanoko ("The dappled fawn of the capital"). Also, contrary to the imagistic verse previously published in Hototogisu, he printed romantic and imaginative verses and so attracted the attention of followers of the haiku. Stimulated by his efforts, Nakada Mizuho, Shuoshi, Seishi, and Tomiyasu Fusei formed the Todai Haikukai or Tokyo University Haiku Society in 1922, and soon drew Yamaguchi Seison and Takano Suju to their number. It was here that these poets tried to develop a new haiku style prior to their appearance in Hototogisu. Ky6kanoko was soon to be replaced by Kyodai haiku (Ky6to University haiku), and the source of the revolution that was to come in the haiku is to be found in these university journals. Shuoshi, seeking to infuse a romantic sensibility into the haiku, gave form to his subjective impressions of bright and colorful scenes in nature. Since this was the period in which the flat images found in Hototogisu were considered to be the only expressions proper to the form, Shuoshi's verses were revolutionary in their impact. Before he had become a haiku poet, he had written tanka. Now he transferred the rhythms and vocabulary of the Man'y6shi into the haiku. Adopting also the practice of writing several poems together, as practiced by some of the tanka poets, here too he gave birth to a new poetic form. Seishi on his part gave beauty to actuality through reflection and imagination and followed a method which was almost the opposite of imagism. Like Shuoshi, he too learned greatly from the tanka, but as compared with Shuoshi's lyricism, his view of nature was more direct. As far as subject matter was concerned, he was able to write of a dance hall, a skating rink, May Day, a court of justice, and capitalistic economy, thus ranging through all of the aspects of actual society and giving them a structure carefully shaped by his intellect. Here he was much more modernistic than Shuoshi and most at odds with the procedures followed up to that time in Hototogisu. In the November, 1928, issue of Hototogisu, Kyoshi published an article entitled "Shuoshi to Suju (Shuoshi and Suju)" and roundly attacked the over-individualistic kind of imagery favored by Suju. Also, in the same journal, in March, 1931, he republished a symposium on Shuoshi and Sujui reported in a provincial magazine. This was nothing more than a repetition of his own views. Shuo6shi, angered by these actions of Kyoshi, printed a rejoinder entitled "Shizen no makoto to bungei-j6 no makoto (Truth in nature and truth in literature)" in Ashibi, and cut off his association with Hototogisu. Sh6uoshi had also published Katsushika in 1930. Seishi's Toko (A frozen port) came in 1932. These publications too called forth a sensational reaction on the part of the other poets, and quickened the movement to renovate the haiku. Born from these events was the Shink6 Haiku or Newly Rising Haiku movement. In the Ashibi group were Shinoda Teijiro, Ishibashi Tatsunosuke, Takaya Soshu, Taki Shun'ichi, Ishida Hakyo, and Kat6 Shuson, all outstanding poets. Yamaguchi Seishi joined their number in 1935 and together they worked at the composition of purely lyrical haiku. Many journals followed the leadership of the Ashibi group. Amanokawa (The River of Heaven) was edited by Yoshioka Zenjid5 and published the poems of Yokoyama Hakk6, Shiba Fukio, and Shinowara H6saku; Kikan (Flagship), was edited by Hino Soj6 and published the works of Mitani Akira, Sait6 Sanki, and Tomizawa Kakio; in Ky6dai haiku (Ky6to University haiku), Hirahata Seit6, Togo Sayu, Nakamura Sanzan, Hasegawa Sosei, and Sait6 Sanki were the leading poets; Doj6 (Above the earth) had Shimada Seih6 as editor and Akimoto Fujio (T6ky6oz) as contributor; and Ku to hy6ron (Haiku and criticism), later renamed Hiroba (Public square), was edited by Matsubara Jizoson. These magazines did not all agree in their points of emphasis, but they did join in denying the objective imagery stressed in Hototogisu. Some looked for a larger ideological content in the haiku and for the same spirit of critical realism found in proletarian fiction, drama, shi, and tanka. As far as form was concerned, the practice of composing a number of haiku on the same subject became quite common, and a few of the poets even rejected the custom of pointing to one of the seasons of the year in each haiku. The attitude taken in the Ashibi group was far more gentle. As far as the seasons of the year were concerned, both Shiiuoshi and Seishi felt that the haiku should continue to refer to them. This led S6shu and Tatsunosuke to resign from Ashibi and join the Ky6dai haiku group. Also, Haky6 and Shuison, the two poets considered to be the best of the younger members of the Ashibi circle, felt dissatisfied with the emphasis on lyricism in Ashibi and took up the writing of haiku more closely concerned with the problems of lifeo 58. The Haiku during World War II The fact that almost all of the haiku poets had come out of the general populace helps to account for the large number of haiku written in support of Japan's war efforts. In 1938 Haiku kenkyu (Haiku studies), serving as a publishing medium for all of the haiku poets irrespective of the groups to which they belonged, published a supplement entitled Shina jihen sanzenku (Three thousand verses on the Chinese incident), and in the following year brought out Shina jihen shin-sanzenku (Three thousand new verses on the Chinese incident). These publications indicate the trends in the haiku as Japan became more and more involved in war. On the other hand, the Newly Rising Haiku movementwas brought under official surveillance. In 1940, a large number of members of the Kyodai haiku group were arrested, and in the following year came the seizure of the leaders of Doj6, Hiroba, Haiku seikatsu, and Seikatsuha. The Newly Rising Haiku movement was thus brought to a dead stop, and only the tranditionalist haiku centered in Hototogisu remained. After 1942, the publication of haiku collections stopped completely, to be resumed only after the end of World War IL

Page  30 30 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 59. The Haiku after World War II The history of the haiku after World War II begins with the freeing of the principal writers of the Newly Rising Haiku movement. Almost at a stroke they succeeded in recreating the situation that had existed before the war, when they had vied with the writers of the traditional haiku. But just as they were about to resume their work, Kuwabara Takeo wrote his article entitled "Daini geijutsuron (Essay on a second-class art)" in the November, 1946, issue of Sekai and asserted his theory that the haiku was a second-class form of art and inappropriate as a literary medium in the new age. Kuwabara's statements, far from discouraging the poets, spurred them on to greater endeavors. Those who were members of the traditionalist school and those who belonged to the Newly Rising Haiku movement joined forces in considering what the real nature of the haiku might be. Especially worthy of attention was the criticism published by Yamamoto Kenkichi, Imoto Noichi, Hirahata Seit6, and Nakamura Kusatao. In May, 1946, some of the poets of the Newly Rising haiku in Tokyo took the lead in forming the ShinHaikujin Remmei or Federation of New Haiku Writers and began the publication of the journal Gendai haiku (Modern haiku) under the editorship of Ishida Hakyo. This was the occasion for an increase in intercommunication among the several schools, but the ultimate results were somewhat disappointing, partly owing to Hakyo6's illness. When Kuwabara' s article was published, Hakyo in Tokyo and Saito Sanki in Kobe joined in establishing the Gendai Haiku Kyokai or Modern Haiku Federation. Although the journal published by this organization, Haiku geijutsu (Haiku art), died out after two numbers in 1948, the federation itself drew together a total of thirtyeight members. Within the Shin-Haikujin Remmei a dispute arose when Saito Sanki objected to the leftist course taken by the chief secretary, Kuribayashi Issekiro. This resulted in the resignation of such members as Sanki himself, Mitani Akira, Abe Sh6jin, Yamabata Issuiro, Tomizawa Kakio, Akimoto Fujio (Tokyozo), and Mizutani Saiko. Yamaguchi Seishi was a member of the Ashibi circle in 1948 when he began the magazine Tenro (Sirius). Attracted to this magazine were Hirahata Seito, Saito Sanki, Takaya S6shii, Hashimoto Takako, and Akimoto Fujio. This group has taken a critical attitude with regard to both the Newly Rising and traditionalist schools of the haiku. On the other hand, Hakyo, taking Ishizuka Tomoji and Ishikawa Keiro with him, returned to Shiuo6shi's Ashibi. Also, Hino Sojo started publication of Seigen (Blue and black), a Newly Rising haiku magazine of the most colorful tendencies, in 1949. Among the journals following a middle of the road policy with respect to the opposition between tradition and modernism are Hama (Beach), edited by Ono Rinka, Mugi (Barley), by Nakajima Takeo, and Kaze (Wind), by Sawaki Kin'ichi, who was formerly editor of Kanrai (Cold lightning). Among the better men poets, those who began their work in the postwar period are relatively few in number; the active poets are the ones who had already started their careers in the days before the war. Hakyo, Seishi, Shuson, and Kusatao belong among the most important poets. Recognizing the special traditional characteristics of the haiku, Kusatao nevertheless tries to instill in it the complicated intellectual preceptions of a modern man. In 1946, he began publication of the magazine Banryoku (The height of the springtime), and has since worked vigorously both in creative work and criticism. The postwar period has seen a burst of activity among such women poets as Hashimoto Takako, Hosomi Ayako,and Katsura Nobuko. Takako's K6shi (Crimson thread) and Ayako's Fuyubara (Winter rose) have both attracted considerable attention. The journal Haiku, published for the first time in 1952 with the aim of breaking down the factionalism found in haiku circles, has not only served to bring the poets together but to force the haiku brinto the full view of literary-minded men.

The Basic Reference Works


pp. 31-81

Page  31 CHAPTER TWO THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS The coverage of Showa literature becomes better with the passage of time; the student now finds a growing number of reference works to impress him anew with the fact that the Japanese are great compilers. Uniformly, the introductions and prefaces state the possibility of shortcomings which will be corrected in suceeding editions. Almost uniformly, it must also be said, the various compilations borrow from preceding ones. A. BIBLIOGRAPHIES There are relatively few bibliographies per se for Showa literature. However, each of the items given in the following sections of Chapter II yields a list, in some cases of major dimensions, of writings in the Showa period. Taken together, they yield a majority of the items listed in Chapter III. 60. As6 Isoji f/ * ':, ed., Kokubungaku kenkyu shomoku kaidai 1t;r% t - H ~ (An annotated bibliography of studies in Japanese literature), T6ky6, Shibund6, 1957, 11+503pp. Of special use are the sections dealing with Japanese literature in general (pp. 1-99) and with modern literature in particular (pp. 429-478). Although the number of items listed by As6 which deal specifically with Sh5wa literature is relatively small, many of them are very usefully annotated. 61. Georges Bonneau, Bibliographie de la litterature Japonaise contemporaine [= Bulletin de la Maison FrancoJaponaise, 9 (1937) 1-4], Paris, Librairie Paul Geuthner, 1938,102+280pp. For the format and contents of Bonneau's work and its relationship to the present bibliography, see the Author's Introduction to the present volume. 62. Hoshino Shizuo T ~ -3 A, "Meiji, Taish6, Showa Nihon bungaku kenkyu riron bunken mokuroku (Meiji shichinen - Showa jikyunen) n *A —' *: ( * -C t- - } + N ~+ fL> — ) (Bibliographies of materials of Japanese literary theory during the Meiji, Taish6, and Showa eras: 1874-1944)," Bungaku, 18.3, March, 1950, 41-54. A listing of about 650 books and articles having to do with Japanese literary theory, in the order of their publication, giving author, title, and year in the case of the books, and author, title, journal, year, and month in the case of the articles. About 385 of the titles come from the Showa era, but only a small percentage of the titles deals directly with Showa literature. Unannotated. 63. Kiso Ryuichi ' t - "Meiji, Taish6, Sh6wa bungaku hy6ron bunken mokuroku F A- rt ~t rw. J t ' B. (Bibliography of literary criticism during the Meiji, Taish6, and Showa eras)," Bungaku, 18. 1, January, 1950, 52-64. A listing of about 600 titles having to do with literary criticism, arranged chronologically in the order of their publication, giving author, title (and series), publisher, year, and month in the case of the books, and author, title, journal, year, and month in the case of the articles. The coverage is from 1882 to 1944, inclusive. Unannotated. 64. Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan J 77 |i l /~ (National Diet Library), Zasshi kiji sakuin w ae.. ~| (Periodicals index), Tokyo, Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan, 1949-, initially a monthly, now a quarterly. This index comes out approximately five months after the last month of issue of the indexed periodicals. The periodicals covered by the index include those that are deposited in the National Diet Library. Regularly published government publications are also indexed in the latest issues. At first the entries were by author (in the order of the kana tables), and by subject matter. For each article, the author, title, journal, year, month, volume, number and inclusive pagination were given. Creative works (fiction, drama, and poetry) usually did not receive separate listing. Articles, essays, and reviews relating to literature, however, were conveniently listed under the heading bungaku (literature), which had such sub-headings as shohy6 (reviews), rekishi (history), ronsetsu (essays), hikaku bungaku (comparative literature), hihy6 (criticism), and buntai (style), along with headings for the several literary eras. The index today is divided into the jimbun kagaku-hen /, A -- rt ("Humanities and social science") and shizen kagaku-hen J,4` At ~ JA ("Natural sciences"). The former is further divided into five sections: (1) general, philosophy, religion, and history; (2) the social sciences and industry; (3) education; (4) literature, language, and art, further divided into various subject matter headings; and (5) the names of persons, Japanese and foreign, concerning whom one or more articles are written. An author list and list of indexed periodicals are given at the end of each issue. Approximately 83 of the indexed periodicals have to do with Japanese literature and language, 53 with foreign literature and language, 15 are specifically literary magazines, 9 deal with poetry, and 17 have to do with the performing arts. The section on literature is a useful running list for students of Sh6wa writing. 31

Page  32 32 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 65. Nihon Gakujutsu Kaigi 60 j2 l,.{ A (Japan Science Council), Bungaku, tetsugaku, shigaku, bunken mokuroku I: Nihon bungaku-hen Afl/. 1 - 4'. ff }' I.' ] ~ I I: A j (A bibliography of works in literature, philosophy, and history: I, Japanese literature), Tokyb, Nihon Gakujutsu Kaigi, 1952, 5+195pp. This is a listing of books, pamphlets, articles, and reviews appearing between September, 1945, and December, 1950, inclusive. Listed are: (1) studies and encyclopedic articles on Japanese literature from ancient times to the present, (2) commentaries, critical and explanatory, on Japanese literature and translations into foreign languages which are considered to be of value, (3) reprints and revised editions that are felt to be of value, (4) bibliographies, chronological tables, dictionaries, word-lists, personal-name dictionaries, handbooks, tables, and indices, and (5) studies in foreign languages that are felt to be of value. The books, pamphlets, articles, and reviews are arranged under various subject headings, such as literary history and theory, early fiction, the diary and miscellany, poetry, drama, modern fiction, and miscellaneous. Within each category, the arrangement is in the chronological order of the books, authors, theories, etc. dealt with. An index of journals (together with publishers) is given on pp. 175-179, an index of subject matters on pp. 180-188, and a personal name index on pp. 189-195. The entire volume is a useful introduction to Japanese literary scholarship in the first years after World War II. 66. Shimanaka Yusaku.% ~ r t, Kaiko gojuinen 1 j. _- t- - (Fifty years in retrospect), Tokyo, Chiuo Koronsha, 1935, 2+370+4pp. This commemorative volume contains a brief history of the Chuo Koronsha, publishers of Chffuo koron (The Central Review), followed by a listing of the contents of each number of this magazine from its inception in August, 1887, till September, 1935, when its 574th number was published. The contents of each issue are divided under such headings as k5ron (articles), sosaku (creative works), setsuen (essays), jiron (current topics), hy6ron (criticism), and under such headings as were given to symposia. Interesting for the range of subject matters covered by Chuo koron, but the absence of an index makes it impossible to seek out, quickly, the contributions of particular authors and critics. A final listing of 4 pages gives the titles of volumes published by Chuo Koronsha in the period 1929-1935. B. PUBLISHERS' ANNUALS, PUBLISHERS' NEWS, YEARBOOKS, AND HANDBOOKS 1. Publishers' Annuals The publishers' annuals are arranged in chronological order of publication in order to show how the successive years of the Sh6wa period are covered. Unfortunately, it has not been possible to check all of the end dates of publication. 67. Kokusai Shich6sha lJ f,0. -. f~r, Shuppan nenkan + t- / (Publications yearbook), T6ky6, Kokusai Shichosha, 1927, 1928. Replaced after two years by the Tokyo Shosekisho Kumiai's Shuppan nenkan. 68. T6ky6 Shosekish6 Kumiai - Af ) 4 ~,/'& (T6kyo Book Trade Union), Shuppan nenkan 4 t~_ _ (Publications yearbook), T6ky6, Toky6 Shosekish6 Kumiai Jimusho, 1929-. Annual. Last date of publication possibly 1940. The first half of the 1940 edition gives a survey of activity in the Japanese publishing world in 1939, including a breakdown by subject of the 30,000 titles published in that year. This is followed by a section giving the laws and regulations relating to publications, authors, and organizations concerned with publication. Statistics follow on the membership of organizations concerned with the book trade, together with a list of names of these organizations. The publishers of magazines are next given, followed by a list of the major libraries. The succeeding pages (489-922) list under 34 subject headings the 8, 150 books published in 1939 and delivered to the Naimusho or Interior Ministry. Included in the listings are commercially published works, books that are "not for sale," books that are privately printed, and the publications of government agencies. Of special concern to Sh6wa literature are the laws and regulations which indicate the conditions under which publication was carried on in Japan in the years before World War II. The statistics show that 673 items in language and literature (excluding fiction), 1174 items of fiction, and 46 items in music, the movies, and the drama were published in 1939. The listings are by title, in the order of the kana syllabary. Prices, book size, total pagination, and publisher are given for each entry. 69. Tosho Kenkyukai ] i A ~ r (Book Study Association), Shinkansho s6mokuroku - -'| -,,- H 4 (Complete index of newly published books), T6ky6, Tosho Kenkyuikai, 1928, 1929. This and the following item preceded the Tosho Kenkyukai's Sogo shuppan nenkan. 70. Tosho Kenkyukai -K;tf It (Book Study Association), Shuppan nenkan (s6g6) A A-t (,- ) (Publications annual: combined), T6ky6, Tosho Kenkyukai, 1930, 1931.

Page  33 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 33 71. T6ky5odo t., Shuppan nenkan &k K- (Publications yearbook), T5ky6, T6kyodo, 1930-1941. Annual. This was the best of the prewar publishers' yearbooks. The 1941 edition contains charts on publishing activities during the period 1930-1940, inclusive; a history of the publishing industry in 1940; statistics on publishing in 1940; a classified catalogue of books published in 1940 and a second list of books delivered to the Interior Ministry; a list of volumes published in various anthologies and series in 1940; a list of journals; a list of persons connected with the publishing industry; the regulations of organizations connected with publishing; and a reprinting of the laws and regulations under which publishing was carried on in Japan. Of special interest to students of Showa literature is the section giving lists of books in literature, pp. 305-401, divided according to genre and showing in each instance the author, title, size, total pagination, price, publisher, month of publication, and contents in brief. This yearbook was succeeded in turn by the following two items. 72. Tosho Kenkyukai I $ e Zt '/ (Book Study Association), Sogo shuppan nenkan., / i d (Combined publications yearbook), T6ky6, Osakayag6 Shoten, 1932 -An annual listing of commercially published books covering the twelve-month period prior to September in the preceding year. Since the listings are by month, it is difficult to locate particular items whose month (as well as year) of publication is not known. 73. Kyodo Shuppansha tA f1] S Kk t, comp., Shoseki nenkan / X _ (Publications yearbook), under supervision of Nihon Shuppan Bunka Kyokai g H g yt, A (Japan Association for Publications Culture), Tokyo, Kyodo Shuppansha, 1942. 74. Kyodo Shuppansha Hensambu I 1 ] AA t A ~ & X.:, comp., Nihon shuppan nenkan e (Japan publications yearbook), under supervision of Nihon Shuppankai eo, _ / (Japan Publishers' Association), Tokyo, Kyodo Shuppansha, 1943. This volume and the two volumes published in accordance with the next entry are important for their coverage of the period of World War II, although all three volumes are necessarily smaller in scope than the Shuppan nenkan published by the Tokyodo because of the decline in publications that came with the war. The 1943 edition covers the year 1942, the 1947 edition covers the years 1943-1945, and the 1948 edition covers the years 1946-1947. Each year is separately treated. The major happenings in the publishing world are first chronicled. This is followed by a classified listing of the principal works published during the year covered, then by a classified list of journals, and finally by a list of publishers and their addresses. 75. Nihon Shuppan Kyodo Kabushiki Kaisha l t g tres ] C WA l d -, comp., Nihon shuppan nenkan s a re 4 k (Japan publications yearbook), under supervision of Nihon Shuppan Kyokai a s B (Japan Publishers' Union), Tokyo, Nihon Shuppan Kyodo Kabushiki Kaisha, 1947, 1948. See above. 76. Shuppan Nyususha i i -Z,z, Shuppan nenkan t (Publications yearbook), T6kyo, Shuppan Nyususha, 1951 -Annual. The only currently published yearbook of publications. Covers various matters pertaining to the publishing trade and lists the publications of the year immediately preceding the year of issue. In part 1 of the 1951 edition is given a history of activity in the publishing world in 1950, that is, in the year prior to year of publication; a month by month record of happenings of interest both to publishers and readers; notices of authors who have died during 1950; listings of men and of works that have won prizes in various competitions in 1950; a bibliography of books and articles in Japanese on libraries in Japan and elsewhere, published in 1950; and a list of newspapers and magazines concerned with books, libraries, and the publishing, printing, and paper trades. In part 2 is given a catalogue of the books printed in 1950 arranged in accordance with the Japan Decimal System. Of special interest is the 900 section on literature: the grouping of books on general literature is followed by groupings on Japanese, Chinese and Far Eastern, English and American, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Russian, and other literatures. Children's literature and reference works are separately listed. This catalogue consists of books listed by the various Japanese publishers, and is followed by a listing of items delivered to the National Diet Library but somehow missed in the publishers' lists. Next comes a list of the chief government publications registered with the Diet Library. Part 3 gives a listing of Japanese magazines: the categories sogo (general), fujin (women's), jido (children's), taishui (popular), bungei (literary), geino (polite accomplishments, including drama), tanka, haiku, shi (long poem), and senryu are of special consequence to students of Showa literature. Part 4 gives statistics pertaining to the publishing world. Part 5 lists publishers, publishers' organizations, book brokers, bookdealers' associations, etc. Part 6 gives brief notices of authors who published books in 1950, and part 7 prints the rules and regulations pertaining to book publishing. A series of appendices discusses the classification of books, activity in the area of copyright revision, the system of delivering books to the National Diet Library, and editorial practices. The listing of government publications was dropped in the 1953 edition. The authors' biographies in part 6 include birth dates. 2. Publishers' News

Page  34 34 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 77. Nihon dokusho shimbun e ~ X t H - (Japan readers' news), T6ky6, Nihon Shuppan Kyokai, 1933 -A weekly containing articles on publishing activities, lists of new publications, reviews of the latest books, interviews with authors and critics on the latest trends not only in publishing but on significant events throughout the world, and special boxes on the latest best-sellers, books pending publication, etc. The successive inside pages are devoted to society and thought, literature and art, science, the current magazines, children and education, and publishing news from the outside world. The advertisements, placed by the leading publishing houses, sometimes fill almost one-third of the total space. 78. Nihon kosho tsushin E + ~ ZL <_ A (Japan old book news), T6ky6, Nihon Kosho Tsushinsha, 1935 -A monthly magazine containing bibliographical articles and lists of books offered for sale by the major second-hand bookdealers. 79. T6ky6 Shosekish6 Kumiai -. } (J,X - /i (T6kyo Bookdealers' Union), Tosho somokuroku (:,I.. ~ At (General catalogue of books), T6ky6, T6kyo Shosekish6 Kumiai Jimusho, 1893; 9th edition, 1940, 2+2+28+ 21+992+570pp. The 1940 edition has a list of publishing houses belonging to the Tokyo Shosekisho Kumiai, a list of books currently in print published by these publishing houses and classified according to their subject matter, and an author-title listing of the same volumes. Of special interest to students of Sh6wa literature are pages 677-789, where the publications in literature are listed in accordance with the following categories: literary theory; poetry; legends; narrative writings (excluding fiction); literature in general (including studies of individual authors and works, histories of literature, essay series, bibliographies, etc.), fiction, and drama. Each of the titles, arranged in the order of the kana syllabary, is followed by the name of its author or authors, the number of volumes, price, size, and publisher. Although not all of the Japanese publishers are represented in the Tokyo Shosekisho Kumiai, this compendium, like the publishers' annuals, affords an interesting view of available materials on literature. 80. Shuppan nyusu 1,( --- Z, (Publications news), T6ky6, Shuppan Nyususha, 1949-, 3 times a month. Presents the current concerns of the reading public in articles, reviews, and symposia. Often various authors are asked to discuss their own works. Notices of forthcoming publications and classified lists of current publications are also given, along with best-seller lists. 81. Tosho shimbun I f f ] (Publications news), Tokyo, Tosho Shimbunsha, 1949 -Weekly. Presents interviews and symposia on current trends with respect to such subjects as criminal libel, Marxism, and cultural theory, in which persons concerned with literature may be assumed to show interest. Special pages are devoted to the social sciences, literature and art, the natural sciences, and "general matters." A view of current publications is given in the extensive advertisements as well as in the regularly printed classified lists. 3. Yearbooks 82. Bungei nenkan 5 t J- i /X (Literary yearbook), ed. by Nihon Bungeika Ky6kai ' 0 A H A\] /' (Association of Japanese Literary Men), T6kyo, various publishers, 1929-1957. The following editions were examined for this bibliography: 1929: T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 4+414pp. 1939: T6ky6, Daiichi Shobo, 418pp. 1943: T6ky6, T6kei Shob6, 4+366pp. 1948: Toky5, T6kei Shobo, 4+236pp. 1949: Toky6, Shinch6sha, 3+240pp. 1950: T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 4+284pp. 1951: T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 318pp. 1952: 1953: 1954: 1955: 1956: 1957:. Toky6, Shinchosha, 225+96ppo The Bungei nenkan now is an annual survey of activity in literature and related fields in the year immediately preceding the year of publication. Thus the Bungei nenkan for 1957 covers activity in the year 1956 in creative literature, translation, drama, the movies, art, music and the performing arts, radio and television, 'journalism, and "general culture" (including a listing of the cultural prizes given in 1956, magazines in the fields covered by the Bungei nenkan, and the principal libraries in Japan). Finally, separately paged, is a who's who of authors currently active and a separate list of authors, no longer living, for whom other persons hold copyright. In the 1957 edition, under literature, is found an article by Nakajima Kenzo on "the world of thought and the literary person," a month-by-month survey of fiction published in 1956, reviews of the long poems, tanka, and haiku, popular literature, children's literature, criticism, and literary scholarship published in 1956, and a chapter on mystery fiction, which attained a special vogue in 1956. Next follows a listing of literary works published in magazines and newspapers, together with a

Page  35 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 35 listing of literary prizes given in 1956. Finally comes a list of literary journals both commercially published and issued by various literary coteries, and a listing of literary organizations. The section on translations gives separate consideration to translations and studies of English and American, French, German, Soviet, and Chinese literature, and lists the winners of the principal foreign literary prizes. Foreign literary organizations are also listed. A separate section gives an account of various Japanese literary organizations, the authors who died in 1956, and an account of the controversies which enlivened the literary scene in that year. The section on drama discusses the modern play as produced in 1956 and the plays produced at the larger theatres, lists the plays published in the principal drama magazines, the principal plays produced for the first time, and the plays for which prizes were given, and ends with a list of drama journals, theatres, theatrical companies, and organizations connected with drama. 4. Handbooks 83. Hanawa Shob6 Henshibu -f, 3 (Hanawa Shobo Editorial Section), ed., Bungaku benran Nihon-hen t. A ~ 9 E,l (Literary notebook, Japanese section), Toky6, Hanawa Shobo, 1949, 3+400pp. Designed for senior high school and university students. A general history of Japanese literature is followed by a series of histories on the several literary genres (the tanka, haiku, long poem, tale, diary, travel work, essay, medieval and modern fiction, drama, criticism, and translations). Next comes a section describing approximately 135 major works of Japanese literature, another defining a group of literary terms and describing a number of literary events, and still another giving the biographies of about 1000 authors. A chronological table coming down to the year 1949 derives chiefly from the tables in Nihon bungaku daijiten, edited by Fujimura Tsukuru; Nihon bungakushi hyoran, compiled by Numazawa Tatsuo; and Gaisetsu gendai Nihon bungakushi, compiled under the direction of Hisamatsu Sen'ichi. A valuable list of reference works for the whole of Japanese literature, for the several periods, and for the genres, including texts and commentaries, next follows, and the volume ends with a listing of the contents of various koza or essay series. An'ya k6ro, by Shiga Naoya, and the poems of Nakano Shigeharu are listed with the major works of Japanese literature, but this volume, covering as it does the whole of Japanese literature, is of minor use to the historian of Showa literature. 84. Hisamatsu Sen'ichi A- I -, Nihon bungaku meisaku gaikan V 9 i &,4 ~ (Outline of the major works of Japanese literature), Tokyo, Obunsha, 1950, 255pp. Following an introduction in which the principal ideas current in successive literary ages in Japan are discussed, the author gives critical summations of approximately 120 Japanese literary works. The only work representing Showa literature is Shiga Naoya's Antya koro, and much of it was written prior to the Sh6wa era. A short list of definitions of Japanese literary terms is given on pp. 244-250. 85. Kazamaki Kagejiro 4t t - ~f t, ed., Gendai Nihon bungaku techo: sambun-hen QLA 6; ( i -A t ft (Handbook of present-day Japanese literature: Section on prose), Osaka, Sogensha, 1951, 6+295+ 15pp. The editor's introduction is followed by a section on prose by Takada Mizuho; another on the drama by Noda Hisao; and a third section on literary criticism by Sakakibara Yoshifumi. The coverage is spotty. A chronological table for the period 1868-1950 is given on pp. 267-295. The coverage is of Meiji, Taish6, and Sh6wa literature. Next follows a series of appendices: the biographies of 15 modern Japanese critics, analyses of 20 important modern Japanese novels, a discussion of popular literature, a list of works on modern Japanese literature, a list of the principal living authors and critics, a list of winners of the Akutagawa prize, a chronological table of Japanese literature from 1868 to 1950, inclusive, compiled by Wada Kingo, and an index. Although these last sections are of uneven scope and value, the work is of some value as a handy reference guide. 86. Nihon Engeki Ky6kai A 0, i ' ' /-' (Japan Theatrical Association), ed., Nenkan gikyoku, ichi, issen kyuhyaku goju yonemban X '|1 'l i, 1, 1954 lk-. (A year-book of the drama, v. 1, 1954 edition), Tokyo, Hobunkan, 1954. C. DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS The Hisamatsu-Yoshida dictionary (entry 96) is undoubtedly the best of the one-volume dictionaries of modern Japanese literature. Useful review articles covering various phases of Sh6wa literature are found in the supplementary volume of the Zoho kaitei Nihon bungaku daijiten, edited by Fujimura Tsukuru (entry 90; compare Author's Introduction). The student will also note the variety of specialized dictionaries, covering drama (87, 98), the long poem (93, 100, 114, 115), the tanka (103), the haiku (97, 121), children's literature (92, 94), authors (108, 109, 111, 112, 117, 119), characters appearing in literature (106), technical terms in literature (91, 102, 110, 113, 118), and literary works (95). 87. Atsumi Seitar6 -q k P], Nihon engeki jiten -' k (Dictionary of Japanese drama), Tokyo, Shintaishfisha, 1944, 2+68 pp. Lists and discusses 2500 personal names and technical terms connected with the kabuki, joruri, modern drama, the dance, and music, with minimal coverage given to the n6 drama for which adequate dictionaries are already available. Also discussions of particular plays are left to a second (as yet unpublished) work.

Page  36 36 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 88. Fujimura Tsukuru. - \ 4', supervisor, Shinsen Nihon bungaku jiten f. ~ ]._.t (A dictionary of Japanese literature, newly compiled, T5ky5, Gakut6sha, 1953, 4th printing, 1955, 4+771pp. For the general public and for senior high school and university students for whom the Nihon bungaku daijiten (Dictionary of Japanese literature), edited by Fujimura Tsukuru, is too involved. The compilers are connected with T6hoku University at Sendai. The coverage is from ancient times down through 1953. A chronological table is given on pp. 695-736. This is followed on pp. 737-747 by a series of genealogical tables for scholars of Japanese matters together with listings of Confucian scholars in Japan, poets of the tanka, and poets of the haiku. Index, pp. 748-771. 89. Fujimura Tsukuru ~ it I, ed., Shukuyaku Nihon bungaku daijiten. ) 0 <,t ~ A (A large dictionary of Japanese literature, in reduced compass), T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1955, 18+1159+2+94+2+40+2pp. Map. This is a reduction into a single volume, for the use of students, of the larger Zoho kaitei Nihon bungaku daijiten (entry 90). Some 2600 articles remain, often in abbreviated form and in somewhat simpler language. The chronological table is brought down to the year 1953. The articles on Showa literature found in volume 8 of the larger work are inserted into the main body of the text, in their proper order in accordance with the table of the syllabary. 90. Fujimura Tsukuru.t I' f, ed., Z6ho kaitei Nihon bungaku daijiten ' la $ ~ ~ - (A large dictionary of Japanese literature, revised and enlarged), Toky6, Shinchosha, 1949-1952, 8v. An enlarged and revised edition of the dictionary first published by Shinch6sha in seven volumes in 1936-37, Nihon bungaku daijiten, which was the largest and most extensive dictionary of Japanese literature. According to Fujimura, writing in the preface, the Nihon bungaku daijiten surpasses the largest of the dictionaries of foreign literature, namely, the dictionaries of German literature compiled by Paul Merkel and Wolfgang Stammler (1925-1931) and by Walter Hofstaetter and Ulrich Peters (1930). Approximately 300 writers participated in the writing of the articles, each of which is signed. The dictionary is of the greatest value and use to the student of Japanese literature and language. The entries deal not only with Japanese literature and language but with such arts, disciplines, and matters auxiliary to Japanese literature as general literary theory, aesthetics, textual criticism, manners and customs, the drama, dance, music, painting, calligraphy, bibliography, Shinto, Buddhism, Sinology, folk-lore, and foreign literature. In the original edition of 1936-37, the historical coverage was from ancient times down to the end of the Taisho era. In the revised edition the coverage is brought down almost to the time of publication. Major revisions made necessary by the discovery of new materials and by scholarly studies are incorporated; this is true not only of the articles on literary subjects but of the entries relating to aesthetics. Literary activity in the Showa era has also had to be recognized, hence the addition of an extra (eighth) volume to include Showa authors and their works, Showa studies relating to Japanese literature and language, and scholars of the Showa period who have left outstanding contributions. Almost 1000 new entries have been included in the eighth volume. Each of the articles is signed by its author or authors and provided with a bibliography. Of major importance to students of Sh6wa literature are the summary articles in the supplementary volume listed in the Author's Introduction to this bibliography. The eighth volume also contains the following indices formerly found in the seventh volume of the earlier edition and now revised: a general index, separately paged, 1-170; an index of names and titles in kanji that are difficult to read, 171-178; a chronological table coming down to 1950, separately paged, 1-103. The original edition also contained an index of names and titles in historical kana spelling that are difficult to read, v. 7, 179-197; an index of the Western terms, written in Roman letters, found in the text, separately paged, 1-8; and a list of era names in the order of the kana syllabary, 97-98. Cf. entry 89. 91. Fukuda Kiyoto ~ \B: / K, Senuma Shigeki;& 4 l\ ~i, and Sasazawa Yoshiaki ~ -. 1, ed., Shinbungeigo jiten e, _ 4 _ (A dictionary of new words in the literary arts), Tokyo, Daini Shobo, 1950, 212pp. Lists and defines approximately 1400 words belonging to the field of literature and to such fields as philosophy, art, aesthetics, and the social sciences insofar as these terms relate to literature. Approximately one-half of the terms are borrowings into Japanese from foreign languages. 92. Furuya Tsunatake Y i ma, Yamamuro Shizuka Z, tA -, Seki Hideo q A A, Okagami Suzue A] +_ X -;-, and Funaki Shir6o A 4? 1, comp., Gendai jid6 bungaku jiten 4 A At:C ~ ~ -- (Dictionary of present-day children's literature), under supervision of Kawabata Yasunari "I | | f' and Ogawa Mimei, { "I L s, T6kyo, H6bunkan, 1955, 3+452+60pp. A dictionary of children's literature not only of Japan but of the rest of the world. Incorporates folklore. The articles, whose headings are arranged in the order of the kana table, deal with authors, works, movements in children's literature, children's magazines, myths, legends, poetry, folk-tales, and folk songs; the genres of children's literature and their history; the history of children's literature in Japan and in other countries of the world; and technical terms relating to children's literature. 612 entries in all, divided among 30 writers. Bibliographical references are provided for many of the entries. A list of studies pertaining to children's literature is given under the heading Jid6 bungaku kenkyisho )L A t t, (Studies in children's literature). The table of contents lists the entries having to do with (1) general matters, (2) Japanese authors and works, and (3) authors and works outside Japan. A chronological table of children's literature is given on pp. 401-452; the Showa era is covered on pp. 441-452, and gives a list

Page  37 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 37 of works for children published in Japan along with a record of events bearing on children and children's literature. Two indices are provided: one of authors and the other of works and other matters. 93. Gendaishi Jiten Henshuibu It A ft -4 I# * -t (Editorial Section on the Dictionary of Present-day Poetry), Gendaishi jiten A H- A V (Dictionary of contemporary poetry), compiled under the direction of Horiguchi Daigaku -tr c, Yoshida Seiichi T -@ -, and Nakano Shigeharu + Wj f, Tokyo, lizuka Shoten, 1950, 6+301+27pp. The major poets, works of poetry, poetic movements and organizations, and technical terms connected with poetry are entered under approximately 1,000 headings, in the order of the syllabary. Although the emphasis is on the Japanese shi or long poem since Meiji times, items having to do with Western poetry and the older classical poetry of Japan are entered in so far as they illuminate the long poem in modern Japan. A chronological table is given on pp. 263-301 for the period 1868-1950. The indices of personal names and of subject matters are given separate paging, 1-13 and 14-27, respectively. 94. Hasegawa Seiichi -| f "1 iJ '-, ed., Nihon jid5 bungaku jiten v -? P -3- (Dictionary of Japanese children's literature), under supervision of Ogawa Mimei,),I - ti, Akita Ujaku - ig v )7 and Tsubota J6ji A C g 4:-, T6ky6, Kawade Shobo, 1954, 10+378+13+10pp. This is a dictionary giving brief synopses and commentaries on the principal legends and stories that classify as children's literature. Three main divisions are found: ancient (up to the beginning of the Edo period), modern, and contemporary. The children's literature of the ancient period is further divided into densetsu (legends) and setsuwa (tales), otogiz6shi (elementary stories, fairy tales), mukashibanashi ("ancient stories"), and warabeuta (children's songs); the literature of the modern period into otogibanashi (fairy stories) and d6wa bungaku ("children's literature"; and contemporary literature into jido bungaku ("children's literature") Under jido bungaku (pp. 179 -371) are treated the magazines and newspapers devoted to children's literature, collections of children's literature, specific examples of children's literature, songs and poems for children, analyses and histories of children's literature, and organizations devoted to children's literature. At the end of the volume is a chronological table of children's literature in Japan, from ancient times down to the year 1953. As stated in the preface written by the committee directing its compilation, the contents are of considerable interest when viewed in relation to Japan' s social history, educational system, and literature in general. Elements recalling the jataka and Marchen contend, as they say, with elements that reflect more the social conditions obtaining when the stories were being composed. 95. Hisamatsu Sen'ichi, I -;d -, Nihon bungaku meisaku gaikan 9 Q p fi.,$_, (Outline view of the chief works of Japanese literature), T6ky6, Obunsha, 1950, 255pp. See item 84. 96. Hisamatsu Sen'ichi Z 4^ - - and Yoshida Seiichi z t -, ed., Kindai Nihon bungaku jiten it at\' a ~o f 4_ (Dictionary of modern Japanese literature), Toky6, Toky5d6, 1954, 888pp. The single most useful dictionary of modern Japanese literature. The introduction outlines the history of Japanese literature in the Meiji, Taisho, and Showa eras, that is, from 1868 to 1953. Four periods are found, 1868-1905, 1906-1924, 1925-1945, and 1945 on. Under each period, the historical and ideological background is given, followed by descriptions of the fiction, criticism, drama, poetry produced in the period. This is followed by a section on the influence of foreign literature on Japanese literature since the beginning of the Meiji era. The dictionary itself contains approximately 1800 entries on authors, literary currents, works, literary matters, and literary journals. Under each author, one or more of his major works are often given special coverage. A bibliography of literature since 1868 is given on pp. 771-794. This is followed by a chronological table of literature and of literary events from 1868 to 1953 on pp. 795 -837. 97. Ijichi Tetsuo <~ W ' A, Imoto Noichi 4 -~ -, Kanda Hideo Z 7 - V, Nakamura Toshisada. q7 fr A_, and Miyamoto Sabur5o % ~ --, ed., Haikai daijiten {A By, 4 (A large dictionary for the haikai), T6kyo, Meiji Shoin, 1957, 8+1+1009pp. Approximately 5000 entries relating to the renga or linked poem, haikai (comic renga), senryu (satiric verses in form identical with the haiku), zatsuhai (miscellaneous pastimes based on the haiku), and the modern haiku are explained, often with brief bibliographies attached. A very substantial and important work for this group of genres. The chronological table (pp. 839-873) covers the years 1951-1956. Indices, pp. 875-1008. 98. Kawatake Shigetoshi -> ~ ' ~, supervisor, Geino jiten 4j / t A (Dcitionary of the performing arts), T6ky6, T6kyodo, 1953, 796pp., photographs, maps, line drawings, charts, index. The whole history of Japanese dance, music, drama, and other stage forms is covered, including therefore the older religious and secular dances, n6, ky6gen, marionette play, kabuki, provincial songs and dances, shimpa, modern play, operetta, and chant forms; music, musical instruments, stage techniques, and costumes; names for different types of role, kinds of property, the theater; terms used in the entertainment industry; schools of drama and the dance, organizations connected with drama, etc. As far as the older forms are concerned, an attempt has been made to take advantage of the latest findings of scholarship.

Page  38 38 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS The emphasis, however, is on the modern forms. The genealogical charts on pp. 687-702 show the line of descent of the masters in various schools of drama, chant, and dance. A listing of bugaku dances, n6 plays, and ky6gen still performed is given on pp. 703-708, followed by a listing of the names of marionette and kabuki plays on pp. 708-720. Next follows a listing of plays belonging to the newer kabuki, shimpa, and modern play, on pp. 721-749. Provincial dances and performances are listed on pp. 750-754. The chart on p. 755 shows the history of development of drama in Japan. A highly useful work. 99. Kindai Bungakusha er 4<t tL, ed., Gendai Nihon bungaku jiten ' 0, r 9 ~ - (Dictionary of present-day Japanese literature), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1949, 13+568+20+2pp. A dictionary of Meiji, Taish6, and Showa literature compiled by ten members of the group publishing the journal Kindai bungaku (see entry under journals). These ten members are Ara Masahito, Odagiri Hideo, Kubota Masabumi, Sasaki Kiichi, Tomono Daizo, Hirata Jisaburo, Hirano Ken, Honda Shugo, Yamamuro Shizuka, and Yoshida Seiichi. Each was responsible for approximately 40 entries, which cover authors, major works in fiction, criticism, drama, the long poem, tanka and haiku, and the literary movements, schools, and journals. The announced attempt is to indicate the historical position of the major works of modern literature, giving emphasis to their criticism and appreciation. Under authors are given their birth and death dates, real names if they are better known by the pen-names, pen-names other than the one used for the entry, major writings, and the principal reference works relating to the author. Under title entries, the author's name, journal where published, dates of publication, publisher, and the existence or non-existence of popular editions are given, along with a listing of reference works and author's biography if the author does not receive separate treatment. For journals, the initial and final dates of publication, publisher, and special characteristics are given. This dictionary, it must be said, tends to over-emphasize left-of-center authors, organizations, and journals, and has yielded first place to the work edited by Hisamatsu Sen'ichi and Yoshida Seiichi, Kindai Nihon bungaku jiten (entry 96). 100. Kubota Masabumi j_ 4- S -i -L and Shidai Ryiuzo ` 4 t -, ed., Nihon gendaishi jiten 1 $ f t - 444 (Dictionary of the present-day Japanese long poem), Toky6, Hokushindo, 1955, 367+28pp. The major currents of thought, movements, organizations, journals, collections of poetry, poets, and technical terms connected with the shi or long poem since Meiji times are discussed under approximately 650 entries arranged in the order of the syllabary. The compilers and their colleagues who wrote the articles belong to the Bungaku geijutsu or Literature and Art circle. A bibliography of the major works having to do with modern poetry is given on pp. 299-304, and a chronological table for the period 1843 -1954, including notes on the tanka, haiku, senryu, song, Chinese poetry, and humorous verse for the period 1843-1867, is given on pp. 305-367. The index is separately paged, 1-28. 101. Kume Masao, ~. - t and Aida Ryutaro i t@ _~ AtV~, comp., Shin-bunsho jiten -;7L -- (A new dictionary for written composition), Toky6, Daisen Shoten, 1950, 345pp. This dictionary gathers together a series of quotations from modern literature, mainly Japanese but also including foreign literature, illustrating the following headings: character and personality, men, women, the features of the face, the emotions, psychology, conversation, love, sex, etc., with sub-headings for each of these categories. Thus for character and personality, the works of Mori Ogai, Natsume S6seki, Kunikida Doppo, Miyamoto Yuriko, Ishikawa Tatsuz6, Hino Ashihei, Ishizaka Yojir6, Masugi Shizue, and Kojima Masajir6 are quoted. An interesting compilation presenting Japanese attitudes on the subject matters in question. 102. Maruyama Rimpei #L I t -, comp., Bungei shin-jiten; 4 4 ~- (A new dictionary of the literary arts), T6ky6, Meiji Shoin, 1953; 2nd printing, 1954, 2+2+492pp. A dictionary for students, teachers, and others concerned with world literature defining approximately 6000 names and terms. The literatures of China, India, England, and America as well as of Japan are included in the coverage. Also, terms belonging to painting, sculpture, music, drama, dance, and the movies, the names of artists, musicians, and actors, titles of important works in literature and language, and terms belonging to the printing and photographic trades are entered. The chronological table covers the history of world literature from the beginnings down to and including 1953. 103. Kindai Tanka Jiten Kankokait 0< J,- $~k. T\ 4Tfi(Society for the Publication of a Dictionary of the Modern Tanka), comp., Kindai tanka jiten t 4-, -[ -4 J- (Dictionary of the modern tanka), under editorial supervision of Kimata Osamu { < <t-, Kubota Masabumi i \- ~ --, and Watanabe Junzao - 'I -, T6kyo, Shink5 Shuppansha, 1950; 1952; 1956, 2+6+12+521+64+46pp. This is a dictionary for the modern tanka concentrating on poets, anthologies, schools and circles, books and journals, and organizations connected with this poetic form, together with literary terms useful in its discussion. The range of coverage is roughly from 1893, when the Asakasha was formed, down to May, 1950. However, generalized treatments of the past history of the tanka, and the major pre-modern tanka poets are also entered, in order to give a background to the entries from modern times. Among the 624 entries, 244 are devoted to individual poets, 160 to anthologies and studies of the tanka (by single authors or by more than one author), 80 to the schools of the tanka, the organizations of tanka poets, and journals published by these groups, and 200 terms in modern literary history, the history of the tanka, and related fields such as philosophy and sociology. As far as possible, a list of reference works is added

Page  39 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 39 at the end of each entry. The separately paged chronological table in the 1956 edition covers collections of poetry, happenings in tanka circles, and happenings in society and the cultural world (outside the circles of the tanka) from 1868 to 1955. The index, also separately paged, contains about 3000 entries. 12 writers participated in the writing of this dictionary. Their contributions are signed by their names in each case. The 1956 edition differs from the one published in 1950 only in having an enlarged chronological table. 104. Nakajima Kenzo 't A itt, ed., Gendai Nihon bungaku jiten f, C ~ At- 4 t (Dictionary of present-day Japanese literature), Toky6, Kawade Shob6, 1953. 105. Nishio Minoru am rt! and Hisamatsu Sen'ichi L -- -, ed., Nihon bungaku jiten 0. - (Dictionary of Japanese literature), T6ky6, Gakuseisha, 1954; also, 1956, 584pp. Gives the basic facts of Japanese literature. Also adds a few entries on the Japanese language. Aimed at senior high school and university students and the general public. The 1200 entries were written by a group of 115 contributors. The historical coverage is from ancient times down to 1953. The table of contents is analytical; matters of general import and the articles having to do with the several literary genres are first listed. This is followed by a listing of entries in accordance with the several historical periods. The 424 entries having to do with Meiji, Taisho, and Showa literature are given on pp. 11-14. Bibliographies are given at the end of most of the entries. Chronological table, pp. 504-540; list of era names in the order of the kana table, 541-544; list of names and titles that are difficult to read, 545-546; titles established by the Taiho code, 546; genealogical tables of scholars of Japanese matters, 547; Confucianist scholars in Japan, 547-549; tanka poets, 549-550; haiku poets, 550-552; index, 553-584. 106. Yoshida Seiichi C H ' -, Ichiko Teiji 7.,, and Mitani Eiichi -- ~ -, comp., Nihon bungaku sakuhin jimmei jiten g._t t A- - (Dictionary of characters appearing in Japanese literature), under supervision of Hisamatsu Sen'ichi Z ' d -, As5 Isoji. ~ ~, and Yamagishi Tokuhei L t, Toky6, Kawade Shobo, 2nd printing, 1956, 3+665+34pp. A dictionary of the characters, some real and mostly fictional, appearing in Japanese legends, fiction, drama, and poetry, and to some extent in essays and in the senryu or satiric verse form of 5-7-5 syllables. The given names are given for the characters found in older literature, the surnames and given names for the characters in Meiji and later writings. An index of the names of the characters is found at the end of the volume, separately paged, 1-23, and a list of the works (and their authors) from which the characters entered in the dictionary were taken is found on pages 24-34. The material on page 31 should have been given on page 32, and vice versa. Approximately 135 titles from Showa literature were canvassed for the names of one or more of the characters appearing in them. For greater usefulness an index of the given names of the characters appearing in modern literature might have been included. However, this is a unique dictionary in giving in convenient form analyses of the main characters appearing in Japanese literature. 107. Nihon Bungaku Ky6kai 0; ~ O /~ (Japanese Literary Association), ed., Nihon bungakushi jiten 9 $._ J L - -& X. (Dictionary of the history of Japanese literature), under supervision of Fujimura Tsukuru and Nishio Minoru, T6ky6, Nihon Hy6ron Shinsha, 1954; 2nd printing, 1955, 22+980+84+97pp. A compilation of about 115 essays written by as many members of the Nihon Bungaku Ky6kai E l g 7{ (Japanese Literary Federation). This federation was formed in August, 1945. It is devoted to the unification of literary studies and education and comprises not only students of Japanese literature but scholars in history, foreign literature, and Japanese language. In order to give unity to the contributions, a number of entries giving an overall view of the several periods of literature is included. The table of contents lists the entries first in the order of the kana syllabary and then in accordance with the eras to which they belong. For the modern period, covering the Meiji era down to the present, 88 titles are listed on pages 18-21. At the end of the volume are found a general index in 84 pages and a chronological table (coming down to and including 1950) in 97 pages. More a collection of essays on the periods, genres, and major authors of Japanese literature than a dictionary per se. 108. Nihon Chosakken Kyogikai e - t -14 4 ' I (Japan Copyright Council), Bunka jimmeiroku (Sh6wa niju rokunen-ban) Ago kijZ z ( M ~ -+ -t 4- & ) (Who's who of men in the cultural field - 1951 edition), Tokyo, Nihon Chosakken Ky6gikai, 1951, 1+12+787+201+lpp. A very useful reference work in which the holders and "users" of copyright and laws pertaining to copyright are listed under 9 main headings and 80 sub-headings. The 9 main categories include: authors,, performers in the entertainment arts, editors, present owners of copyright who are no longer living, members of the Japan Copyright Council, documents pertaining to the Japan Copyright Council and laws and regulations relative to copyright, index of copyright-holders, users of copyright (newspapers, publishers, theatrical companies, advertising agencies, etc.), and organizations working in the several disciplinary fields. Of special interest to students of modern Japanese literature are the listings of authors working in prose literature (fiction, essay, drama); Japanese language and literature; foreign language and literature; poetry (the shi or long poem, song, tanka, and haiku); children's literature; linguistics and philosophy, religion, and education. Under each of the groupings, the authors are listed in the order of the kana syllabary. Their original names are given when the entry consists of a pen-name. This is followed in each instance by the name of the prefecture where the author was born, his birth-date, present address, place of employment, telephone number, the school that he last attended, his specialty,

Page  40 40 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS and titles of his principal works. Since the kana are given at the side of each name in kanji, the author's names are conveniently provided with their pronunciations. Cross-references are given in the case of authors working in more than one disciplinary field. 109. Nihon Shuppan Kyodo Kabushiki Kaisha e + d i-, i- 1 f A it (Japan Publications Union Joint-stock Company), comp., Sh6wa niji sannen-ban gendai shuppan bunkajin s6ran % -*tz — 3 t- 't 0,t. I/L AK- t (1948 edition: Survey of persons connected with present-day publication and culture), T6ky6, Nihon Shuppan Ky6d6 Kabushiki Kaisha, 1947, 408pp.; suppl. v., 1948, 136pp. This work succeeds a volume of the same name, not seen for this bibliography, published by the Kyodo Shuppansha in 1943. Part 1 consists of an index, by specialty, of 3590 persons active in writing between 1943 and 1948. Included in the specialties are literary criticism, Japanese language and literature, the novel, essay, and drama, the long poem, tanka, haiku, foreign language and literature, and the performing arts. Part 2 consists of the dictionary proper, in which the biographies are given of the 3590 persons entered. Part 3 consists of obituaries of approximately 400 persons who died in the years 1943-1946. The supplementary volume adds about 900 names, gives the addresses of authors who have changed their places of abode since the publication of the prior volume, another list indicating changes of employment, and still another of persons who died in the years 1946-1948 inclusive. This volume is today replaced by Bunka jimmeiroku. 110. Nishishita Kyoichi 7 T, - -, ed., Bungaku shojiten _ +,J -$- (A small dictionary of literature), Okayama, Nihon Bunky6 Shuppan Kabushiki Kaisha, 1951, 6+211pp. A dictionary of terms in literature, language, thought, philosophy, science, and the performing arts taken from nine textbooks on Japanese language used in the k6otgakk5 or senior high schools. Western terms as well as Japanese are given. Of interest in showing the range of subject matters covered by the language student in Japan's higher schools. 111. Nomoto Yonekichi Ft S + +, Gendai Nihon bungakusha jiten, et 4 ~ ~ -~ ' t (A dictionary of modern Japanese authors), Tokyo, Musashino Shoin, 1941; enlarged eds., 1950, 1952, 304pp. This work is in essence a who's who of authors of Meiji, Taisho, and Sh6wa literature. In the 1952 edition, biographies are given of 172 writers of "serious" fiction, 54 writers of popular fiction and children's literature, 19 authors of essays and travel works, 62 authors of the long poem,70 poets of the tanka, 37 poets of the haiku, 47 dramatists, 157 critics and translators, and 102 scholars of Japanese language and literature. There is also a list of reference works for modern literature, covering its history in general, the several genres, and studies of various authors. A second appendix is a chronological table of Japanese literature from 1867 to 1951. According to the author's preface in the enlarged edition of 1952, 50 biographies were deleted rom the 1941 edition and 250 added. The edition of 1952 adds two years (1950, 1951) to the chronological table given in the 1950 edition; otherwise, it is the same as the 1950 printing. 112. Sekai Bungaku Kenkyukai I;- ^Q f 1 1 (Association for the Study of World Literature), Sekai bungei sakka jiten e at t it -t Am (Dictionary of world authors) [Gakusei zensho P 1 (Student's anthology), v.301], Tokyo, Sekai Bungaku Kenkyuiikai, 1949, 311pp. Compiled in order to provide information on Japanese, Chinese, and Western authors and works named in junior and senior high school texts. Approximately 1000 names are entered in the dictionary proper, which is followed by a section describing in brief the history of literary currents in Japan (first down to the end of the Edo period, then for the subsequent period), China, England and America, Germany and Northern Europe, France, and Russia. The chronological table is divided into three columns, one each for Japan, the West, and the East excluding Japan. Literary events, authors (entered under the year in which they died, with their ages), and works are entered for each of the three geographical groupings. 113. Sekai Bungei Jiten Henshubu t,- 4> t - 4 t -$ (Editorial Office for the Dictionary of the Literary Arts of the World), ed., Sekai bungei jiten: Toyo-hen -a O A - r - (Dictionary of the literary arts of the world: section on the Orient), Tokyo, Tokyodo, 1950, 768pp. The basic literary currents found in Asia are first discussed, with Takagi Ichinosuke covering Japan, Matsueda Shigeo dealing with China, Tanaka Otoya with India, Arabia, Persia, and Southeast Asia (Java, the Malay Peninsula, Burma, and Thai), and Takeshita Kazuma with the Ainu, Taiwan, and Korea. Authors and works are next discussed, with critical comments; technical terms and subject matters follow in a third section. The four indices cover personal names, works, technical terms and subject matters, and terms that are difficult to read. Since so much is covered, this dictionary is of limited use to students of modern Japanese literature. However, a good deal of comparative data from other Asian literatures is made available. 114. Sekai Gendaishi Jiten Henshubu -4 ' L 4' -t- jl -3 (Editorial Staff of the World Modern Poetry Dictionary), Sekai gendaishi jiten -J it A 1RT-A (World modern poetry dictionary), Sogensha, 1951, 615pp. 115. Shinshikai I4 i (Association of New Poetry), ed., Gendaishi jiten A <4 4 -O- (Dictionary of the present-day long poem), Toky6, S6gensha, 1951.

Page  41 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 41 116. Shuzui Kenji - I _L _ - >, Yamagishi Tokuhei 4' i t, Imaizumi Tadayoshi k 7< /., and others, Nihon bungaku jiten g;~ _ _ k (Dictionary of Japanese literature), Tokyo, S5meisha, 1950, 2v. The second volume deals with modern Japanese literature. (Not seen). 117. Sojinsha t AiK -, ed., Gendai haika jimmei jiten ~ <V At -/A - (Dictionary of present-day haiku poets), Toky6, Sojinsha, 1930. 118. T6dai Gakusei Bunka Shidokai. K. At U t, Atk/ (The T6ky6 University Society for the Cultural Guidance of Students), ed., Bungei yogo jiten _ i t - *-(Dictionary of words used in the literary arts), Toky6, Toky6 Daigaku Gakusei Bunka Shid6kai, 1950, 406pp. This dictionary defines and lists approximately 1500 words that are used in studies of literature and in literary criticism. Terms denoting the literary genres, concepts, principles, and schools are defined, along with terms from philosophy, aesthetics, the social sciences, ethnology, linguistics, and bibliography needed in literary study. Brief listings of reference works are given at the end of most of the entries. 119. Todai Gakusei Bunka Shid6kai T,. T F i _ t4 -/i (The Tokyo University Society for the Cultural Guidance of Students), ed., Gendai bungaku jimmei jiten: issen kyuhyaku gojunen-ban xX', J,.A 1950 tk (Dictionary of authors of modern literature, 1950 edition), 7+365pp. Table. Designed as a reference work for junior and senior high school teachers and students. The coverage is for modern times, from the Meiji era down. In addition to 1000 biographies of Japanese and foreign authors (entered in two separate sections) are a series of appendices giving 170 biographies of Western authors of the pre-modern era, a summary of literary currents in modern Japan, a chronological table for modern literature from 1868 to 1949 inclusive, two indices (one each for Japanese and non-Japanese authors), and a chronological table showing the life-spans of 130 Japanese authors of the Meiji, Taisho, and Showa eras. 120. T6kyod6 Henshuibu; t t (Editorial Section of T6ky6d6), ed., Sekai bungei jiten (T6y6-hen) - A l -* 4X - ( ~ j 1 ) (Dictionary of world literature: section on the Far East), Tokyo, Tokyodo, 1950, 7 Opp. A dictionary of authors, works, and matters relating to Japanese, Chinese, Indian, and Near Eastern literature, complementary to a second volume on Western literature. Divided into three main parts. In the first part, pp. 9-58, a group of scholars discuss the currents of literary thought found respectively in Japan, China, India, Arabia, Persia, Southeastern Asia, and in the areas "surrounding" Japan; the last section is thus concerned with Ainu, Ryukyuan, Formosan, and Korean literature. The second part, pp. 59-543, discusses the authors and works found in each of these literatures, and the third part, pp. 545-693, describes or defines literary matters and terms. Indices are provided of personal names, 1-31 (738-768); works, 32-51 (718-737); literary terms and matters, 52-71 (698-717); and names of persons and titles of works that are difficult to read, 72-75 (694-697). The works treated in part 2 are usually discussed under their authors, except when the authors are either unknown or little known. Part 1 is of special interest in providing a Japanese view of Asian literatures. 121. Yamamoto Kenkichi A1s * l i and others, ed., Gendai haiku jiten A, A&' A -i - (Dictionary of present-day haiku), T6ky6, Kawade Shobo, 1954, 377+16pp. The main emphasis is on the several schools of modern haiku, including the Hototogisu, Shinkeik6 or New Tendency, Shink6 or Newly Rising, and related schools of the twentieth century. However, important poets and movements of the past are also covered. The entries for the many poets include listings and discussions of their major works, which are treated under separate sub-headings. Counting these sub-headings, there are approximately 900 entries. A special table of "season-words," used in the traditional haiku, is given on pp. 339-355. The chronological table found on pages 357-377 covers the period 1887-1954. The index is separately paged, 1-16. A special feature of this dictionary is the table of contents, pp. 7-22, in which the entries are arranged in historical order, the modern age being first treated, and then the premodern. The modern era is further divided into two periods: first from Masaoka Shiki up to and including the "Period of the Four S's," which came in the middle 1920s; and secondly, from the middle of the 1920s down. For the period from Shiki through the four S's, the poets and their works are grouped in accordance with the schools to which they belong - an arrangement of value to the student of the history of the haiku. 122. Yoshie Takamatsu i - A, ed., Sekai bungei daijiten ~ ~ 4 (A large dictionary of world literature), Toky6, Chuo Koronsha, 1935-1937, 7v. D. HISTORIES, STUDIES, AND ESSAY SERIES The following is a selected list of secondary sources for the history of Showa literature, the majority being scholarly presentations of their subject matter instead of being mere "appreciations," guides to composition, and the like. For an excellent listing of similar material for the whole of modern Japanese literature, covering the Meiji, Taisho, and Sh6wa periods, see Hisamatsu Sen'ichi X '- - - and Yoshida Seiichi ~ W i - ed., Kindai Nihon bungaku jiten E 4\' e A 4# (Dictionary of modern Japanese literature), Tokyo, Tokyodo, 1954, 771-794.

Page  42 42 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 123. Akiba Tar6o 4d (-A-, Nihon shingekishi e $ f t\ E- (A history of modern drama in Japan), Tokyo, Ris6sha, 1956, 2v. This work gives in detail the origins and development of modern drama in Japan. However, it is only in vol. 2 that the author is able to begin his discussion of the modern play in the Showa period, and his coverage is also confined to chapter 23 on the Tsukiji Little Theater and chapter 24 on proletarian drama. The outstanding characteristic of this work is the author's use of an abundance of documents which he has ferreted out with great industry and inquisitiveness. 124. Ara Masahito. J-L/', Sengo bungaku no temb6o t ~, /| I (Trends in postwar literature), Toky6, Mikasa Shob6, 1956, 291pp. This work gathers together the author's essays, published for the most part in newspapers and magazines in the postwar period. Since the essays are arranged chronologically and deal with problems of urgent literary interest, a kind of day-to-day history of Showa literature emerges. 125. Ara Masahito, - /-, ed., Sh6wa bungaku juniko X A T + - (Twelve lectures on Sh5wa literature), Toky6, Kaiz6sha, 1950, 321pp. Ara Masahito, Hirano Ken, Yamamuro Shizuka, Honda Shugo, Hirata Jisaburo, and other members of the group publishing Kindai bungaku discuss Showa literature in accordance with its various periods. All of these authors launched their literary careers in the early years of the Sh6wa era. Together they present a good view of the whole of Sh6wa literature. The second edition was published later under the title Sh6wa bungaku kenkyu k i A H i ' (A study of Showa literature), T6ky6, Hanawa Shobo, 1952. 126. Ara Masahito K ~k, Kubota Masabumi.4{ - at, Sasaki Kiichi l i - -, Hirano Ken {AHonda Shugo f k A- -, and Yamamuro Shizuka A % ", ed., Sh6wa bungakushi g{ I 'L (A history of Showa literature), T5kyo, Kadokawa Shoten, 1956, 2v. Consists of 10 chapters, as follows: Ch. 1, An outline of Japanese literature in the Showa period (by Hirano); Ch. 2: Some characteristics of Showa literature (by Hirano); Ch. 3: The proletarian literary movement (by Ara); Ch. 4: The modernistic trend (by Yamamuro); Ch. 5: The "renaissance in literature" and the literature of conversion (by Honda); Ch. 6: Literature during the last war (by Hirano); Ch. 7: Postwar literature (by Sasaki); Ch. 8: A general survey of Showa poetry (by Yamamuro); Ch. 9: The tanka (by Kubota); and Ch. 10: The haiku (by Kubota). These articles had originally appeared in the monthly reviews issued with the Showa bungaku zenshu (Anthology of Showa literature), published by Kadokawa Shoten. They now appear in revised form. Although the book might be criticized as being overgeneralized, it would be difficult to find a better summary of the literary history of the Showa period. The authors are members of the group that published the magazine Kindai bungaku. Together, they share an interest in a wide range of problems, political and literary, and stand in particular opposition to the authors, partial to Marxism, found in Shin-Nihon bungaku. 127. Ara Masahito, J —/, Tomono Daiz5o ff V i -, Nakamura Mitsuo 1 At t k, Hirano Ken A -f H, irata Jisabur6 4 7 t E- 9, and Fukuda Tsuneari SW r -1 3, Gaisetsu gendai Nihon bungakushi 4lL 9 { ' it - ~ ' _ (An outline history of modern Japanese literature), under supervision of Hisamatsu Sen'ichi 7c -, -, Toky6, Hanawa Shob67, 1950, 3+340+38pp. This book is divided into seven chapters. Tomono Daizo discusses the development of Meiji literature; Nakamura Mitsuo, naturalist literature; Fukuda Tsuneari, anti-naturalist literature; Ara Masahito, developments in Taisho literature; Hirano Ken, the literature of the early Showa period; Hirata Jisaburo, the literature of the decade after 1935, including World War II; and Hirata again, the literature of the postwar period. A 38-page chronological table of Japanese literature, covering the years 1868-1949, is given at the end of the volume. Handy in giving in brief compass the history of Sh6wa literature. The main trends are described; the treatment is largely bibliographical, with many authors and works mentioned. 128. Ara Masahito, J-/., Sasaki Kiichi l- i l-, Hirano Ken -f 4t, and Honda Shugo A + n _._, ed., Toron Nihon puroretaria bungaku undoshi 0 A ~; 7~ l '1 L V A r p (Discussion: the history of the Japanese proletarian literature movement), Ky6to, San'ichi Shobo, 1955, 268pp. A joint attempt, in the form of a discussion, to look back on the rise and decline of the proletarian movement in Japanese literature, this symposium first appeared in six installments in the magazine Kindai bungaku. Those who participated in the discussion include Kurahara Korehito, Nakano Shigeharu, Miyamoto Kenji, and Kamiyama Shigeo in addition to the four editors. The book's major contribution consists in revealing many previously unknown facts, particularly those relative to the decline of the proletarian literature movement. 129. Asami Fukashi - t ~f, Gendai sakkaron i /< 4\ c A (On some contemporary writers), Toky6, Akatsuka Shob6, 1938. Kawabata Yasunari, Yokomitsu Riichi, Tokuda Shfisei, Wada Tsuto, and others are discussed in this volume. Asami has the faculty of identifying the ranking authors at the time his books are published. 130. Asami Fukashi At L |, Gendai sakka sanjuninron A /(,' f ~ / (On thirty contemporary writers), T6kyo, Takamura Shob6, 1940. Ibuse Masuji, Niwa Fumio, Hemmi Hiroshi, Tonomura Shigeru, and others are discussed in this volume. See preceding entry.

Page  43 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 43 131. Chunichi sens6 kara Taiheiyo sens5 e: kokumin bungaku o chuishin ni is ); J A *. tL ~ A-, i v: {- (From the Sino-Japanese war through the Pacific war: with the focus on the people's literature movement), special issue of Bungaku, February, 1955. This work is made up of three articles: (1) On people's literature during the Pacific war, by Hirano Ken; (2) People's literature during the decade following the tenth year of Sh6wa (1936), by Yamada Seizaburo; (3) Modern drama during the decade beginning in 1936, by Okakura Shir6; and a symposium on the decade 1936 -1945. This work is centered around "people's literature" during the decade 1936-1945, a subject that was hotly argued immediately after the war. 132. Engeki Hakubutsukan A it'| l } ' (Drama Museum), ed., Kokugeki yoran,{ t\ t (The essentials of national drama), T6ky6, Azusa Shob6, 1932. This is a convenient handbook for the many drama-types found in Japan. The preface by Iizuka Tomoichiro discusses the meaning of the term drama, its formal characteristics and nature, the unusual variety, "unsurpassed elsewhere in the world," of Japanese drama, its development in brief, and various aspects of drama in Japan at the time of writing. The body of the work is divided into 8 parts, divided as follows: (1) Ancient drama and the people's drama, (2) The n5 drama and kyogen, (3) The marionette drama, (4) Kabuki, (5) Shingeki or modern drama, (6) Miscellaneous types of stage entertainment, (7) Special forms found in the Ryukyus, Taiwan, among the Ainu, and in the South Sea areas, and (8) The movies. Parts 5 and 6 on modern drama and on the various miscellaneous types of stage entertainment are of special importance to students of drama in modern times. However, the volume was published in 1932, early in the Sh6wa period, and is therefore of limited use in so far as the situation after 1932 is concerned. 133. Fukuda Tsuneari ~ i-, Sakka no taido \J ~ a (The attitude of a writer), T6ky6, Chuo Koronsha, 1947, 295pp. The Sh6wa writers chosen for discussion in this and the following volume are Kamura Isota, Yokomitsu Riichi, Miyamoto Yuriko, Sakaguchi Ango, Dazai Osamu, and Kobayashi Hideo. The author also discusses some writers who are more frequently associated with the Taish6 era, such as Akutagawa Ryunosuke and Shiga Naoya. The largest amount of emphasis is given to Akutagawa and Dazai. The author attempts to analyze the characteristics of modern Japan against the background of the modern West. He feels doubtful about the conventional monism of politics and literature as imported from the West, and attacks the "firstperson" fiction found in Japan. 134. Fukuda Tsuneari - -| 4-, Gendai sakka A Qj 4t. (Contemporary writers), T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1949. See preceding entry. This and the preceding book were later revised and published in three volumes under the title Sakkaron Al- 1 7 (On some writers) in Kadokawa bunko e'1 i; (Kadokawa Library), nos. 332-334, T6kyo, Kadokawa Shoten, 1952-1953, 3v. Fukuda's other critical essays are found singly or in collections in "Kindai no shukumei AL <'\ ) ' f (The destiny of the modern age)," Tozai bunko, November, 1947; Heik6 kankaku: bungei hy6ronshiu i t A it.- * S Eq, X (The sense of equilibrium: a collection of literary criticism), T6ky6, Shinzembisha, 1947, 263pp.; and "Ningen.- kono gekiteki naru mono /- f" - 2' e t rxg a -d, (Man - this dramatic being)", Shinch6, July, 1955 - May, 1956. 135. Furuya Tsunatake i /.-..,, Kawabata Yasunari "i p ~ b (Kawabata Yasunari), T6ky6, Sakuhinsha, 1936; [=Gendai s6sho AR, - t~ (Modern Library), v. 38], Tokyo, Mikasa Shobo, 1942, 204pp. This and the following entry are detailed studies of the two pioneers of Sh6wa literature, Kawabata and Yokomitsu, and of their literary works, by a young critic of the day. Kawabata and Yokomitsu are identified as central figures of the "literary renaissance." Their attitudes with respect to techniques of writing, human life, the feelings, imagery, style, conversation, characterization, etc. are discussed and analyses given of some of their works. 136. Furuya Tsunatake 4f A,- ', Yokomitsu Riichi. ~t' - (Yokomitsu Riichi), Tokyo, Sakuhinsha, 1936. See preceding entry. 137. Gendai bungakushi 5^ ' 4\ f_ (The history of present-day literature), special issue of Kokugo to kokubungaku 04 t e | tv (Japanese language and literature), October, 1951. This compilation consists of six essays: (1) Contemporary fiction (by Kataoka Yoshikazu); (2) Drama in the Taish6 and Sh6wa periods (by Sugiyama Makoto); (3) A history of the long poem in the Sh6wa period (by Furukawa Kiyohiko); (4) A historical sketch of Japanese literary criticism in the Taish6 and Showa periods (by Hasegawa Izumi); (5) A history of Sh6wa tanka (by Yoshihara Toshio); (6) Six steps in the history of the contemporary haiku (by Kanda Hideo). Both Taisho and Showa literature are reviewed but the larger amount of emphasis is given to the latter. A summary of present-day Japanese literature as seen by some of the authorities in the field. 138. Hirano Ken V ^? ~, Gendai Nihon bungaku nyumon e ri j; // S (Introduction to presentday Japanese literature), T6ky6, Kaname Shob6, 1953, 194pp. Part 1 consists of a literary history of the Showa period, which is divided into the pre-war, war-time, and post-war periods, and part 2 of a history of proletarian literature. Appendix A discusses the literature

Page  44 44 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS of the different schools found in Shbwa times and Appendix B consists of a bibliography of studies of Showa literature. This book was the first to give an overall literary history of the Sh6wa period. Three different schools of literature are clearly recognized and defined: the proletarian school, the neo-impressionistic school, and the traditional school. The analysis of the neo-impressionistic school and its modernism is incomplete, but in general the author is exceptionally exact in his data. 139. Hirano Ken - t A., Gendai no sakka (',,f (Contemporary writers), T6ky6, Aoki Shoten, 1956, 330pp. The author analyzes the characteristics of the following writers: Hirotsu Kazuo, Miyamoto Yuriko, Yokomitsu Riichi, Nakano Shigeharu, Hirabayashi Taiko, Kobayashi Hideo, Sakaguchi Ango, It6 Sei, Shimagi Kensaku, Takami Jun, Dazai Osamu, H6j6 Tamio, Noma Hiroshi, Takeda Taijun, and Hotta Yoshie. The author's interest lies with the writers who are concerned with both politics and literature. He tries to find out the attitudes they express with reference to both of these areas of human concern. 140. Honda Shfigo i +X, Kobayashi Hideo-ron,. ~ 7? (On Kobayashi Hideo), T6ky6, Kawade Shobo, 1949. Kobayashi Hideo is looked upon as the father of modern Japanese literary criticism. The author, who is a member of the coterie magazine Kindai bungaku, makes a thorough analysis of Kobayashi's techniques in literary criticism, and challenges the dogmatic concepts he finds in Kobayashi's works. 141. Ibaraki Tadashi " I A-, Showa no shingeki e i o A 'l j (Modern drama in the Sh6wa era), T6kyo, Awaji Shob6, 1956, 326pp. Part 1 deals with the problems faced by modern drama in Japan; part 2 is a history of modern drama in the Sh6wa era; part 3 is an account of the dramatists of the present day; and part 4 a description of the work of present-day dramatic companies. The author's emphasis is on part 3, in which he discusses the works of the following dramatists: Kubo Sakae, Hisaita Eijir6, Miyoshi Jffro, Tanaka Chikao, Koyama Yrishi, Uchimura Naoya, lizawa Tadasu, Kinoshita Junji, Mishima Yukio, Fukuda Tsuneari, Shiina Rinzo, and Abe K6b6. At the end of the volume is a valuable table of plays produced in the period 1945-1956 inclusive, and a list of plays printed in various easily available series. The author has attempted the difficult task of discussing thirty years of dramatic history. Although his work may need to be refined as study progresses, it remains a valuable contribution in a country where most of the criticism of drama takes the form of impressionistic reviews or of chatty "behind the stage" conversations. 142. Ichij6 Shigemi -I 4. -j k, Nihon puroretaria bungei rironshi 0 f 7~ C 2 -; 'I K L (A history of the theories of Japanese proletarian literature), T6ky6, Eik6 Shoin, 1948. This book consists of two parts, the first on "political value and artistic value," and the second on "the development of theories of realism." The author suggests that the core of proletarian literary theory, as developed in the early Showa period, has become in modified form the core of "democratic" literature in the postwar era. He aims to bring together the proletarian literary movement and proletarian literary theory. His book is the most detailed history of proletarian literature now available. 143. Isogai Hideo. A Q k, Showa bungaku sakka kenkyu # -< A 4'Q - ~ At L (Studies in the authors of Sh6wa literature), Kyoto, Yanaibara Shoten, 1955, 4+300pp. Outlines in brief the history of Showa literature and continues with a discussion of the works of such authors as Ibuse Masuji, Kawabata Yasunari, Yokomitsu Riichi, and Nakano Shigeharu. The author is a member of the Kindai bungaku group. 144. Itagaki Naoko _A {a, -, Fujin sakka hy6den ~/ 4 ~ f { A (Critical biographies of women writers), T6ky6, Mejikaru Furendosha, 1954, 4+13+472pp. The author gives the life history of each of the following women writers and discusses their literary productions: Hayashi Fumiko, Okamoto Kanoko, Miyamoto Yuriko, Hirabayashi Taiko, Yoshiya Nobuko, Sata Ineko, Otani Fujiko, and Tsuboi Sakae. The most comprehensive treatment so far available of modern women writers. 145. Itagaki Naoko 4. 1j 4 -, Hayashi Fumiko tt. 9- [=Sakkaron shiriizu 44p'l~(Series on authors), 1], T6ky6, T6ky6 Raifusha, 1956, 229pp. This a revision of the chapter on Hayashi Fumiko in the author's earlier book, Fujin sakka hyodeno The author corrects the errors in her previous work and also expands it somewhat. The result is a fine critical biography of the late Hayashi Fumiko to whom the author was most strongly attached. 146. Itagaki Naoko 4 t1 k-_-, Gendai sh6setsuron /,J d' AL (On contemporary fiction), Tokyo, Daiichi Shob6o, 1938, 289pp. In this and in the three following volumes, the author comments on the conservative trend followed by Japanese literature after the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese war. Her criticism is directed chiefly against her patriotic contemporaries in the literary field who were riding the crest of rightist sentiment. Her criticisms and judgments are stated with great emphasis. Disregarding the popular views of the day, she makes a striking contribution in her protests against the Nihon R6manha (the Japanese Romantic School). The books were written in spite of the many wartime handicaps the author had to overcome. Jihenka no bungaku and Nihon no sens6 bungaku are particularly noteworthy.

Page  45 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 45 147. Itagaki Naoko, Gendai no geijutsu hyoron,L i ~ ~ '- tf 4 (On contemporary art criticism), T6kyo, Daiichi Shob6, 1942, 247pp. 148. Itagaki Naoko, Jihenka no bungaku 4 0 1 X t (Literature under an emergency), Tokyo, Daiichi Shob6, 1942. 149. Itagaki Naoko, Gendai Nihon no sens6 bungaku \' H j; e e ) 0 (War literature in presentday Japan), T6ky6, Rokk6 Sh6kai Shuppambu, 1943. 150. It5 Sei i v -, Shosetsu no hoho,1 ' - ~, H (The method of fiction-writing), Tokyo, Kawade Shobo, 1948; 6th printing, 1955, 245pp. The author holds that fiction-writing has its own special method. This method is deeply affected by the temperament, education, and life of the writer himself. It also has to do with the social conditions and ethical order in which life exists, the feelings experienced in perceiving life, and the structuring of beauty as a means of expressing these feelings. Specifically, the author tries to reveal the reasons why "private" fiction exists in Japan. He discusses this fiction with respect to the differing circumstances under which modern literature began to grow in Japan and in Europe. The author is convinced that a novel should be constructed by a premeditated method and that this method is a means for the writer to assert his ego in opposition to the social order. He also believes that the ego does not have an established place in Japan's "private" fiction. He recognizes two types of "private" fiction, i.e., the "destroying" type and the "reconciling" type. 151. It6 Sei I\? ', ed., Mainichi raiburarii: Nihon no bungaku V 4 7"~ '- - ~ 0 e 9 (Mainichi library: Japanese literature), Toky6, Mainichi Shumbunsha, 1951. Part 1 deals with the history of modern Japanese literature, and part 2 with its interpretation. The part dealing with Sh6wa literature was written by Hirano Ken and Ara Masahito. The book was published as part of the Mainichi Library; it is directed at the general public in an attempt to convey a basic knowledge of modern-day Japanese literature. 152. It6 Sei /t4 ~ ', Ino Kenji { B. -, Kuwabara Takeo.,^ A i, Saigo Nobutsuna tff(, Takeuchi Yoshimi 7t f -t, Nakano Yoshio q -- t_ k, and Noma Hiroshi e l] i, ed., Iwanami k6za: bungaku ~. - L (Iwanami essay series: Literature), Toky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1953-1954, 8v. In vol. 5, "People's literature," part 2, are found the following articles: (1) Popular literature (by Sugiura Mimpei); (2) The development of proletarian literature (by Maruyama Shizuka); (3) The literature of conversion (by Honda Shugo); (4) Some aspects of postwar literature (by Sasaki Kiichi); (5) The development of modern drama in Japan (by Uriu Tadao). The movement for creating a people's literature (kokumin bungaku 1 A, ) which reached its height in 1953 found an expression in the compilation of this Iwanami series. 153. It5 Sei <f ~ ~, Ino Kenji 4 B 4t -, Kuwabara Takeo 4. ). ~, Kokubun Ichitaro (M / - t. tr, Saigo Nobutsuna & d A, Takeuchi Yoshimi -19-, Nakano Yoshio 7 k A? &, and Noma Hiroshi f f] ~, ed., Iwanami k6za: bungaku no s5oz to kansh6o $:/~ 1 *1 '. e A /\]' _ (Iwanami essay series: The creation and appreciation of literature), Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1954-55, 5v. In vol. 1, "Appreciation of literature, part 1," the following works are discussed: (1) Yokomitsu Riichi's Shanhai (Shanghai), by Odagiri Hideo; (2) Kobayashi Takiji's Kanik6sen (Crab-canning boat), by Kashima Yasuo; (3) Nagai Kafu's Bokut6 kitan (Strange story east of the river), by Hirano Ken; (4) Tanizaki Junichiro's Sasameyuki (The delicate snow), by Terada Toru; (5) Noma Hiroshi' s Shinku chitai (The zone of emptiness), by Tada Michitaro; and (6) Ooka Shohei's Musashino fujin (The Musashino lady), by Sasaki Kiichi. The editors' outlook is the same as seen in Iwanami koza: bungaku. The present series was published as a means of mass education in modern-day literature. 154. It6 Shinkichi /if r { o, Gendaishi no kansh6o T t Jt 0 L (The appreciation of the modern long poem), T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1954, 2v. The second volume discusses 120 poems by ten poets of the Sh6wa period: Miyazawa Kenji, Ozaki Kihachi, Kaneko Mitsuharu, Miyoshi Tatsuji, Nakano Shigeharu, Kusano Shimpei, Kitagawa Fuyuhiko, Nakahara Chulya, Tachihara Michiz6, and Nishiwaki Junzabur6. An essay on the development of the modern poem is added. A good objective treatment written by a critic who is at the beginning of a promising career. 155. Iwakami Jun'ichi ~, e -, Yokomitsu Riichi At t +' - (Yokomitsu Riichi), T6kyo, Mikasa Shob6, 1942, 192pp. The author traces the development of Yokomitsu's work and comments on its changing aspects. This book was written during the first years of World War II. The author speaks up for what he believes is right, boldly attacking one of the idolized figures of the literary world. Later, the book was republished under the title Bungaku no kyojitsu t 0 0 $_.% (Falsehood in literature).

Page  46 46 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 156. Kamachi Kan'ichi I- t i-t-, It6 Sei 4f k, Toky6, Toky6 Raifusha, 1955, 229pp. The author dicusses the relationship between the life and works of It6 Sei, and proves to be an ardent admirer of the novelist-critic. 157. Kamei Katsuichir6o, i t -, "Gendai bungaku ni arawareta chishikijin no sh6ozo 6tL~ 41r ~ /,X X 7 ) 4 (Some portraits of the intellectual as seen in contemporary literature)," Gunzo, JanuaryDecember, 1951. The author discusses ten important characters in modern Japanese fiction. From Sh6wa times come the heroes of Yokomitsu Riichi's Ryoshi (Loneliness on a journey), Shimagi Kensaku's Seikatsu no tankyu (Life's search), Ito Sei's Narumi Senkichi, named from its main character, Miyamoto Yuriko's Dohy5 (A guidepost), and Dazai Osamu's Ningen shikkaku (Man disqualified). The author's analysis of these characters leads him into a discussion of life in Showa times, with minimal attention given to the novels from which these characters come. 158. Kamei Katsuichir6o 4t W -~, Gendai sakkaron # 4-\' / A v (On modern writers). [in Kadokawa bunko ^ "t <. t (Kadokawa library)], T6ky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1954, 216pp. This is a revision of the sixth volume of the anthology, Kamei Katsuichir6 chosakushii % ft - 1i3 I T-4 (The works of Kamei Katsuichir6), Tokyo, Sogensha, 1952, 6v. A few of the chapters are newly written. The following writers are discussed: Okamoto Kanoko, Aizu Yaichi, Ibuse Masuji, Kobayashi Hideo, Kawakami Tetsutar6, Nakano Shigeharu, Shimagi Kensaku, Niwa Fumio, and Dazai Osamu. The author's literary criticism is characterized by an eager inquisitiveness. He is particularly interested in the themes of faith and distress. 159. Kataoka Yoshikazu 0 Ai ~ - and Nakajima Kenz6o dV ~ / t, ed., Bungaku gojuinen: ~ ~J (Fifty years of literature), T6kyo, Jiji Tsushinsha, 1955, 14+452+13pp. Photos. This is a very useful survey of twentieth century Japanese literature. The rise and decline of each school is discussed separately. The authors include Ara Masahito, It6 Shinkichi, Kanda Hideo, Kimata Osamu, and Senuma Shigeki in addition to the two editors. The present volume is one of a series on various phases of Japanese culture during the first half of the twentieth century, and presents a large amount of conveniently arranged information. Two appendices give a list of reference works (pp. 383-393) and a chronological table of Japanese literature from 1868 through 1954 (pp. 394-451). 160. Kataoka Yoshikazu W N t -, Nakajima Kenzo 7 A A,_, and Nakano Shigeharu I t t, ed., Kindai Nihon bungaku k6za.,N ' - * O t (Essay series on modern Japanese literature), T6kyo, Kawade Shobo, 1951-, still in process of publication. Vol. 4 is the second of two volumes on the trends and schools of modern Japanese literature. It contains the following articles of interest to the student of Sh6wa literature: (1) The Araragi School and the antiAraragi schools (by Usui Yoshimi); (2) Popular arts and proletarian literature (by Senuma Shigeki); (3) The modern artistic schools (by Naruse Masakatsu); (4) On "private" novels (by Hirano Ken); (5) Some problems of popular literature (by Odagiri Hideo); (6) The second Bungakkai or Literary World (by Nakano Shigeharu); (7) The Japanese Romantic School (also by Nakano Shigeharu); (8) The time of the People's Front (by Hirata Jisabur6); (9) Historical literature in late modern times (by Hasegawa Izumi); (10) The genealogy of traditionalism, nationalism, and racialism (by Shioda Ry6hei); and (11) Trends in literary ideas since the war and problems of the present (by Aono Suekichi). In addition, vol. 1, dealing with the background of modern Japanese literature, and volume 2, with the influence of foreign literature upon modern Japanese literature, contain a dozen or more relevant articles respectively. This series has for its objective the analyzing of modern Japanese literature from as many different viewpoints as possible. The impression is one of great variety and little unity. 161. Kataoka Yoshikazu ~ I ] -, supervisor, Odagiri Hideo, { V s t7 *, ed., K6za kindai Nihon bungakushi f f ' 4 l (Essay series: The history of modern Japanese literature), Toky6, Otsuki Shoten, 1956-1957, 5v. Vol. 4 deals with proletarian literature and artistic literature (The ShOwa era, part 1) and vol. 5 with wartime and post-war literature (The Showa era, part 2). More specifically, ch. 16 is concerned with the rise of proletarian literature, ch. 17 with the Neo-impressionistic and Newly Rising Aesthetic Schools, ch. 18 with the period of "conversion" and "the literary renaissance," ch. 19 with literature during the SinoJapanese war, ch. 20 with literature during the Pacific war, ch. 21 with the rebirth of literature in the post-war era, and ch. 22 with literature after the Korean war. In addition to the above mentioned chapters, there are seven special essays. This work is the most voluminous of all the summations of the history of Sh6wa literature. The viewpoint of the contributors is relatively consistent. This is perhaps due to the fact that for the most part they are under the influence of the editor, Odagiri. The attempt to synthesize two distinctly different concepts, namely, "national consciousness" and "class consciousness," leads to difficulties and the authors' evaluation of literary works becomes unjust. 162. Kawade Shob6o -> i t f (Kawade Publishing Company), ed., Nihon bungaku k6za 9 -4 (t* (Essay series on Japanese literature), T6kyo, Kawade Shob6, 1950-1952, 8v. Vol. 6 deals with the "latter half" of modern literature and contains contributions on: (1) Proletarian

Page  47 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 47 literature (by Hirano Ken); (2) Modernism (by Ito Sei); (3) Mental-life novels and "private" novels (by Terada T6ru); (4) Yokomitsu Riichi (by Ishibashi Makio); (5) Kawabata Yasunari (by Hirata Jisaburo); and (6) Kobayashi Takiji (by Kubokawa Tsurujir6). Vol. 7 deals with aesthetic ideas in Japanese literature and with the history of literary criticism. It contains articles on: (1) Reality (by Kataoka Yoshikazu); (2) Symbolism (by Tezuka Tomio); (3) Genres (by Kawakami Tetsutaro); (4) Mechanical beauty (by Hanada Kiyoteru); and (5) Fiction (by Nakamura Shin'ichiro). This work is the first k6za or collection of essays on Showa literature published after World War II. The articles by Hirano Ken and Ito Sei, though brief, offer good bird's-eye views of Showa literature. Although subjected to editorial revision, the differences in opinion among the contributors remain quite conspicuous with respect to such subjects as are handled by more than one of them. 163. Kawade Shobo -L5 t * } (Kawade Publishing Company), ed., Nihon bungaku taikei a;; 9 ~, (Outline of Japanese literature), Toky6, Kawade Shob6, 1938-40, 24v. The several volumes have separate authors and titles. Of particular value to students of Sh6wa literature are the following volumes: (6) As5 Isoji, Nihon bungaku to gairai shis5o Q Y m k,-. —. (Japanese literature and foreign ideologies); (11) Shioda Ry6hei, Kindai shOsetsu i at' /);t (Modern fiction); (12) Kataoka Yoshikazu, Gendai sh6setsu L 4' X,';, (Contemporary fiction); (14) Origuchi Shinobu, Kindai tanka i_ Ka H, -k (The modern tanka); (15) Takada Mizuho, Kindaishi OL C. -'W (The modern long poem); (20) Saito Kiyoe, Hihy6 bungaku 4It J4 > 4 (Literary criticism); (23) Kawatake Shigetoshi, Kindai gekibungaku,4 $X'1 X r' (The literature of modern drama); and (24) Got6 Tanji, Nihon bungaku meicho kaisetsu, >e -4 B X L (Commentaries on the most notable works of Japanese literature). 164. Kobayashi Hideo ',1 At #, Bungei hy6ron ~ H- f b (Literary criticism), T6kyo, Nissan Shobo, 10th printing, 1955, 248pp. This work, first published by Hakusuisha in 1931, includes the first article through which the author gained recognition in the literary world, namely, "Samazama naru ish6 (Various designs)," a second article on Shiga Naoya, and some comments on current literature which had appeared serially in the magazine Bungei shunju. The author goes deeply into the secrets of literary creation, protesting all the while against the proletarian literary school. These articles led to the recognition of literary criticism as a full-fledged genre in Japanese literature. An ardent admirer both of Rimbaud and of Shiga Naoya, Kobayashi declares that literary criticism should be nothing but the expression of one's own self through making use of other people's works. Bungei hyoron was his first monumental work of literary criticism. It made him a representative critic of the artistic school. Following this book were published Zoku-bungei hyoron (Literary criticism, continued), 1932 (10th printing, Tokyo, Nissan Shobo, 1950, 264pp.), and Zokuzoku-bungei hy6ron (Literary criticism, again continued), 1934 (10th printing, Nissan Shob6, 1950, 268pp.). These too are collections of the author's essays. 165. Kobayashi Hideo /1, / *t/, Muj6 to iu koto -. t D -. t (On uncertainty), Toky6, S6gensha, 1946, l+106pp. This is a collection of articles published during the Pacific war, on muj6 (uncertainty), the Taima (a no play), the Tsurezuregusa.,: Jt (Idle jottings), the Heike monogatari (Tales of the Heike), and the poets Saigy5 and Sanetomo. The author harshly criticizes the social disorders of the wartime and postwar worlds, using classical literature to support his arguments. Greatly attracted to this older literature he seeks after what cannot be found in present-day writings. With this book, Kobayashi leaves the field of present-day literature. 166. Kobayashi Hideo,. t4/A, Rekishi to bungaku _, 5it^ (History and literature), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1941, 226pp. In addition to the article, "History and literature," which gives its title to the book, there are some others on individual authors and their works, such as "On Pascal's Pensees, ""Miyoshi Tatsuji," and "Shimagi Kensaku." "History and literature" is a lecture in which the author proves the changing relationship between history and the individual at a time when the wars in which Japan was engaging began to show signs of prolongation. The author, who has been "poisoned" by literature, begins to show an interest in those who have not yet been "poisoned." 167. Kobayashi Hideo,Jv J Am, "Shish6setsu-ron - 4' ~iL (On private fiction)," Keizai 6rai, MayAugust, 1935. This is an outright attack against Yokomitsu Riichi's Junsui sh6setsuron (Theory of pure fiction)," Kaiz6, April, 1935. The author had previously torn apart the proletarian writings of the time, pointing out their weakness as literature. Now he makes a strong protest against the psychological approach found among the non-proletarian "modernistic" writers. He asserts that it goes against the principles of literature for any overwhelming new idea to bypass the problems of the self which lie deep in the mind of any writer. The central core of the author's literary criticism may be recognized for the first time in this book. Formerly looked upon as the principal critic of Marxist literature, now, after proletarian literature had died out, the author takes his stand on a socialized ego discovered through study and through the re-evaluation of the self as seen by the European masters of the nineteenth century.

Page  48 48 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 168. Kond6 Tadayoshi ftf_ Jo., ed., Nihon bungaku nyfimon a? m X ~' f (Introduction to Japanese literature), T6ky6, Nihon Hy6ronsha, 1940, 6+3+492pp. The part on Sh5wa literature, "The fourteen years of Showa," was written by Miyamoto Yuriko. It is a general outline of Sh5wa literature written more for the purpose of public enlightenment than as a scholarly work. The author tries not to be a representative of her particular proletarian school of ideas. Rather, her attitude is broadly humanistic. The style is lively; it comes from an author who has herself been caught in the vicissitudes of her age. 169. Koyama Kiyoshi )1' it 4, ed., Dazai Osamu kenkyu / - +5; rL (Studies in Dazai Osamu) [= suppl. vol. to Dazai Osamu zenshau A z 3 /4 (The complete works of Dazai Osamu)], T6ky6, Chikuma Shobo, 1956. This work was edited eight years after Dazai's death, and published as a supplementary volume to Dazai's complete works. It is an introductory book to which Dazai's teachers, friends, and admirers contributed, bringing to light his personality, life, and writings either in a scholarly manner or as personal recollection. 170. Kubokawa Tsurujiro -, (' t, 83, Gendai bungakuron At QC Qi i \ (On present-day literature), 5th printing, T5ky6, Chiu K6ronsha, 1939, 9+666pp. The main body of this book is composed of the authors articles published in various magazines since 1934. Added are three new articles at the beginning and end, on "The renaissance in art and new developments in literature," "Artistic value and political value," and "Literary ideas focused on human beings." The author's major theme is the relationship between "the renaissance in literature" and the literature of unrest. An advocate of humanism, he is to be regarded as a sort of conscientious objector in the literary world. The book is one of the noteworthy works of its period. 171. Kubokawa Tsurujir6o 1 l "I, 13, Saisetsu gendai bungakuron -~ go L /%' ^t ' (The theory of present-day literature, restated), Tokyo, Sh6shinsha, 1944, 2+330pp. This is a collection of the author's articles written after the publication of Gendai bungakuron. Literary history during the decade after 1935 is reviewed by tracing the flow of various literary ideas. 172. Kubokawa Tsurujir6o 4 "I j., Hirano Ken - V I, and Odagiri Hideo {1' ~ /7, ed., Nihon puroretaria bungaku: shi-teki tembo to saikent5 no tame ni 7. 7~ a '17' T _ ' t _,. t 4k t o t m to I' (Japanese proletarian literature: For a historical view and for reexamination), T6ky6, Aoki Shoten, 1956, 245pp. The authors review the history of the proletarian literary movement in Japan in its different stages. The contributors are, in addition to the editors, Kiso Ryuichi, Tsuboi Shigeji, and Ara Masahito. The volume is a review and re-evaluation of proletarian literature of the past done from the point of view of a united front assumed at the end of the first decade following World War II. 173. Kurahara Korehito A, I.,'1 A/, Bunka undo X ALU -t (Cultural movements)[= Nauka koza -#- /7 /: (Nauka study series), 11], T6ky6, Naukasha, 1949, 2+117pp. This book is a collection of articles which were either excluded when the author's Geijutsuron was compiled or published thereafter. The author's discussion is focused upon the problems of organizing an artistic movement. Hence, the reader will not expect to find concrete theories of art and evaluations of individual works. 174. Kurahara Korehito, ' 1' /<, Geijutsuron ~ t4-y a (On art), Tokyo, Choryiisha, 1932, 3+2+392pp. Part 1 is headed "The history of art and the theory of art," part 2 "Some problems relating to literary movements," and part 3 "Studies and essays." This book is a compilation of those articles by the author which appeared in various magazines between 1927 and 1931. It contains such noted essays as the ones on "The methodology of the sociology of art," "The basis of Marxist literary criticism," "The way to proletarian realism," "Three or four problems of theory," and "Some thoughts on the artistic method." The author became the leading proletarian literary critic, taking the place of Aono Suekichi and Hirabayashi Hatsunosuke, about the time that the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei / 0 t -t.. / I r A %.L (All-Japan Proletarian Art Federation) was organized. The present articles mark the high points of the author's literary activities. He was first under the influence of Prehanov's sociology, but this was gradually replaced by Leninism. His article, "Some thoughts on the artistic method," is noteworthy because it set up a Marxist standard for literary criticism in modern Japan. 175. Kurahara Korehito ~ /] *1- /, Kobayashi Takiji to Miyamoto Yuriko,1', — a- t' 9 - (Kobayashi Takiji and Miyamoto Yuriko), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1953, 2+227pp. The author has here compiled all of his former articles on Kobayashi Takiji and Miyamoto Yuriko and has added the title article, "Kobayashi Takiji to Miyamoto Yuriko," at the beginning of this work. He regards these two writers as the real legacies of the "democratic" literary movement of the past. He asserts the view that their writings should be re-evaluated and utilized by the present-day writers for constructive purposes.

Page  49 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 49 176. Kurahara Korehito 4 J. 'V/,,, Kokumin no bunka to bungaku Il M e - 4/, t >4 (The culture and literature of the people), Toky6, Shin-hy6ronsha, 1955, 263pp. The "people's literature" movement was greatly promoted by the Korean War. The book discusses the question how a proletarian writer should treat the problems of race that he might come across in the cultural and literary world. Unlike the other supporters of the people's literature movement, the author speaks from an orthodox Marxist viewpoint. 177. Kurahara Korehito A 1,/4A and Nakano Shigeharu 4 7 t >, ed., Kobayashi Takiji kenkyui,'. ~ —,;, (Studies in Kobayashi Takiji), Tokyo, Kaihosha, 1948, 5+265ppo The contributors are members of the Shin-Nihon Bungakkai - et ~:At (The New Japanese Literary Association). They discuss the personality, life, and literary productions of Kobayashi Takijio Kobayashi's writings are regarded as being the most valuable heritage of the "democratic" literary movement. 178. Kurahara Korehito ~. A, Takeuchi Yoshimi kr Nk X -, Noma Hiroshi R l ], Hirano Ken 4 - W~ i, and Odagiri Hideo -1', t/ D 4, ed., Nihon puroretaria bungaku annai q. 7o1 - o 'IT 7 - (A guide to Japanese proletarian literature), Ky6to, San'ichi Shobo, 1955, 2v. Vol. 1, part 1 divides the history of proletarian literature into three stages, the beginning, the period of greatest prosperity, and the war-time era. Part 2 deals first with proletarian literature as a whole, and then with the proletarian long poem, tanka, and haiku as spearate genres. Vol. 2 describes the work of 16 proletarian writers. The book actually consists of articles published after the war. The analyses are thorough and the book does full justice to its title as a well-organized and useful guide. 179. Maruoka Akira iL 1 If, Hori Tatsuo: hito to sakuhin t z,i /- A I'F- v_ (Hori Tatsuo: the man and his writings), T6kyo, Shikisha, 1953, 223pp. Chart. The author discusses the late Hori Tatsuo's personality and works from the vantage point of a close friend and as favored owner of various data. 180. Miyamoto Kenji / t.:, Haiboku no bungaku., a)L 0 (The literature of defeat), Toky6, Iwasaki Shoten, 1946, 163pp. In addition to the lead article on "The literature of defeat," first published in 1929, this book includes three other articles, namely, "A milestone in the transitional period," "The scientific nature of criticism," and "Fellow-traveling authors." "The literature of defeat" is an article on Akutagawa Ryfinosuke. The author went through a crisis in his intellectual life at the time of the death of Akutagawa. As a young and progressive intellectual he tries to find means of surpassing Akutagawa's literature even though he loved and respected it. 181. Miyamoto Kenji t ~. A, Miyamoto Yuriko no sekai / /, " - ~- 4 Or (The world of Miyamoto Yuriko), T6kyo, Kawade Shob6, 1954, 320pp. This work reorganizes and amplifies the author's commentaries in Miyamoto Yuriko zenshiu i /i 4 - / -, (The complete works of Miyamoto Yuriko), published by Kawade Shob6 in 15 volumes. For the most part, the volume is made up of comments on the individual works. The author's affection for his wife pervades the book. The reader should also examine his Hihansha no hihan t A| 4- O th 1'l (Criticizing the critics), Toky6, Shinkagakusha, 1954, 2v., written in reply to the abusive comments on Miyamoto Yuriko's writings prevalent in and after 1951. 182. Miyamoto Kenji AM it M {, Renin-shugi bungaku t6so e no michi L — =- - ~k ltf A z e (The way to Leninist literary strife), T6kyo, Mokuseisha, 1933. This is the first collection of the author's critical essays. He began to take part in the proletarian literary movement after his essay "Haiboku no bungaku" was published and soon replaced Kurahara Korehito as the leading literary critic in the movement. Leninism is well expressed in the essay on "Politics and literature: the problem of the supremacy of politics." The book reflects clearly the troubles of the proletarian literary movement under strict thought control. 183. Nakajima Kenz5o 7 /~, Gendai sakkaron A / Ak 4- (On some contemporary writers), Tokyo, Kawade Shob5, 1941, 3+280pp. Yokomitsu Riichi, Fukada Kyuya, Hori Tatsuo, Tokunaga Sunao, Ibuse Masuji, Niwa Fumio, Ishikawa Tatuzdo, and others are discussed in this book, which was written at a time when the author was just beginning to establish himself as a leader in the field of literary criticism. He discusses the above-mentioned writers with an outlook which is more or less European, coming from his studies of Baudelaire, Stendhal, the Goncourts, Valery, and Gide. 184. Nakajima Kenz6o q A /{;' and others, ed., Gendai sakkaron s6sho C 4( < 4 i| t (A series of studies on contemporary writers), T6kyo, Eihosha, 1955, 7v. Vols. 5, 6, and 7 are devoted to thirty-two authors and literary critics of significance in the Showa period, as discussed by twenty-seven writers. Vol. 5 is on the proletarian school and the artistic schools of literature in the early part of the Showa period; vol. 6 on literature during the decade starting in 1935; and voL 7 on postwar literature. Since practically all the important Showa writers are discussed, this is a handy compendium. The critical attitudes expressed are necessarily various as the articles were written by many people and over a considerable period of time.

Page  50 50 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 185. Nakajima Kenz5o ' ~ ' and Nakano Shigeharu 47 f 4:;, ed., Sengo junen: Nihon bungaku no ayumi A,.-_ A _ I V) Q ~ (Ten years of the postwar era: the course of Japanese literature), Tokyo, Aoki Shoten, 1956, 242pp. This book records the remarks made at a symposium sponsored by the Shin-Nihon Bungakkai (New Japanese Literary Association) and attended by its members and some outsiders. The purpose was to discuss and criticize the trends of Japanese literature during the first decade after the war. The notes taken in shorthand at the meeting were first published serially in the magazine Shin-Nihon bungaku (New Japanese literature). The book is a reprint of these notes with the addition of notes taken in a second discussion which was held to draw up the conclusions to the earlier discussion. The first decade of postwar literature is criticized from the point of view of those who are progressives and, in some cases, inclined toward the left. 186. Nakamura Mitsuo t ~ t A, Fuzoku shosetsuron As {f )' M (On the genre novel), Tokyo, Kawade Shobo, 1950. The title is rather misleading, for actually this book is a study of the peculiar characteristics of modern Japanese fiction. The author describes the history of modern realism from its birth in the literature of Oguri Fuy6, Shimazaki Toson, and Tayama Katai, through its transformations down to its disintegration. His prime objective here is to examine the nature of the fuizoku sh6setsu or genre novel which began to appear in and around 1935 and reached its height of popularity after World War II. The author regards naturalist literature, "private" fiction, and the genre novel as three different phases of one development. In the author's view, the three go back to the realism imported from Europe during the Meiji period; each, however, was transformed into something Japanese. He states that Japanese realism is not as forceful in its effect on the reader as the French realism established by Flaubert and others in the nineteenth century. He asserts that the writer as a man of ideas should live in his works, which stand between his own ego and society. These assertions are expressed in the form of a challenge hurled at the leading writer of genre fiction, Niwa Fumio, who is inclined to describe social mores without subjecting them to criticism. 187, Nakamura Mitsuo ' t, Sakkaron i. $ (On some writers), Tokyo, Masu Shobo, 1941. In this work and those listed below, Nakamura deals with many authors of the modern period. However, his coverage of Sh6wa authors is relatively limited, and includes the following: Yokomitsu Riichi, Shimagi Kensaku, H6j6 Tamio, Ishikawa Tatsuzo, Takeda Rintaro, Dazai Osamu, Ooka Shohei, Abe Tomoji, and Kobayashi Hideo. Nakamura aims always to look into the interaction between the actual life of an artist and his works. He is a faithful follower of his master, Kobayashi Hideo, though his techniques of criticism are one step advanced. He concludes that the dramatic paradoxes found within an author can only be explained by discerning the paradoxes within his work. Nakamura's work Sakkaronshiu Af- * * (A collection of treatises on writers), published in three volumes in 1957, is based on this and the following two volumes. 188. Nakamura Mitsuo, Sakka to sakuhin \4'<- ff{- t (Writers and their works), T6kyo, Chikuma Shobo, 1947. 189. Nakamura Mitsuo, Sakka no seishi V t a) (The life and death of writers), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1949, 286pp. 190. Nakamura Mitsuo, Sakka no seishun \^ 9 -e { (The youth of a writer), Toky6, Sobunsha, 1952. 191. Nakamura Mitsuo, Futabatei Shimei-ron:- f r -- (On Futabatei Shimei), T6kyo, Shiba Shob5, 1936; also, Shinrosha, 1937. 192. Nakamura Mitsuo, Tanizaki Jun'ichiro-ron,& & -- ip (On Tanizaki Jun'ichiro), Tokyo, Kawade Shobo, 1952. 193. Nakamura Mitsuo q 1t t,-, "Shiga Naoya-ron t - X L ~ * (On Shiga Naoya)," Bungakkai, January, 1953; also, Tokyo, Bungei Shunjd Shinsha, 1954. The author discusses the "secrets" of Shiga Naoya's work, especially as seen in the light of the dramatic complications which beset Shiga's youthful years. Shiga remains today a hallowed master-writer of the Taish6 era, but, according to Nakamura, his work continues to have immense significance. To write about Shiga, says Nakamura, is to write about modern literature. 194. Nakano Shigeharu t 4 ~ -, "Geijutsu ni kansuru hashirigaki-teki oboegaki e; t- ).'1 1 0 i ' (Some hasty notes on art)," Puroretaria geijutsu, October, 1927; also, Tokyo, Kaizosha, 1929. This is the first collection of the author's critical essays, most of which were written between the fall of 1927 and the fall of 1928. Many of them are full of a polemic spirit. "Where to enter the fighting front in literature" and "On the mistaken concept of the so-called popularization of art" state the author's side in his well-known disputes with Hayashi Fusao and Kurahara Korehito. The essays entitled "Fragmentary thoughts on poetry" and "Anger as it appears in poems descriptive of the authors' native homes" are found in the appendix. Both are important essays, Marxist in concept, revealing the author's keen poetic sense. Throughout the book he shows himself to be more a sensitive poet than a literary critic. Hence, his style is quite unique as he is led by intuition in his literary criticism.

Page  51 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 51 195. Nakano Shigeharu I t -a, Saito Mokichi noto ~ (R ~ / t F (Notes on Sait6 Mokichi), Tokyo, Chikuma Shobo, 1942. Thirteen essays and six appendices are included. The author, a leftist poet and critic, discusses Saito Mokichi both informally and appreciatively. Characteristic modes of expression found in Saito's earlier, as well as more recent, tanka are commented upon. The author discusses Sait6's poetic temperament, comparing Saito's adolescence with his own. Finally, Nakano throws doubt upon the value of the tanka as a means of literary expression. 196. Nakano Shigeharu k ~ t W -$ and Shiina Rinz6o ~, ed., Bungaku no riron to rekishi {iO):[ ti &, _ (The theory and history of literature), Tokyo, Shin-hy6ronsha, 1954, 274pp. This book gathers together a series of lectures on literature sponsored by the Shin-Nihon Bungakkai (New Japanese Literary Association). The major items include: "A literary history of the Showa era," the first part by Hirano Ken and the second by Honda Shugo, and "The proletarian literary movement," by Kurahara Korehito. Everything is repetitious of these writers' other works. The book, however, is meant to serve as a means of public education. 197. Nihon Bungaku Kyokai e; i t 1- / a (Society for Japanese Literature), ed., Nihon bungaku k6za B i rj; - J (Essay series on Japanese literature), Toky6, Todai Shuppankai, 1954-55, 7v. Vol. 2, on Japanese poetry, contains an essay by Ando Tsuguo on proletarian poetry. Vol. 5, the second of two volumes on Japanese fiction, has an essay on fiction of the modernistic school by Sasaki Kiichi and another on proletarian fiction by Ohara Gen. Other essays relating to Sh6wa literature are also included. These volumes are in the nature of handbooks. Present-day problems are borne in mind in the writing of the several essays. 198. Nihon Gendai Bungakushi Kenkyiikai l a AX ~ ~ (Association for the Study of the History of Contemporary Japanese Literature), ed., Nihon no gendai bungakushi a; e A f "- ~t_ (A history of modern Japanese literature), Tokyo, San'ichi Shobo, 1954. This is an outline history of Japanese literature after the Meiji Restoration. Showa literature is discussed in chapters 7 and 8, on "The disintegration of modern literature" and in chapter 9, "The way toward a people's literature." These chapters were written by Izu Toshihiko and Kusabe Norikazu, respectively. Mostly, this work is a product of collaboration by the young student members of the Nihon Bungaku Ky6kai e;ZE JL \ sz (Japan Literary Association). They were particularly influenced by the "people's literature" movement which was prevalent at the time. 199o Odagiri Hideo,), t t/7 2t 7, Kindai Nihon no sakkatachi if A ' F K - -: fG (The writers of modern Japan), T6kyo, Kobunsha, 1954, 2v. Showa literature is discussed in VoL 2. The following writers are examined: Kobayashi Hideo, Kawakami Tetsutaro, Nakamura Kusatao, Niwa Fumio, Ishikawa Tatsuzo, Kobayashi Takiji, Kurahara Korehito, Nakano Shigeharu, Tanaka Hidemitsu, Dazai Osamu, Hara Tamiki, Miyamoto Yuriko, Ito Sei, and Noma Hiroshi. The author tries to characterize each writer in terms of his attitude toward life along with the way he pictures the characters in his works. 200. Odagiri Hideo, e t 77 ~/, Kobayashi Takiji,]' + 4- - (Kobayashi Takiji), Tokyo, Kaname Shob6, 1950, 173pp. The works of Kobayashi Takiji are treated in chronological order. Especially notable are the author's comments on Kobayashi's To seikatsusha t 't -4 (One who lives in accordance with his party's principles). The author looks for political significance in Kobayashi's writings. The book has a raison d'etre as a criticism from a progressive. 201. Odagiri Hideo /A l3 e7t ~g f, Nihon kindai bungaku: kindai Nihon no shakai kiko to bungaku B ~- _ L - A4\_ El ~ -- B 4 - I. ~ (Modern Japanese literature: The social structure of modern Japan and literature), Tokyo, Aoki Shoten, 1955, 347pp. The following chapters are related to Sh6wa literature: "The problems of popular literature," "On the causes of decadence [in proletarian literature]," "Detours and artistic maturity," and "The atomic and hydrogen bombs and Japanese literature." This book has for its principal object a discussion of the merits and demerits of the proletarian movement in literature. As discoverable in the chapter on the causes of decadence in proletarian literature, the author's major contribution consists in pointing out the lack of plasticity in the prewar proletarian literary movement. 202. Odagiri Hideo 1. t- /, Samazama na shiso no atarashii kankei ni tsuite 0 ~ t"i st,.. eT S [ ~ f. -t, AB z (On the new relationships among various ideas) [ in Kawade Shinsho -4 i 4 -(New Kawade books)J, Tokyo, Kawade Shob5, 1956, 168pp. Part 2 contains a number of articles on Sh6wa literature including one that seeks a revised criticism of modern Japanese literature. The author, who is a believer in modified Marxism, hopes to see the development of an extensive people's literature characterized by the incorporation of many different ideologies.

Page  52 52 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 203. Odagiri Hideo,. e t /7 A, ed., Puroretaria bungaku saikento 1 7 By / -, t (A re-evaluation of proletarian literature), Tokyo, Yiizankaku, 1948, 197+52+2pp. This work contains a dozen or so essays, including Puroretaria bungaku kessan no kokoromi 7~? 'I7 ~ -;t Jj_ e ' ) (Attempt at an inventory of proletarian literature), by Odagiri Hideo; Puroretaria bungaku riron keish6 no kihonteki mondai 7~ C t -7 f T r! fF:. 4 a) e) $;.5 rt1f a (Fundamental problems in adopting the proletarian theory of literature), by Mizuno Akiyoshi; Tenk6 ni tsuite 4 iv A,-, z7 (On conversion), by Kubota Masabumi; and Senjika ni okeru puroretaria bungaku riron V J T' V- Y it t 7~ r v 7 f L Ar T (The proletarian theory of literature during war), by Kikuchi Shoichi. A chronological table of the history of the Japanese proletarian literary movement, compiled by Odagiri Susumu, is appended. The entire work is a concise, well-organized, and critical review of proletarian literature in the period after World War II. 204. Okuno Takeo - Tf it ~, Gendai sakkaron ~, ' \t ~ (On contemporary writers), T6kyo, Kindai Seikatsusha, 1956, 326pp. Mishima Yukio, Shiina Rinzo, Ooka Sh6hei, Shimao Toshio, Takeda Taijun, Yasuoka Sh6taro, Umezaki Haruo, Niwa Fumio, Nakano Shigeharu, and Ito Sei are discussed. The author made his d6but as a literary critic only recently. His comments on various literary techniques are characterized by plasticity and tolerance. 205. Onchi Terutake 4 +t-k, Gendaishi no taiken i <\s A o i,t (My experiences in the modern long peom), T6kyo, Sakai Shoten, 1957, 257pp. Most of this work is devoted to a review of activity in the long poem in the early years of the Showa era, and in particular to the proletarian long poem, of which the author was himself a writer. This book is directed chiefly at the youthful reader. 206. Ono Tosaburo it ~ _, Gendaishi techo 5W \ t f (Handbook for the contemporary long poem) [ in Sogen techo bunko \ A, T I /t (Sogen handbook library)], Osaka, Sogensha, 1953, 252pp. Consists of three parts dealing with the questions, what the contemporary long poem is, how it is written, and how it might be read. As the title indicates, this volume is a handy introductory work, but in point of content it achieves a high standard and in relatively simple terms outlines the history and special characteristics of the long poem in ShOwa times, giving critical comments as necessary. 207. Ozaki Hirotsugu /t- At, Shingeki no ashioto {- 1I e A m (The footsteps of modern drama), Tokyo, Tokyo Sogensha, 1956, 213pp. The author looks at the development of modern drama in Japan, paying close attention to the changes that have occurred in staging, texts, and the makeup of theatrical companies. The portion devoted to the Showa era comes to about one-third of the whole work. The author has been a drama critic writing for the Tokyo Shimbun for a long time. His work recalls his experiences as a viewer of drama; he gives special heed to the problems of the actor's art. 208. Sako Jun'ichir6o 4t t,L - t,, Kobayashi Hideo noto,1, { / - ' (Notes on Kobayashi Hideo), Tokyo, Ichikodo, 1955. A series of short essays on Kobayashi Hideo and his works are accompanied by the author's comments on the nature of modernism in Japan. The author's values are the Christian ones. Thus, in his discussion of Japanese literature, he refers frequently to such concepts as eternity and death. In this respect, his discussion of Kobayashi Hideo becomes unique. 209. Sasaki Kiichi 4/ 7 -, Showa bungakuron z $m. ~, (A treatise on Showa literature), T6kyo, Wakosha, 1954. Consists of three parts. Part 1 deals with various phases of Showa literature: sensualistic literature, modern Japanese fiction, literature during the nationalistic decade beginning in 1936, and literary criticism during the "literary renaissance." Part 2 is concerned with certain individual authors: Nagai Kafu, Masamune Hakuch6, Ishikawa Jun, Nakano Shigeharu, Hori Tatsuo, Sakaguchi Ango, and Kajii Motojiro. Part 3 deals with various other authors and their works. It is headed by an essay on Ito Sei. The central theme is presented in Part 1, in the author's reflections on modern Japanese narrative writing. The author seeks a new technique for the postwar Japanese novel built upon the idea of "fiction." The author is a member of the group which published the magazine Kindai bungaku. Having gone through a number of dismal experiences during the decade of the "dark ravine" beginning in and around 1936, and having become disillusioned with conventional literary ideas and techniques, he has wanted to set up some new literary ideas. He tries to achieve his goal by synthesizing two dominant yet opposing ideas, namely, self-consciousness and social consciousness, in Showa literature.

Page  53 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 53 210o Sengo bungaku no junen, {t_ f 6- + — (Ten years of post-war literature), special issue of Bungakkai 4 I (The literary world), August, 1955. Six essays review the ten years of Japanese literature following World War II: (1) Post-war society and literature (by Nakajima Kenz6); (2) The activities of the established writers (by Isomura Geki); (3) The postwar writers (by Senuma Shigeki); (4) The merits and demerits of the literary prizes (by Togaeri Hajime); (5) A history of literary controversies during the post-war decade (by Ara Masahito); and (6) The literature of the West which has influenced post-war Japanese literature (by Nakamura Shin'ichir6). A few memoirs are also added. 211. Senuma Shigeki { 4 -, P\ 1.,Kindai Nihon bungaku no naritachi ~ <t ) ~ A ~ e r I ft t (The growth of modern Japanese literature), T6kyo, Kawade Shobo, 1951. Part 1 is on the ego, and part 2 on society. The author analyzes what he considers to be the fundamental problems of modern Japanese literature from the Meiji Restoration till the present. The following chapters are relevant to Sh6wa literature: in part 1, the chapter on the neo-impressionistic school and that on Japanese fascism and literature; and, in part 2, the chapter on the Meiji Restoration seen from the point of view of the history of different ideas. Comprehensive and well documented. 212. Senuma Shigeki ti -g& (f, t, Kindai Nihon no sakka to sakuhin _t 4V J v) I I M 4t j> (Writers and their works in modern Japan), T6ky6, Kaname Shobo, 1955, 197pp. Part 1 deals with the development of modern Japanese literature and part 2 with the writers and their works. Part 2 touches upon some of the problems faced by the Showa writers, but it is part 1 that presents in better form various aspects of the human image in Showa times. This work is an amplification of the author's earlier work, Gendai bungaku,J < \ t' (Contemporary literature), Tokyo, Mokuseisha, 1933 (see the following entry). 213. Senuma Shigeki,. g, Sh6wa no bungaku g -1 <c?L (Sh6wa literature), Toky6, Kawade Shob6, 1954. This is a revised edition of the work through which the author first became known, Gendai bungaku Tj i' L - (Modern literature), published in March, 1933 by Mokuseisha. Various forms and trends in early Showa literature, such as modernism, mechanism, formalism, psychological literature, pseudoromanticism, societism, and neo-psychological literature, are analyzed and discussed from the standpoint of the modern generation's sensitivity and consciousness as well as in the light of various literary theories and techniques. An introductory chapter which gives an outline of present-day literature was added when the book was revised, as was a chapter at the end which deals with tradition. When the author launched into a career as a literary critic in the early Sh5wa period, he adopted the literary theories of the French critics who had survived the destruction and anxieties of the period of the First World War and had devoted themselves to the post-war revival of literature. In the present work he criticizes "artistic" literature from a social viewpoint. The book is still notable for the fact that it is the first literary history to deal specifically with the Sh6wa period. 214. Shibund6o i- i (Shibund6 Publishing Company), ed., Nihon bungaku kyoyo k6za '3 A 5f ' J 4- l (Essay series on the understanding of Japanese literature), T6ky6, Shibund6, 1950-52, 15v. Vol. 3 on modern poetry is written by Yoshida Seiichi; vol. 8 on the essay, diary, and criticism by Naruse Masakatsu; vol. 10 on modern fiction by Fukuda Kiyoto; vol. 12 on modern drama by Yamada Hajime; and voL 13 on translations in Japanese, by Shimada Kinjio Each touches on Sh6wa literature. Vol. 13 also contains a dictionary of literary terms. The entire series was originally intended to serve as an introduction both for beginning scholars and for those who seek a general understanding of Japanese literature. It is handy for the concise treatments it gives of various phases of Japanese literature. 215. Sugiura Mimpei 0 4 n1 -~, Gendai Nihon no sakka, g % e i (Writers of contemporary Japan), Toky6, Miraisha, 1956, 403+15pp. The Japanese writers of the period after the Meiji Restoration are discussed. The following Showa writers are included: Shimazaki Toson, Shiga Naoya, Shaku Choku, Hagiwara Sakutaro, Yokomitsu Riichi, Kawabata Yasunari, Ibuse Masuji, Nakano Shigeharu, Niwa Fumio, Oda Sakunosuke, Sakaguchi Ango, Dazai Osamu, Tamiya Torahiko, Tachihara Michiz6, Noma Hiroshi, Mishima Yukio, and a number of others. The author boasts a good background in Japanese literature, especially in the tanka, and is also well acquainted with the literature of the European Renaissance. His discussion shows his very high regard for strong individualities. He is also the author of Saito Mokichi, T6kyo, Kaname Shobo, 1954, along with some eight other volumes. 216. Sugiyama Heisuke:2, - /7, Bungei gojfinenshi L_ H _ E ( X (Fifty years of the literary arts), T6ky6, Masu Shob6, 1942. Only a very small portion of this work is devoted to Sh6wa literature; also, it was strongly influenced by the ultra-nationalistic view of history which prevailed during World War H. At the same time, it is valuable because few other books give a richer account of right-wing literature. As stated in the preface, the greater part of the book was written by Tanaka Seijiro.

Page  54 54 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 217. Takami Jun -7!- "1., "Showa bungaku seisuishi q -* rL V & | _ (The history of the vicissitudes of Showa literature)," Bungakkai, August, 1952 - still appearing serially. Part 1 deals with the relationships among the modernistic schools of Japanese literature and with the rise and fall of proletarian literature. Part 2 starts with the publication of Bungakkai in 1933. The author relates the literary history of the Showa period largely on the basis of his own experiences and observations, supplemented by newspaper and magazine articles. The author, who was a college student at the beginning of the Showa era, has himself seen the vicissitudes of the various literary schools; at one time he was very close to becoming a proletarian writer, and he has gone through the "renaissance" in literature. These experiences make for a vivid literary history different from the usual memoir and "inside story." 218. Takami Jun Oi l t, ed., Taidan gendai bundanshi -.t I t - it' 4_ t (The history of modern literary coteries, discussed in a series bf conversations), Tokyo, Chiu K6ronsha, 1957, 319pp. This volume gathers together the author's conversations with various other literary men. These conversations were first recorded serially in the magazine Bungei. The Taish6 era is included in the term "modern" used in the title, but the emphasis is on Sh6wa literature. The Sh6wa subjects covered are: Neo-Impressionism, with Kawabata Yasunari; socialist literature, with Aono Suekichi; proletarian literature, with Nakano Shigeharu; the Newly Rising Aesthetic School, with Funabashi Seiichi; the writers of the time of conversion, with Kamei Katsuichiro; the writers of the decade after 1935, with Niwa Fumio; the women writers of the Sh6wa era, with Hirabayashi Taiko; war and literary men, with Ito Sei; trends before, during and after, World War II, with Ooka Shohei; and the time of the maturing of authors, with Kambayashi Akatsuki. The editor, who in Showa bungaku seisuishi reveals a first-hand acquaintance with the literary world in which he himself has played an important part, has elicited from each of the several conversationalists above named an account of the membership, motivations, and activities of the schools to which they belonged, along with a series of remarks on some of the writings contributed by the conversationalist. The recounting of various events and episodes in which the members of the various schools took part enlivens this guide to Showa literature. 219. Takamura Kotar5o r tA' t, ed., Nihon no shiika f $ o - 4-.. (Japan's poetry) [ in Mainichi raiburarii], T6kyo, Mainichi Shimbunsha, 1953. This compilation outlines the special characteristics of the long poem, tanka, and haiku since the Meiji era. The editor, Takamura, discusses the special characteristics of Japanese poetry; Yoshida Seiichi traces the genealogy of the various schools of poetry; Miyoshi Tatsuji deals specifically with the long poem in present-day Japan, as does Kimata Osamu with the tanka and Kato Shuson with the haiku. This work is written with great competence even though it may not include the details that a specialist might wish. Still, many examples are given, and appreciative and critical comments added. Especially useful in the fields of the tanka and haiku, where handy introductory works are virtually non-existent. The authors have achieved a high degree of objectivity; this work is of particular value to students and literary historians who are not committed to any of the various schools. 220. Takeuchi Yoshimi ~ -, Kokumin bungakuron lJ, > ' (Treatise on a people's literature), Toky6, T6dai Shuppankai, 1954. This work is divided into three parts, among which the second is the most significant. The following essays are found in part 2: "The problem of modernism and the nation," "A proposal for a people's literature," "Points of dispute in a literature of the people," "On the autonomy of literature," and "Intensified support of a proposal for a people's literature." According to Takeuchi, literary critics in the period after World War II have tried to point out the distortions of modern Japanese literature through reference to models in modern European literature. This attitude may be modernistic but in its onesidedness not much different from the nationalism current during the war. The author tries to show that a writer should respond to the national consciousness of the less sophisticated people if he wishes to appeal to them. His book helped to intensify the arguments for and against a "people's literature" equally among the right-wing and left-wing writers. The author, a specialist in Chinese literature, was moved to write these essays because of the common set of characteristics which he discerned in modern Chinese literature, 221. Terada T6ru.%, Gendai Nihon sakka kenkyi 4' f l t- ftf (A study of modern Japanese writers), Tokyo, Miraisha, 1954. More than twenty writers of the period after the Meiji Restoration are discussed. Included are Nagai Kafu, Tanizaki Jun'ichir6, Kobayashi Hideo, Kawakami Tetsutar6, Niwa Fumio, Uno K6ji, Ishikawa Jun, Miyazawa Kenji, Tachihara Michizo, Hara Tamiki, Mishima Yukio, Miyamoto Yuriko, Hirabayashi Taiko, Hayashi Fumiko, Yokomitsu Riichi, Kawabata Yasunari, and Ibuse Masuji. Terada has the unusual ability to pierce into the special characteristics of each author. This ability, however, he conceals under the cloak of a certain loquaciousness. Along with Nakamura Mitsuo and Fukuda Tsuneari, Terada owes much to Kobayashi Hideo.

Page  55 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 55 222. Terada T6ru - e J, Sakka shiron t [ -* 4p (Personal notes on some writers), Tokyo, Kaiz6sha, 1949, 13+304pp. This volume deals with such Showa authors as Nagai Kafui, Kawabata Yasunari, Masamune Hakucho, Yokomitsu Riichi, Hayama Yoshiki, Ibuse Masuji, Tokuda Shusei, Tanizaki Jun'ichir6, and Shiga Naoya. (See preceding entry.) 223. Todai Shun'ichi j ' il'-, ed., Miyamoto Yuriko kenkyfu %g; -E / (Studies in Miyamoto Yuriko), T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1952. The majority of the contributors are members of the Shin-Nihon Bungakkai or New Japanese Literary Association. They try to determine where Miyamoto Yuriko stands in literary history and to rate each of her major literary productions. This was the first study made of her writings after her death. Since the book was written by her admirers, everything tends to be overrated. 224. Togaeri Hajime -t i- t, Gendai bundanjin gunzo f,' ~._ k {i A (Groupings of modern literary men), Osaka, Rokugatsusha, 1956, 9+364pp. In this and the following work the author discusses briefly each of a large group of modern writers and their characteristics. Since the author is probably more familiar with the various figures of the Japanese literary world than any other literary critic of the present time, these vignettes are handy guides to the work of the various writers selected. In the present work the groupings consist of 21 of the most popular writers, 11 who have earned their reputations in the period after World War II, 12 who write the better grade of adventure fiction and novels descriptive of manners and customs, 7 concerned with sword-fights, 11 who write mystery stories, 18 women writers, 8 authors of private, first-person fiction, 11 of the older, best-established writers, 11 authors surrounded by devoted coteries, 17 literary critics, 12 social critics, 19 writers of essays, 10 dramatists, 12 poets, 13 translators, 6 authors, popular before the war, who now seek to have their work reaccepted, and 20 writers currently beginning their careers. 225. Togaeri Hajime t o A, Gojinin no sakka Ji -t A- o - (Fifty writers), Toky6, Dai-Nihon Yubenkai Kodansha, 1955, 227pp. 226. Togaeri Hajime t i t-, Jidai no sakka.x,\ 2 4F / (The authors of the day), T6ky6, Akashi Shoten, 1941, 262pp. The author discusses the works of Ishikawa Tatsuzo, Ishizaka Yojiro, Ito Sei, Niwa Fumio, Takami Jun, Abe Tomoji, Shimagi Kensaku, and Hino Ashihei, most of whom became popular after 1935. The author pays close attention to literary currents and tries to evaluate each writer in terms of the environment in which he works. 227. Toita Yasuji j t k -, Engeki gojdnen da i s{-a (Fifty years of drama) [in Nijisseiki zenhan no kaiko 1- t t A ) E jA (Recollections of the first half of the twentieth entieth century)], Tokyo, Jiji Tsushinsha, Tokyo, 1956, 643pp. Photos. Takes up the history of modern drama in Japan from the middle of the Meiji period, when the famous actors Ichikawa Danjuro the ninth, Onoe Kikugoro the fifth, and Ichikawa Sadanji the fourth died almost at the same time, till 1950. The portions relating to the Showa era include chapter 12 on proletarian drama, 13 on commercial drama in the Sh6wa era, 14 on modern plays in the early 1930s, and 15 on the period directly before and after World War IL At the end of the volume is an abbreviated chronology of fifty years of dramatic production and a list of reference works. The author covers kabuki, shimpa, and shinkokugeki as well as modern drama. His work is representative of the most widely accepted views of modern Japanese drama and well grasps the main developments in dramatic history. The overemphasis given to particular persons in the world of drama is perhaps a failing. 228. Usui Yoshimi d 7 - L, Kindai bungaku ronso i A (Controversies in modern literature), Vol. 1, Tokyo, Chikuma Shob6, 1956, 3rd printing, 1957, 256pp.; the continuation is still being published in the magazine Bungakkai. The major controversies in literature after the Meiji Restoration are analyzed. The author's objective is to see what the problems of modern Japanese literature are through an historical analysis of the conflicts among various literary ideas. In Vol. 1 very little mention is made of Showa literature, which, however, will undoubtedly come to the fore in Vol. 2. The author has abundant data at his disposal and presents them with the utmost accuracy. 229. Usui Yoshimi i- 4 *, Ningen to bungaku A ^t e (Man and literature), Tokyo, Chikuma Shobo, 1957, 445pp. Thirty modern writers are selected for discussion. The Showa writers include Yokomitsu Riichi, Kawabata Yasunari, Kawakami Tetsutar6, Ibuse Masuji, Takeda Rintar6, Miyamoto Yuriko, Nakano Shigeharu, Dazai Osamu, and Shiina Rinz6. The author combines keen perception and scholarly accuracy,

Page  56 56 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 230. Yamada Seizaburo J- E, Nihon puroretaria bungei undoshi 3 $ 7~ C \'/ f 7 e * ~ (A history of the Japanese proletarian literary movement), T6ky6, S6bunkaku, 1930. This is a history of the proletarian literary movement beginning shortly before the first publication in 1921 of the coterie magazine, Tanemaku hito (Those who plant seeds), and ending with the organization of the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei (The All-Japan Proletarian Art Federation) in 1928. The author was himself a part of the proletarian literary movement, and this account is based on his own experiences. It is valuable as a history of the early period of the proletarian movement, although the author fails to be entirely objective. 231. Yamada Seizabur6o LG e d =- t, Puroretaria bungakushi 7~ T 'T - ' K (A history of proletarian literature), T6ky6, Rironsha, 1954, 2v. Volume 1 consists of 7 chapters dealing with the beginnings of literature pertaining to the proletariat. The period covered is from the early years of Meiji to 1923, the year of the Kant6 earthquake. Vol. 2 consists of seven additional chapters starting with the so-called period of "second strife" following the earthquake, and ends with the dissolution of the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei (The All-Japan Proletarian Art League) in 1934. The author utilizes every possible datum available today in tracing the history of the proletarian movement in Japanese literature. This work is a comprehensive leftist presentation of individual authors and their works. 232. Yamamoto Kenkichi L - /_, Shish6setsu sakkaron -* /JA 3 - t~ (The authors of "private" fiction), Tokyo, JitsugyO no Nihonsha, 1943, 300pp. This is a collection of the author's critical essays on nine representative authors of "private" fiction, Kasai Zenzo, Makino Shin'ichi, Kamura Isota, Uno Koji, Okamoto Kanoko, Hojo Tamio, Takii Kosaku, Shiga Naoya, and Kajii Motojir6. Through a study of these writers, the author of the present work seeks to grasp the peculiar currents of modern Japanese literature which he terms its interieur. He looks into the degree of perfection of private fiction, the extraordinary excitement to be found in it, and into the desires of the authors of private fiction to seek after truth or after faith. During the decade following 1935, the author's literary criticism appeared in the magazine Hihyo6 L f - (Criticism). In his view the younger critics of those days had a tendency to discuss their own special individualities under the pretext of criticizing other authors and their works. Protesting against this tendency, the author attempted a return to the spirit of Sainte-Beuve so that as critic he might rise above himself. In this book, the author distinguishes for the first time the authors of "private" fiction into two types, those who are self-reliant and those who find a controlling power (such as society) outside of themselves. 233. Yoshida Seiichi " ~ A-, Nihon kindaishi kansho { 2 LAN ' _ It, (The appreciation of the modern Japanese long poem) [ = Temmei sosho X s~ 1 (Temmei series), 1-3], Yokosuka, Temmeisha, 1946-1948, 3v.; also, T6ky6, Temmeisha, 1953-1954, 3v. This work discusses the long poem from Meiji times down to the present. The portion on the ShOwa era deals with Miyazawa Kenji, Horiguchi Daigaku, Miyoshi Tatsuji, Nakano Shigeharu, Tsuboi Shigeji, Kaneko Mitsuharu, Kusano Shimpel, Nakahara Chuya, Tachihara Michizo, and T6ge Sankichi. Brief biographies are followed by appreciative and critical comments on the works of these poets. Added is an outline of the development of the long poem in modern times. The author's views concerning the modern Japanese long poem are widely recognized as constituting a standard, and the present work has received the highest commendation both as an introduction to the history of the long poem and as a work leading to an understanding of the poets treated. The sections on the Meiji, Taisho, and Sh6wa eras are separately reprinted in Shincho bunko e -{ ~ ~ (Shincho Library). 234. Yoshimura Teiji ~ t. ~, Hori Tatsuo: tamashii no henreki to shite C 1T 1)- ~ ) _ _ t L Z (Hori Tatsuo: as the pilgrimage of a soul), T6ky6, T6ky6 Raifusha, 1955, 204pp. The author dicusses Hori Tatsuo's works in chronological order. He is particularly interested in the details of Hori's contacts with European literature. Tedious in spots. 235. Yoshimura Teiji 7t t.., Mishima Yukio _ % i 47, (Mishima Yukio) [ = Sakkaron shiriizu, 2], T6kyo, T6ky6 Raifusha, 1955, 202pp. The works of Mishima Yukio are discussed in detail in chronological order. In many places the author's enthusiasm overcomes his understanding. E. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES Various chronological tables are found in the works so far listed, especially in the dictionaries of literature. The following is a list of chronological tables printed in separate volumes by themselves or not otherwise noted in the present volume. 236. Koizumi T5ozo 1' t —, ed., Gendai tanka dianempyo t i( ~- -4. t (A large-scale chronological table for the present-day tanka), Kyoto, Potonamu Tankakai, 1934.

Page  57 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 57 237. Numazawa Tatsuo S 4 t, Nihon bungakushi hy6ran 0 - ~ _ t < V7 (Tables for the history of Japanese literature), Toky6, Meiji Shoin, 1934, 2v. Publication near the end of the first decade of the Showa era limits the value of this compendium as far as Sh6wa literature is concerned. However, in tabular form, it shows the full history of Japanese literature up to 1931 and is especially valuable for its treatment of twentieth century materials forming the immediate background of Showa writing. The tables in the first volume cover the history, era by era, of the tanka, kyoka (comic 31-syllable poem), shiika (the long poem), renga (linked poem), haikai and haiku, senryu (the satiric 17-syllable poem), songs and chants, drama (the marionette play, kabuki, modem drama), fiction, diary, travel writing, essay, and criticism. Also, as genres ancillary to Japanese literature are Chinese prose and poetry written in Japan and writings in history, kokugaku ("national learning"), religion, and calligraphy, all represented in tabular form. Schools of painting, sculpture, the decorative arts, and architecture, and the manners and customs of each age are also shown. Of particular interest for present purposes are the tables showing the products of Meiji, Taish6, and Sh6wa literature given on pages 130 -151. On pages 130-133, for instance, is given a genealogical table of schools of the tanka since Meiji times, showing the poets and magazines associated with the various schools. Also to be noted are the histories of literature, reference works, and dictionaries listed in chronological form on pages 166-171; and the contents of four k6za or essay series on Japanese literature (Nihon bungaku k6za, published by Shinch6sha in 1928-29; Iwanami k6za Nihon bungaku, published by Iwanami Shoten in 1931-33; Tanka koza, published by Kaizosha in 1931-32; and Haiku koza, also published by Kaiz6sha in 1932-34, given on pp. 172 -175. A list of translations of Japanese literature is given on pp. 178-206, and the contents of various anthologies, including a few published in the Showa period, on pp. 207-224. The second volume contains a booklet including a chronological table of Japanese history, with Chinese and Gregorian equivalents, and tables of the Japanese emperors and eras and of the Chinese dynasties and eras; a table showing the development of the genres of Japanese literature, with examples of each genre, and cross-lines indicating the influences affecting each genre; a chronological table showing the emperors and principal officials of each era; and two tables indicating the life spans of the major Japanese authors, one for literature up to and including the Muromachi era and one for the authors of the Tokugawa period and after. 238. Noma Hiroshi g- MI ~ and others, ed., "Nihon puroretaria bungaku nempy6o oa 7czl a '( L (A chronological table for proletarian literature) [at the end of each volume of Nihon puroretaria bungaku taikei 0 7~ '17 Vr vi-'. ^u ^ (Outline of Japanese proletarian literature)], Ky6to, San'ichi Shob6, 1954-1955, Introductory v. plus 8 v. This table is divided into three columns, the first giving the chief works of proletarian literature, the second the literary events and trends related to proletarian literature, and the third the principal.political and social events year by year. The coverage, volume by volume, is as follows: Introductory. 1895-1915 1. 1916-1923 2. 1924-April, 1928 3. March 25, 1928-June, 1929 4. June, 1929-July, 1930 5. August, 1930-December, 1931 6. January, 1932-March, 1934 7. April, 1934-June, 1937 8. July, 1937-August, 1945 239. Sait6 Sh6ozo 6 A, Gendai Nihon bungaku dainempy6o A <v 0 9 K I ~ (A large chronological table for modern Japanese literature )[= suppl. v. to Gendai Nihon bungaku zenshu], T6ky6, Kaizosha, 1931. 240. Saito Shozo X X & - and Kimura Ki t, Seiyo bungaku hon'yaku nempyo 7 4 tJ' A A- _ (A chronological table of translations of Western literature) [ in Iwanami koza sekai bungaku;, * _, [Iwanami essay series in world literature)], Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1932. F. JOURNALS The following is a list of most of the magazines cited in Chapter III (Bibliography of Showa literature). The purpose here is to give something of the history of each magazine, its editorial policy, and the principal authors whose works it has published. The characters used in writing each author's name will be found either in Chapter III or in the Index of Authors and Editors, and the characters used in writing the titles of books and shorter Works will be found in Chapter III. The characters, however, are given for such works as were published prior to the Sh6wa era. In the present section, there is usually no indication of the particular issue of a magazine in which any title of the Sh6wa era was printed. For full bibliographical details see Chapter HI. 241. Ab5o f (Abo [name of a Chinese palace]) A literary magazine begun as a quarterly in June, 1935. The publisher was Ab5sha. At first it covered the whole field of literature and issued extra numbers on specific writers. As of October, 1939, it was taken over by Akatsuka Shob6 and published as a monthly. It preserved itself as a literary magazine for two or three years more. H6j6 Makoto wrote "Harufuku (Spring wear)," for Abo in 1940 at the beginning of his literary career. Otherwise, nothing worth noting is to be found in this magazine.

Page  58 58 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 242. Amanokawa e_ ) f1 (The Milky Way) A magazine for the haiku. Begun in July, 1918, at Fukuoka under the leadership of Yoshioka Zenjid6 as a magazine belonging to the same lineage as Hototogisu. However, when the Shink5 haiku undo or Newly Rising haiku movement received its start in the early Showa era, Zenjido adopted the most radical innovations and Amanokawa published haiku that disregarded both the traditional references to the four seasons and the seventeen-syllable form. Suspended in 1943, it was restarted in July, 1947. After the war it advocated the free rhythms of a colloquial style. At present suspended. Shiba Fukio, Yokoyama Hakko, and Shinowara H6saku made their debuts in Amanokawa. 243. Aozora *! (The blue sky) A coterie magazine begun in January, 1925, and discontinued in June, 1927. The member writers included Kajii Motojir6, Iijima Tadashi, Tonomura Shigeru, Kitagawa Fuyuhiko, and Miyoshi Tatsuji. Kajii's "Remon i ~{ (Lemon)" and "Shiro no aru machi nite O e 4 3 tT,1- Z (In a castle town)," were published in the January and February, 1925, issues, respectively. 244. Araragi 7 7 7 " (named from a kind of yew tree) After Ashibi. a, the organ of the Negishi Tankakai X j *e k A (Negishi Tanka Society), ceased publication in January, 1908, it was not till December of the same year that its successor, Araragi, made its appearance under the editorship of Ito Sachio. At that time naturalism was the dominant literary fashion, and Araragi was often overwhelmed by it. But it gradually established its characteristic flavor through the poems of such men as Shimagi Akahiko and Sait6 Mokichi. After Ito's death in 1913, Shimagi, with the cooperation of Sait5 and Koizumi Chikashi, took charge of the editing. Among the poets publishing in Araragi were Nagatsuka Takashi, Oka Fumoto, and Shaku Ch6oku. By 1917 and 1918, it became the vehicle for the principal poetic current in Japan. Its contributors tried to penetrate objectively into each subject matter; utilizing the style of the Man'yoshu X, -t _, they tried to express themselves in concrete terms. After Shimagi's death in 1926, Saito became the editor. His successor in 1930 was Tsuchiya Bummei. Opposed first by the proletarian school and then by the romantic-symbolist group led by Kitahara Hakushu and writing for Tama 1? A, a journal named after an area lying outside of T5kyo, it nevertheless maintained its predominant position. During World War II it followed the nationalistic tide, but afterwards tried to face up to the realities of postwar life and thought. It was after World War II that Kondo Yoshimi and other poets of the younger generation came into the limelight through the pages of Araragi. 245. Asahi hyoron At ~ I - (The Asahi review) A monthly magazine published from March, 1946, through 1950 by Asahi Shimbunsha. Earlier political reviews had dealt mainly with political personalities. In order to remedy this defect, Asahi hyoron added critiques on the economic and cultural scene. It also became much more interested in reexamining the history of Japan. Among the major pieces of fiction are "Shi no kurohata (The black flag of death)," by Eguchi Kan; "Hanjfishin (A half animal god)," by Funayama Kaoru; and "Sannen Netar6 (Tar6, a three year sleeper)," by Kinoshita Junji. Hasegawa Nyozekan and Yamakawa Hitoshi were among the contributors of the non-fictional pieces. 246. Asahi shimbun #0 Ue - f (The Asahi news) Begun on January 25, 1879, in Osaka. With the establishment of its sister newspaper, the Tokyo Asahi shimbun Q, 4 ] 9 X m (Toky6 Asahi news), on July 10, 1888, its name was changed to Osaka Asahi shimbun A rt 4 0 a a (Osaka Asahi news). The two newspapers became independent of each other in 1895 but were rejoined in 1919, with the Toky5 Asahi becoming the branch paper. During the ShOwa era the two papers printed many serial novels. Enjoying wide reputations were: "Nami (The waves)," by Yamamoto Yuzo, 1928; "Ikeru ningy6 (A living doll), " by Kataoka Teppei, 1928; "Yuri Hatae (Yuri Hatae [personal name])," by Kishida Kunio, 1929-1930; "Asakusa kurenaidan (The crimson group at Asakusa)," by Kawabata Yasunari, 1929; "Rangiku monogatari (A tale of some chaotic chrysanthemums)," by Tanizaki Jun'ichiro, 1930; "Sh5hai (Victory or defeat)," by Kikuchi Kan, 1931; "Onna no issho (The life of a woman)," by Yamamoto Yuzo, 1932-1933; "Ginza hatch6 (The eight blocks of the Ginza)," by Takeda Rintar6, 1934; "Miyamoto Musashi (Miyamoto Musashi [personal name])," by Yoshikawa Eiji, 1935-1939; "Bokut6 kidan (A strange story east of the [Sumida] river)," by Nagai Kafu, 1937; "Danryui (A warm current)," by Kishida Kunio, 1938; "Kaigun (The Navy)," by Shishi Bunroku, 1942; "Aoi sammyaku (A blue mountain range)," by Ishizaka Y6jir6, 1947; "Hana no sugao (The sober face of a flower)," by Funabashi Seiichi, 1948-1949; "Jiyi gakko (The school for freedom)," by Shishi Bunroku, 1950; "Meshi (Boiled rice)," by Hayashi Fumiko, 1951; and "Hana hiraku (The flowers bloom)," by It6 Sei, 1953. 247. Bessatsu bungei shunju ' 'J e A - itC (Extra issues of Bungei shunju) Begun in February, 1946, and still continued. At first irregular, afterwards published once every two months, then irregularly again. The editorship passed in turn from Nagai Tatsuo to Suzuki Mitsugu, Tokuda Masahiko, Tagawa Hiroichi, and Ozeki Sakae. Published by the Bungei Shunju Shinsha. Supplementary to the general magazine Bungei shunju, this publication is devoted principally to literature. Among the more remarkable works printed in it are "Doku (Poison)," by Funabashi Seiichi, February, 1946; "Yoru no ie (A home at night)," by Shimomura Chiaki, April, 1947; "Ueno (Ueno [place name])," by Mur6 Saisei, April, 1947; "Akai jimbaori (A red coat of arms)," by Kinoshita Junji, February, 1947; "Yuki no Ivu (Eve in the

Page  59 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 59 snow)," by Ishikawa Jun, June, 1947; "Mori no yuhi (Evening sun in the forest)," by Kawabata Yasunari, August, 1949; "Honjitsu kyushin (No medical examinations today)," by Ibuse Masuji, August, 1949 - May, 1950; "Mirai no injo (Prostitutes of the future)," by Takeda Taijun, October, 1949; "Shonen shikeishu (Boy under a death sentence)," by Nakayama Gishu, December, 1949; "Makk6machi (Street with many temples)," by Kawasaki Ch6taro, March, 1950; "Ginzagawa (The river Ginza)," by Inoue Tomoichir6, May, 1950 - March, 1951; "T6norikai (A long ride club)," by Mishima Yukio, August, 1951; "Rekishi (History)," by Hotta Yoshie, February, 1952; "Kiri ni yuragu fujinami (A wave of wisteria flowers in the mist)," July, 1951; "Jakurenge (A solitary lotus)," by Nakayama Gishu, February, 1952; and "Noriai jidosha (A bus)," by Ibuse Masuji, April, 1952. 248. Bummei ean (Civilization) Published from February, 1946, to March, 1948, inclusive, by Bummeisha. Edited by Tamiya Torahiko, Bummei became the publishing medium for the so-called honest writers who had tried to write as they thought even in the years immediately prior to World War II. It also published some of the critical essays of the postwar writers belonging to the Kindai Bungaku it A,' + (Modern literature) school and served to produce some of the newer leaders on the postwar Japanese cultural scene. A special issue was entitled "Fukuin seinen no ummei 4 ~ L { e S y (The destiny of the demobilized youths)." "Shikkaiya Yasukichi (The general dealer Yasukichi)," by Funabashi Seiichi, and "Jikkan bungakuron (Treatise on a literature of actual feelings)," by Sasaki Kiichi were notable contributions to Bummei. 249. Bungakkai,_ r! J, (Literary world) A literary magazine begun in October, 1933, and continued somewhat sporadically till April, 1944. It is to be distinguished from the earlier Bungakkai published in the Meiji era. The new Bungakkai was planned by Kobayashi Hideo, Takeda Rintaro, and Hayashi Fusao at a time when literary art was beginning to revive after the decline of proletarian literature. In addition to the above mentioned writers, the members of the group editing Bungakkai included Uno Koji, Kawabata Yasunari, Fukada Kyuya, Hirotsu Kazuo, and Toyoshima Yoshio. It therefore gathered together a singular group of realistic, liberal, and Marxist writers. This came from a desire to organize a people's front against the authoritarianism that was then rearing its head. Later, when the older writers left the coterie, the members did their best to attract a fresh group of young and energetic writers. After the war, Bungakkai was revived in June, 1947. It is still continued with Bungei Shunju Shinsha as the publisher. Some major pieces of fiction published in Bungakkai are "Fuyu no yado (An inn in the winter)," by Abe Tomoji; "Atsumonozaki (Pompon chrysanthemums)," by Nakayama Gishu; "Kyok6 no haru (A false spring)," by Dazai Osamu; and "Hikari to kaze to yume (Light, wind, and a dream)," by Nakajima Atsushi. Notable pieces of criticism include "Futabatei Shimei-ron (On Futabatei Shimei)," by Nakamura Mitsuo; "Iwano Homei-den (A biography of Iwano H6mei)," by Funabashi Seiichi; and Dosutoefusukii no seikatsu (The life of Doestoevski), by Kobayashi Hideo. Also to be noted is a symposium on "Seiji to bungaku { 9 e >i (Politics and literature)," found in the August, 1934, issue. 250. Bungaku annai A J X ~ (Literary guide) A monthly magazine started in July, 1935. This very short-lived literary magazine tried to make the leftwing school and the art-for-art school join hands in opposition to authoritarianism. In this respect it was like Bunka shudan, Bungaku hyoron, and Bungakkai, all of which see. 251. Bungaku gojiichi at r 51 (Literature 51) Begun in May, 1951, and discontinued in September of the same year. 4 numbers in all. Edited by Bungaku Jojuichi no Kai 5t r4 51 ) t (The Society of Literature 51). Published by Nihonsha. According to Yanaihara Isaku, "Literature must be not only the literature of 1951 but also the literature of 1951." The principal writers of fiction were Kat6 Shuichi, Nakamura Shin'ichir6, and Fukunaga Takehiko. Among the pieces of fiction were "Haguruma (A cogwheel)," by Hotta Yoshie, and "Fudo (Natural features)," by Fukunaga. 252. Bungaku hyoron A f f - (The criticism of literature) A magazine for fiction, criticism, and the long poem begun in March, 1934, and discontinued in August, 1936, after thirty numbers had been issued. Published by Naukasha. After the Nihon Puroretaria Bunka Remmei EB 7' C7 7 'I 7 - 4L it ~_ (The Japanese Proletarian Cultural Federation), which had been organized in 1931, was dissolved under oppression by the authorities, such proletarian writers and critics as Yamada Seizabur6, Hashimoto Eikichi, and Shimagi Kensaku still wrote for this magazine. The chief editor was Watanabe Junzo. Like Bunka shuidan (Cultural group), Bungaku hyoron was a vehicle for the presentation of social realistic theory. "Sen kyihyaku sanju yonen burujoa bungaku no dok6 (Trends in bourgeois literature in 1934)," by Miyamoto Yuriko (December, 1934) was a notable contribution, as were Shimagi Kensaku's "Rai (Leprosy)" in the April, 1934, issue and Hashimoto Eikichi's "Tank6 (A coal-mine)" in the October, 1934, issue.

Page  60 60 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 253. Bungaku kaigi i rT i ~ (Literary conference) A literary magazine begun in April, 1947, and discontinued in July, 1950. Nine numbers in all, irregularly published by K6dansha. At first it was edited by the Nihon Bungeika Ky6kai Q ~ '\ a (Japanese Literary Men's Association) as a journal representing every segment of the literary world. The staff members, representing the several schools, included such writers as Ishikawa Tatsuz6, It6 Sei, Ara Masahito, Kawakami Tetsutar6, Takami Jun, Nakano Shigeharu, Funabashi Seiichi, Hirano Ken, and Honda Akira. Organizing a series of symposia on various literary subjects, they tried to make this magazine an impartial organ of opinion within the different literary circles. The various special issues bore the following titles: (1) Kindaisei no kenkyui ~t 4'l ';f(A study of modernism); (2) and (3) S6saku tokushuii A, A -Jt (Special issues for creative works); (4) Shi to chuhen shosetsu tokushu '; J j,- p A e (Special issue on the long poem and medium-length stories); (5) Shuki s5saku tokushui -Z 4 ~\j 4t ~ (Special autumn issue for creative works); (6) Shinjin sh6setsu tokushu k t (Special issue of fiction by a group of new writers); (7) Shiga Naoya tokushu X I i t (Special issue on Shiga Naoya); (8) Masamune Hakuch6 tokushui IE —,b. - (Special issue on Masamune Hakuch6); and (9) Tanizaki Jun'ichir6 tokushui - I-; - ] t- (Special issue on Tanizaki Jun'ichiro). Dan Kazuo and Yoshiyuki Junnosuke were introduced in the sixth number. 254. Bungaku kikan i 4 -T'1 (Literary quarterly) A quarterly literary magazine begun in August, 1946, and discontinued in August, 1949. 10 numbers in all. Published by Jitsugy6 no Nihonsha. Kurasaki Kaichi was the editor. Entrusted by his seniors with the administration of this magazine, Kurasaki tried to convert it from a "toy" to "a literary salon." The magazine became the stage of activity for a number of writers of medium standing. Translations of foreign literature and criticism were also published. Among the pieces of fiction are: "Kuchiki (A decayed tree)," by Umezaki Haruo; "Aku (Evil)," by Inoue Tomoichirb; and "Haikyo (The ruins)," by Abe K6ob. The literary criticism includes "Miyamoto Yuriko-ron (On Miyamoto Yuriko)," by Ara Masahito, and "Monogatari no hass6 (The conception of a story)," by It6 Sei. 255. Bungaku no sekai >e f t J, (The world of literature) Lasted from May through December, 1948, with only four issues being published. The editor was Aoyagi Seisei, and the publisher Bungaku no Shakaisha. A magazine for beginners in literature. Among the writers were Shiga Naoya, Kawabata Yasunari, Mushak6ji Saneatsu, and Mur6 Saisei. In the fourth number (December, 1948), Shiina Rinz6, Umezaki Haruo, Mishima Yukio, and Noma Hiroshi recalled their maiden works. 256. Bungaku seikatsu tf 2 (Literary life) A coterie magazine first published in May, 1936; suspended in the latter half of 1937. The editor and publisher was, at the beginning, Tonomura Shigeru, later Yamazaki G6hei. The members of their circle included It6 Sei, Ozaki Kazuo, Oda Takeo, Kambayashi Akatsuki, Niwa Fumio, Kawasaki Ch6taro, Tabata Shuichiro, Fukuda Kiyoto, Asami Fukashi, Aoyagi Mizuho, Towada Misao, Nagamatsu Sadamu, and Furuya Tsunatake. There was no set body of doctrine bringing this group together. Loosely organized, it soon dissolved. 257. Bungaku toin:e 4 r A (A literary member of the party) Leftwing literary magazine. Begun in January, 1931. The details are unknown. 258. Bungakusha i ~; (Men of letters) Started in October, 1948; suspended after the combined issue of March and April, 1950, had been published; restarted in July, 1950. Monthly. The editor at the beginning was Hironishi Motonobu; later, Ishikawa Toshimitsu took over the editing. The publisher also changed from Sekai Bunkasha to Jugonichikai. Bungakusha is a coterie magazine published with the intention of giving encouragement both to new writers and to new types of fiction. The works of Inagaki Tatsur6 and Muramatsu Sadataka, who wrote on the authors of the Meiji era and on the history of literature, are included. 259. Bungei K W (Literary art) A literary magazine begun in November, 1933, at a time when proletarian literature was rapidly declining and a more artistic kind of writing began to prevaiL Representing the new trend in literature were such magazines as Bungei, Kodo, and Bungakkai. Bungei, planned by the publishing firm Kaiz6sha as a general literary magazine, had for its first chief editor Kambayashi Akatsuki. Printing a wide variety of articles on literature, he made the magazine a means of publicizing the happenings and currents of the literary world. The following works were published in Bungei: "Mugi shinazu (Wheat never dies)," by Ishizaka Yojiro; "Ika naru hoshi no moto ni (Under which star?)," by Takami Jun; and "Kusoka to shinario (A dreamer and a scenario)," by Nakano Shigeharu. The magazine brought to light such outstanding writers as Dazai Osamu, Kitahara Takeo, and Tsuboi Sakae. "Meoto zenzai (It's good to be husband and wife')," by Oda Sakunosuke, was introduced as a maiden work recommended by the editors. In July, 1944, Bungei was discontinued when Kaizosha was dissolved, but it was reissued after World War II, in November, 1945, by Kawade Shob6. The editorship passed from Noda Utaro to Sugimori Hisahide, and Bungei tried to follow the newer trends in literature, introducing many new writers. Later the editorship fell to Iwaya Daishi,

Page  61 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 61 who planned various special editions and converted Bungei into a more popular and more marketable journal. Bungei published Nakamura Mitsuo's "Fuzoku shosetsu-ron (On genre novels)" and Fukai Michiko's "Natsu no arashi (A summer tempest)." In March, 1957, Kawade Shobo went bankrupt and the magazine ceased publication. 260. Bungei hanron, ~ ok; (Outline of the literary arts) Issued from September, 1931, through May, 1944. Published by the Bungei Hanronsha. Edited by Iwasa Toichiro and J6 Samon. Included poetry and prose. The main writers were Horiguchi Daigaku, Kitazono Katsue, Sasazawa Yoshiaki, Tanaka Fuyuji, Kondo Azuma, Sakamoto Etsuro, Osada Tsuneo, K6so Tamotsu, Jo Samon, Murano Shiro, And6 Ichiro, Hishiyama Shiuz, and Yamanaka Chiru. Giving the annual Bungei Hanron prize, tried to encourage new writers. The judges were Sato Haruo, Horiguchi Daigaku, and Hagiwara Sakutar6. Many books of poetry were published by the Bungei Hanronsha. Bungei hanron was almost the only place where the Japanese poets could express themselves freely during World War II. 261. Bungei jidai _ I S 415 (Literary age) A coterie magazine begun in October, 1924, and discontinued in May, 1927, after 32 numbers had been issued. The first numbers included the works of fourteen members: Juichiya Gisabur6, Kawabata Yasunari, Kataoka Teppei, Yokomitsu Riichi, Nakagawa Yoichi, Kon Toko, Sasaki Mosaku, Ishihama Kinsaku, etc. Later Kon left and Kishida Kunio, Inagaki Taruho, and others joined the group, which then numbered eighteen persons. Kataoka Teppei's critique, "Wakaki dokusha ni kotau (In answer to young readers)," number 3 showed a Neo-impressionistic tendency. Thereupon, Kawabata, Yokomitsu, Nakagawa and others began to show a strong avant-garde modernism in their writings, and their artistic work began to contend with proletarian writing as the chief literary current in the early Showa period. The fiction published in Bungei jidai includes such works as "Izu no odoriko (A dancer of Izu)," by Kawabata and "Naporeon to tamushi (Napoleon and a ringworm)," by Yokomitsu. Bungei jidai was short-lived but it was very influential and many coterie magazines followed its tenets. Especially significant is the fact that this magazine stimulated the development of the Neo-impressionistic School and became its chief vehicle. 262. Bungei kodo Q 6 {T T (Literary action) A coterie magazine begun in January, 1926, and discontinued in August of the same year. It was started by the critics belonging to the Waseda school Later they entrusted the editing to Hosoda Genkichio Katagami Noburu and Aono Suekichi wrote for this magazine. Katagami's "Hy6ron no hy6ron (The criticism of criticism)" appeared in the March, 1926, issue. 263. Bungei 6rai 9 t- _- - (Communication in literary art) Issued from January, 1949, through October, 1949. Edited by Iwaya Daishi and published by Kamakura Bunko. A monthly. According to Kume Masao's comments in the first number, the editors hoped to establish a close friendship between the writers and readers, allowing anyone, regardless of the particular literary tenets he held, to send in his articles and questions. Two of the contributions in fiction were "Kuri no mi (Chestnut meat)," by Amino Kiku, and "Haitokusha (An immoral person)," by Nakayama Gish5. Special features found in each issue included "Sakka kaiboshitsu 1F $ 0 il '1 q (A room for dissecting writers)," and "Sakka homonki T / -t A te-y (Visits with writers)." 264. Bungei sensen ~ 1 A,, (Literary battle-line) A proletarian literary magazine. A monthly magazine lasting from June, 1921, through July, 1932. Renamed Bunsen y_ ~ (Literary battle) in January, 1931. It was started in order to fill the place left by Tane maku hito - J < /K (Planters of seeds), which ceased publication after the great earthquake of 1923. In supporting the cause of proletarian literature through a second period of struggle, it gave many writers a chance to make their literary debuts. At first, it was run as a coterie magazine inclose association with the Nihon Puroretaria Geijutsu D6mei E; 7~ cz - -7 'I T 7 4; 1fTl (The Japanese Proletarian Art Union); later, it became the organ of the Rono Geijutsuka Remmei I p ~ ].T. it W (Farmer and Laborer Artists' Federation) and stood as one of the two chief citadels of the proletarian literary movement, the other being Puroretaria geijutsu (Proletarian art), the organ of the Puroretaria Geijutsu Domei. Major peices of fiction published in Bungei sensen include "Sery6shitsu nite (In a room at a charity hospital)," by Hirabayashi Taiko, and "Sori (A sleigh)," by Kuroshima Denji. Aono Suekichi was the principal theorist. When the Rono Geijutsuka Remmei was split into two groups, one the J6h6ha or Legalist Group and the other the Hijohoha or Anti-legalist Group, on the question of procedure with respect to desired reforms, the J6h6ha retained Bungei sensen as its organ and the Hijohoha, naming itself the Zen'ei Geijutsuka Domei (Advance Guard Artists' Federation), began to publish Zen'ei (Advance Guard), which see.

Page  62 62 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 265. Bungei shunjiu K; 4 ~;~ (Literary annals) A magazine begun in January, 1923, and still continued. Published at first by Bungei Shunjusha, later by Bungei Shunjui Shinsha. Established by Kikuchi Kan. At its beginning, presented only the essays of writers who were Kikuchi's immediate friends, but after a while began to publish short stories and one-act plays by other writers. In 1926, its format was changed into that of a multiple-interest magazine. Rejecting the stiffness of its rivals, Chuo koron (The central review) and Kaizo (Reconstruction), it cultivated an intellectual readership through the printing of symposia, reports of actual happenings, and articles appraising and criticizing various public figures. Coming to the war period, Bungei shunjui showed a rightist inclination and opposed the progressives of the time. It was able to survive as a literary magazine in 1939 when the authorities ordered a "readjustment" of then-current journals. After the war, it became a generalinterest magazine again, and added to its popularity through the publication of true-life reports and fiction of medium quality. Bungei shunju has never aligned itself with proletarian literature, but has served as a hotbed for the growth of narrative writing, which is either non-political and artistic or belongs to the category of genre fiction. In 1935, it established the Akutagawa and Naoki prizes, and began to publish the winning stories in its pages. Among the many literary men who gained their reputations through their contributions to Bungei shunjiu are Akutagawa Ryunosuke, Kume Masao, Yamamoto Yuzo, Sasaki Mosaku, Yokomitsu Riichi, Kawabata Yasunari, Kishida Kunio, Naoki Sanjugo, Takii Kosaku, Makino Shin'ichi, and Hori Tatsuo. 266. Bungei shuto i - l 3 (Metropolis of the literary arts) Begun in January, 1933. Published by Bungei Shutosha. Started by Yasutaka Tokuz6 with the intention of nourishing new writers. Several times discontinued. At first Hirotsu Kazuo and Uno Koji served among the advisers, and Hayashi Fumiko, Ozaki Shiro, and Niwa Fumio were some of the principal writers. After World War II, this magazine again encouraged the rise of new writers by soliciting their manuscripts and giving them the benefit of expert criticism. 267. Bunka shudan Ad L 4 i 11 (Cultural group) Begun in June, 1933, and discontinued in February, 1935. A magazine published by the members of a coterie led by Hirata Koroku and other proletarian writers concerned with the problems of the farmer. Kuroshima Denji, who had previously written for Puroretaria bungaku (Proletarian literature), an organ of the Nihon Puroretaria Sakka D6mei Q i 7" tz - -7 FT 47 ) I t (Japanese Proletarian Writers' Union), later joined the Bunka shudan group. Also, Hidejima Takeshi, Hasegawa Susumu, and others came over from the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei "i E f. A ~ ~ /T 3_ (All-Japan Proletarian Art Federation), also known as NAPPU from the initials of its Esperanto name. Bunka shudan thus prospered but this also became one of the causes of the dissolution of NAPPU. 268. Bunsh6 kurabu ~ -~ i -i (Writing club) A monthly literary magazine published from May, 1916, through May, 1929. Like Bunsh6 sekai 9i i 3 (Writing world), which ran from March, 1906, through December, 1920, Bunsh6 kurabu tried to teach how to write; later, however, it was given over to a general study of the literary arts. Published by ShinchOsha. The editor was at first Kat6 Takeo; Sasaki Toshir6 and others helped him. It allowed a good deal of space to many young literary enthusiasts and cultivated their abilities. It also introduced the newer literary currents found in foreign countries and the works of leading foreign authors. In these ways it played an important part in cultivating a taste for literature among the younger readers. It was a sister magazine to Shinch5 (New currents), also published by Shinch6sha. 269. Buntai i 4* (Style) A monthly literary magazine published by Sutairusha. Begun in November, 1938. Edited by Miyoshi Tatsuji and filled with essays, poems, translations, and fiction. In July, 1933, a monthly magazine of identical name devoted to the printing of essays was published by Buntaisha, but it is not clear if there was any connection between the two magazines. After the war, four numbers of the second magazine were published irregularly in the period between December, 1947, and April, 1949, again by Buntaisha. The editor was Uno Fumio. The writers, disclaiming commercial profit and standing aloof from the trends of the time, tried to produce their finest work. The magazine was discontinued before many of their serial writings were completed. The final parts, therefore, were printed in other magazines. Among the most notable pieces of fiction are "Haitokusha (An immoral person)," by Kitahara Takeo, and "Waga mune no soko no koko ni wa (Here at the bottom of my heart)," by Takami Jun. The critical work included "Gohho no tegami (van Gogh's letters)," by Kobayashi Hideo. 270. Chisei,P 't (Intelligence) Begun in May, 1938; suspended during the latter part of World War II; reissued after the war. A monthly literary magazine published by Kawade Shob6. In the postwar period, it changed into a popular generalinterest magazine. Suspended when Kawade ShobO went bankrupt in March, 1957, but in August of the same year the former members of the Chisei staff obtained the copyright from Kawade Shobo and began to reissue this magazine. During the period of the war, critiques, round-table discussions, and articles on "the intellectuals during wartime" were frequently printed. Among the cretive works, which too often were of inferior literary quality, were the n6min bungaku & c, st, (farmers' literature) and tairiku bungaku L Pt J t (continental literature) of Iwakura Masaji and the proletarian writings of Satomura Kinz5 and

Page  63 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 63 Kubokawa (Sata) Ineko. Of greater interest are the works of It6 Sei including "Tokun6 Gor6 no seikatsu to iken (Tokun6 Goro's life and opinions)," August, 1940 - February, 1941, and his shorter stories, "Kuichigai (Cross-purpose)," November, 1939; "Esupuri desukarie (Esprit de l'escalier)," July, 1940; "Onsen ry6y6sho (A hot-springs sanatorium)," October, 1941; and "Hokkoku (The north country)," May, 1943. 271. Chishikijin ' /A, (The intellectuals) Begun in November, 1948, and discontinued in May, 1949, after 7 numbers had been issued. Published by Koyama Shoten. It desired "to cultivate good sense" in every field, in politics, economics, and science, as well as in literature. "A clear intelligence and expression" was its motto. The relationship between the intellectualist class and politics, also the resistance movement among the French intellectuals during World War II,were discussed in the columns "Bungei jihy6 4 e. f- (Comments on current literature)," by Nishimura Mitsuji, "Bunka jihy6o t iL 9, e (Comments on culture)," by Okazaki Saburo, and "Mushomei hy6ron -.. X - (Anonymous critiques)," also by Okazaki Sabur6. Important pieces of fiction include "Nogitsune (A wild fox)," by Tanaka Hidemitsu and "Choshun monogatari (A story of Choshun)," by Nagayo Yoshir6. Takamura K6tar6, Kaneko Mitsuharu, Kitagawa Fuyuhiko, Maruyama Kaoru, and Fukao Sumako wrote long poems for the successive issues. 272. Ch6ryfi ] -~ (Stream) Begun in January, 1946, and discontinued in December, 1949. The chief editor was Yoshida Shozo. Published first by Yoshida Shob6 and then by Ch6ryusha. It took for its object the uplifting of proletarian culture; it was written mainly for students and for intellectual laborers. Among the more notable works introduced in this magazine were "Kokud6 (The national road)," by Miyamoto Yuriko, "Zanzo (The remaining image)," by Noma Hiroshi, "Hanrangun (A rebel army)," by Kin Tatsuju, and "Hakone yosui (The Hakone irrigation ditch)," by Takakura Teru. Ara Masahito and Odagiri Hideo wrote criticism for this magazine. 273. Chuigai sh6gy6 shimpb 4 -71 r~? s iA- i (Chfgai commercial news) A daily newspaper often referred to as Chugai whose predecessor was the Chugai bukka shimp6 q 7[ t. *r 4 (Chugai prices news), a weekly economics review started in December, 1876. This was renamed Chugai sh6gy6 shimp6 in January, 1889, and became a newspaper specializing in finance and politics. In 1942, the Nihon sangy6 keizai e.,tt S -:~ (Japanese industrial economy) absorbed Chugai together with most of its staff. 274. Chuo k6ron 4 4 ', N (Central review) A multiple-interest magazine begun in January, 1899, when Hansei zasshi L % X At- (The magazine of self-examination), devoted to prohibition and the general advancement of Buddhistic virtue, was renamed. Suspended in July, 1944; and restarted in January, 1947. The present editor is Shimanaka H6ji. Published by the Chuo Koronsha. After the Russo-Japanese war, enriched itself with accounts of politics and economics; also introduced many important works of fiction and began to take the shape of a general-interest magazine. In the Taisho era, it became a stage for the democratic ideas stated by Yoshino Sakuzo and other writers. As a leading magazine of social criticism it received the support of the intellectuals. As the war clouds gathered, the military authorities, following their policy of regulating public opinion, suppressed this magazine, regarding it as a special stronghold of liberalism. But after World War II it was reestablished as a general magazine advocating democratic opinions. In the latter years of the Meiji era, under the editorship of Takida Choin, it made a special effort to introduce peices of fiction, and printed many works by the newer writers. After the period of naturalism in the first decade of the twentieth century, almost all of the major writers began to contribute to this magazine. Thus many of the elder leaders of modernday Japanese literature, like Masamune Hakucho, Nagai Kafu, and Tanizaki Jun'ichiro, have an intimate relationship with Chuo k6ron. 275. Chuo k6ron bungei tokushiu 4 /I ' ~ ff ~ (The special Chuo k6ron issues on the literary arts). Published from October, 1949, to October, 1953, inclusive, by the Chfi6 K6ronsha. 14 volumes in all. Quarterly. The editorship passed from Yamamoto Eikichi to Shinowara Toshiyuki, and then to Shimanaka Hoji. A rival of Bessatsu bungei shunju (Extra issues of Bungei shunjiu). Notable contributions include "Hisa to sono onna tomodachi (Hisa and her girl friends)," by Hirotsu Kazuo, in the October, 1949, issue; "Hiroba no kodoku (The loneliness of the public square)," by Hotta Yoshie, in the September, 1951, issue; and a symposium in which Ito Sei, Usui Yoshimi, Kawamori Yoshizo, and Nakamura Mitsuo participated, on Tanizaki Jun'ichir6, Nagai Kafu, and Shiga Naoya. 276. Engeki $* '|1 (Drama) Published by Hakusuisha. Started in June, 1951; suspended in February, 1952. Organ of the Kumo no Kai 't v) t (Cloud Society), which was a gathering of men devoted to the modernization of drama in Japan. The chief editor was Kishida Kunio; the principal staff members were his former colleagues on the journal Gekisaku ]t 4'f (Drama writing). Also joining the group were KatO Michio and Nakamura Shin'ichiro, who began their literary careers after World War II. Among the works which appeared in this magazine, "Ryu o nadeta otoko (The man who stroked a dragon)," by Fukuda Tsuneari, was applauded when produced. The magazine also devoted much space to the introduction of modern Enlgish and French plays. Suspended when the activity of the Kumo no Kai declined.

Page  64 64 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 277. Engeki shinch6 -. ij] f'; (New tides of drama) Started in January, 1924, by the Shinch6sha; first suspended in June, 1925. Fifteen writers, including Yamamoto Yiuzo, Kikuchi Kan, Kume Masao, and Osanai Kaoru, were members of the group forming the editorial staff. Engeki shinch6 was the first to reappear of the magazines of the drama suspended after the great earthquake of 1923. Introducing European plays of the period directly after World War I, it spurred activity in the theatrical world. Printed many new works written by the members of its own coterie and at the same time introduced new writers. Printed such notable works as "Furui gangu ~. At -V (The old toy)," by Kishida Kunio, March, 1924; "Chiroru no aki i t,v <) -k; (Autumn in the Tyrol)," also by Kishida Kunio, September, 1924; and "Ikite iru Koheiji -- z a,-T 2, (The surviving Koheiji)," by Suzuki Senzabur6, August, 1924. Revived by Bungei Shunjusha in April, 1926, with Miyake Shutar6 as editor. In its last months Engeki shincho tried again to give direction to the modern theater, but without much avail. Suspended in September, 1927. 278. Enju 4Z (The [Japanese] pagoda-tree) This journal was preceded by Jimmin bunko (People's library), which was first published in March, 1936. The leaders were Takeda Rintar6 and Takami Jun, who were editors of the magazine Nichireki (Solar calendar). Joining them were certain members of the Genjitsu t ~ (Reality) circle who had not been absorbed into the Nihon Romanha 0, $ -A -K (Japanese Romantic School). When the war between China and Japan began, the strictures of the military authorities became severer, and Jimmin bunko was obliged to discontinue in January, 1938. Thereupon, a group of its writers started Enju as a means of maintaining their literary ideals. Enju lasted for only a short time, and its activity was not notable, but it was the predecessor of Gendai bungaku j HE' r f (Modern literature), started in December, 1939, by 6i Hirosuke, Oguma Hideo and Sakaguchi Ango. "Ishikari-gawa (The Ishikari river)," by Honjo Rikuo, was published serially from September, 1938, to February, 1939. 279. Fudoch5 X1 ] A (Non-cooperation) A literary magazine lasting from July, 1925, to February, 1929, inclusive, published by a coterie headed by Nakamura Murao. Among the members were Okada Saburo, Ozaki Shiro, Kon Toko, and Sasaki Mosaku. At first the editorship was given to two members at a time, but it was later entrusted to Kamura Isota. Fudocho stood opposed to the two main literary currents then found on the Japanese scene, those of proletarian literature and neo-impressionistic literature. It tried to clarify "the true path of literature" and tried to found a Shin-jinsei-ha er k - W (. (New Life School), but in actuality it was a gathering of authors of naturalistic leaning and had nothing new to offer. Aside from Kamura's writing, it printed nothing that was in any way remarkable. Among Kamura's works published in Fudoch6 are "Goku (Retribution)," and "Gake no shita (Under a cliff)." After World War II, another magazine of the same name was published but without significance in literary history. 280. Fujin koron -t& /,, (4 (Women's review) Begun in January, 1916, under the influence of Seit6o f (Blue steps), which had been published with the intention of establishing a higher degree of individualism among the women of modern Japan. A monthly magazine, still continued. Both in format and content, similar to Chiu koron (Central review). Attempts to add to the enlightenment of intelligent and progressive women, and discusses the relationship of women to social problems. Notable writers include Yamakawa Kikue, Miyamoto Yuriko, Maruoka Hideko, and Ishigaki Ayako. Among the outstanding works published after the war are volume 3 of "Sasameyuki (The delicate snow)," by Tanizaki Jun'ichir6, from March through October, 1948; "Yuzuru (The crane in the evening)," by Kinoshita Junji, January, 1949; and "Josei ni kansuru junish6 (Twelve chapters on women)," by It6 Sei, from January through December, 1953. 281. Fujin kurabu -Kf i, K p - (Women's club) A monthly magazine begun in October, 1920, with the object of raising the cultural level of the women of Japan, guiding their lives, and promoting the happiness of their homes. Its pages are filled with lively accounts of social matters considered to be of consequence to women, educational pieces, and works of fiction. Seeking a high degree of concreteness in its teachings, it tries to be easily understood. It therefore makes an effort to "share" its editorship with its readers. It has printed the novels and short stories of Tsurumi Yusuke, Kawaguchi Matsutaro, Yoshiya Nobuko, Kume Masao, Mikami Otokichi, Kikuchi Kan, Ishikawa Tatsuzo, Ishizaka Yojiro, and Genji Keita. 282. Fujokai 4 -:,- (Women's world) A women's magazine begun in January, 1910. Intended both for amusement and education. Many of its articles give practical advice on household matters. At first it was modeled after Fujin sekai 1/ (Women's world), published by the Jitsugy6 no Nihonsha, but its own success was so striking that it induced the establishment of many rival magazines in the Taish6 era.

Page  65 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 65 283. Fukuoka nichinichi shimbun A W e fX M (The Fukuoka daily news) A daily newspaper which is also referred to as the Fukunichi. It originated from the Chikushi shimbun ~, e t (Chikushi news), started in March, 1877. This was renamed the Fukuoka nichinichi shimbun ~ &^1 e3 ~J 4- in April, 1880. In 1942, it was joined with the Kyushd nipp6 tfL i4 t -~f (Kyushu daily news) and renamed the Nishi Nihon shimbun tj 0 - e1 (The West Japan news). Now the most important newspaper in Kyushu. 284. Fusetsu C - (Wind and snow) A monthly literary magazine. Lasted from January, 1947, until August, 1950, inclusive. At first only graduates of Waseda University wrote for it, with Niwa Fumio standing as sponsor. But when the first publisher, Fusetsusha, was replaced by the Rokko Shuppansha, it began to publish the writings of many authors of medium standing not connected with Waseda. Among the more notable pieces of fiction published in Fiisetsu are "Kurutta kisetsu (The season gone wrong)," by Hirotsu Kazuo; "Monoui haru (A dreary spring)," by Ozaki Kazuo; and "Ukigumo (A drifting cloud)," by Hayashi Fumiko. The major critical works include "Shizenshugi seisuishi (The history of the rise and decline of naturalism)," by Masamune Hakucho; "Gendai bungakuron (Essay on modern literature)," by Aono Suekichi; and "Gendaijin no kenkyd (A study of present-day man)," by Kamei Katsuichiro. 285. Geijutsu i AF (Art) A general art magazine, begun in July, 1946, and discontinued in January, 1949. 12 numbers in all. First a quarterly and then a monthly. Published by Yakumo Shoten. The first chief editor was Shinj5 Yoshiaki, who was followed by Hagino Tei and Kameshima Sadao. The intention was to encourage inter-stimulation among literature, art, and music, and to promote a collective advancement of art. But when Yakumo Shoten undertook to publish its Nihon puroretaria bungaku hattatsushi shiry6o { ~ 7~ v - 'l T - r; ' L _t A- (Materials for the history of the progress of Japanese proletarian literature), articles coordinated with this work were published in Geijutsu. The fiction included "Tandoku ryokosha (A lone traveler)," by Shimao Toshio, and "Kurohata (A black flag)," by Takeda Taijun. In Bessatsu geijutsu 4'j +- ` $ (Special issues of Geijutsu), March, 1949, were included "Me (Eyes)," by Noma Hiroshi, and "Sammyaku (A mountain range)," by Kinoshita Junji. 286. Gekibungaku ~\ ~ J (Dramatic literature) A coterie magazine started in June, 1934. Not known when it was suspended. The founders included Nishizawa Yotar5 and Hasumi Taisaku. "Itachi (A weasel)," by Mafune Yutaka, appeared in the first issue. Produced at the S6sakuza ll AE- ff_, it gave Mafune his first fame. "Ky6to Sanj6-dori (Sanjo street in Kyoto)," by Taguchi Takeo, appeared in the January, 1935, issue. 287. Gekkan bunsh5o 6 'J > (Monthly writing) A literary magazine begun in March, 1935, and continued for several years. Monthly. Published by Koseikaku. Included studies in the older literary styles along with a considerable number of creative works. 288. Gendai T AK (The present age) A general magazine. Monthly. Begun in October, 1920, and continued till the latter part of World War II. Published by K6dansha. In addition to articles on political, economic, social, and cultural affairs it printed stories for general amusement. 289. Gendaijin _ 4- /,. (Modern people) A monthly literary magazine begun in January, 1948, and discontinued in May of the same year after five numbers had been issued. Published by Sumida Shob6. The editor was Karasawa Masao. It had some share of the atmosphere of the magazine Bummei ^ nfl (Civilization) in which Tamiya Torahiko had expended his efforts, and became a stage of activity for the "conscientious" writers of the prewar era. The studies by Ino Kenji of the writers of the Meiji era were a notable contribution to Gendaijin. Nitta Jun, Tateno Nobuyuki, Inoue Tomoichir6, Terazaki K6, and Niwa Fumio also wrote for this magazine. 290. Gunz5o 4 {. (Images in groups) Begun in October, 1946, and still continued. A monthly literary magazine published by Kodansha. The first editor was Takahashi Kiyoji, who was succeeded first by Ariki Tsutomu and then by Mori Kenji. Rejecting any single line of thought, it seeks out a variety of points of view. At the same time it devotes as many pages as possible to fiction. Cultivating a journalistic style calculated to win a large readership, it has come to assume a leading position as a vehicle of literature. It has published more than a hundred symposia in which critics and writers participate, and has become required reading for students of postwar literature. Interested in the relationship between literature and painting, it has inserted illustrations in color in each number. Among the more important pieces of fiction published in Gunzo are "Nikutai no mon (The gate of the flesh)," by Tamura Taijir6; "Kokuheki (A wailing wall)," by Niwa Fumio; "Nihon dasshutsu (Escape from Japan)," by Masamune Hakucho; "Namekuji yokocho (A bystreet of snails)," by Ozaki Kazuo; "Musashino fujin (The Musashino lady)," by Ooka Sh5hei; "Kinjiki (Abstinence from sex)," by Mishima Yukio; and "Fubaika (Fubaika [ an anemophilous flower])," by Takeda Taijun. A dispute over Camus' L'Etranger between Hirotsu Kazuo and Nakamura Mitsuo and the serial "Nihon bundanshi (History of Japanese literary circles)," by Ito Sei, should also be included among the more notable contributions.

Page  66 66 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 291. Hikari -t (" Clairte") A general magazine. Lasted from January, 1947, till November, 1948. A monthly. It tried to throw "the light of rebirth and independence upon Japanese society and the Japanese people. " Among the pieces of fiction printed in it are "Yasei no yuwaku (The allurements of the wild)," by Nagayo Yoshiro; "Asayake (The morning glow)," by Toyoshima Yoshio, and "H6matsu no kiroku (Record of a bubble)," by Sata Ineko. Among the critical essays was "Ningen shikkaku-ron (An essay on man disqualified)," by Usui Yoshimi. 292. Hochi shimbun - A r f j1 (Information news) Began on June 10, 1872,. under the name Yubin h6chi shimbun? 4t { A r X 1 (The postal information news). At the beginning, it marched side by side with the other big newspapers of the day, Nichinichi shimbun g & Xr- Rl1 (The daily news) and Nisshin shinjitsushi a -T ~ V r. (The news of everyday truth), and propagated the most radical opinions, so that it frequently suffered suppression at the hands of the authorities. Fukuchi Ochi, Narishima Rydritsu, Otsuki Jorai, and others contributed to it. In 1894, the Hochi became a more orthodox, non-political newspaper. Its publication in 1890 of the elegant "Fujo monogatari 4% i ~ A (A story of the floating castle)," by Yano Ryukei, is said to have destroyed the stiffness of the big newspapers. "Fuj6 monogatari" is usually considered to be the first serial novel published by a Japanese newspaper. In the Sh6wa era, the Hochi sponsored an oratorical meeting to attack England and America, a fencing tournament to commemorate the war in Asia, and a collection of songs to honor the souls of the war dead. Thus it rode the tide of militarism. On August 5, 1942, it merged with the Yomiuri shimbun 4 i X q (The newsman's news). The resulting publication was named Yomiuri-h6chi T [ p h (Newsman's information). On July 1, 1946, as a paper subsidiary to Yomiuri shimbun, the H6chi once more began a separate existence. Now devoted to the amusement of its readers, it confines itself to reporting on sports and other forms of public entertainment. 293. Hokkai taimusu A, 4 \ LA, (North sea times) A daily created by the amalgamation of the Hokkaid6 mainichi i } L -do- E (Hokkaido daily), Hokumon shimpo db? - ~. (North gate news), and Hokkai jiji wt -: 4 ~ (North sea times) in September, 1901. It became the most important daily newspaper in Hokkaido. In 1942, it was combined with the Otaru shimbun u],t, - f] (Otaru news) and the Shin-Hakodate t A rg (New Hakodate) and now exists as the Hokkaid6 shimbun. 294. Hototogisu, ' V rA (Cuckoo) Widely followed magazine of the haiku, named after Masaoka Shiki, Hototogisu being a second pronunciation of the characters } {L. Begun in 1897 at Matsuyama city on the island of Shikoku under the editorship of Yanaibara Kyokud6. Transferred to T6ky6 in 1898, with the editorship passing to Takahama Kyoshi. In and around 1902 Hototogisu began to lose favor as the imagism advocated by Shiki was gradually supplanted by the "perceptive imagism" enjoined by Kawahigashi Hekigoto in the magazine Nihon 0 * (Japan). Kyoshi, inspired by Natsume Soseki, concentrated his interest in fiction, so that Hototogisu changed its nature from a magazine of haiku to one of general literature, and became a vehicle for Natsume's Yoyfha f _- fk or School of Leisure. In 1913 Takahama returned to the haiku. Opposing Hekigoto's shinkeiko or "new-style" haiku, he tried to promote the composition of haiku that would observe the traditional restriction to seventeen syllables and reference to one of the seasons. In the early years of the Showa era, the Hototogisu school reached the summit of its prosperity. Takahama, backed by his powerful school, asserted that the haiku was "the verse-form to sing of the flowers and birds." This assertion was much criticized. But Hototogisu enjoyed the so-called 4-S period when the following poets, all with their poetic names beginning with S, contributed to its pages: Yamaguchi Seishi, Mizuhara Sho6shi, Hino Sojo, and Awano Seiho. With the exception of Seiho, these poets, along with Nakamura Kusatao, presently seceded from the Hototogisu school. Since 1951, Takahama Toshio has been the chief editor. 295. Jiji shimp5o q- # * X (News of current topics) Started in March, 1882, by the leading spirit of the Meiji era, Fukuzawa Yukichi, with the intention of inspiring the Japanese with the newer ideas then being imported from the West. Dissolved on December 25, 1936, during the period of Showa nationalism. All of the business affairs were taken over by the Toky6 Nichinichi Shimbunsha ~ H 0 - * f]: t (Toky6 Daily News Company). After the war, on November 1, 1955, Jiji shimp6 was merged with the Sangyo keizai shimbun j~. v - ~ ~] (Industrial and economic news), and the new publication was named Sangy6 jiji ~ ~ ~ ' (Current topics in industry). Ever since its beginning, Jiji shimp6 has actively discussed political and economic problems. Its cartoons by Kitazawa Rakuten have gained nation-wide popularity. At one time Jiji shimp6 sponsored the musical concours now given under the auspices of the Mainichi shimbun a g (Daily news). 296. Jikyoku zasshi j g - X (The magazine of current affairs) Published by Kaizosha. Started in January, 1942, just after the Pacific War had broken out. Printed commentaries on current affairs, reports on the war, and essays in support of national policy. SaitO Tadashi took charge of the military critiques, and Hino Ashihei contributed his reports of the fighting at Bataan to this magazine.

Page  67 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 67 297. Jimmin bunko /A lx t (People's library) A coterie magazine, begun in March, 1936, and discontinued in January, 1938. Published by Jimminsha. Edited by Takeda Rintaro. The member writers included Takami Jun, Tamura Taijir6, Inoue Tomoichir6, Nitta Jun, Tamiya Torahiko, Tateno Nobuyuki, Minamikawa Jun, and Enji Fumiko, most of whom had been members of the circles publishing the magazines Nichireki (Solar calendar) and Genjitsu AL (Reality). Also, Aono Suekichi, Eguchi Kan, and Akita Ujaku, the elders among the socialistic writers, contributed to this magazine, which advocated a revival of learning and humanism and tried to stem the rising tide of Japanese fascism. Accordingly, Jimmin bunko opposed Nihon Romanha * -i at -7;[. (The Japanese Romantic School), which had begun publication a little earlier. At the beginning, much emphasis was given to a socio-realistic literature. But the tense political situation brought about an increase in genre fiction depicting uncritically the manners and customs of the day. Among the more remarkable works published in Jimmin bunko are the final parts of "Kokyu wasureubeki (How can we forget our old friends?)," by Takami Jun, "Aragane (Unwrought metal)," by Mamiya Mosuke, and a portion of "Nagare (A stream)," by Tateno Nobuyuki. 298. Jokyoku 1 ~4 (Prelude) A literary magazine projected as a quarterly; however, only the first number of December, 1948, was published. The so-called postwar writers regarded this magazine as a workshop where they might introduce their writings without any restriction whatsoever and so try to raise the quality of fiction. The writers included Haniya Yutaka, Noma Hiroshi, Takeda Taijun, Nakamura Shin'ichiro, Umezaki Haruo, Shiina Rinzo, and Mishima Yukio. Unfortunately, the magazine was discontinued before anything remarkable was published. 299. Josei-t[ (Women) A women's magazine begun in April, 1936, and lasting till about 1940. A monthly. Published by the Ch6sen Nipposha. Printed articles in the fields of education, entertainment, the domestic arts, and hobbies as well as literature. A second magazine of identical name was published after World War II by Shinseisha. It was a monthly magazine that seems to have lasted two or three years, but the details are unknown. 300. Kaih6o J Q (Emancipation) The first run of this magazine lasted from May, 1919, through September, 1923. Supported by the floodtide of democracy that came after the first World War, Kaiho was a general magazine of socialistic tendency. The publisher was Dait6kaku. Among the chief contributors were As6 Hisashi, Akamatsu Katsumaro, Sano Manabu, and Hirabayashi Hatsunosuke. Hirabayashi was the author of "Daishi kaikyi no bungaku ~ V X A_ q jt ~ (Literature of the fourth class)," published in the January, 1922, issue. The fiction included "Ku no sekai - a t - (The world of pain)," by Uno K6ji, published in the June, 1920, issue, and various works by Hirotsu Kazuo, Kaneko Y6bun, Maedagawa K6ichir6, Nakanishi Inosuke, Fujii Masumi, and other writers, old and new, belonging to various schools. The second run had its beginning in October, 1924. The editor was Yamanouchi Fusakichi. The socialistic tendency was even more strongly emphasized. The early works of Yamada Seizaburo, Murayama Tomoyoshi, Hayama Yoshiki, and Kuroshima Denji, who all played important roles in the development of proletarian literature, can be found in this revival of KaihO. After the second series was suspended, the third run was issued in 1927 as an organ of the anarchist Nihon Musanha Remmei e j...,(k % - (Japanese Proletarian Federation), but it was soon discontinued (in September, 1929) as this federation was itself short-lived. 301. Kaiz6o eL '. (Reconstruction) Begun in April, 1919; suspended in July, 1944; restarted in January, 1946; and suspended again in the spring of 1955 because of internal conflicts. Published by Kaizosha. Founded by Yamamoto Sanehiko who made the saying "social reconstruction after the destruction" a catchword of the time. After a while it became a spearhead of socialistic ideology, and took for its aims the reformation of the capitalistic economy, the promotion of the labor movement, and the strengthening of the proletarian political parties. Soon it had gained for itself a reputation parallel to that of Chuo k6ron (Central review). However, because of its radical social criticism, the authorities began to censor it severely. It was nevertheless a vehicle for the propagation of Marxist ideas and even during World War II defended the ideal of constitutional democracy despite the surveillance of the authorities. Kaizo, however, was at last suppressed along with Chuo k6ron, and was not revived till after the war. It has succeeded too in reflecting the main trends of the literary world and has printed many works of distinction, such as "An'ya k6ro (Road through the dark night)," by Shiga Naoya; "Nobuko (Nobuko[name of a girl])," by Chujo (Miyamoto) Yuriko; "Kappa (Kappa [a river imp]),' by Akutagawa Ryfnosuke; "Nani ga kanojo o s6 saseta ka (What made her do it?)," by Fujimori Seikichi; "Monsh6 (The family crest)," by Yokomitsu Riichi; and "Kaze tachinu (The wind began to blow)," by Hori Tatsuo. By awarding prizes to Miyamoto Kenji and Kobayashi Hideo for their literary criticism and to Ryutanji Yii, Serizawa Kijiro, and Yasutaka Tokuzo, it introduced these writers to the literary world. 302. Kaiz6 bungei K _L (Reconstruction's literary art) A literary magazine which lasted from March, 1948, through June, 1950. At first a quarterly, it later became a monthly. When it was a quarterly, it was published as a supplement to Kaiz6 (Reconstruction). After it became a monthly, it was directed not only to its readers interested specifically in literature but to the general public. The first issue was a special number on Yokomitsu Riichi. Among the works printed in Kaiz6 bungei are "Kakesu, natsu to fuyu (The Japanese jay, summer and winter)," by Kawabata Yasunari,and "Akikaze (Autumn wind)," by Shiga Naoya.

Page  68 68 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 303. Kakushin * f- (Reform) A general magazine begun in October, 1938, and continued for several years. Monthly. Published by the Kakushinsha. It claimed that its reformist policies would be established only on the basis of strict, scientific studies into politics, economics, thought, culture, and every other pertinent field. However, it is remembered chiefly for the fact that it printed Nakano Shigeharu's "Uta no wakare (Departure with a song)." 304. Keizai orai - i A - (Events in economics) An economics magazine. Monthly. Begun in May, 1926. In October, 1935, it was reissued under the new title Nihon hy6ron (Japan review) and became one of the four great general magazines along with Kaizo (Reconstruction), Chiu koron (Central review), and Bungei shunju (Literary annals). Published in Keizai orai was "Shish6setsu-ron (On private fiction)," by Kobayashi Hideo. 305. Kibachi I. t (The wasps) Published by D6bunsha. Begun in April, 1946; suspended in February, 1949, after the fifth number had been issued. The name Kibachi was taken from the work of Aristophanes to symbolize the existence in Japan of a true democracy. Emphasizing art and science, Kibachi tried to attract a readership consisting of women and youth as well as of the older male intelligentsia. "Kurai e (A dark picture)," by Noma Hiroshi, was perhaps its most important offering in fiction. 306. Kindai bungaku Jr ' (Moder literature) A literary magazine begun in January, 1946. At first published by the founders' group consisting of seven writers, Honda Shugo, Yamamuro Shizuka, Hirano Ken, Haniya Yutaka, Ara Masahito, Odagiri Hideo, and Sasaki Kiichi, later by Yakumo Shoten, and at last by Kawade Shobo. In suspension now. In the pre-war era, the founders had all been attracted to Marxism in varying degrees. Now their common aim was to revise the literature of the older Marxist school and correct the naivete' of literary realism in Japan. Having survived the period prior to and during World War II when most progressive and radical writers had become more traditionalist in their thinking, they now tried to ascertain the exact nature of the modern (and postwar) age each for himself. They therefore discussed such topics as the relationship between politics and literature, the question of the special characteristics of the several generations of writers working at the same time, the nature of the subjective consciousness, the degree of war guilt which literary men should feel, the problem of reconversion to orthodox thinking, and the pre-modernism discernible in postwar Japanese literature. At the end of 1946, Odagiri seceded, and Kat6 Shuichi, Kubota Masabumi, Nakamura Shin' ichir, Noma Hiroshi, Hanada Kiyoteru, and others newly joined the group. Approximately 30 additional members were added in 1948. Most recently the members have not written quite so much as before for Kindai bungaku, and the magazine has had to suspend publication. Among the works printed in the earlier years of Kindai bungaku are "Shiry6 (A dead man's spirit)," by Haniya, "Seinen no wa (The circle of youths)," by Noma; "Kabe (The wall)," by Abe K6b6; and "Norisoda sodoki (Report of the disturbance at Norisoda)," by Sugiura Mimpei. 307. Kindai seikatsu i r'- '\ -I (Modern living) Ran from April, 1929, to August, 1932, inclusive. Followed Fud6ch6. Edited by Kamura Isota, who re, ceived the assistance of Nakamura Murao. It became the medium in which the younger writers of the Newly Rising Aesthetic School placed their contributions. These writers included Funabashi Seiichi, Sasaki Toshiro, Serizawa K6jir6, Kitamura Komatsu, and Kitamura Hisao. 308. Kingu k > 7" (King) Published by K6dansha. Begun in January, 1925, with the object of becoming a magazine for the entire nation, offering culture, amusement, enjoyment, and ready information for all the people irrespective of age, sex, and class. Frankly bent on becoming popular, it hoped to reach every family in the whole country. Also introduced many fresh and vivid accounts of the social and political scene in addition to exciting pieces of fiction, and actually attained a readership of a million and several hundred thousands. It still remains a popular general magazine. Among the authors represented in Kingu are Yoshikawa Eiji, Kikuchi Kan, Maki Itsuma, Funabashi Seiichi, Tateno Nobuyuki, Tsunoda Kikuo, and Suwa Sabur6. A long succession of editors has worked to maintain Kingu's opularity. 309. Kinr6sha bungaku 1f L ~ St (Worker's literature) Begun in March, 1948, by the Shin-Nihon Bungakkai e 9 f - I / (New Japanese Literary Association) with the intention of training writers who belong to the proletariat. The editors were Tokunaga Sunao and Tsuboi Shigeji. Introduced the fiction, poems, and reportorial work of the writers it trained, and at the same time gave instruction on how to write fiction. Among the workers who started writing in this magazine are Hamada Ky6tar6 and Atsuta Gor6. Suspended in August, 1949, just after the publication of the 9th number.

Page  69 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 69 310. K6odo Jft (Action) A literary magazine. Lasted from October, 1933, to September, 1935, inclusive. A monthly. Issued at a time when Marxist literature began its decline, and fiction depicting the writers' own lives (private, "first-person" fiction) and manners of the day (genre fiction) became more and more popular. This magazine was thus started "to bring order to a confused literary situation and to inspire a lively humanism." It took its cue from the activist literature of Malraux. The leaders were Funabashi Seiichi and Abe Tomoji. Funabashi's "Daivingu (Diving)" was a small masterpiece, and critical essays were contributed by Funabashi and Komatsu Kiyoshi. Also, the activists received the support of the left-of-center critics Aono Suekichi, Kubokawa Tsurujir6, and Moriyama Kei, but their writing was not very fruitful. 311. K6gen A f, (Plateau) A quarterly literary magazine begun in August, 1946, and discontinued in October, 1948. Eight numbers in all. The editorship, first held by Kakegawa Chonen (Nagatoshi), later went to Yamamuro Shizuka. Published by Hobun Shorin. Its object was "to send clear air into the cities covered by the dust of war." Conceived by a group of writers including Hori Tatsuo who had evacuated from Tokyo and lived in or near Karuizawa, these authors issued this magazine after the war as a rallying point for their literary activity. Many of them were well grounded in foreign literature and belonged to the group known for their "artistic resistance" to authoritarianism before and during the war. The first number was a luxurious volume of 288 pages. Among the writers of fiction are Nakamura Shin'ichirO, Fukunaga Takehiko, and Hara Tamiki. Among the writers of criticism are Katayama Toshihiko, Endo Shusaku, Naka Kansuke, and Tanabe Jaji. 312. Kogito a F (Cogito) A coterie magazine started in March, 1932, by Yasuda Yojiur, It6 Shizuo, and others. Derived its name from Descartes' "Cogito ergo sum." Issued 141 numbers before its suspension in April, 1944. After the Marxist literary school had dissolved, the Kogito circle advocated romanticism, especially of the German variety, and emphatically recommended the study of the literary classics and plastic arts of older Japan. In its concern with the classics it remained aloof from current literary trends. Afterwards some of its members, combining with Kamei Katsuichir6, Honj6 Rikuo, and others, formed the Nihon Rlmanha (Japanese Romantic School), and brought about a sudden upsurge in nationalistic literature. 313. Kokoro,c' (The mind) Ran from July, 1948, through May, 1951. Restarted in October, 1951. A monthly magazine. The editorship passed from Suzuki Miekichi to Tatsuno Yutaka. The publisher also changed from K6jitsu Shoin to Nihon Hy6ronsha, Kant6sha, and Heibonsha in turn. Such present elder leaders of Japanese literature as Mushakoji Saneatsu, Komiya Toyotaka, and Nagayo Yoshiro were included among the principal members of the coterie publishing this magazine. Not concerned with current movements in world literature or with journalistic matters, the group also includes the artist Umehara Ryuzabur6. "Shinri sensei (Professor Truth)," by Mushak6ji, was published in Kokoro and achieved a high reputation. 314. Kokubungaku kaishaku to kansh6 (I _ ~ ~ ~ t - T (Japanese literature: interpretation and appreciation) Published by Shibund6. Begun in June, 1936, and still continued. The chief editor at first was Fujimura Tsukuru, professor of Japanese literature at Toky6 University. The assertion in the first edition that "in addition to the pursuit of scholarly studies, our efforts should be devoted to the simplification and popularization of the national literature" has long been followed. Almost every number has been a special issue devoted to a particular subject, and the magazine has clarified various problems relating to Japanese language and literature and to national language education. Its commentaries on various literary works have proved very useful to several generations of students. 315. Kokugo to kokubungaku I0 At ~ If ~ o (Japanese language and literature) A scholarly magazine edited by the seminars in Japanese language and literature at Toky6 University. Begun by Fujimura Tsukuru in May, 1924, and still continued. A pioneer among the magazines devoted to the study of Japanese language and literature. Along with Kokugo kokubun v l< A ~ (Japanese language and writing), published at Kyoto University, the most important of the magazines in these areas. Opening its pages to scholars irrespective of school and methodology, Kokugo to kokubungaku makes every effort to introduce the best results of research. At the same time it presents book reviews, indices, and essays bearing on education in the field of Japanese language and literature. 316. Kosei ~4 }_T (Individuality) A monthly literary magazine begun in January, 1948, and discontinued in November, 1949. 22 numbers in all. Published by Shisakusha. Differing from most coterie magazines, it is published by selected groups of "fellow" thinkers, and has played an important part as a meeting-place for the intellectual class. Among the pieces of fiction are "Fukao Masaji no shuki (Fukao Masaji's notes)," by Shiina Rinz6; "Owarishi michi no shirube ni (As the guide to a road already taken)," by Abe Kobo; "Kiken na busshiisu (A dangerous substance)," by Takeda Taijun; "Watakushi no S6niya (My Sonya)," by Yagi Yoshinori; "Nami no shita (Under the waves)," by Hotta Yoshie; and "Sayonara (Goodbye)," by Tanaka Hidemitsu.

Page  70 70 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 317. Kuraku - f (Pleasure and pain) A popular magazine for amusement. Monthly. It was begun by the Puratonsha in January, 1924, and continued till the early years of the Showa era. After World War II it was reissued, but disappeared soon thereafter. It published many illustrations and a large number of picture stories as a means of endearing itself to its readers. "Niji (A rainbow)," by Takahama Kyoshi, was published in the postwar era. 318. Kyushii bungaku # i. gj tj (Kyushii literature) A literary magazine. Monthly. Started in September, 1938, and still continued. The members of the circle publishing this magazine include Hino Ashihei, Harada Taneo, Hayashi Itsuma, and Ryfl Kankichi. These writers live (or lived) in Kyishii. Although it was a local magazine Kyfshi bungaku influenced one corner of the literary world. 319. Mainichi shimbun -q- Q J (Daily news) A daily newspaper formed when the Tokyo nichinichi shimbun (The T6ky6 daily news), which was started in 1872, and the Osaka mainichi shimbun (Osaka daily news), which was started in 1888, were united in 1943. It is one of the three most important newspapers in Japan, the others being the Asahi shimbun (The Asahi news) and the Yomiuri shimbun (The newsman's news). 320. Marukusu-Renin-shugi geijutsugaku kenkyiu a, 7 7. t - A-; (Studies in the Marxist-Leninist science of art) Begun in June, 1931. Edited by the Puroretaria Kagaku Kenkyujo 70a c '1f 77 i~ ~ ~t L t (The Proletarian Scientific Institute; abridged name, Puroka). A quarterly. Strove to introduce methods of writing which were in agreement with materialistic dialectic. Among the more notable articles are "Soveto bungaku riron oyobi bungaku hihyo no genj6 (The present situation in Soviet literary theory and literary criticism)," by Ueda Susumu, July, 1932; "Makishimu G6riki no ky6kun (The teachings of Maxim Gorki)," by Kamei Katsuichiro, November, 1932; and "Bungaku sakuhin no kachi ni kansuru ichiren no shomondai oboegaki (Memoranda on various problems concerning the value of literary works)," by Honda Shugo, July, 1933. 321. Marukusu-shugi -z '" 7 X } S (Marxism) Begun in March, 1924, under the legal responsibility of the Nihon Kyosant5o 6. ' or Japanese Communist Party. It was succeeded by Musansha shimbun -.t ~ ifl] (Proletarian news) in September, 1926. Marukusu-shugi was mainly given over to the theoretical disputes between Fukumoto Kazuo (Fukumoto-ism, the theory under which the Japanese Communist party was directed) and Yamakawa Hitoshi's theory (the theory calling for dissolution of the Communist party). 322. Marumera { 4 y) 7 (Marumera [a quince]) A magazine for the tanka begun in January, 1937, at Yonezawa city in Yamagata prefecture. The chief editor was Okuma Nobuyuki. In the fifth number Otsuka Kinnosuke wrote an article entitled "Musansha tanka (The tanka of the proletariat)" and emphasized the importance of exalting the consciousness of the working class. After the appearance of Otsuka's article, Marumera stood at the forefront of a new movement in the tanka, presenting colloquial verses which disregarded the traditional thirty-one syllable tanka form. Marumera played an important role in the founding of the Shink6 Kajin Remmei t -. 4f-/tLS_ (Newly Rising Tanka Poets Federation) in September, 1928, but as the proletarian tanka movement gained vigor, its attitude became ambiguous as far as poems in the new style were concerned. In 1932, it advocated the use of the older Japanese language, thus abandoning its former position. Suspended in February, 1942. 323. Minshu Chosen 6 ~ {B, (Democratic Korea) A general magazine. Begun in April, 1946, and suspended in September, 1949. Issued again in April, 1955. Published by Minshu Chosensha (at one time Chosen Bunkasha). The editorship passed from Kin Genki to Kin Tatsuju and then to In Heigyoku. Published by a group of progressive Koreans living in Japan who wished to correct what they considered to be the wrong impressions which the Japanese have had of Korean history, culture, and tradition, and to develop cultural interchange between the peoples of Japan and Korea. In the second number, when the editorship fell to Kin Tatsuju, the magazine began to emphasize cultural and literary themes. At one time the magazine was called Bunka Ch6sen z AV d jt (Cultural Korea). Among the works published in this journal are "Koei no machi (A street of descendants)," and "Zokufu (Racial genealogy)," by Kin Tatsuju, and "Chosen fubutsushi (Long poems of the Korean countryside)," by Kyo Nanki. Other Korean writers contributing fiction to this magazine include Kin Shiryo, Ri Taishun, Ch6 Toshoku, Kin Nanten, Raku Hinki, Boku Tenshun, and Ri Inchoku. Among the Japanese writers who have contributed pieces of literary criticism are Iwakami Jun'ichi, Odagiri Hideo, Aono Suekichi, Eguchi Kan, and Mizuno Akiyoshi. Minshu Chosen has worked closely with the Shin-Nihon Bungakkai Ae c, Lr t (New Japanese Literature Society).

Page  71 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 71 324. Mita bungaku _ W t t (Mita literature) The literary magazine associated with KeiO Gijuku University, named from the fact that the main Kei6 campus is located in the Mita district in Toky5. First published in May, 1910, shortly after Nagai Kaffi became professor of literature at Kei6. Recommending Nagai to this post were Mori Ogai and Ueda Bin, who were greatly concerned because Kei6 did not have a literary department to equal Waseda's. Mori and Ueda also projected Mita bungaku as a magazine to rival Waseda bungaku, the journal devoted to naturalistic writing published at Waseda University. Mita bungaku ran till March, 1925, when publication was suspended. Restarted in April, 1926, it was suspended once more during World War II. Still another start was made in 1946. Opposing Waseda bungaku, Mita bungaku became a stronghold of romantic literature. This was to be expected in view of its sponsorship, Mori and Ueda being idealists who were vigorously opposed to naturalism. Mita bungaku quickly attracted contributions from Kinoshita Mokutar6, Yoshii Isamu, Kitahara Hakushi, Nagata Hideo, Nagata Mikihiko, Osanai Kaoru, Tanizaki Jun'ichir6, and Izumi Ky6ka. Soon it was receiving manuscripts from Kei6's own graduates. Included were Kubota Mantar6, Sat6 Haruo, Minakami Takitar6, Nambu Shutar6, Kojima Masajir6, Mizuki Ky6ta, Miyake Shuitaro, Nishiwaki Junzabur6, Kitamura Komatsu, and Katsumoto Seiichir6. Later came Sugiyama Heisuke and Yazaki Dan. With the passing of the years Mita bungaku has shed its partisanship for Keio authors and has become more and more a magazine of general literary interest. Most recently it has printed the works of Imai Tatsuo, Minamikawa Jun, Maruoka Akira, Kuwabara Takeo, and Hara Tamiki. In Showa times, it has published the following pieces of fiction: "Wakai hito (Young people)," by Ishizaka Y6jir6; "Natsu no hana (The flowers of summer)," by Hara Tamiki; and "Enrai no kyakutachi (Visitors from afar)," by Sono Ayako. An important contribution in criticism has been "Kindai Nihon bungaku no temb6 (A view of modern Japanese literature)," by Sato Haruo. 325. Miyako shimbun It I ] (News of the capital) The forerunner of Miyako shimbun was Konnichi shimbun Pi t 1 (Today's news), an evening paper first published on September 25, 1884, under the chief editorship of the famous Kanagaki Robun. On November 16, 1888, Konnichi shimbun was renamed Miyako shimbun { y IO, and became a morning paper. Boasting an intimate relationship with the kabuki, it was backed by Onoe Kikugor6 and by other actors, and published many accounts of the artistic world. Coming into the Taish6 era, it increased its coverage of politics and economics and became a general-interest newspaper. On October, 1942, it was merged with the Kokumin shimbun j X d l (National news) of Tokutomi Soho 6 t ~.z - and the combination eventually evolved into the Tokyo shimbun ~, ] (T6ky6 news). 326. Musansha shimbun.. - - N (The proletarian's news) Begun in September, 1925, in support of the Japanese Communist Party. Its professed aims were as follows: to serve as a political paper for the whole of the Japanese proletariat, to work for the unity of the proletariat, and to become a weapon of the people in their daily struggles. In October, 1926, on the occasion of its first anniversary, it held a propaganda week. Cooperating with the Nihon Puroretaria Bungei Remmei 0 X t v- 7! XI f _ t A. (Japanese Proletarian Literary Art Federation), it organized a "Musansha no yfbe.. -A c) { (An evening for the proletariat)," consisting of plays and musical offerings, and thus attempted to solidify the unity of the laborers. On February 5, 1927, it printed Kaji Wataru's article, "Iwayuru shakaishugi bungei o kokufuku-seyo (Vanquish the so-called socialistic literary art)," which held that art should be used to rally the people toward political and economic ends, and thus sowed the seeds of a split within the Puroretaria Bungei Remmei. Musansha shimbun's work was finally absorbed by the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei t a; (All-Japan Proletarian Art Federation) in 1928. " 327. Nappu T y 7~ (Nappu) The Nihon Puroretaria Geijitsu Remmei 0; 7~ t ' 'I it - LV (Japan Proletarian Art Federation) and Zen'ei Geijitsuka D6mei J l. ff ($ \] j t (Advance Guard Artists' Union) were suddenly united under the shock of the so-called "three-fifteen" or March 15 suppression in 1928, and formed the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei /j e -.k j~ - i _ (All-Japan Proletarian Artists' Federation), which was also called Nappu from the initials of its Esperanto name, Nippona Proleta Artista Federatio. The journal Senki (Battle flag) was issued as the organ of the new federation in May, 1928. But when Senki tried to become "a regularly issued journal widely read by laborers and farmers," and assumed the mission of "agitating the people and educating them into class consciousness," it ceased to be the organ of the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei, and this organization started a new magazine, Nappu, in September, 1930. This latter journal continued publication through its sixteenth number, which was published in November, 1931. Senki and Nappu were published side by side until NAPF was dissolved into the Nihon Puroretaria Bunka Remmei E 7-~ t v 9, - ~l l At t - or Japan Proletarian Art Federation, also known as Federatio de Proletaj Kultur-organizoy Japanij (KOPF) 328. Nichireki 9 (Solar calendar) A coterie magazine begun in September, 1933, and discontinued in October, 1941. The group writing for this magazine included Takami Jun, Nitta Jun, Shibukawa Gy6, and Araki Takashi, who had all been associated in the magazine Bungei kosaku ) $ ALm (Literary complication), and Otani Fujiko, Shirakawa Atsushi, Tamiya Torahiko, Yada Tsuseko, and Enji Fumiko. The earlier portion of Takami Jun's "Kokyu wasureubeki (How can we forget our old friends?)," published in the February - July, 1935, issues,was a major contribution. Resumed in September, 1951, this magazine is still continued by its former member-writers.

Page  72 72 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 329. Nihon hy6ron 0 * f h (Japan review) A general magazine. Monthly. Begun in May, 1926. The first name given to this journal was Keizai 6rai (Events in economics). The name was changed to Nihon hyoron in October, 1935. Continued till the last stages of World War II. After the war it was reissued in April, 1946, and discontinued in June, 1951. Before the war, it was one of the four major general-interest magazines, and took considerable interest in literature. Its fiction included "Hachinensei (The eight-year system)," by Tokunaga Sunao; "Gendan (Dream talk),"and "Renkanki (An account of links)," by K6da Rohan; and "Nenashigusa (Rootless grass)," by Masamune Hakuch6. Among the works of the postwar era are "Hosokawa Garashiya fujin (Madame Galatia Hosokawa)," by Morita S6hei, and "Kaze to hono (Wind and flame)," by Noma Hiroshi. 330. Nihon romanha 0 A {-;{ (K-. (The Japanese Romantic School) A coterie magazine begun in March, 1935, and discontinued in March, 1938. Published at first by Musashino Shoin, and then by Seit6 Shob6. The first members of the Nihon R6manha circle included Ogata Takashi, Nakatani Takao, Jimbo K6tar6, Haga Mayumi, and Yodono Ryduz; Nakajima Eijir6, Ito Sakio, and Yasuda Yojuro from the circle publishing Kogito; and Kamei Katsuichir6 and Honjo Rikuo from the group gathered in Genjitsu t W (Reality). Later, Dazai Osamu, Yamagishi Gaishi, Dan Kazuo, Koyama Ydshi, and others of the circle publishing Aoi hana O. S (Blue flowers) joined the group. Each of these authors had his own opinions and literary style; it was left to Yasuda and Kamei to urge the re-examination and revival of the Japanese spirit. The nationalistic leaning thus manifest took a fascistic coloring in Nakagawa Yoichi's "Minzoku bunka shugi (The principle of a people's culture)." The magazine revived Japanese classical literature and played an important part in support of Japanese militarism. Among the members, Yodono, Dazai, Dan, Koyama, and others left the group and followed their independent paths. In the field of fiction, "D6ke no hana (The flower of buffoonery)," by Dazai, was a major contribution to Nihon romanha. Nakamura Jihei and Ito Sakio also wrote stories, and Kamei contributed a column entitled "Ningen ky6iku A / f] _ (The education of man). Nihon romanha continued publication for three years before its suspension on account of financial difficulties. Yasuda and others joined Hayashi Fusao in the Shin-Nihon Bunka no Kai k 0 * - A ~ - (Association for a New Japanese Culture). Still others were attracted to rightist groups like the Dait6juku K. t t (The Great Eastern School). Kamei took refuge in Buddhism and Yamagishi in Christianity as Japan approached World War II. 331. Nihon shidan 0 fil 4L A (Japanese circles of the long poem) A monthly journal begun in March, 1935, in an attempt to provide a national magazine devoted to the long poem. Combined Shisho -f - (Poetic chapters), edited by Yoshikawa Norihiko, and Kansai shidan 1. l AS: (Kansai circles of the long poem), edited by Yoshizawa Dokuyo. Discontinued in 1944, just after its 124th number, but in March, 1949, it resumed publication. Discontinued again in December, 1950, it was revived in January, 1956, and has continued publication till the present day. A supplementary publication is entitled Nihon min'yo y 0 6 (Japanese folk songs). After Yoshikawa's death in 1949 the editorship and management passed to Yoshizawa. Directed toward students, teachers, and office workers; also tries to appeal to the rural population. Numbered among its contributors are found such important authors of the long poem as Shimazaki Toson, Kitahara Hakushu, Kawai Suimei, Miki Rofa, Kawaji Ryiuk, Origuchi Shinobu, Takamura K6taro, Mur5 Saisei, Hagiwara Sakutar6, Shiratori Shogo, Horiguchi Daigaku, Kitagawa Fuyuhiko, Kusano Shimpei, and Murano Shiro. 332. Nihon sh6setsu e ~ '1. >f (Japanese fiction) A monthly literary magazine issued from May, 1947, through November, 1948. It tried to "recapture the feeling that fiction should give us something that is just next to actual life." It also inserted many illustrations as a means of enjoyment for readers living in a desolate post-war Japan, and become one of the first magazines to introduce the middle-length novel. Among the major works published in Nihon sh6setsu are "Watakushi wa ikiru (I shall live)," by Hirabayashi Taiko; "Basha monogatari (Story of a carriage)," by Ishizaka Y6jiroC; "Ningen moy6 (A mortal pattern)," by Niwa Fumio; and "Furenzoku satsujin jiken (A discontinuous murder case)," by Sakaguchi Ango. 333. Ningen,A N (Man) A literary magazine which appeared each month from January, 1946, through August, 1951. Published at first by Kamakura Bunko, a publishing company which had been established by some authors living in Kamakura, including Kume Masao, Kawabata Yasunari, Takami Jun, and Nakayama Gishi. Published afterwards by Meguro Shoten. Taking in the modern thought of Western Europe, Ningen, as a versatile generalinterest magazine, introduced the works of many writers, both those already accepted and those of the postwar age. Among the more notable contributions are the stories "Akagaeru (Red frog)," by Shimagi Kensaku; "Seso (A phase of life)," by Oda Sakunosuke; "Sei Yohane ByOin nite (At St.John's Hospital)," by Kambayashi Akatsuki; "Saishi kajin (A wit and beauty)," by Takeda Taijun; "Omoigusa (The grass of remembrance)," and "Omoigawa (The river of mutual love)," by Uno Koji; "Bisho (A smile)," by Yokomitsu Riichi; "Aru hareta hi ni (On a certain fine day)," by Kato Sh-uichi; and "Fuji sancho (The summit of Mt. Fuji)," by Hashimoto Eikichi. The plays "Kitii taifu (Typhoon kitty)," by Fukuda Tsuneari, and Michi tokaran (The road will be long)," by Kishida Kunio, and the pieces of criticism "Dobutsu, shokubutsu, kobutsu (Animals, plants, and minerals)," by Hanada Kiyoteru, and "Kyosanshugi-teki ningen (Communistic people)," by Odagiri Hideo were also published in Ningen.

Page  73 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 73 334. Nyonin geijutsu --, /4 f i (Women and art) A women's literary magazine. Monthly. Published from July, 1928, through May, 1932 by Nyonin Geijutsusha. Started by Hasegawa Shigure, then a senior woman writer, with the financial aid of her husband Mikami Otokichi. She wanted to make this magazine a vehicle through which the newer women writers might be introduced. In the magazine were published the reviews, creative works, and long poems written by such women as Yamakawa Kikue, Kamichika Ichiko, Chiujo (Miyamoto) Yuriko, and Hiratsuka Raich6. At the time Marxism was playing a prominent role on the Japanese scene, and this magazine was gradually influenced by leftist thought. But although it became a salon for left-wing women writers, it never developed into a full-fledged Marxist magazine, and it was presently discontinued. It is notable for the fact that it gave Hayashi Fumiko and Ueda (Enji) Fumiko their start as writers. Among the representative works are "Horoki (An account of a wandering)," by Miss Hayashi, and "Banshun soya (A noisy night in late spring)," by Mrs. Enji. 335. Osaka mainichi shimbun $. - j7 - ~] (The Osaka daily news) A newspaper which was started on November 20, 1888, when its predecessor, the Osaka nichidai <I k iLk (Osaka daily topics), was renamed. Becoming more and more prosperous, it bought the Toky6 nichinichi shimbun ~, g ' e f (The Toky6 daily news) in 1911. In 1943 it was joined with the T6kyo nichinichi and began to appear under the name Mainichi shimbun. 0 t ~ (Daily news). 336. Puroretaria bungaku 7~ ti L ', 7 O f (Proletarian literature) Organ of the Nihon Puroretaria Sakka D6mei 3; 7~ So $ ' 77 T F- $ 1|1 - (The Japanese Proletarian Writers' Union), also known as NAPF (Nappu) from the initials of its Esperanto name, Nippona Proleta Artista Federatio. Begun in January, 1932; suspended in November, 1933. Miyamoto Kenji, Miyamoto Yuriko, Fujimori Seikichi, Kurahara Korehito, Ueda Susumu, and others wrote articles on the methods to be followed in writing proletarian literature. Many of the articles took their materials from war and fascism or from the struggle against fascism in factories and villages. The magazine thus reflected NAPF's attitude in the period following the start of the fighting in Manchuria. Typical of the works published in Puroretaria bungaku were "Haru ( The springtime)," by Tateno Nobuyuki, and "Shimura Natsue (Shimura Natsue [a woman's name ])," the drama by Murayama Tomoyoshi. Among those writing for the magazine were Tokunaga Sunao and Honj6 Rikuo, who also guided literary endeavor in factories and in villages. As the oppression of the authorities became severer, NAPF was weakened. Kuroshima Denji and others left the magazine in June, 1933, and published Bunka shudan (Cultural group). 337. Puroretaria bunka 70 ta L - 'I 77 C T4 (Proletarian culture) The organ of the Nihon Puroretaria Bunka Remmei e ~ 7 - v r 'I f y. I %- (more familiarly known as KOPF from the initials of its Esperanto name, Federatio de Proletaj Kultur-organizoy Japanaj), which was organized in 1931 as a successor to the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei /~ e f X f 4 'LT - I (All-Japan Proletarian Art Federation), also known as NAPF from the initials of its Esperanto name, Nippona Proleta Artista Federatio. KOPF embraced many spheres of activity in addition to literature, as, for instance, drama, art, sports, radio, education, and the teaching of Esperanto, but in May, 1934, it was obliged to dissolve itself under pressure from the authorities. Although short-lived it was able to cultivate the same fields formerly tended by Tane maku hito e 4 A/ (Planters of seeds) and by Nappu. Among the contributors were Miyamoto Kenji and Kobayashi Takiji, who had gone underground, Nakano Shigeharu, Tsuboi Shigeji, and Miyamoto Yuriko. In the combined issue of November and December, 1932, Miyamoto Kenji criticized Fujimori Seikichi's "Kame no Charii (The turtle Charley)," which had appeared in the September, 1932, issue of Kaiz6. Fujimori's reply came in Puroretaria bungaku (Proletarian literature), in the February, 1933, issue. Puroretaria bunka participated in many of the disputes prevalent among leftist writers. 338. Puroretaria geijutsu 7~ a 1 - (tI 7 t / (Proletarian art) After Kaji Wataru had advocated the use of literature for political means in his article entitled "Iwayuru shakaishugi bungei o kokufuku-seyo (Vanquish the so-called socialistic literary art)" in the May 5, 1927, issue of Musansha shimbun -. r X E (Proletarian news), two groups were formed inside the Nihon Puroretaria Geijutsu Remmei v f? a L, q 7 7p i ~A t (Japan Proletarian Art Federation). One wanted to make art a revolutionary weapon and use it in the arena of political struggle, whereas the other wanted to defend the special character of art even though it was not opposed to the combination of art with politics. The former view as advocated by Kaji, Nakano Shigeharu, Hisaita Eijir5, and others belonging to the Han-bungei-sensen-ha ik 4 1| f i K (School Opposing the Literary Battle-line), and the latter by Hayashi Fusao, Kurahara Korehito, and others who belonged to the Bungei sensen _ {.$.. (Literary Battle-line) group. The latter at last left the Nihon Puroretaria Geijutsu Remmei and formed the Rono Geijitsuka Remmei I 4 ~ I,-; L (Laborer and Farmer Artists' Federation). The former, on the other hand, started the journal Puroretaria geijutsu in July, 1927; however, they were unable to sell more than 3,000 copies of this magazine, that is, less than half the number of Bungei sensen. Nevertheless, Puroretaria geijutsu attracted widespread interest by printing the essays of Nakano Shigeharu and the story by Sata (Kubokawa) Ineko entitled "Kyarameru k6j6 kara (From a caramel factory)." Puroretaria geijutsu lasted till March, 1928, when its parent organization was merged into the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei t '- f (All-Japan Proletarian Art Federation).

Page  74 74 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 339. Puroretaria-shi 17 a 7 ',f g t (Proletarian poetry) Begun in January, 1931, and discontinued in March, 1932. An organ of the Puroretaria Shijinkai 1~0 -7 1T -F A /\ (Proletarian Poets' Society) which had been formed by Sano Takeo, Onchi Terutake, and Arai T6ru, who did not belong to the Nihon Puroretaria Sakka D6mei gJf 7 lo 'f X tc L (Japanese Proletarian Writers' Union). In March, 1932, the magazine was discontinued when the Puroretaria Shijinkai became a part of the Nihon Puroretaria Sakka D6mei. 340. Roba.J..? (Donkey) A literary magazine published by a coterie. Begun in April, 1926; twelve numbers were issued by May, 1927. Discontinued in January, 1928, after the thirteenth number was issued. It was published mainly by Mur6 Saisei and by a group of writers gathered around Mur6: Nakano Shigeharu, Kubokawa Tsurujir6, Nishizawa Ryiji, Hori Tatsuo, and others. The leftist tendencies found in Nakano and Kubokawa were contrasted with the artistic tendency, influenced by a taste for French literature, found in Horio In 1928, when the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei, e a * fi. k I A, t (All-Japan Proletarian Art Federation) was organized, Nakano, Kubokawa, Nishizawa, and others left the Roba staff. Accordingly, the magazine was dissolved. Akutagawa Ryunosuke, Sat6 Haruo, and Hagiwara Sakutar6 wrote for Roba. Sata Ineko too contributed to this magazine. Nakano published his long poems "Uta (A song)" and "Yoakemae no sayonara (Goodbye before dawn)" in Roba. 341. Roningy6 * /A ~i/ (Wax doll) Begun in May, 1930. A monthly magazine edited by Saij6 Yaso. In the fall of 1944, under order of the military authorities, all the poetry magazines in T6kyo were obliged to merge into the two journals, Shi kenkytiu o. e 6 (Studies in the long poem) and Nihonshi ~ 4 t (The Japanese long poem). Roningyo thus lost its identity at this time but was restarted in May, 1946, after the war, again under Saij6 Yaso's editorship and published by Futaba Shoin. Suspended in November, 1946, its publication was resumed in January, 1948, by the T6k6 Shuppansha, but its character was then changed into that of a magazine for girls. This time, R6ningy6 continued only for a short while, its suspension coming just after the fifth number was printed. Almost all of the known poets contributed to this magazine, but the main driving force came from the graduates of Waseda University who were tutored by Saij6. Among their number are Saeki Takao, Yokoyama Seiga, Kat5 Noriharu, Inagaki Tsuneko, Kadoda Yutaka, Murano Sabur6, Oshima Hak6, and Nakamura Ikoji. 342. Sakka 4I ~c (Writers) A literary magazine. Monthly. First issued in January, 1948, and still continued. It is a coterie magazine edited by a group of writers whose object is to cultivate local literature without being swayed by the fashions of the central literary scene. The head office is in Nagoya. In its sixth year, more than ten branch offices were set up in different places in Japan, and a business office was opened in Tokyo. Kotani Tsuyoshi, Ito Hiroshi, Ono Minoru, and Kameyama Iwao were introduced through Sakka. A major work published in Sakka was Kotani's "Tsubasa naki tenshi (An angel without wings)." 343. Sakuhin %4 & (Works) A literary magazine. Quarterly. Ran from August, 1943, through June, 1950. 5 numbers in all. An energetic magazine which opposed the older magazines and tried to awaken new tendencies in literature. It mobilized the writers of medium standing and helped to bring about improvement in the quality of the medium-length novels then being published. Among the representative works published in Sakuhin are "Reite no ame (The rain at Leyte)," by Ooka Sh6hei; "Oda Nobunaga (Oda Nobunaga [16th century military leader]),' by Sakuguchi Ango; and "Bii-to fubutsushi (An account of the natural features of B island)," by Umezaki Haruo. 344. Seiri T f- (Physiology) Hagiwara Sakutar6's private magazine for his long poems. Begun in June, 1933, and continued till 1937. Five numbers were issued. "Tora (A tiger)" was included in the June, 1933, issue. 345. Sekai t ~ (World) A multiple-interest monthly magazine first published in January, 1946, by Iwanami Shoten and still continued. The chief editor is Yoshino Genzabur6. At first it was edited by the D6shinkai i { / (The Society of Same Minds), the chief members of which were Abe Yoshishige, Watsuji Tetsuro, and Shiga Naoya. Afterwards it became independent and the editorship passed to Iwanami Shoten. Rivaling the older magazines Chuo koron (The Central Review) and Kaiz6 (Reconstruction), it is important as a magazine of progressive tendency, dedicated to the preservation of the postwar constitution, opposed to rearmament, and insistent on freedom of thought and action in the conflict between East and West Students, intellectuals, and progressive laborers comprise its readership. Among the major pieces of fiction published in Sekai are "Haiiro no tsuki (A gray moon)," by Shiga Naoya; "Sakurambo (Cherries)," by Dazai Osamu; and "Ehon (A picture book)," by Tamiya Torahiko. In "Daini geijutsuron (On a secondary form of art)," Kuwabara Takeo claimed that the tanka was a second-class form of poetry, thus giving rise to a longcontinued controversy.

Page  75 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 75 346. Sekai bunka a ~ A xU (World culture) Published by the Sekai Bunkasha. Begun in February, 1946; suspended in April, 1949. A general magazine publishing the works of a group of authors including Tsuchiya Takao, Okochi Kazuo, Yanaihara Tadao, Ouchi Hy6e, and Odaka Tomoo, many of whom are or were professors of T6ky5 University, so that the magazine showed a strikingly academic and at the same time progressive character. Special contributions from foreign writers like Bertrand Russell, Andre Gide, Leon Blum, and others were also printed. "Kiri no naka (In the mist)," by Tamiya Torahiko, appeared in the November, 1948, issue. 347. Senki * A (Battle flag) Proletarian art magazine. Begun in May, 1928; discontinued in March, 1931. Published as an organ of the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmeit 0 -.. -X h I# I i (All-Japan Proletarian Art Federation), also known as NAPF from the initials of its Esperanto name. Senki may be regarded as having joined together its predecessors Puroretaria geijutsu (Proletarian art) and Zen'ei (Advance guard). Its rival proletarian magazine was Bungei sensen (Literary battle-line). But gradually Senki was recognized as the legitimate representative of the proletarian and Marxist cause. Kobayashi Takiji and Tokunaga Sunao were among the contributors. The former wrote "Sen kyuhyaku niju hachi-nen sangatsu jugonichi (March 15, 1928)," for the November and December issues, 1928, and "Kanik6sen (A crab-canning boat)," for the May and June issues of 1929, and the latter "Taiy6 no nai machi (A street without sunshine)," for the issues from June through November, 1929. It was in Senki that Kurahara Korehito and Nakano Shigeharu engaged in their dispute on the popularization of art. In addition, Nakano contributed "Harusaki no kaze (The wind in early spring)," August, 1928, and "Tetsu no hanashi (The story of iron)," March, 1929. Murayama Tomoyoshi wrote "Boryokudan-ki (An account of a gang)" for the June 1929, issue, and Kurahara published "Nappu geijutsuka no atarashii nimmu (The new duties of the NAPF artist)" in the April, 1930, issue. The circulation of the magazine increased from 7,000 to 22,000, even though almost every number was censored. From February, 1929, after NAPF was reorganized, the magazine was published by Senkisha. In September, 1930, when Nappu was started as an organ of NAPF, Senki became an independent magazine devoted to "mass enlightenment." But its radical coloration hastened its final suppression. 348. Shakai hyoron -k- f e (Social criticism) A general-interest monthly magazine begun in February, 1946, and discontinued in July, 1949. 32 numbers in all. Published by Naukasha. It succeeded a magazine of identical name which had been published from 1934 through August, 1936, and was founded as the first leftist general-interest magazine at the meeting which also reestablished the Japanese Communist Party. Both magazines were begun under the editorship of Otake Jir6kichi. The editorship of the second Shakai hyoron later passed to Suzuki Masashi. The magazine became a medium for introducing information on international problems, mainly with respect to Soviet Russia. Oppressed by the advance of the general-interest magazines published under more conservative auspices and also by the growth of Zen'ei (Advance guard), another magazine of the Communist party, Shakai hyoron's circulation began to decline from the maximum it had attained of 60,000 until it was finally forced to discontinue publication. 349. Shi, genjitsu. * -. (Poetry, reality) A coterie magazine. A quarterly begun in June, 1930; discontinued in June of the following year after five numbers had been published. The editor was Yodono Ryiuzo, and the staff members included Iijima Tadashi, Kambara Tai, and Kitagawa Fuyuhiko. Up to that time, these writers had been connected with the magazine Shi to shiron?_ 1 i0 - (Poetry and poetics). However, dissatisfied with the emphasis given to surrealism in Shi to shiron, they began publishing Shi, genjitsu. Included in their platform was a determination not to isolate themselves from reality. They also attached great importance to history, and to a view-point based on knowledge of world literature. Included in their magazine were creative works, criticism, scholarly studies, and book reviews. The creative works were mainly long poems. Sato Haruo, Hagiwara Sakutaro, Takamura Kotaro, Miyoshi Tatsuji, Maruyama Kaoru, and others contributed their poetry. Kajii Motojiro, Takeda Rintar6, Ito Sei, and others wrote fiction. The translations of foreign authors included the works of Andre Gide, Ambroise Valery, Charles Baudelaire, Jules Renard, Francis Jammes, Jean Cocteau, and Johannes R. Becher. James Joyce's Ulysses was jointly translated by Ito Sei, Tsujino Hisanori, and Nagamatsu Sadamu, and was published serially. It served as a strong stimulus to a number of young writers and caused them to produce Neo-psychological fiction. 350. Shijin 4 /A (Poets of the long poem) Ran from January, 1936, to October, 1936, inclusive, for a total of ten numbers. Published by the Bungaku Annaisha. A magazine of the long poem edited by Onchi Terutake and Kishi Yamaji, it was the last of the proletarian poetry magazines published before World War II. Its immediate predecessor was Shi seishin g4 ~ t (The spirit of the long poem). It introduced many foreign poets, and urged the writing of poems for children. Many new poets made their debuts through this journal. Among its contributiors were Oguma Hideo, Arai T6ru, Oe Mitsuo, Moriyama Kei, and Nakano Suzuko.

Page  76 76 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 351. Shinch6 e*f (New currents) A monthly literary magazine begun in May, 1904, and still continued. Published by Shinch6sha. At the beginning the outstanding contributions came from Kaneko Kun'en, Ikuta Ch6k6, S6ma Gyofu, Takasu Baikei, Nakamura Kichiz6, and Taguchi Kikutei, all of whom had cooperated in Shinsei (New voices). The conversations of literary men were also published, and the magazine gradually established itself financially. Inviting Nakamura Murao to be its editor, it acquired the reputation of a magazine attuned to literary trends. Preserving an impartial and purely literary character, it introduced not only original pieces of Japanese fiction but foreign literary ideologies and reports of various symposia. During the Showa era Narasaki Tsutomu was the person mainly charged with the editing, but after World War II Kawamori Yoshiz was invited to become the advisor, and the magazine added a note of modernism even though it maintained its traditional role of a general literary magazine. The Shinchosh6 $~ _ O (Shinch6 prize), established in 1936, was won by such writers as Wada Tsut6, It6 Einosuke, Tsubota Joji, and Tsuboi Sakae. Among the works published in Shinch6 in Sh6wa times are "Haritsuke Mozaemon (The crucified Mozaemon)," by Fujimori Seikichi; "Hikage no mura (A village in the shade)," by Ishikawa Tatsuz6; "Kazambaichi (The ash terrace of a volcano)," by Kubo Sakae; "Shay6 (The setting sun)," by Dazai Osamu; and "Koyomi (A calendar)," by Tsuboi Sakae. Important critical contributions have come from Nakamura Murao, Hirabayashi Hatsunosuke, Takami Jun, and Sakaguchi Ango. 352. Shin-joen - -e A (A new women's garden) Begun in January, 1930, and still continued. Monthly. The successive editors include Uchiyama Motoi, Kamiyama Yuichi, Kasuya Masao, and Mitani Akira. Published by Jitsugy6 no Nihonsha. A cultural magazine for young women. Notable works introduced in its pages include: "Kamon (The flower crest)," by Osaragi Jir5, January, 1938 - April, 1939; "Seishun no sho (A book for youth)," by Niwa Fumio, January, 1938 - December, 1938; "Ishi no makura o tatete (Lifting the stone pillow)," by Kagawa Toyohiko, July, 1937 - December, 1938; "Mi imada jukusezu (The fruit is still unripe)," by Yokomitsu Riichi, July, 1938 - June, 1939; "B6r6 (A watch tower)," by Kishida Kunio, January, 1939 - December, 1939; "Ai to chi to (Love and wisdom)," by Satomi Ton, January, 1940 - December, 1940; "Ikiru tochi (The living land)," by Nakazato Tsuneko, January, 1940 - December, 1940; "Tabi e no sasoi (Invitation for a journey)," by Kawabata Yasunari, January, 1940 - September, 1940; "Otoko no sh6gai (The life of a man)," by Serizawa Kojir6, July, 1940 - May, 1941; "Utsukushiki kokoro no monogatari (The story of a noble mind)," by Mushak6ji Saneatsu, January, 1941 - December, 1941; "Ame (Rain)," by Hayashi Fumiko, January, 1941 - March, 1942; "Aogoke no niwa (A garden with green moss)," by Ibuse Masuji, January, 1941 - December, 1941; "Shuppatsumae (Before the departure)," by Shimagi Kensaku, February, 1942 - December, 1942; "Tabi no machi, tabi no hito (A tourist resort and tourists)," by Yoshida Genjir6, January, 1941 - December, 1941; "Dorosuzume no uta (The song of a muddy sparrow)," by Mur6 Saisei, June, 1941 - February, 1942; and "Ai no shoka (A song in praise of love)," by Sat6 Haruo, September, 1956 - August, 1957. 353. Shin-Nihon bungaku e- e t_ (New Japanese literature) Begun in March, 1946, and still continued. Monthly. Organ of the Shin-Nihon Bungakkai ^[ l a i t (New Japanese Literature Society), which was formed after World War II under the leadership of Eguchi Kan, Kurahara Korehito, Nakano Shigeharu, Kubokawa Tsurujiro, Miyamoto Yuriko, Tsuboi Shigeji, and Tokunaga Sunao. Aiming to popularize and foster "democratic" literature, appealed to the literary energies dormant in the general public and tried to foster workshops and local literary circles. From its start, actively developed discussion on many fronts, including the question of the extent of responsibility which literary men should shoulder for the war in Asia and the Pacific, the theory of realism in literature and its use in presenting social problems, workers' literature, the relationship between politics and literature, and modernism in literature. In May, 1948, issued a "Peace Declaration" and tried to focus literary activity on the problems of peace and national independence. The major literary works published in Shin-Nihon bungaku include "Banshi heiya (The Bansha plain)," by Miyamoto Yuriko; "Tsuma yo nemure (Sleep, my wife ')," by Tokunaga Sunao; and "Genkainada (The Sea of Genkai)," by Kin Tatsuju. Kuribayashi Tamio, Odagiri Hideo, Sasaki Kiichi, Hanada Kiyoteru, Watanabe Junzo, Okamoto Jun, and Kubota Masabumi are among the active contributors. In late 1950, some of the members went over to the group publishing Jimmin bungaku / k {c c (People's literature), which was begun in November of that year by Fujimori Seikichi, Eguchi Kan, Toyoda Masako, Shimada Masao, and Kurisu Kei. Joining this group were Tokunaga Sunao, Noma Hiroshi, and Abe Kobo. Jimmin bungaku objected to the cliquish tendentiousness found among some of the Shin-Nihon bungaku writers and tried to make of itself "a literary magazine truly devoted to the people." The Shin-Nihon bungaku group has also been subjected to much criticism by the Kindai bungaku (Modern literature) circle. 354. Shinro i * (A way) Organ of the Sekai Bunka Kyokai _t ~r i A'1 ~'I ' (World Culture Federation). Begun in May, 1946; suspended in June, 1948. Ok6chi Kazuo, Kamichika Ichiko, Tomizuka Kiyoshi, Tomizawa Uio, and Yanagida Kenjir6 have participated as editorial advisors. Intended to show the way to cultural amelioration in the confused period after World War II. Has discussed such themes as politics and culture in the present age and the current role of religion. "Mamushi no sue (The end of a viper)," by Takeda Taijun, was printed in the August - October, 1947, issue.

Page  77 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 77 355. Shinsei * t (New birth) Begun in November, 1945; suspended in August, 1946; restarted in January, 1948; again suspended after October, 1948. A monthly magazine published by the Shinseisha. The editorship, first held by Aoyama Toranosuke, passed to Takamori Kario. Appeared immediately after World War II as a general multipleinterest magazine, at a time when many multiple-interest magazines of long standing were still in suspension. At the beginning, politics and economics were the main themes, but after January, 1946, fiction and literary criticism began to fill its pages. In October, 1946, it published a special edition enlarged by an anthology of fiction. Notable contributions published in Shinsei include "Kunsho (A decoration)," by Nagai Kafu; "Sensaisha no kanashimi (The grief of the war sufferers)," by Masamune Hakuch6; and "Kishimojin (The goddess of children)," by Hirabayashi Taiko. 356. Shin-seinen f { s (The younger generation) A popular literary magazine. Monthly. Begun in January, 1920, and continued through World War II. The first chief editor was Morishita Uson, who introduced translations of Western detective fiction and discovered Edogawa Rampo and other Japanese writers of detective stories. Later, continued to print popular fiction, mainly detective stories both native and foreign in origin, and concentrated some of its energies on the discovery of new writers. 357. Shinshosetsu fi >' b (New fiction) Ran from January, 1946, through June, 1950. A monthly magazine edited at first by Matsumoto Tar6 and later by Yokogawa Ry6ichi. Published by Shun'yod6. Founded with the intention of fostering a new and "constructive" literature written by the younger writers of the postwar era. Its contributors numbered such names, now well known, as Ishikawa Tatsuz6, Inoue Tomoichiro, Nakayama Gishi, Hino Ashihei, Aoyama Koji, Fujimori Seikichi, Dazai Osamu, Umezaki Haruo, Tanaka Hidemitsu, Tamiya Torahiko, Ooka Sh6hei, Ota Y6ko, and Abe Kobo. 358. Shin-Waseda bungaku At - 4~ ~ - (New Waseda literature) A monthly coterie magazine begun in the fall of 1930 and discontinued in December, 1933, after 30 numbers had been published. Started by Sato Yoshimi, Umeda Kan, Shiraishi Yasushi, and Nakamura Goichiro, who were all graduates of Waseda University. Ishikawa Tatsuz6 and Nakayama Gishi joined the group in 1931. The stories of Ishikawa and Nakayama, the long poems of Sato, and criticism by Umeda were conspicuous contributions. Later, Ishikawa and Nakayama went over to Seiza ~ t (Constellation), which had begun publication in April, 1935. 359o Shisaku Hi /4 (The composition of the long poem) A magazine for the long poem begun in January, 1936, and discontinued in April, 1938, after 16 numbers had been published. Published first by Shisaku Hakk6jo, and then by Geiensha. Edited by Kawaji Ryuko. Around him were gathered such poets as And6 Ichir6 and Murano Shir6, who had earlier been associated with Kawaji in the journal Kotatsu 'tf < (Fire-box). Hagiwara Sakutar6, Fukao Sumako, Kaneko Mitsuharu, and Takamura K6taro contributed to Shisaku. It also published Ando's translations of foreign poetry. The works of Paul Ambroise Valery, Jean Cocteau, Rainer Maria Rilke, D. H. Lawrence, Francois Villon, and others were thus introduced. 360. Shiseishin 4 k (The spirit of the long poem) Ran from March, i934, through November, 1935, in a total of 21 numbers. Published by Zens6sha. A proletarian poetry magazine planned by Arai T6ru, Got6 Ikuko, and Onchi Terutake. Some of the contributors were Oguma Hideo, Oe Mitsuo, K6riyama Hiroshi, and Taki Shigeru. Many new writers gathered around this magazine which was the forerunner of Shijin (Poets of the long poem). The rise and fall of these magazines took place in a period of rising nationalism marked by such events as the "two-twenty six" or February 26 revolt in 1936. 361. Shis6o. t- (Thought) A magazine begun in 1921, and still continued. Monthly. Published by Iwanami Shoten. Special stress is placed on philosophy, but current problems are not excluded. Tanigawa Tetsuz6, Watsuji Tetsur6, Hayashi Tatsuo, and others served as editors. "Shiga Naoya (Shiga Naoya [the novelist])," by Kobayashi Hideo was a notable contribution in the field of literary criticism. 362. Sh6setsu shinch6o i' / y G-, (New currents in fiction) A monthly magazine first published in September, 1947, and still issued, it has tried not to descend to popularity nor to become too high-brow, but still to find space for entertaining fiction. Among the major works published in Shosetsu shinch6 are "Ishinaka-sensei gyojoki (Record of the behavior of a school teacher, Mr. Ishinaka)," by Ishizaka Y6jir6; "Yuki fujin ezu (A sketch of Madame Yuki)," by Funabashi Seiichi; "Geisha Konatsu monogatari (A tale of the geisha Konatsu)," also by Funabashi Seiichi; and "Awa' ressha (The train through Awa)," by Uchida Hyakken.

Page  78 78 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 363. Shufu no tomo 0 e ~ ~- (The housewife's companion) Begun in February, 1917. The founder was Ishikawa Takemi. A monthly magazine for women, published with the intention of "rationalizing" family life and "uplifting" women's culture. Before the war, it attained a circulation of over two million copies; as one of the most popular women's magazines it still maintains a numerous readership. Some of the more notable literary works published in the Showa era include "Shinjitsu ichiro (The one road to the truth)," by Yamamoto Ytuzo, January, 1935 - September, 1936; "Shimpen rob5 no ishi (A new story of the stone at the roadside)," also by Yamamoto Yuzo, October, 1938 - July, 1940; "Arashi no bara (The rose in the storm)," by Yoshiya Nobuko, July, 1930 - April, 1931; "Otoko no tsugunai (The recompense of a man)," also by Yoshiya Nobuko, July, 1935 - July, 1937; "Kafuku (Fortune and misfortune)," by Kikuchi Kan, September, 1936 - November, 1937; "Chijo no seiza (A constellation above the earth)," by Maki Itsuma, July, 1932 - April, 1934; "Hitozuma tsubaki (A wife's camellia)," by Kojima Masajir6, March, 1935 - April, 1937; "Akatsuki no gassh6 (Concert in the early morning)," by Ishizaka Yojiro, January, 1939 - January, 1941; "Kosho musuko (Pepper boy)," by Shishi Bunroku, August, 1937 - July, 1938; "Musume to watakushi (My daughter and I)," also by Shishi Bunroku, January, 1953 - May, 1956; "K6og-sama (Our empress)," by Koyama Itoko, January, 1955 - December, 1956; and "Sabaku no hana (A flower in the desert)," by Hirabayashi Taiko, January, 1955 - July, 1957o 364. Shikan Asahi gL T'1 q 9~ (Asahi weekly) Begun in February, 1922. Still continued. A weekly magazine published by the Asahi Shimbunsha, it fulfills the role of mass enlightenment. Gained special popularity through serial publication of "Shin-Heike monogatari (A new Tales of the Heike [family])," by Yoshikawa Eiji, which began its appearance in 1951 and was concluded only in 1957. 365. S6gen /it] t (Origin) A magazine for literature and art. Only two issues were published, one in December, 1946, and the other in November, 1948. Kobayashi Hideo, Aoyama Jir6, and Ishihara Ryuichi comprised the editorial group. The initial number was a special edition on the artist Umehara Ryuzabur6, and many illustrations in color, sketches, woodcuts, and drawings in offset and sepia, done by Umehara, were inserted. It was one of the luxury publications of its day. The second issue was on Tomioka Tessai. "Motsaruto (Mozart)," by Kobayashi Hideo, was a featured work in S6gen. 366. Sogo6 bunka. 4 ' Ut (General culture) Organ of the Sogo Bunka Ky6kai, k.,< AL -#1 4 (Society for General Culture). A monthly magazine started in July, 1947, and discontinued in January, 1949. Published by Shinzembisha. Writing for Sogo bunka were many writers and critics of the new generation, living in the ruins after the war, who tried to give shape to a modernized point of view able to meet the problems of the twentieth century. In a series of symposia Sasaki Kiichi, Hanada Kiyoteru, Noma Hiroshi, Fukuda Tsuneari, Kato Shlichi, Nakano Hideto, Hirano Ken, Shiina Rinzo, Abe Kobo, and others expressed their opinions on the methods employed in postwar literature, avant garde art, realism, etc. Among the stories were "Kao no naka no akai me (The red eyes in the face)," by Noma Hiroshi; "Henshin (A change of mind)," by Fukunaga Takehiko; "Na mo naki yoru no tame ni (For a nameless night)," by Abe Kobo; and "Yoidore fune (A drunken boat)," by Tanaka Hidemitsu. There were also many fine examples of literary criticism. 367. Sunao +, t (Docility) Begun in September, 1946; suspended in May, 1948; and resumed in May, 1949,for only a single number. Irregularly issued. Edited by Tonomura Shigeru. Published at first by Akasaka Shoten, later by Ryujo Shoten. The coterie writing for this magazine consisted of Tonomura, Takii K6saku, Kamei Katsuichiro, Kambayashi Akatsuki, and Asami Fukashi. The writers were joined more by friendship than by principle or doctrine. Notable contributions include "Usagi (A rabbit)," by Shiga Naoya, published in the September, 1946, issue; "Sakurajima (Sakurajima [the name of the island])," by Umezaki Haruo, also published in the September, 1946, issue; and "Tenteki (A droplet)," by Ibuse Masuji, published in May, 1949. Amino Kiku,Oda Takeo, and Kiyama Shohei also contributed to this magazine. 368. Tairiku & _- (Continent) A magazine on current topics. Monthly. Started in June, 1938, and discontinued after two or three years. The publisher was Kaizosha. It claimed that it was a magazine specializing in the problems of the Asian continent and aiming at its development In the field of literature it printed "Kojin (Yellow dust)," by Ueda Hiroshi, a piece of documentary writing on the fighting in China. 369. Taiy6o;V (The sun) Ran from January, 1895, through February, 1928. Mostly a monthly; at one time, in the years 1896-1899, it was published twice a month. The publisher was Hakubunkan. Played the role of a multiple-interest magazine representing bourgeois liberalism at the time of the development of capitalism in Japan. It attached importance to political, economic, and social problems, but also established sections on history, geography, commerce, industry, agriculture, household affairs, and literature, contributing to a knowledge of the theories and techniques in each of these fields. It exerted considerable influence in literature, as when it printed Takayama Chogyu's criticism of romantic literature and Hasegawa Tenkei's analysis of

Page  79 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 79 naturalistic literature. It was only after the middle of the Taish5 era (1912-1926), when Chiu k6ron (Central review) and Kaizo (Reconstruction) began to occupy public attention that it seemed to have fulfilled its duty. A literary magazine of identical name was issued after World War II. 370. Tanka, -P. (The tanka) Published by Kadokawa Shoten. Begun in January, 1954, and still continued. This and Tanka kenkyiu ry R ~t (Tanka studies) are the most important general magazines of the tanka now being published. The writers are of various persuasions, but are ideologically opposed to the leftist poets gathered in Shin-Nihon kajin k g i -t -K (New Japanese poets of the tanka). The first number of Tanka was a special issue mourning the death of Shaku Chkuii. Since then each number has been edited as a special issue. 371. Tanka gekkan T2 A. ] \'] (The tanka monthly) Begun in May, 1929; ended in July, 1942. Founded by Kusuda Toshir6, Yanagita Shintaro, and others as a magazine which tried to give direction to the tanka poets after the breakup of the Shink6 Kajin Remmei - t- I Ak. A- - (Federation of Newly Rising Tanka Poets). Giving emphasis to a class-conscious tanka appealing to the proletariat, it tended to attract the more progressive and radical readers as compared with the more conservative Tanka zasshi (The tanka magazine). During and after 1933 Tanka gekkan was frequently suspended. After 1937 it became the organ of a special group led by Kusuda, who, with Ueda Kanji as associate, moved the magazine's office to Ky6to. Finally suspended in 1942. 372. Tanka zasshi t -. t Ai- (The tanka magazine) Published by T6und6 Shoten. Begun in May, 1917; suspended in October, 1917. The first magazine for the tanka which was not the organ of a particular circle. Rendered considerable service by introducing many new poets. Succeeded in attracting many voluntary contributions. The editing was generally impartial. The first issue was compiled by Oyama Tokujiro and Matsumura Eiichi. After a year or two, the editing passed to Nishimura Yokichi. It later went to Yajima Kan'ichi, and, after a period of non-publication in 1921-1924, to Matsumura Eiichi and Yanagita Shintar6. Although its publication was frequently delayed, and sometimes seemed to cease, it existed until 1931. 373. Tanka zen'ei A.+ -A. I& q (Advance guard tanka) Organ of the Puroretaria Kajin D6mei S-o t ' -y A /i 6] I (Proletarian Tanka Poets' Union), formed in May, 1929. Published at first by the Sojinsha, then by Marukusu Shob6. Begun in September, 1929; suspended in October, 1930. The originators included Maekawa Samio, Tsubono Tekkyi, Watanabe Junzo, and Yashiro T6son. Emphasized mass enlightenment. In order to express the militant feelings of the proletariat, it tried to replace the old formality of the tanka with a newer, freer form. From the latter half of 1930, it was frequently censored by the authorities. In November, 1930, when it was renamed Puroretaria tanka -7~ L-7 7I -Y U_ (Proletarian tanka), it became more and more politically inclined, and its tanka progressively more prosaic. Finally suspended in 1932. 374. Temb6o & (Prospect) A general cultural magazine. Monthly. Ran from January, 1946, through September, 1951. 69 numbers in all. Published by Chikuma Shob6. The chief editor was Usui Yoshimi. In order to fill the wartime blank in thought and in the literary arts, each issue of Tembo was edited not only as a magazine but as an independent book; that is to say, it tried to introduce a major creative work in each number. Shiina RinzO was discovered by Tembo. Outstanding works published by Temb6 include "Odoriko (A dancer)," by Nagai Kafu; "Towazugatari (Voluntary remarks)," also by Nagai Kaff; "Shin'ya no shuen (A feast in the dead of the night)," by Shiina Rinz6; "Igy6 no mono (A monstrous fellow)," by Takeda Taijun; "D6hy6 (A guide-post)," by Miyamoto Yuriko; "Ningen shikkaku (Man disqualified)," by Dazai Osamu; and "Nobi (A fire in the field)," by Ooka Shohei. 375. Tohoku bungaku TL st 9 (Northeastern literature) Ran from December, 1945, to May, 1949, inclusive. Published by the Kahoku Shimp6sha in Sendai. A literary magazine published under the editorship of Hibino Shir6, Oike Tadao, and others. 376. T6ky5 nichinichi shimbun, g ] ~ i (The Tokyo daily news) A daily newspaper started in February, 1872. It began to decline in the latter half of the Meiji era, and in 1911 it was taken over by the company publishing the Osaka mainichi (the Osaka daily news). In 1943, the two newspapers were combined into the Mainichi shimbun (Daily news). 377. Tosho 01 t (Books) Begun in August, 1938; suspended in December, 1942; restarted after the war in November, 1949. A monthly journal published by Iwanami Shoten, devoted chiefly to reviews of the books published by this firm. However, it also includes short essays, critiques, and introductory notices of other materials. Of particular value are the special issues on Akutagawa Ryunosuke (December, 1949), the literature of schoolboys (November, 1950), Sait6 Mokichi (April, 1952), children's books (November, 1953), and Shiga Naoya (June, 1955).

Page  80 80 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 378. Waseda bungaku I At V >_ O (Waseda literature) A literary magazine initiated by the Faculty of Literature of T5ky5 Semmon Gakko -, ~ t (Tokyo Specialist College), the earlier name of Waseda Daigaku $- r 3 K i (Waseda University). Begun in January, 1891, under the chief editorship of Tsubouchi Shoyo. Concerned at first with comments and notes on Western as well as Japanese literature. The precision with which Waseda bungaku discussed current topics soon became part of its general style. The famous dispute in its pages between Tsubouchi and Mori Ogai on botsuris6o -, a P- ("submerged" idealism) came in 1891-1892, with the former arguing for more realistic and the latter for a more idealistic approach to literature and life. Onishi Hajime, Shimamura Hogetsu, Got6 Chugai, and others also made important contributions in literary criticism. Tsubouchi's "Kiri hitoha V — T (A leaf of the paulownia)," which was started in the November, 1894, issue, is one of the most famous works published in this magazine. Suspended in October, 1898, when Tsubouchi expressed a desire to devote himself to "social education," Waseda bungaku was restarted in January, 1906, by Shimamura, and continued till December, 1927. Under Shimamura it was regarded as the head temple of the literature of naturalism and helped to introduce many of the naturalist authors coming out of Waseda University, as, for instance, Masamune Hakuch6, Chikamatsu Shiukb, Akita Ujaku, Nakamura Seiko, and Ogawa Mimei. From the outside came Tayama Katai, Iwano Homei, Shimazaki T6son, and Tokuda Shusei. The theorists included Katagami Noburu and S6ma Gyofu. Coming into the Taish6 era, the editorship passed eventually into the hands of Homma Hisao, with Aono Suekichi, Hirabayashi Hatsunosuke, and Miyajima Shinzaburo writing literary criticism and Hirotsu Kazuo, Uno Koji, Kasai Zenzo, Makino Shin'ichi, and Hosoda Tamiki appearing as authors of fiction. In June, 1934, it began a third stage under Yoshie Takamatsu and Tanizaki Seiji, and Asami Fukashi, Inoue Tomoichiro, and Hojo Makoto made their d6buts as writers of fiction. Suspended in 1949, it resumed publication in January, 1951, with Asami becoming its editorial advisor. 379. Yakumo /VY t (Eightfold clouds) Ran from April, 1948, through February, 1949. A monthly. The editor at first was Hashimoto Harusuke, later Kameshima Sadao. Published by Yakumo Shoten. Succeeded the tanka magazine of the same name which was edited by Kubota Masabumi and ran from January, 1947, through March, 1948. Claiming to be "a literary journal for men in society," it became more and more a magazine devoted to its readers' entertainment. Two extra editions, published under the title Bessatsu yakumo Xl] e- /? ~ (Yakumo, separately published), were issued in September, 1949, and December, 1949. These included notable contributions from both older and newer writers, as, for example, "Moyuru yuki (The burning snow)," by Ishizaka Y6jiro, and portions of "Zemma (The good demon)," by Kishida Kunio. 380. Yomiuri shimbun f i ~ { 1 (The newsman's news) Begun on November 2, 1874, as a small-scale newspaper. Among the contributors in its earlier years were Aeba K6son, Kato Hy6ko, and Tsubouchi Shoyo. The translations of Dumas' Three musketeers and Poe's Black cat were printed along with the native works "Kyaramakura AOP/ t.f (Pillow of the kyara tree)," by Ozaki Koyo,and "Higeotoko v trf ~ (A man with a moustache)," by Koda Rohan. Yomiuri shimbun, however, earned its first fame by printing in serial form a section of "Konjiki yasha, - t 9 (A she-devil in golden color)," written by Ozaki K5oy. ' During the latter part of.the Meiji era, the Yomiuri printed "Ie ~ (Home)," by Shimazaki Toson, "Ashiato i/_, (Footprints)," by Tokuda Shusei, and "Okawabata I "1, (On the bank of the great river [Sumida])," by Osanai Kaoru. These serial novels gave it the reputation of a newspaper devoted to literature. The Yomiuri Bungakush6o N i - ~ (Yomiuri literary prize) was established in May, 1950. The winners in the field of fiction include Ibuse Masuji for "Honjitsu kyushin (No medical examinations today)," and Ooka Sh6hei for "Nobi (Fires in the field)," and the winners in literary criticism include Kobayashi Hideo for "Gohho no tegami (Van Gogh's letters)." 381. Yuibutsuron kenkyiu 4* Ht ~ A C (Studies in materialism) The organ of the Yuibutsuron Kenkylkai t t! * Ad j, (Association for the Study of Materialism), founded on October 23, 1932. The members of this association numbered 150 persons and included Oka Kunio, Tosaka Jun, Hattori Shis6, and Miki Kiyoshi. Yuibutsuron kenkyu was begun in November, 1932, and lasted till February, 1938, when the association dissolved itself upon consideration of the political situation. 65 numbers of the magazine had been published by that time. After the dissolution of the Yuibutsuron Kenkyukai, the magazine was renamed Gakugei v k (Art and science) in April, 1938, and continued for a time, but in November and December of the same year the chief members of the association were arrested, and subsequently several hundred students of Tokyo, Waseda, and Keio universities were likewise apprehended. This mass jailing became known as the "Yuiken jiken v W 1 t (the incident of the Association for the Study of Materialism)." Thus Gakugei too was obliged to cease publication after a total of eight issues had been printed. "Sekaikan to sosaku h6ho to no mujun ni tsuite (On the contradiction between the outlook on world affairs and the method of story writing)," by Sugiyama Hideki, was a notable article printed in December, 1936.

Page  81 THE BASIC REFERENCE WORKS 81 382. Zayuh6 JAt t a (The treasure at hand) Ran from April, 1946, through August, 1948. A monthly magazine edited by Goto Shintar5 and published by the Zayuh6 Kank6kai. A magazine of art and literature, published with the intention of kindling "the spirit of the Shirakaba school" in the younger generation. Shiga Naoya, Mushak6ji Saneatsu, and Amino Kiku were among the contributors. Shiga's "Akugi (A piece of mischief)," was published in the April, 1946, issue and "KurOto shiroto (Experts and amateurs)," in the April, 1947, issue. Other contributions include literary criticism by Sato Saku, Komatsu Kiyoshi, and Shiga Masaru, and short stories by Takii Kosaku, Kobori Annu, Nitta Jun, and Nakamura Teijo. 383. Zen'ei j \^ (Advance guard) Organ of the Zen'ei Geijitsuka D6mei ] t; i-T ~ I _ - (Advance Guard Artists' Union), which was formed by Fujimori Seikichi, Hayashi Fusao, Yamada Seizaburo, Kurahara Korehito, Murayama Tomoyoshi, Sasaki Takamaru, and others. Begun in January, 1928. In the first number, Kurahara called for the unification of the proletarian art movement, and urged the formation of the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei t 0 -f. A 4 A i- t LO - (All-Japan Proletarian Art Federation). In May, 1928, Zen'ei merged with Puroretaria geijutsu 7~o ut L- '7 -F A (Proletarian art) to form Senki * 4, (Battle flag); this became the organ of the federation proposed by Kurahara, the Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei. "Kita no kaikonchi (The reclaimed land in the north)," by Honj6 Rikuo, was printed in the April, 1928, issue.

A Bibliography of Showa LIterature


pp. 82-161

Page  82 CHAPTER THREE A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE In the following listing of the authors of the Showa period and of their most representative works, personal names are given in Japanese order, with the surnames given first and then followed by the given names. Generally, pen-names are given in lieu of the authors' legal names since the authors are usually best known by these pennames. In a few instances, cross-references are given, as when a woman author (Chiuj Yuriko) marries and begins to use her married name (Miyamoto Yuriko). Dates of birth and death are given, where known. However, approximately eighty authors are listed without these dates. Insofar as possible, under each author all the items belonging to the same genre are grouped together. The particular genre to which any item belongs is indicated by one of the following symbols: c = literary criticism d = drama e = essay f = fiction (novel or short story) h = haiku (the 17-syllable poem) k = study, scholarly work 1 = letters p = shi (the long poem) t = tanka (the 31-syllable poem) tr = translation (into Japanese of a foreign literary work) z = anthology It has not been possible to show the inclusive pagination for items published in journals. If a drama is both published and produced, two separate entries have been made. This is also true in the few instances in which a piece of fiction, once published, is also known to have been dramatized. It has not been possible to trace all of the first printings of particular books, stories, and poems; Japanese authors sometimes publish their works originally in the magazine issued by the little-known coterie to which they belong, then in larger, better-known journals, when they themselves achieve their first reputations. A rather large number of errors must necessarily creep into a bibliography whose titles derive from other bibliographies and title-lists and in whose compilation it has not been possible always to check the originals. The anthologies of the works of particular authors, when published separately from the larger anthologies containing the works of many authors, will be found in this chapter listed under the authors' names. The anthologies of the works of particular authors, when found with the works of other authors in larger collections, are, generally speaking, not listed in the present chapter. However, these larger collections are listed in alphabetical order, with indication of their contents, in Chapter IV. The references in the Index of Authors and Editors will point to the particular larger anthologies in which any author's works are reprinted. The histories and studies of Showa literature annotated in Chapter II, Section D, are reentered in this listing, as are the articles, stories, and poems named in the annotations for the journals listed in Chapter II, Section F. 384. Abe Jir6o i+ 13 pt 3 (1883- ) Abe Jiro senshiu _3Yf -*3 H ~3 A (A selection of the works of Abe Jiro), Tokyo, Haneda Shoten, 1947, 6v. /z/ 385. Abe K6ob -6 e /" / (1924- ) "Doreigari A. At (Slave hunting)," Shin-Nihon bungaku, July, 1955. /d/ "Haikyo - &_ (The ruins)," Bungaku kikan, November, 1948. /f/ "Kabe A (The wall)," Kindai bungaku, February, 1951. /f/ Kiga domei I1R, l! M (A hunger strike), T6ky6, Kodansha, 1954. /f/ "Na mo naki yoru no tame ni M t r 3 Y, z f ). (For a nameless night)," Sogo bunka, July-December, 1948./f/ "Owarishi michi no shirube ni b {} t ~ ~. a,- (As a guide to a road already taken)," Kosei, February, 1948. /f/ 386. Abe Tomoji l3T ~3 c - (1903- ) "Afurika no Doiru 7 7'1 ' / e "4 A- (Doyle of Africa)," Kaiz6, March, 1931. /f/ "Fisetsu IL (Wind and snow)," Nihon hy6ron, September, 1938 - August, 1939. /f/ "Fuyu no yado — 6 f (An inn in the winter)," Bungakkai, January - October, 1936. /f/ "Hanakage Sc-h (The shade of flowers)," Bungakkai, June, 1949. /f/ "Kuroi kage.?. '{ (A black shade)," Gunz6, February, 1949. /f/ "Nichi-doku taiko ky6gi e } &t '. Lt~_ (Rivalry between Japan and Germany)," Shinch6, January, 1930. /f/ "Oboroyo ' tl 2 f (A misty night)," Shincho, March, 1949. /f/ "Shi no hana - ) e (Flowers of death)," Sekai, July, 1946. /f/ "Shiroi shikan (D "-' t (A white officer)," Shinch6, May, 1930. /f/ "Tabibito * A. (Travelers)," Fujin k6ron, January-December, 1940. /f/ "Tadayou hito ),K A (A wanderer)," Chuo k6ron bungei tokushu, no. 7, March, 1951. /f/ "Yajin e K/ (A rustic)," Chuo k6ron, April, 1940. /f/ Shuchi-teki bungaku-ron t ~- a t. ~ (An intellectualistic theory of literature), T6kyo, K6seikaku, December, 1930. /c/ 82

Page  83 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 8 83 Y~roppa kik6 3 - r3 -- /\'6 ~~, (An account of a trip to Europe), T6ky6, ChOi K6ronsha, June, 1951. /e/ Abe Tomoji sakuhinshii (A collection of the works of Abe Tomoji), T6ky6, Kawade Shobo, 1952, 5v. /z/ 4 387. Abe Yoshishige 34-~-{ (1883 -Abe Yoshishige senshili 4r 4tp (A selection of the works of Abe Yoshishige), T6kyd, Koyama Shoten, 1948, 5v. /z/388. Agawa Hiroyui Njq "1I ~ 4 (1920 -"A.-!go sakusen zengo * 4i (Before and after action A)" Shinch6, November, 1949. If! Haru no shiro 4 '9~( castle in spring), T~ky5, Shinch6sha, 1952. /f7 "IK6mori 494 (A-bat)," Shin-sh6st, November, 1948. If! " Kumo no bohy5 T 0 4 (The cloud marking a grave),"1 Shinch:6, January-December, 1955. If! "'Ma no isan # 7& (Legacy of a demon), " ShinchO, July-December, 1953. /f/ "Nennen saisai ~7 I z (Years and years)," Sekai, September, 1946. /f/ 389. Aizu Yaichi 4'~A-(1881-1956) Rokumeishii P t'4 (A collection of the voices of deer), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1940. /t/ 390. -Akagi Kensuke * k*t ~r (1901 -K6ky~kyoku dai-kyiiban ~ ~ (The ninth symphony), T6ky5, 1t6 Shoten, 1943. Ip/ Akagi Kensuke jojishishdi~~ ~ (Anthology of the narrative poems of Akagi Kensuke), T6ky6, Seikisha, 1949. /p/ 391. Akashi Kaijin ON /? l 4z X/- A. Akashi Kaijin zenshii en- 4E~ 4- it (The complete works of Akashi Kaijin), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1941. /z/ Hakuby6 bj T~ (Plain sketch), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1939. It! 392. Akiba Tar6 It 0-*, Nihon shingekishi 9 " P- 'j (A history of modem drama in Japan), T6ky6, Ris6sha, 1956, 2v. /k/ 393. Akimoto Fujio -~t AJ- T, k (1901 -Kobu (he wen), T6ky6, Sakagamesha, 1950, 135pp. /h/ 394, Akita Ujaku -~4z WJ (1883- ) and others Engekishi (The history of the dram~a_) [_-v. 1 of Gendai engekiron taikei fs, 4 1 ~( (outline of modern dramatic theory)], T6ky6, Gogatsu Shob6, 1951. 1k! 395. Akutagawa Ryilnosuke - f.~4F (1892-1927) "'Ar ah6 no issh6 a) ~ c (The life of a certain fool)," Kaiz6, October, 1927. If! "'Genkaku samb6 ~ j.(The Genkaku mountain cottage)," Chiio k6ron, January, 1927. If! "Haguruma ~ -(A cogwheel), Bungei shunjii October, 1927. /f "Kappa;~ 17 (Kappa [ a river impj),"1 Kaiz6, March, 1927. If! "'Shinkir6 ~-~ (A mirage)," Fujin k6ron, March, 1927. If! "Bungei-teki na amari ni bungei-teki na 4 (t3~-rz ri (Literary, too literary),"1 Kaiz6, April, 1927. Ic! "'Shi-sh6setsu shiken *4I4, JL (Personal views on 'private' fiction), " Shinch6, November, 1925. lcI "ISeih5 no hito 0~7 ~ @a). (A person from the west)," Kaiz6, August, 1927.!f7 Akutagawa Ryilnosuke sakuhinshil,~ -~~(A collection of the works of Akutagawa Ryilnosuke), T6ky,6, Iwanami Shoten, 1949-50, 6v. fAfter these six volumes, three more containing short articles, thoughts, and criticism were added.] IzI Akut~awaRyilnosuke sakuhinsh~il t- i. f 4 (A collection of the works of Akutagawa Ryilnosuke), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1950, 5v. IzI Akutagawa Ryfinosuke zenshil Iq /J4f 4 (The complete works of Akutagawa Ryiinosuke), T ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1927-1928, 8v. IzI Fukyfiban Akutagawa Ryiinosuke zenshii 4 - ~4F 4 (The complete works of Akutagawa Ryilnosuke, popular edition), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoteny 1934-1935, l0v. IzI Akutagawa Ryiinosuke zenshil, 2 4 (The complete works of Akutagawa Ryilnosuke), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1954-1955, 20v. IzI 396. Amakasu Sekisuke tt *j0 F- 4r (1906 -"Geijutsu-ron ~4~y~ (A treatise on art)," Yuibutsuron enhOctober, 1935. Ic! 397. -Amano Teyc P i n (1884 -Ikiyu michi (The way of life), T~ky,6, Hosokawa Shoten, 1948.!eI

Page  84 84 84 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 39 8. Amino Kiku f7! t (1900 -"Chiki ~v L (An acquaintance)," Bungei, July, 1954. If! "065 f (Karma)," Sekai, December, 1953. If! "Kin no kan /t a?4t (A golden coffin)," Sekai, May, 1947. A/f "'Kuri no mi ET m (Chestnut meat)," Bungei o6rai, January, 1949. /f/ "lTsukimono A ~fy/j (Demoniacal Possession), Sekai, April, 1946. /f/ Wakai hi e (Younger days), T6ky6, Zenkoku Shob6, 1942. If! 399. And6 Tsuguo- c (1919 -Rokugatsu no midori no yoru wa L-~ (pf j (A green night in June), T6ky5, Kosumosusha, 19 50. /p/ And6 Tsuguo shishii -V' ~ ~ -i (A collection of the long poems of And6 Tsuguo), T6ky6, San' ichi Shob6, 1952. /pI Teik6 shiron " -j~ (A treatise on long poems expressing resistance), T6ky6, Aoki Shoten, 1953, Ic! 400. Anzai Fuyue - Y (1898 -Daigaku no rusu >6~' ~ Hldyatteuiest) saka, Yugawa K6bunsha, 1943. /p/ Gunkan Matsuri T,~i (The warship Matsuri), T6ky6, K6seikaku, 1929. /p/ 401. -Aoki Tadashi 'M t- IL (1903 -Genji monogatari shinshaku -; t, C-1 ~/ ~-PET * 37lpp. 1k! (The Tale of Genji, newly annotated), T~ky6, Yaseid.6, 1947, 402. Aono Suekichi N (1890 -"'Bungaku-teki jinseiron rl ft (On a life of literature)," Shinch6, April, 1946. Ic! "'Shinrin Ric (Mental age)," Bungakkai, May, 1943 - April, 1944. 777 "Bungei hihy6 no ichi-hattengata )i 4mtt~ (One type of development in literary criticism)," Bungei sensen, October, 1925./c "Futatabi shirabeta geijutsu 'Ax f z 4~l (Art restudied)," Bungei sensen, eebr 1925. Ic! "Gendai bungakuron TiL- ~I 7 (On present-day literature)," Fiisetsu, February-April, 1949; also, T6ky6, Rokk6 Shuppansha, 1949. /c/ "Jimmin no bungaku ni tsuite A< I ~. (On a literature of the masses)," T6hoku bunau February, 1946. Ic! Marukusu-shugi bungaku t6s6 - 7,-7, 9' (Conflicts in Marxist literature), T6ky6, Tenjinsha, 1930. Ic! "Nihon puroretaria geijutsushiron u '07' (A treatise on the history of Japanese proletarian art)," Kaiza, November, 1927. Ic! "'Shinrei no fukkatsu A' t4, 4j it~ (The revival of the soul)," Bungei, March, 1940. Ic! "'Shizen seich6 to mokuteki ishiki 0 t -~ +, ~_ -P 0 (Natural growth and consciousness of an objective)," Bungei sensen, September, 1926. /c/ "Shizen seic 0~ i ~.O -h6 to mokuteki ishiki sairon ti; ~~~~5-.~~ fi(Rediscussion of natural growth and consciousness of an objective), " Bungei sensen, January, 1927. /c/ Tenknkino ungau T C) (Literature in an age of change), T6ky6, Shunjiisha, 1927. /c/ "'Ky6d6 zakki PE 4 wk (Miscellaneous notes at Ky5d6," Bungakkai, May, 1940. Ic! Aono Suekichi senshfl + rI F (A selection of works by Aono Suekichi), Tfky6, Kawade Shob6, 1950.!2 403. Aoyama K6ji ~ -(1913 -"Yaiba J7' (A blade)," Kindai bunau September, 1948. If! "Yoru no h6monsha ~ ~ - (A visitor at night)," Shinsh6setsu, December, 1947. If! 404, Ara Masahito ffiAk (1913 -Akai tech6 ~t (A red note-book), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1949. Ic! "'Daini no seishun ~~- (A second youth)," Kindai bungaku February, 1946. Ic! "Engisetsu hatan 4 & (alr na hoyo cig, Shinch6, November, 1954. Ic! "'Makeinu~ -jt ) (An underdog)," Kindai bungaku, November-December, 1946. Ic! "'Miyamoto Yuriko-ron 'X"~,~ (On Miyamoto Yuriko),"1 Bungaku kikan, November, 1947. Ic! "'Sanjiidai no tait6 -=t -V Q~ ) rp (The rise of those in the thirties),"1 Asahi hy~ron, January, 1947. Ic! Sengo bungaku no temb6 J; 4t jZ!~ok L (Trends in postwar literature), T6ky6, Mikasa Shob6, 1956. Shimin bungakuron - (A treatise on popular literature), Tfky6, Aoki Shoten, 1955. Ic! "IShokugy6 to shite no bungak)'u" f tO +I - (Literature as a profession)," Gunz6, March, 1954. Ic! 1k! 405. Ara Masahito, Hirano Ken i4 4 *, and others Sh~wa bungaku jinik q6 *7 g4 - (Twelve essays on Shbowa literature), T~ky6, YKAiz6sha,1903lp;lae published under the title Sh6wa bungaku kenyi f,. z- (Studies in Sho-wa literature), T6ky6, Hanawa Shob6, 1952. 1k!

Page  85 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHWOA LITERATURE 8 85 406. Ara Masahito, Kubota Masabumi Z4-, Sasaki Kiichi 4 Hirano Ken, Honda Shu-go and Yamamuro Shizuka_ a ~-, Sh~wa bungakushi 0 *!-tT~ ~P (History of ShOwa literature), T6ky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1956, 2v. /k/ 407. Ara Masahito, Tomono Daiz5 ~- If' 4X: '~- Nakamura Mitsuo ~ L~ Hirano Ken, Hirata Jisabur6 -7- EV ), t, and Fukuda Tsuneari J- - ]1 - Gaisetsu gendai Nihon 'bungakushi *c t x-\ N ~ -- (An outline history of modern Japanese literature), under supervision of Hisamatsu Sen'lichi ZIs -, T~kyO, Hanawa ShobO, 19 50. 1k 408. Ara Masahito, Sasaki Kiichi, Hirano Ken, and Honda Shiigo, ed. T~ron Nihon puroretaria bungaku und~shi 4~1 7 cz 77 9 ~- (Discussion: the history of the Japanese proletarian literature movement), Ky~to, San'ichi ShobO. 1955. Ic! 409. Arai T6ru *F 4t-k# "Arumenia no ky~dai e T V (To our brothers of Armenia)," Nappu, J uly, 19 31. /p/ 410. Araki Takashi 2t ~. (1905-1950) "Tanizoko /,~- k (The bottom of the ravine)," KaizO, June, 1935. If! "Uzu no naka qj t (Inside a whirlpool)," T~ky6, Ky~wa Shoin, 1936. If! 411. Asahara RokurO 6 ~~ (1895 -Birudingu to sh6ben e' tv- r ~{ (A building and urine), T~ky6, Sekirokaku, 1930. If! "Kabuto-chO t MTj (Kabuto street)," ChMl k~ron, September, 1932. If! Shinshakaiha bungaku -; (The neo-socialistic literature), T~kyO, K~seikaku, 1932. 412. -Asahara RokurO, Kuno Toyohiko Z t-~ O and Ryiitanji YUi- ~ "Issen-kyahyaku-sanjfinen 1930 ~-(1930)," Ch16k~ron, October, 1930. If! 413. Asahi Shimbunsha ~ R -4- g: Chdlsonji to Fujiwara yondai t 4'-O TF, t X-' (The Chfisonji [temple] and the four generations of the Fujiwara [family]), Tdkyd, Asahi Shimbunsha, 1950. If! 414, Asai Jiizabur6 4-+ (1908 -Echigo sammyaku ~ q~ (The Echigo range), Thoky6, Shi to Shijin Hakk~jo, 1940. IpI Kakeidai no me <i]' (Eyes at the stake), T~ky6, Shi to Shijinsha, 1949. IpI 415. Asami Fukashi (1899 -Gendai sakkaron 4, (On some contemporary writers), T~kyd, Akatsuka Shob6, 1938. Ic! Gendai sakka sanjiininron (On thirty contemporary writers), T~ky5, Takemura, Shob5, 1940.Ic 416. Asano Akira -; r L (1901 -"Kokumin bungakuron no kompon mondai t~; ~J~-1 L~l ~-L rVOJ 0 question of a national literature)," ShinchO, Augu-st, 1937. Ic! (Basic problems relating to the 417. Asano Shin j 4f I- (1905 -Matsuo BashO; ~ /i -.'j (Matsuo BashO [the haiku poet]), Thky6, Ch~bunkaku, 1950, 305pp. 1k! "Tet-suroano hibiki ld t tY- * _ - (The reverberations of an iron road)," Jimmin bungaku, May-December, 1953; also, Tokyo, Rironsha, 1954. If! 419. As6 K~tarO 4z t J)-P & Kaze'no naka k o) t~ (Within the wind), Shizuka naru jinsei -0 t, ric ~, A ' Tengoku to jigoku '' II ~- ~t-f-I T~kyO, Shi to Jinseisha, 1931. IpI (A quiet life), T~kyO, Shi no Kai, 1929. IpI (Heaven and hell), TfkyO, privately printed, 1926. 420. Atsumi SeitarO Ai- A~ (1892 -Kanshiaku daimyO j, i-,/ ( X_- AZ / (The hot-tempered lord), performed by the Ennosuke and Sumiz6 troupe, August, 1946. Id! "Samui mado _- -~ S1 (A cold window)," Shin-Nihon bungku May, 1947. If! 422. Awano Seiho 139T -4 ff -*- 0 (1899 -Manry - T r (A spear flower); T~ky6, ManryO Kank~kai, 1931. IhI Teihon Seiho kushil A _ z 7 (A collection of Seiho' s haiku, standard edition), T~kyO, Takara ShobO, 1947. 1

Page  86 86 86 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 423. Azumi Atsushi -V 4i t (1907 -Furugoyomi j (An old calendar), T6ky6, Shunt~sha, 1954. /f/ 424. Chida Chiihei %B Z -,t Eik6s'en.~ I-~ (Tugboat), T6ky6, Koizumi Shoten, 1950, l59pp. /p/ 425. ChM Kakuchd l (1905 -"AX Ch6sen ~A o ~ (Ah, Korea i, Shinch6, February, 19 52. /f/ "Garub6 Ii", iv '7" (Garbo),"1 Bungei, March, 1934. If! "Gon to yii otoko 4 ' (A man called Gon),"1 Kaiz6, 1934. If! ' Hin~ammin~i~ (Refugees), " Shinch6, June, 1952. If! Chdij6 Yuriko -f3 ~' -: see Miyamoto Yuriko, 426. Dan Kazuo 41 (1912 -"tOwari no hi o< (Telsfi),Nng, February, 1948. /f/ Hanagatami X. ML (The flower box), T6ky6, Akatsuka Shobd, 1937. /f/ Kono ie no seikaku ~L o ''-*~- (The characteristics of this family), 1933. /f/ Ritsuko: sono ai 1 I7 + of (Ritsuko: her love), T~ky6, Sakuhinsha, 1950. If! Ritsuko: sono shi y1 9- '7~ (Ritsuko: her death), T6ky6, Sakuhinsha, 1950. /f/ "Shinsetsu Ishikaw-a Goemon tt -b- /trZ 4jrl (The true version of the story of Ishikawa Goemon)," ShinOsaka shimbun, October, 1950 - December, 1951. If! 427. Dazai Osamu A - C7 (1909-1948) Bannen at _~ (His later years), T6ky6, Sunagoya Shob6, 1936. /f/ "Biyon no tsuma "73 O? 4 -- (Villon's wife)," Temb5, March, 1947. If! "'Dasu gemaine % ~''v (Das Gemeine),"1 Bungei shunjUl October, 1935. /f/ "D6ke no hana K 0- (The flower of buffoonery)," Nihon r6manha, May, 1935. If! "Fugaku hyakkei ~~- (A hundred scenes of Mount Fuji)," January, 1939. /f/ " Gyakk6 ~AL i (Retrogression)," Bungei, February, 1935. If! "Hashire Merosu;& t 7' (Run, Meros),"1 Shinch6, May, 1940. If! "Hif u to koko ro 1L- '- (The skin and heart),"1 Bungakkai, November, 1939. /f/ "Kirigirisu - (I (A grasshopper),"1 Shinchl, November, 1940. If! "Kyok5 no haru o) (A false spring)," Bungakkai, July, 1936. If! Kyok6 no hMO 416 4 (A pretended wandering), T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1937. /f/ "Ningen shikkakuK J (Man disqualified)," Temb6, June-August, 1948. /f/ "Onna no kett5 6 Ade b oe)"Gka bunsh6, January-June, 1940. If! "Sakuramb6 (Cherries)," Kaian May, 1948., If! Otogiz6shi ~ /j.k (A story book), T6ky6, Chikuma Shob5, 1945. If! Seigi to bish6 j_; 4 — * (justice and a smile), T6ky6, Kinj6 Shuppansha, 1942. If! "'Shay6 #4~- ~., (The setting sun)," Shinch6, July-October, 1947; also, Tbky5, Kadokawa Shoten, 1950. If! Shin-Hamuretto I~ V' y1 (A new Hamlet), T6ky6, Bungei Shunjilsha, 1941. If! "'Shin' yf k6kan -% 9-;$# (Greetings between intimate friends)," Shinch6, December, 1946. If! "'Suisen -j( 4JA (Daffodils)," Kaiz6, May, 1942. If! "1T~ky6 hakkei /`,J,- (Eight views of TfkyO),"1 Bungakkai, January, 1941. If! Tsugaru (Tsugaru [a placename in northern JapanJ) T~ky6, Koyama Shoten, 1944. If! Udaijin Sanetomo ~ ~ (Mnmt]Sanetomo, the Great Minister of the Right), Tfky6, Kinj6 Shuppansha, 1943. If! "Zoku-tenshi 4,, k 1- A worldly-minded angel)," Shinch6, January, 1940. If! "Haru no kareha 4-~ ' (Withered leaves in spring)," Ningen, September, 1946; performed by the Haiyuiza company at the Mainichi H6ru, February, 1948. If-dI "Nyoze gabun 4k A ~ J (My observations of Nyoze).," Shinch6 March-July, 1948. Ic! Dazai Osamu sakuhin-shfi -cK ~ ~ ~ Aclecino the works of Dazai Osamu), Tfky6, Sogensha, 1951, 6v. IzI Dazai Osamu zenshii,k -I - (The complete works of Dazai Osamu), T6ky6, Yakumo Shoten, 1948, 18v. IzI Dazai Osamu zenshil;& -~ i (The complete works of Dazai Osamu), T6ky6, Chikuma Sh6b5, 1955-1956, 13v. Iz [Vo 13 is a work by Koyama Kiyoshi entitled Dazai Osamu kenkyil,* V — _A1i (Studies in Dazai Osamu).] 428. -Doi K~chi.E- - )L -~U (1886 -Bungaku josetsu _j *3- (An introduction to literature), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1927. 1k! 429. Edogawa Rampo 2_ ' -vU, (1894 -Kyiiketsuki VA $WY, (A vampire), T~ky6, Hakubunkan, 1931. If! Edogawa Rampo zenshil Txj ((I -tL, -V. (The complete works of Edogawa Rampo), Tfky6, Shun' yWd, 1954 -1956, i5v. IzI

Page  87 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 8 87 430. Eguchi Kan x J- (1887 -"'Dengen b~ei t~ Ig 1 (Defense of a source of electricity)," Kaiz6, February, 1954, If! "'Shi no kurohata 4fc, 6? Y.4- (The black flag of death)," Asahi hy6ron, October, 1946 - March, 1947. If! "Waga bungaku hanseiki ~ "~ (A record of my half a lifetime in literature), T6ky6, Aoki Shoten, 1953. /e/ 431. Ei Yoshiko k Haru no kao #- j, (Spring's face), T~ky6, Heibonsha, 1927. /p/ Yoshiko ren' ai shishil }i k ~- 4 (A collection of long poems on Yoshiko' s love affair), T6ky6, Sojinsha, 19 32. /p/ TY6y no haru a)4 (Eastern spring), T~ky5, K6ransha, 1932. Ip/ 432. End6 Shiisaku ~ ~ ~ "'Kii roi hito, (The yellow people)," Gunz6, November, 1955. If! "Ydropian ~, (The Europeans)," Bungei shunjdi, September, 1955. If! 433. Engeki Hakubutsukan 4.] A~ "/ ' (Drama Museum), ed. Kokugeki yaran II t7 1 It (The essentials of national drama), T6ky6, Azusa Shob5, 1932. /k! 434. Enji Fumiko ~ t-_~ j4 (1895 -"Banshun s6ya ot 4 - (A noisy night in late spring)," Nyonin geijutsu, October, 1928. "Himojiitsukihi tA { ' s (Months and days of hunger),"1 ChiI6 k6ron, December, 1953. Onnazaka Palt- (Female hill), T6ky6, Jimbun SIhoten, 1938. /f/ Sekcishun 4 (A lamented springtime), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1939. If! 435. Fujimori Hideo *. (1894 -Murasaki suish6 t~t'K (Purple crystal), T6ky6, Kinseid6, 1927. IpI Ine f6 (Rice-plant), T6ky6, K6keisha, 1929. Ip! Id! If! 436. Fujimori Seikichi (1892 -"Gisei Vc (A sacrifice)," Kaiz6, June, 1926. Id! " Kame no Chirii C oV) I-~-r - I - (The turtle Charley)," Kaiz6, September, 1932. If! Kanashiki ai J.(~ (A sad love), T6ky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1930. If! "Rai San'y6 (Rai San'y5)," in Seish6nen Nihon bungaku -13 l —u~,t (Japanese literature for young people), T6ky6, Shibund6, 1941. /f "Watanabe Kazan j7 j+ (Watanabe Kazan)," Kaiz6, July-October, 1935. If! Edoj6 akewatashi;ir_ L ~-~t (Giving up Edo castle), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1938. Id! "Nani ga kanoj o o s6 saseta ka {+h' ~- ~ +-jL ~4Qt: (What made her do it?)," Kaiz6, January, 1927. Id! "Haritsuke Mozaemon (The crucified Mozaemon),"1 Shinch6, May, 1926. Id! "Chdei no yukikata -i 1 &' 4T1 (The way Ch6ei goes)," Bungaku hy6ron, January, 1936. Id! "O6hara Ydigaku K Iy,. %~4~M (Ohara Y~gaku),"1 ~hk6ro September, 1940. Id! "'Musankaikyd bungeiron 4 13/ - ik j~ (A criticism of proletarian literary art)," Shakaimondai kaMay, 1926. Ic! 437. Fujisawa Furumi 4i. (1897 -Kunibara j. (A spacious country), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1927. It! 438. Fujiwara Tei 0& If t. (1918 -Nagareru hoshi wa ikite iru -,jt C_ k z ~ (A shooting star is alive), T~ky6, Hibiya Shuppansha, 1949,/el 439. Fukada Kyiiya f fi A, fo (1903 -"Asu nar6 ~' t3 rj (It may be tomorrow)," Kaiz6, November, 1932.If "O0rokko no musume T r'.j _u a) (An Oroks maiden)," Bungei shunjiil April, 1930. If! Shin' yf -X A- (Intimate friends), T6ky6, Shinchbsha, 1939. /f Tsugaru no nozura (The Tsugaru field), Tfky5, Sakuhinsha, 1935. If! 440. Fukai Michiko 4~f~it ~ "Natsu no arashi o (A summer tempest)," Bungei, May, 1956. 441. Fukazawa Shichir6 ~4 - "'Narayamabushik6 4& j, (Thoughts on a Narayama tune)," C oU6 November, 1956. If! 442. Fukuda Ayak f 0~ (1915 -"Otoko-tachi p (Men)," Bungei shuto, May-June, 1947. If! 443. Fukuda Kioo t _- A (1904 -"Dasshutsu R.* (Escape),"t Shinch6, March, 1935; also, Tokyo, Ky6wa Shoin, 1935. If! "Kunikida Doppo qPY * ~i 1; (Kunikida. Doppo)," Shnco February, 1937. If-k!

Page  88 88 88 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND) RESEARCH MATERIALS 444. Fukuda Tsuneari ~t )4-~ (1912 -' Kitii taff~i t Y~ij~ (Typhoon Kitty)," Ningen, January, 1950. /d/ "Rya o nadeta otoko z. t - (The man who stroked the dragon),"I E ngeki, January, 19 52. Id! "ID6ke no bungaku t t (The literature of buffoonery)," Gunz-6, June-July, 1948. Ic! "'Saigo no kirifuda c t72 ~L (The last trump card),Jge September, 1948. Id! "Geijutsu no tenraku 4 & -- (The decline of the arts)," Bungei, February, 1948. /c/ Geijutsu to wa nani ka ~ 4 i t 11, (What are the arts?), Tokyo, Kaname Shobo, 1950. Ic! Gendai sakka -i A-'$ 0 (Contemporary writers), T6ky5, Shinch6sha, 1949. Ic! "Hanzoku no bungaku rsz /I1 )~_t (The literature of social demoralization)," Gunz6, December, 1947. Ic! Heik5 kankaku: bungei hy~ronshii 1h k- f - _ t *_ (The sense of equilibrium: a collection of literary criticism), T6ky6, Shinzembisha, 1947.Ic "Kindai no shukumei ~t(The destiny of the modern age)," T6zai bunko, November, 1947. /c/ "Ningen, kono, gekiteki naru mono /el If) IIIt_ ri 4. (Man-this dramatic being)," Shincho, July, 1955 -May, 1956. /c/ Sakka no taido LK ~~~.~ (The attitude of the author), T6ky6, Chii6 KMronsha, 1947. /c/ "'Shdsengo no sh6setsu '. ') (Post-war fiction)," Bummei, May, 1946. Ic! Fukuda Tsuneari-shil 97~4 (A collection of the works of Fukuda Tsuneari), T~ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1950. IzI 445. Fukuhara Rintar-6~ /~~~ (1894-_ "Nihon bungaku to gaikoku bungaku no ichi -,-~ tlV 4 t( + 4 - j~ (The positions of Japanese and foreign literature)," Shinch6, April, 1943. Id7 446. Fukumoto Kazuo ~ t (1894 -"Yamakawa-shi no h~k6 tenkanron no tenkan yori hajimezaru-bekarazu 0J u 25 ~ 4*1 #. 4, ~ 'j -eo Y \- '4 ~ z5' ~(We must start f rom the conversion of the theory of conversion of direction of Mr. Yamakawa),"1 Marukusu shgFebruary, 1926. Ic! 447. Fuuaa Takehiko A +J. ~~ 41 (1918 -"IFddo QJ- (Natural features)," Bungaku gojilichi, May-September, 1951. If! "Henshin lul (A change of mind)," 55 g6 bunka, November, 1947. If! "'Shin'en - s,-. (An abyss)," "uei.December, 1954. If! 448. Funabashi Seiichi -~~- (1904 -"Bokuseki 2 fz (Trees and stones)," Bungakkai, October, 1938. "Daivingu -74~k 7" (Diving)," K6d6, October, 1934. If! "'Doku c-(Poison),"t Bessatsu bungei shunjii, February, 1946. If! "Gam6 ~ 4z~(The down [of ducksj)," Bugkki July-October, 1947 If!s)1 h~es hnh6bgnigi "Geisha Konatsu monogatari;kt'i A tale of the geisha Kntu, hstasic6bgnigi January, 1952. If! "Hana no sugao rc 0 (The natural face of a flowe r),"t Asahi shimbun Dcme,194 8 - June, 1949. If! "Iwano H6mei-den ~ f- ~{' (A -biography of Iwano HMmei, Bungakkai, July, 1936. 1k! "'Niku no hi P~ ") (The fire of the body)," Shinch6, March, 1947. 7i7~ "'Oinasu?t. 4 -3- (The old eggplant)," Bungei shunjil, April, 1947. If! Shikkaiya Yasukichi i. (The general dealer Yasukichi), Tfky6, S6gensha, May, 1945. Id! "Yoko ni natta reij6 rx- kt it (A young lady who lay down)," January-December, 1956. If! "'Yuki fujin ezu t' A, 1 MP (A sketch of Madame Yuki),"1 Sh6setsu shinh, January, 1948 - February, 1950; also, T~ky6, Shinch6sha, 1948-1950. Genji monogatari $, J~/ - (The tale of Genji), pt.i performed at the Kabukiza, T~ky6, March, 1951; also publised asGenji monogatari s6shi a, 1,inpats Ki ritsb,T~ky5, Kawade Shob,5, 1950, 2+189pp.; Hahakigi, Utsusemid, Yiigao PIT 7 [named after chapter-headings in the Genji monogatari], T6ky6, Kawade Shob5, 1951, 1+l9lpp. Hokusai to Oman ~L T_- ~, t, I~f (Hokusai and Oman), performed by the Ennosuke and Yaeko company at the Ky~to Minamiza in May, 1946. Id! Tewn mn h ie n h hwro anpromdb h Matsukaze murasame *i IC & T 44 Tewn mn h ie n h hwro anpromdb h Ennosuke and Yaeko company at the T6ky6 Gelij6, April, 1940. Id! Senshu to Yoritomio to t~, q _ (Senshu and Yoritomo), performed by the Ennosuke, Yaeko,an Inoue Masao company at the T6ky5 Gekij5, April, 1948. Id! Shunshoku Satsuma uta A - (The spring song of Satsuma), performed by the Ennosuke and Yaeko company at the T6ky6 Gekij6, February, 1946. Id! ak Takiguchi Nyiid6 no koi -/* N \ - c)'t5- (Takiguchi Nyiid6' s love), performed by the Ennosuke andYak company at the T6ky6 Gekij67 in February, 1946.!dI Tanosuke-beni a3 Lg ~ ~ (Tanosuke-beni), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the T6ky6 Gekij6 in February, 1946. Id! Ktmr ~ouPIBLgaki aur-u 90 k "Kitamura T6koku 3L t _ (Kitamr ok)"BngkaJaur-uY,190 1k "GeiJutsuha no n6d6sei - 4k.. ~t' (The activeness of an artistic school), KO~d5, January, 1935. Ic! "Nikutai bungaku no yukue v- 4<1 ~ 4 " (The future of fleshly literature)," Shinch6, October, 1949. Ic!

Page  89 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 8 89 449. Funakata Hajime A-P T' - (1912 -Waga ai wa tatakai no naka kara ~?-!,I a u41 Ii t~~ (Our loves come from out of our fighting), T~ky5, Ichikawa Shoten, 1949. /p/ 450. Funayama Kaoru "Hanjd-shin t f C ~~P it (1914 -(A half animal god),"1 Asahi hy6ron, April, 1947. /f/ 451. Furukawa Katsumi Gendai haiku no kenkyji _b (I t c-, (1913 -tL /1'C A _"7 1~ kT (Studies in present-day haiku), TOkyO, Taikod?5, 1949. /k! 452. Furuta Daijir6, P, 2 Shi no zange ~ c ) (Repentance for death), Tk6k~, Shunjdisha, 1926. /f/ 453. Furuya Tsunatake Kawabata Yasunari It Yokomitsu Aiichi 0 4cf ~- I I (Kawabata Yasunari [ name of author]), T~ky6, Sakuhinsha, 1936. t *I - (Yokomitsu Riichi [name of author]), T6ky6, Sakuhinsha, 1936. Ic! /c/ 454. Gendai Shijinkai Tt 4-;'.k Gendaishi Iik 1+ A-J Gendaishi shink6 T! <4 -,1,~j t? (Association of Present-day Poets), ed. (Ten lectures on present-day poetry), Tfky6, H6bunkan, 1951. /k! (New lectures on the present-day long poem), T6ky6, H6bunkan, 1951. Ic! 455. Gomi Yasusuke --- P4 f-' (1921 -"'S6shin f- - (Abstraction)," Bungei shunjuQ March, 1953. /f/ 456. Got6 KentarO 4 k -,-,~ R6d6 h~r6 kangoku yori / ~-? - J ) Kentar5 Ik6shii Kank6kai, 1926. /p/ (From the prison of a laborer's wanderings), Osaka, Got6 457. Got6 Mioo — X'} (1898 -Oka no ue fr- (The top of the hill), T6ky5, K~bunsha, 1948. /t/ 458. Got5 Shigru 1 (1900- );also known as Ishikure Shigeru. Xb Atara'shiki tankaron -#h' I I JV -WP A~; (A new theory for the tanka), T6ky6, Daiichi Shob6i 1942. Ic! Tanka kakumei no shinten -k~t -t, Tepors of revolution in the tanka), 1928. Ic! Ishikure Shigeru. kashil T (A collection of tanka by Ishikure Shigeru), T6ky6,, Nihon Hy6ronsha, 1929. It/ O 459. Hagiwara Ky6jir5 l -U! ' k (1899-1938) Dampen~7( (rgments), T6ky6, Keibunsha, 1931. /p/ Hagiwara Ky6jir5 shishii * — I/, 4,-;~k (A collection of the long poems of Hagiwara Ky6jir5), Tfky6, H6kokusha, 1940. /p/ 460. Hagiwara Ragetsu 4-Jk r 4 (1884 -Shij in Bash6 K,. (The poet Bash-6), T6ky&, K~ogyokud6 Sthoten, 1926. 1k! 46 1. Hagiwara Sakutar6 k~I -~ (1886-1942) Hy6t6 A 7 (An island of ice), T6ky6, Daiichi ShMb, 1934. IpI "'Tora J~(A tiger, O June, 1933. IpI Junsei shiron 4 (A theory of pure and true poetry), T6ky6, Daiichi Shob6, 1935. Ic! Kyom6 no seigi. A (False justice), T6ky6, Daiichi Shob6, 1929. Ic! Shi no genri T I W- (The principles of the long poem), Tfky6, Daiichi Shob6, 1928. Ic! Zetsub6 no t~s6 7), (A desperate escape), Tfky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1935. Ic! Ky6shii no shijin Yosa Buson ~~ ~4 ~ (A poet of the native heath, Yosa Buson), Tfky5, Daiichi Shob5, 1936. 1k! "'Shidan kara bundan e 4 S(From the circles of the long poem to those of narrative writing)," Nihonshjn June, 1923. Ic! Shiron to kans6 4 ~~ (The theory of long poems and impressions), T~ky6, S6jinsha, 1928. Ic! Hagiwara Sakutar& shishii Daiichi Shob6, 1928. Hagiwara Sakutar6 zenshil 1943-1944, l2v. h2 Hagiwara Sakutar6 zenshii 1951, By. IzI 4 H a- (A collection of the long poems of Hagiwara Sakutar6), T6ky6, / 4- v I -t 4z * (The complete works of Hagiwara Sakutar6), T6ky6, Sh6gakkan, 4/ iV-. -~A(The complete works of Hagiwara Sakutar6), T~ky6, S~gensha,

Page  90 90 90 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 462. Hamada Ky6tar6 -~, nJ A4 k, (1920 -"Nise kichigai Iz t I" ~A (A pretended lunatic)," Kinr~sha bungaku, April, 1948. If! 463. Hanada Kiyoteru &W (1909 -"ID~butsu, shokubutsu, k6butsu it - V_11 (Animals, plants, and minerals)," Ningen, January, 1949. Ic! "Don Fan -ron V 7 7Y> (A treatise on Don Juan)," NnnSeptember, 1949. Ic! Fukk~ki no seishin 0 5 (The spirit of the Renaissance), T6ky6, Gagansha, 1946. /c/ "'Sakuran no ronri 0 0 " (The logic of distraction)," Bunka soshiki, March, 1940; also T6ky6, Shinzembisha, 1947. /k/ 464. 'Hanaoka Kenji rV ~ l Gendai k~go kashii * PCr- -* (An anthology of present-day tanka in the spoken language), T~ky6, Daichisha, 1933. /t/ 465. Hanawa Shob6 ct 4-1, comp. Bungak' ouo - iot sauin T " - A"?_ /IF ~ " (A textbook on literature -- writers and their works), Todky65, Hanawa Shob6, 1951. 1k/ 466. Handa. Ry6hei k ve t"c -T (1887-1945) Saiwaig ~ K (The tree of good luck), Tfky6, Seikob Shob&, 1948. /t/ 467. Handa Yoshiyuki A - (1911 -"Niwatori s6d6 5 (An uproar concerning chickens), " Bungei shunjil, September, 1939. If! 468. Haniya Yutaka At 4~ (1910 -Fug6ri yue ni ware shinzu 4-` T v~ ~ 1 4 (I believe it because it is irrational), T6ky6, Getsuy6 Shob6,.19 50. If! "Ishiki I. - _I (Consciousness)," Bungei, October, 1948. /f/ "'Shiry6 fL -t (A dead man's spirit)," Kindai bungau January, 1946. /f/ 469. Hara Sekitei 1' 4~; (1884-1951) Kae i ~ (The shade of flowers), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1936. IhI 470. Hara Takeo A.. + "Kamataki to kikanshi 4T ~ 4 L~ (A fireman and an engineer)," Shakai hy6ron, September, 1949. If! 471. Hara Tamiki I&-&, (1905-1951) " Natsu no hana A, (The flowers of summer)," Mita bungaku, June, 1947. If I "'Shingan no kuni " 0) fq- (Land of heart's desire)," Gunz6, May, 1951. If! Hara Tamiki sakuhinshtl R, (A collection of the works of Hara Tamiki), T~ky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1953, 2v. IzI Hara Tamiki shishil, %k (A collection of the long poems of Hara Tamiki), T6ky5, Hosokawa 472. Haruyama Yukio,A- LIA #jA (1902 -Hanabana At vQ (Flowers of various sorts), T6ky6, Hangas6, 1935. IpI Shokubutsu no dammen A~ T'/ ~- ~tt (The cut sections of plants), T6ky6, K6seikaku Shoten, August, 1929. IpI Atarashiki shiron L~ V (A new theory for the long poem), T6ky6, Daiichi Shob6, 1940. Ic! Bungaku hy6ron 7 - (Criticism of literature), Tboky6, K6seikaku, 1934. Ic! "Chbogenjitsushugi shiron (A treatise on surrealistic long poems)," Kaiz5, October, 1929. Ic! ir _',P ~ Tesra fcosiuns n "Ishiki no nagare to sh6setsu. no k~sei 'Y- A-~ ~ - Tesremo osiuns n the construction of novels)," Shinch6, June, 1931. Ic! Shi no kenkyfi )pj (A study of the long poem), T6ky6, Daiichi Shob6, February, 1931. Ic! 473. Hase Ken -~,4- _ (1904 -"Asakusa no kodomo t). i a) (The children of Asakusa), Bungei shunjil, September, 1939. IfI 474. Hasegawa Ginsaku,-141- (1894 -Kiaa~ j Kihara),Tfky6, Sanjitsu Shob6, 1948. It! 475. Hasegawa Ki~hei - J T (1908 -Hok6sba no ronri - (The walker's logic), T6ky6, Shinzembisha, 1948, 230pp. Ic!

Page  91 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 91 91 476. Hasegawa Nyozekan,,I -& A (1875 -"Nihon geijutsu no dent6-teki tokuch6 1i ft( - o /I 6 O ' (The traditional characteristics of the Japanese arts)," Nihon hy6ron, June, 1940. Ic! "Sens5 to bungakusha no sekinin (The war and the responsibility of men of literature), Ningen, April, 1946. Ic! Nyozekan chosakushii - L 4 (A collection of the works of Hasegawa Nyozekan), Nara, Yotokusha, 1948, 2v. /c/ Nyozekan bungei zenshi4 (The complete literary works of Nyozekan), T6ky6, Gakugeisha, 1933. /z/ 477. Hasegawa Reiysi4~ (1886-1928) Reiyoshi kushui %t- 1 (A collection of the haiku of Reiyoshi), T6ky6, Suimei Hakk6jo, 1932. /h/ 478. Hasegawa Seiya R Bungei to shinri bunseki i q /~ 4j- (Literature and psychological analysis), T6ky6, Shun' y6d6, 1930. 7k! 479. Hasegawa Shigure "1 (1879-1941) Enoshima Ikujima - f (Enoshima and Ikujima), performed by the Kan'ya and Yaeko company at the Shinjuku Daiichi Gekij6, November, 1946. Id! 480. Hasegawa Shin 4 i t~ (1884 -"Beni k~mori ~- - (Red bat)," Asahi shimbun, September, 1930 - February, 1931; March, 1931 - August, 1932. If! Irezume kigii A,- -1 v~ (Coincidence of tattoos), performed by the Ennosuke, Tokiz6, and S5jiir6 company at the Shinjuku Daiichi Gekij6, December, 1946. Id! "'Mabuta no hahna ) ~ (The image of a mother), " n February-March, 1930. Id! "'Shisei hangan ~441' (A judge of tattooing)," Asahi shimbunFbur,13 - July, 193a If! 481. Hasegawa Shir6 4 ~- ((IW o, p Shiberiya monogatari (1909 -(Tales of Siberia), Tfky6, Misuzu Shob6, 1952. If! 482. Hashimoto Eikich -4 (1898 -"Fuji sanch5 kW i' (The summit of Mt. Fuji)," Ningen, July, 1946. If! "Fuji to suigin -k -A~~ (Mt. Fuji and mercury)," Bungei shujl January, 1943. If! "Kan to akahata, J- 4- 4 (A coffin and a red flag)," Zen'ei, January, 1928. If! Keizu /t ["el (Genealogy), Tfky5, Taikand5, 1942. If/" "Kinlyfishihon no ichi-dammen 4 -o -~ (A phase of financial capital),"eni November, 1929. If! "'Shigaisen (Street fighting)," Senki, March, 1930. If! "ISh6nenk6 no negai "f-J -0 ~t (The wishes of a boy workman)," Senki, September, 1928. If! "Tank6 & (A coal mine)," Bungaku hy6ron, beginning in October, 1934; also, T6ky6, Naukasha, 1935. If! "'Tempy6 ~.~ (The Tempy6 era)," Bungei shunjii, June, 1941. If! 483. Hashimoto Tokuju Chikuinshiik~ 'ft t.j 19 36. It! }1 ~ 71 4 (1894 -(A collection of [ak composed at] the Chikuin ["Bamboo Study']), T~ky6, Aogakikai, 484. Hata Toyokichi + - (1892-1956) Seibu sensen ij6 nashi tv I, ~* 4-f f(g t K~ronsha, 1929. ItrI (E. M. Remarque's Im Western nichts neues), T6ky6, Chri6 485. Hattori Tatsu Nk A-~i (1922-1956) "Warera ni totte bi wa sonzai-suru ka, (-? — )z t It r~ & ~' 3 ~N (Does beauty exist for us?)," Gunz6, June-September, 1955. Ic! 486. Hattori Yoshika Gen'ei no hanabira 4A) 0')~ a rc (7 (1886 -(The petals of illusion), T~ky5, Hasegawa Shob6, 1953. Ip/ 487. Hayama Yoshiki (1894-1945) Ruryo no hitob / k K (People who wander), T6ky6, Shun'y6d6, 1939. If! "Sementodaru no naka no tegamni -ejf (.,a 4 (A letter in a cement barrel), " Bungei sensen, January, 1926. If! Umi ni ikuru hitobito T A - (People who live on the sea), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1926. If! Yama no sachi LJ-? - (Products of the mountain), Toky6, Nihon Bungakusha, 1939. If! Hayama Yoshiki zenshil -z: 4 j (The complete works of Hayama Yoshiki), T6ky6, Kaiz6sh 1933. /z/ (a Hayama Yoshiki zenshii la (m 1947 - 48, 5v. IzI - a, Ln,

Page  92 92 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 488. Hayashi Fumiko -{4 i 1 ( (1904-1951) "Ame rV! (Rain)," Shin-joen, January, 1941 - March, 1942. /f/ Bankiku Ot P (The late blooming chrysanthemums),"Bessatsu bungei sh no,9, November, 1948. If! "Fikin to uo no machi &. I r VT (The town of an accordion and a fish),' Kaiz6, April, 1931. /f/ Ho r6ki $.; (An account of a wandering)," Nyonin geijutsu, August, 1928. /f7 Kaki ~fz ~_ (Oysters), T6ky6, ChUi6 K6 ronsha, 1933. If! "Karasu ~ (A crow)," Bungakkai, December, 1949. If! "Meshi Y, L (Boiled rice)," Asahi shimbun, March-June, 1951. If! "Seihin no sho p 'g ' It (A book on honest poverty)," Kaiz6, November, 1931. If! "Takizawa Bakin -A ~ ~ (Takizawa Bakin)," Bungei, January, 1942. /f/ "Ukigomo - W~ (A drifting cloud)," part 1, Filsetsu, November, 1949; part 2, Bungakkai, January, 1950. Later published by Rokk6 Sh6kai, T~ky6, in April, 1951. /f/ S6ba o mitari I, f — t) (I have seen a blue horse), T6ky5, Nans6 Shoin, 1929. /p/ Hayashi Fumiko bunko _ t 3- i (The Hayashi Fumiko library), T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1949. 8v. /z/ Hayashi Fumiko senshii (A selection of the works of Hayashi Fumiko), T6ky6, Banrikaku, 1935. /z/ Hayashi Fumiko zenshi- (The complete works of Hayashi Fumiko), TkyQ Shinch~sha, 1951 - 1953, 23v. /z/489. Hayashi Fusao 4- 13- 4 (1903 -"'E no nai ehon 4A a) r, ",#- (A picture book without pictures)," Shin-sh6st, July, 1926. If! " IRingo $ (Apples),"1 Bungei sensen, February, 1926. If! "'Semnen -T (Youths)," Chii6 k6ron, August-December, 1932. /f/ "S6nen ~ -f (The prime of life)," Kaiz6, September, 1935; also, Bungakki August-December, 1939. If! "Yottsu no moji ti c (Four-characters),"1 Shin-sh6setsu, December, 1949. If! "Bungaku no tame ni ~ Y) I - (For the sake of literature),"1 Kaiz6, July, 1932; also, T6ky6, Naukasha, 1934. Ic! " Puroretaria bungaku no saishuppatsu -7' t T~~11 lZ )~ I (A second start for proletarian literature)," Kaiz5, October, 1933. Ic! " Puroretaria taishii bungaku no mondai jo rj-' Lz 7~ ~ 7 (The problem of a proletarian popular literature)," Senki, October, 1928. Ic! Tenk6 ni tsuite #~ ~0 (- -) (On conversion), T6ky6, Sh6fiikai, 1941. Ic! 490. Hayashi Tatsuo 42E (1896 -Rekishi no kuregata,~~ (The nightfall of history), T6ky6, Chikuma Shob6, 1946. Ic! 491. Hayashida Shigeo A'4 k "Tanka kakumei to tankasei no s6shitsu the characteristics of the tanka)," k- -kf~ t f- f-A #t 1*'I # ~'U (Revolution in the tanka and the loss of Tak August, 1930. Ic! 492. Hemmi Ydkichi (1907 -Hemmi Yiikichi shishili 7 (A collection of the long poems of Hemmi Ydkichi), T~ky5, Jiijiya Shoten, 1948. IpI 493. Hibino Shir6 W t — f, (1903 -"Usun kuriiku- (The Wusung creek)," Chi6 k6ron, February, 1939. If! 494. Hidaka RokurA (1917 -"Nijisseikiron z -- g (A thesis on the twentieth century),"1 Kindai bungaku, April, 1948. Ic! 495. Hidejima Takeshi " IIm6to e -4 /\ (To my younger sister)," Puroretaria bungi February, 1928.!p! 496. Higashinobe Kaoru t Tf iA- * (1902 -"Washi -* *? (Japanese paper)," Bunge shunjii, September, 1943. If! 497. Hijikata Teiichi -J- TA- (1904 -Kindai Nihon bungaku hy6ronshi 1L (-'C ' Ztt~ T~ky6, Seit6 Shorin, 1936. 1k! (The history of modern Japanese literary criticism), 498. Hinatsu K6nosuke 9 yI1- 4 (1890 -Meiji Taish6 shishi $ c;- 4- (The history of the long poem in the Meiji and TaishU eras), T6ky5, Shinch6sha, 1929, 2v. 1k! Jumon ~~ (A magic formula), T6ky6, Gien Hasshunsho, 1933. IpI Meiji r6man bungakushi ej (The history of romantic literature in the Meiji era), T6ky6, Chub K6ronsha, 1951. 1k!

Page  93 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 93 Ogai to Rohan A 4 [Mori]O6gai and [ K6da] Rohan), T6ky6, Sdgensha, 1949, 323pp. /k/ Hinatsu K~nosuke zenshishft S ~ ~',~ $~ 4~ (The complete long poems of Hinatsu K6nosuke), T6ky6, S~gensha, January, 1952. /p/ 499. Hino Ashihei 1 j (1907 -"Funnyodan ~ ~ ~'i~' (A story of excrement)," Bungaku kaigi, no. 2, 1937; T6ky6, Koyama Shoten, March, 1938. If!/ "Gent6beya 4~7 '~ -~ /~ (A room for showing slides)," Kaiz6, November, 1940. If! "Hana to heitai (Flowers and soldiers)," Asahi shimbun December 1938 - April, 1939. If! "Hana to ryil 4,. Y_ ~ (A flower and a dragon)," Yomiuri shim June, 1952 May, 1953. /f/ "Heitai no chizu 4~ ~ i~ ~ (A soldier's map),1."Jikyoku zay 1942. If! "Kanton shingunsh6 5( (Extracts f roman account of the march to Kwangtung), Mainichi shimbun, December,2 1938; also, Tdky6, Shinch6sha, 1939. /f/ "Mugi to heitai ~ ~,, -~, V~. (Wheat and soldiers)," Kaiz6, August, 1938. /f/ "Rikugun ~ 1~ (The army)," Asahi shimbun, May, 1943 - April, 1944. If! "Sens6 hanzainin I ~tL T A (War criminals)," Bungei, November, 1953. If! "Shinwa (A myth), Kaiz6, September, 1941.// "Tekish6gun ~1 ~ ~ (An enemy marshal)," Kaiz6, February, 1943. /f/ "Tsuchi to heitai -L t ~ (Earth and soldiers)," Bungei shunjii, November, 1938. If! "Utsukushiki chizu t C (Abatflmp,"Aaisibn November, 1940; also, T6ky6, Kaizdsha, 1941. If! "Yamaimo nikki L~i ~3;C (A diary of yams)," Bungei, May, 1940. If! "Zoku-sens6 hanzainin,4 (War criminals, continued)," Bungei, April, 1954. If! 500. Hino Soj5 Us (1901-1956) Aoshib L~~ (Green grass), T6ky5, Ryflseikaku, 1932. IhI Haru (Spring), Ky6to, Usui Shob6, 1947. IhI Jinsei no gogo K, ~T ~ T J~_ (The afternoon of human life), Osaka, Seigen Haikukai, 1953. IhI K6seki (A wake [behind a sailing ship]) [=Kikan s6sho IL& -t (Kikan series), no. 2, Osaka, Kikan Hakk6jo, 1936. IhI Shatei ~Jf -W (A firing range)[ =Kikan s~sho T ~ (Kikan series), no. 4, Oaa ia akj,13.h Tambo v t (morning and evening), Osaka, Seiunsha, 1949. IhI 501. Hirabavashi Hatsunosuke '. 47 47 ' ~ 1892-1931) Bungaku riron no shomondai ~j~(Various problems concerning the principles of literature), T~ky6, Chikura ILhobo-, 1929. Ic! "Bungei hihy6ron /,7 4 L0 ~ (A treatise on literary criticism)," Shinch5, September, 1928. Ic! "Bungei oyobi geijutsu no gijutsuteki kakumei (,k O f o~4 l~Y(A technical revolution in literature and art)," Shinch6, January, 1928. Ic! 1 "Puroretaria bungaku e no nisan no keikoku 70t '$ 7 9z ~~ (A few warning s to p roleta rian literature)," Shinch5_, April, 1930. Ic! "Puroretaria no bungaku und6 7L 'U -7, 7 (The literary movement of the proletariat)," Taiyl January, 1926.!cI "'Seijiteki kachi to geijutsuteki kachi jg &4 o~ if L ~ y{ i (Political values and artistic values),' Sh March, 1929. Ic! Hirabayashi Hatsunosuke ik~shii 4' CZi - tf (A collection of manuscripts left by Hirabayashi Hatsunosuke), T6ky6, Heibonsha, 1932. IzI 502. Hirabavashi Hy6go 4'4C./ 7 -"lUgai no komyunisuto ~ ~ i~(A Communist who fishes with cormorants)," Bungei, June, 1935. If! 503. Hirabayashi T~aiko4' 4;.} (1905 -Fusetsu ressha ~i (A construction train), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1929. If! "Hitori yuku -A (Proceeding by myself)," Bungei shuji February, 1946. If! "Jinsei jikken AI! 11.% (An experiment with life)," Sek June, 1948. If! "Kekkon ~- (Marriage)," June, 1949. If! "Kishimojin $~~ ~ (The goddess of children),"1 Shinsei shuki sh~setsug6, October, 1947. If! "IK6 iu onna ~- i-r (A woman like this)," Temb5, October, 1946. If! " INagu ru ~ (I hit him),"I Kaizo-, October, 192877/f "Sabaku no hana 7f t ' (A flower in the desert)," Shufu no tomo, January, 1955 - July, 1957. If! "Sery6shitsu nite -. * Z(In a room of a charity hospital)," Bungei sensen, September, 1927; also, T6ky6, Bungei Sensensha, 1928. If! "Watakushi wa ikiru 4LAtI~~ (I shall live)," Nihon sh6setsu, November, 1948. If! 504. Hirado Renkichi_ - /f' ~ (1893-1922) Hirad'o Renkichi shishdi /',f (A collection of the long poems of Hirado Renkichi), T6ky6, Hirado, Renkichi Shishil Kank~kai, December, 1931. IpI

Page  94 94 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 505. Hirafuku Hyakusui k X ~ - (1877-1933) Kanchiku _ kYr (The solid bamboo), Toky6, Kokin Shoin, 1927. /t/ 506. Hirai Hiroyuki - - i7 (1921- ) "S6z6ryoku no mondai - 4~ t ' r1.1 (A matter of imagination)," by Jean Paul Sartre, Kindai bungaku, June, 1954. /tr/ 507. Hirano Fumiko $ g? ~ X Joky6shi no shuki -^ |^t 'e. (The notes of a school mistress), T6ky6, Nishimura Shoten, 1940. /f/ 508. Hirano Ken jt 1, (1908- ) Gendai Nihon bungaku nyumon L Yr 3 - 9_ } fkJ (Introduction to present-day Japanese literature), Tokyo, Kaname Shob6, 1953. /c/ Gendai no sakka 4 A - 0) (Contemporary writers), Toky6, Aoki Shoten, 1956. /c/ "Kurai S6seki *.. - 4 (A darksome Soseki)," Gunzo, January-February, 1956. /c/ "Seiji no yuisei to wa nani ka j -, fiL <k, ]t O t r -, (What is this thing called the dominance of politics?)," Kindai bungaku, October, 1946. /e/ "Seiji to bungaku,-. z?I (Politics and literature)," Shinch6, October, 1946. /c/ "Seikatsu engisetsu shdsei q l. ~' - - (The theory of a lifelike dramatic performance: a correction), Bungakkai, October, 1954. /c/ Sengo bungei hy6ron {);t t I (A critique of post-war literature), T6kyo, Shinzembisha, 1948. /c/ Shimazaki T6son, 4 j - (Shimazaki Toson), Toky6, Chikuma Shob6, 1947. /k/ "Showa bungakuron 0 4 _ (A thesis on Showa period literature)," Ningen, December, 1950. /c/ 509. Hirata Jisabur5o - 6; - p (1908- ) "Mittsu no Soren kik6 - t. T (Three accounts of travel in Russia)," Kindai bungaku, March, 1948. /c/ Natsume Soseki I q - & (Natsume S6seki), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1948. /c/ "Sengo bungaku sengen 3 4 _ ~ t ~ (A proclamation for post-war literature)," Bungei, March, 1949. /c/ 510. Hirata Koroku 1 ' h ' (1903- ) "Torawareta daichi fz $L 3, (The captured earth)," Bunka shudan, November, 1933 - May, 1934. /f/ 511. Hiroike Akiko 3. -, K - (1919- ) "Onrii-tachi 1>' '1- ~ (The onlies)," Bungei shunji, March, 1954. /f/ 512. Hirotsu Kazuo.t, 1 ip (1891- ) "Chimata no rekishi / ' |E _ (The history of a place)," Kaizo, January, 1940. /f/ "Fdu tsuyokarubeshi U v ^ - s > 4 t (A rainstorm must be strong)," H6chi shimbun, August, 1933 - March, 1934. /f/ "Hisa to sono onna tomodachi P, ' t -it- + (Hisa and her girl friends)," Chuo k6ron, bungei tokusha (Special literary edition), no. 1, August, 1949. /f/ "Ichijiki - Ir (A particular period)," Chuo k6ron, February, 1935. /f/ "'Ihojin'ni tsuite r t/f3 1 <i -. z (On 'The foreigner')," Gunz6, October, 1951. /c/ "Kurutta kisetsu 4 1 f / % (The season gone wrong)," Fusetsu, March, 1948 - March, 1949. /f/ "Shimamura H6getsu ~ 4t f H (Shimamura H6getsu)," Kaizo, April, 1950. /c/ "Izumi e no michi 7, \, V_ (The road to a spring)," Asahi shimbum, August, 1953 - March, 1954. /f/ "Jokyiu 4. (A waitress)," Fujin k6ron, May, 1930 - October, 1931. /f/ "Nagaruru jidai -, 3 > ' Yr (A period of transition)," Kaiz6, March, 1941. /f/ "Rekishi to rekishi to no aida | _ } a y_ l (Between history and history)," Chuo k6ron, May, 1941. /c/ "Sh6wa shonen no interi sakka ' > p h ~. (The intellectual writers of the early years of Sh6wa)," Kaiz6, April, 1930. /f/ "Waga kokoro o kataru h ",' i': - (I speak of my heart)," Kaizo, June, 1929. /e/ "Wakai hitotachi.. /,< (Young people)," Chuo koron, June, 1941. /f/ Geijutsu no aji ~ 'iT9 ' (The taste of the arts), T6ky6, Zenkoku Shob6, 1942. /c/ "Mudotoku no geijutsuky6o - A t- ' W _ (The boundary of art and immorality)," Bungei shunjiu, November, 1933. /c/ "Sambun seishin ni tsuite { i_ - ' I ". Z (On the spirit of prose)," Tokyo nichinichi, October, 1936. /c/ "Shinjitsu wa uttaeru I d I ~ ~ $ (The truth appeals)," Chuo k6ron, September, 1953. /e/ Hirotsu Kazuo chosaku-shiu i: rl vp l /t (A collection of the works of Hirotsu Kazuo), Toky6, Kangensha, 1952-1953, 2v. /z/ 513. Hiroumi Taiji. - { ( "Sagaren no furosha tt P' i / ^,$, 4 (A vagabond in Saghalien)," Shijin, April, 1936. /p/

Page  95 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 9 95 514. Hisaita Eijir6,z *7 I: (1898 -"IDans6 s~ (A fault [in the earth' s surface])," Bungei, November, 1935. Id! "'Hokut6 no kaze ~ ~ b L (A northeast wind), Bungei, April, 1937. Id! "'Semmannin to iedomo ware yukan -r 6k A fi k '$ ' (Although they speak of ten million men, I will go)," 9kkhoM December, 1937. Id! Shinsei kazoku ~t t, (A sacred family), Tokyo,, Shinch~sha, 1952. /d/ Wakaki kokoro no gunz6 _t~ -- ~, f1 (A youthful-minded group), 1939; performed by the Shimpfi Sh6 company at the Nichigeki Sh6gekij6, May, 1948. 515. Hisamatsu Sen'ichi ~.Z;~ - - (1894- ),supervisor. Gaisetsu gendai Nihon bungakushi Jf 0,' RL V, (A history of present-day Japanese literature: a general outline), T6ky6, Hanawa ShobO, 1949., 516. Hisamiatsu Senlichi and Yoshida Seiichi -~ to% (1908- ) ed. Kindai Nihon bungaku jiten if -' f~ - (A dictionary of modern Japanese literature), Tokyo-, TVky~d5, 1954. 517. Hitomi EnkichiA Li, also Hitomi T6mei A.k f (1883 -"'K5goshi no hattatsu T' (The development of the long poem in the spoken language), " Gk beginning in May, 1954. 518. Wrojb Hideji -1C ~f _~ ~j (1902 -Bombon rV k/ IT k1 (The young son), performed by the Shinkokugeki company at the Ytlrakuza in June, 1946. Id! Hanayaka na yake -tX _ '0 1 { (A gorgeous night scene), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the T6ky6 Gekij6, June, 1947. Id! Kajitsu %T ~ (The fruit), performed by Ennosuke, Yaeko, and Masao company at the T6ky6 Gekij6, October, 1948. Id! Onna arikeri -_ A~ (9 it 1) (There is a certain woman), performed by the Kataoka Chiez6 company at the Yfirakuza, in April, 1946. Id! Reit6 butai 4~~ 4~- (A f rozen corps), performed by the Haraza company at Mitsukoshi Gekija, September, 1949. Id! Shufressha no kyaku ~- ~~~~ (The passengers on the last train), performed by the Konomiza company at the Shimbashi Embujo, December, 1948. Id! 519. H6j6 Makoto ~( (1918 -"'Shumpuku F 07(A spring costume)," I 1940, 520. H6j6 Tamio it ilk Lk11 (1914-1937) "B~ky~ka K_ Wp( (Poems of nostalgia for one's native home)," Bungakkai, October, 1937. If! "Inochi no shoya a- m5 a ~% A_ (The first night of life)," Bunga~kkai, February, 1936. If! "Rai kazoku (A leprous family), " Bungei shunjil, December, 1936. If! "Raii juti ~ (Conception at a leper house)," ~~h~6 k.on October, 1936.If HdjJ6 Tamio zenshii 4t 4t 4 (hcopeewrks of H6j5 Tamio), T~ky6, S6gensha, 1938, 2v. IzI 521. Homma Hisao ~- ~~ (1886 -Meiji bungaku sakkaron oN e~i (Treatise on the writers of Meiji literature), T6ky6, T6ky6d6, 1951. 1k! O Meiji bungakushi (A hi sto ry of Meiji literature), T6kyd, T6ky6d6, 1935-1937. 1k! 522. Homma Hisao and others Shis6' chfishin kindai bungakushi k-: PvXf- I (A history of modern literature, with the emphasis on ideas), T6ky6, T6ky6d6, 1953. 1k! 523. Honda Shiigo i 4. - _3-. (1908 -"Bungaku sakuhin no kachi ni kansuru ichiren no shomondai oboegaki 42I ifit 'V 7Q $ (Memoranda on various problems concerning the value of literary wors), Marukusu-Renin-shugi geijutsugaku knyl July, 1933. Ic! Kobayashi Hideo-ron -% l - (A treatise on Kobayashi Hideo), Tfky6, Kawade Shob6, 1949. Ic! I'Miyamioto Yuriko-ron ~ *Z -# (A treatise on Miyamoto Yuriko),"1 Kindai bungau April, 1947 - February, 1949. Ic! "Nihon riarizumu saigo no sakka 9 7' f 1 7,' 4 4~j (Japanese realism: the last authors)," Bungaku, February, 1953. Ic! "'Senso to heiwa"' ron ~ -p (A thesis on War and Peace), Kamakura, Kamakura Bunko, September, 1947. /k/ "Shirakaba"'-ha no bungaku 71 (The literature of the "IShirakaba"I school), Toky6, K6dansha, 1955. 1k!

Page  96 96 96 ~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 524. Honj6 Rikuo /-[?$ (1905-1939)19813;asTy6Tikn5 "Ishikari-gawa ~4~ (The Ishikari river),' Enju, September, 13 - February, 13;asTk6 akn6 1939. /f/ "Kita no kaikonchi Jtb ~ c (The reclaimed land in the north)," Zen'ei, April, 1928. If! "Shiroi kabe 0, # (A white wall)," KaizO, May, 1934; also, T6kyd, Naukasha, 1935. If! 525. Honi Tatsuo & f)7t1 (1904-19 53) "Bukiy6 na tenshi fW ffl rS k f (A clumsy messenger from heaven)," Bungei hnjFebruary, 1929; also, T~ky5, Kaiz~sha, 1930. /f/ "'Kager6 no nikki J'I- i"7~ 3, a)9 E (Summer-colt diary)," Kaiza, December, 1937. If! "Kaze tachinu I-0. 3L A (The wind began to blow)," Kaizo-, December, 1936. /f/ "Moyuru hoho OJ.! ~t 07 (Burning cheeks), " 'Bungei shunjii, January, 1932. /f/ " Naoko T A } (Naoko),"1 ChMi k6ron, March, 1941. If/ "Riibensu no giga iux ' -V,,-~;Z 0 AJf (A fake picture of Rubens),"1 S6saku gekkan, January, 1929. If! "Seikazokul %, ~ (A holy family)," Ki~ November, 1930. /f/ "Ubasute -4~C f~ (Deserting the old woman),"1 Bungei shuj, July, 1940. If! Hori Tatsuo sakuhin-shii * i (A collection of the works of Hori Tatsuo), T~ky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1946-49, 7v. /z/ Honi Tatsuo shishii - ~ j (A collection of the long poems of Hori Tatsuo), T~ky5, Yamamoto Shoten, 1940. /p/ Hori Tatsuo -shfi _~j 1K /' (A collection of the works of Hori Tatsuo), ed. by Jinzai Kiyoshi* t97 T~ky6, Shinchosha, 1950. /z/ Honi Tatsuo zenshd~ ~ 47 4 (The complete works of Honi Tatsuo), T~ky6, Shinch~sha, 1954, 6v. /z/ 526. Horiguchi Daigaku tit ' (1892 -Dorujeru-haku no but5kai p t- b 4io ~R' y /4 (A ball given by Count d'Orgel [by Raymond Radiguet]), Tfky5, Daiichi Shob5, 1931. Itr/ Ningen no uta A, fo7 ~ ~ (The songs of man), T6ky6, H6bunkan, 1947. /p/ 527. Hoshikawa Kiyomi Koten shish5 ~ 3 (A selection of classical Chinese poems), T~ky5, Genrei Shob6, 1942. /tr/ Hikone by6bu, (A Hikone screen), T6ky6, Genrei Shob6, 1943. Ip/ 52 8. Hoshino Bakujin ~ (1877 -Kusabue (A reed), T6ky6, Kidachisha, April, 1932. IhI 529. Hoshino, Tatsuko _ r_ +~ 7 (1903 -Tatsu'ko ku-shii 3jr i- 1 (A collection of haiku by Tatsuko), T6ky6, Tamamosha, 1936. IhI 530. Hosoda Tamiki wJ41 (1892 -"'Shinri no haru ji, -ft (The springtime of truth)," Asahi shimbun, January-June, 1930. If! 531. Hosokawa S6kichi -vk 1971 /e "'Senkan Yamato 4* ~ (The battleship Yamato)," Shinch6, October,197 Ie 532. Hotta Yoshie ij 4,1 (1918 -"Haguruma& _~ ~(A cogwheel)," Bungaku gojiiichi, May, 1951. If! "Hiroba no kodoku * 4,) U (Telnlnsoftepbisqa)" Ningen, August, 1951 (the earlier portion alone); Chd6 k6ron bungei tokushii,_ September, 1951 (complete)77i7/ "Jikan ii4 fV] (Hours)," Sekai, November, 1953. If! "Junanraku 7 #f ~ (The pleasure of suffering)," Bungakkai, August, 1954. If! "Nami no shita 1- '?- (Under the waves)," Kosei, December, 1948. If! "Rekishif. (History)," Bessatsu bungei shuj, February, 1952. If! 533. Ibaraki Tadashi 1 (1912 -Sh~wa no shingeki ~~0, ~ (Modern drama in the Sh6wa era), T6ky5, Awaji Shob6, 1956. 1k! 534. -Ibuki Takehiko. If Vk 1 (1901 -"'Sarutoru-teki zetsubd yori k~d6 e i+- t — [ fv 6 -, (From a Sartre-like despair to action)," NneJuly, 1949. Ic! 535. Ibuse Masuji I-'( (1898 -"Aogoke no niwa - (A garden with green moss)," Shin-joen, January, 1941-December, 1941. If! "Hana no machi W~~Ti j (The town of flowers), Toky6 nichinichi shimbun and Osaka mainichi shimbunj AugustOctober, 1942; also, Bungei Shunjiisha, 1943. /fI "Honjitsu kyiishin $- o 4* (No medical examinations today)," Bungei shunjUi bessatsu August., 1949, January, April, and June, 1950; also, Tfky6, Bungei Shunjil Shinsha, 1950. 7f "Hy6min Usabur6 -/1 kj ~ t- ~(The shipwrecked Usabur6),"1 Gu April, 1954 - December, 1955. If! "In no shima N~ -9 A (In no shima [island])," Bungei shunjid, Janu-a-ry, 1948. If!

Page  97 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 9 97 Jon Manjir6 yr~k ~ Ai -Z ~P t 6k 0- (A record of drifting [on the sea] by John Manjir6), T~ky6, Kawade Shobd, November, 1937. ff1 "Kibukijima -9: A (Kibikijima [placename])," Gunz6, November, 1956. /f/ "Kinenhi ~ (A monument)," Chil6 kr May-August, 1955. /f/ "Kuroi tsubo Y. (A black jar)," Bungei shunjul May, 1954. If! "Noriai jid6sha # - (A bus)," Bessatsu bungei shunjd, April, 1952. A/f "'Shiraga 0- V. (White hair)," Sekai, September, 1948. /f/ Sh~kin ryok6 4* t * ' (A trip to collect bills), T~ky5, Hangas5, April, 1937.If "Shiikin ryok6 daiichinichi 4i If AT 1 (The first day of a trip for collecting bills)," Bungei shunju:, May, 1935. If! "Sokoku s~shitsu ~ f k. (Loss of one's fatherland)," Gunz6, May, 1950; also, T6ky6, Bungei Shunjii Shinsha, 1952. If! S6saku f, (A search), T6kyd, Miraisha, 1952. /f/ "Tajinko-mura -~t, (Tajinko village), Kaiz6, February, 1939. /f/ "Tange-shi-tei 4i~F(Mr. Tange's mansion)," Kaiz'6, February, 1931. If! "Tenteki * (A droplet),"Sn, May, 1949.If "1T6b6ki ~C (Account of an escape)," Rfningy6, April, 1932. If! Yofuke to ume no hana it~. — (At dead of night, the flowers of the plum), T6ky6, Shinch~sha, 1930. If! "Y~hai taich6?X ~ (A commander who worships [ the emperor] f rom afar),"1 Temb6, February, 1950. If! Yo ru no mon ri (A forest at night), T6ky6, K6dansha, 1955. If! Yakuyoke shishfi f~. tt 4- (A collection of long poems giving protection f rom evil), To-ky65, Noda. Shob6, 1937. /pI Ibuse Masuji sakuhinshd ii ~ 4F (A collection of the works of Ihuse Masuji), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1953,1 6v.!z! Ibuse Masuji senshUi 4-4'~~ (A selection of the works of Thuse Masuji), Tfky6, Chikuma Shob5, 1948 -1949, 9v. /Z! 536. Ichij5 Shgm 4' Nihon puro retaria bungei ri ronshi 9 J- 7 P [- 7 '1 7 I' (A history of the theories of Japanese proletarian literature), Td~ky-, Eik6 Shoin, 1948. 1k! 537. Ichinose Naouki A $ Kumo $t, (Spider), Tokyo, Shishi Hakk6sho, 1929.!// 538. Ide ItsurO 4~~~~3 (1902 -Masaoka Shiki J. (Masaoka Shiki), Tfky6, K6gakusha, 1948, 270pp. /k! 539. Iida Dakotsu '0 ev- (1885 -Hakutake f 4 (Hakutake [peak]), T6ky6, Kizamb6, 1943.!h! Reishi WI! (The [Japanese] touchwood), T6ky6, Kaiz-osha, 1937.!hI Sanroshil Lk 4i (A collection of haiku composed by the fireplace of a mountain cottage), T~ky6, Ummosha, 1942.!h! Sekky6 * d~t (A snow-covered gorge), Tokyo, Sogensha, 1951.!h! 540. Iijima Tadashi ik A ~ (1902 -"Andore Giddo 77 ~' P i2,, (Andre' Gide),"1 Shinch6, September, 1932.1k 541. -Ikadai Kaichi A41 A (1 899 - ) and othe rs Shimpii jiinin Jf A. {, (Ten people in the new style), T6ky6, Yakumo Shoten, 1940. It! 542. Ikari Mits-unao 4~ ~ f - (1898-1938) Ijumin ~ ',(Immigrants), T6ky6, Dorasha, 1929.!p! 543. Ikeda Hisao 1; _ 211 "'Shinkankakuha no rekishi-teki kaikyji-teki hihan 4Tt ~ ~ I (A historical and class criticism of the Neo-impressionists)," S~saku gknAugust, 1928. /c/ 544. Ikeda Katsumi 7t %3 ~,V (1912-1943) Genshi R, kIj (Orligins), TokyO, Tonshisha, 1940. /p! Hdryiiji dobei &~~-J. (The earthen walls of the H~ryiiji), Osaka, Shinshi Shobb, 1948.!/P 545. Ikenoya. Shinsabur6,- f3 (1900-1933) "Hana wa kurenai r~ 4. it tiP~ (th flowers are red)," Fujin k6ron, January-October, 1929. If! " Hashi -A (A bridge)," Kaizd, April, 1927. /f/ " Yikan f ujin 1-M (,& (A lady of leisure),"1 Asahi shimbnDecember, 1929. A//

Page  98 98 98 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 546. Ikuta Ch6k6 q ~,y -~ (1882-1936) "Shakuson-den Ilk i (A biography of Buddha),' Kaiz6,) February, 1934. If! 547. Ikuta Hanayo ' -Z (1888 -Haru no tsuchi j. (Spring earth), T~ky6, Shi to Jinseisha, 1933. /p/ 548. Ikuta Shungetsu g7 V (1892-1930) "Sh6ch5 no ika 0 i) (The squid as a symbol), " T6ky5, Arusu, 1930. /p/ 549. Imamura Tsuneo /1~ # "Sanj6 no uta Li-, >-f) (A song at the top of a mountain)," Nappu, October, 1931. /p/ 550. Imaoka Hiroshi k E Fuyu ni naru kao - rs~- (A face that is becoming that of winter), T6ky6, Kizankaku Shobo, 1931. /p/ 551. Inagaki Taruho -Pa/ 1-:V 4 (1900 - "Hakuchlfmi C7 _f V~, (Daylight vision)," Shinchro, February, 1948. If! Hoshi o uru mise /. (A store which sells stars), T6ky5, Kinseid5, 1926. /f/ "Zakuro no ie -~ ~b (The house with a pomegranate tree)," Bungakkai, March, 1939. If! 552. Inazu Shizuo - 3- /- (1916 -Hanky6 kif (An echo),T6ky6, S6gensha, 1947. /p/ 553. Ino Kenji 4 l (1913 -Kindai Nihon bungakushi kenkyti L -\ i4Q Q( ft )T ~ k (Studies in the history of modern Japanese literature), T6ky6, Miraisha, 1956. /k/ 554. Inoue Isamu 4 t (1901 -Jan Kurisutofu: 9 7, F 7 (Jan Christophe: by Romain Rolland), T~ky5, Mikasa ShobI5. /tr/ 555. Inoue Mitsuharu 4 J t (1926 -"Kakarezaru issh6 o ~ ' -~ (A chapter that cannot be, written)," Shin-Nihon bungaku, July, 1950. /f/ 556. Inoue Tomoichir6 4-~ -} (1909 -"'Aku f. (Evil)," Bungaku kikan, August, 1948. /f/ "Bishoku _~z t *(ainty food)," Shinch6, February, 1950. /f/ "Ginzagawa 4f - -" (The river Ginza)," Bessatsu bungei shuj, May, 1950 - March, 1951. /f/ "Haine no tsuki "4~' (Heine's moon)," Gunz6 April, 1947. /f/ "Jutai (Conception),"1 Bungei, March, 1947. f/ "Zeppeki (A cliff)," Kaiz6, May, 1949. If! 557. Inoue Yasushi 41L=J (1907 -"Aru gisakka no sh~gai i 44( (The life of a certain fake writer)," Shinch6, October, 1951. If! "Gyokuwanki (Account of a beautiful bowl)," Bungei shunjil, August, 1951. If! "Kafun (Pollen),"1 Bungei sujl July, 1954. /f/ "1Kuroi ushio ~ (The black tide)," Bungei shunjd, July-October, 1950. If! "1Ry6ji It $L, (A hunting gun)," Bungakkai, October, 1949. If/ "'Sengoku bural *~ ~ -:k 0, (A vagabond in a turbulent age)," Sandei Mainichi, August,1951 - March, 1952. If! "'Shatei tj- -W (A shooting range)," Shinch6, January-December, 1956. /f Shiroi kiba 0i - (White fang), T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1951. If! Sono hito no na wa ienai a ) - r (I cannot tell his name), T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1950. If! "'TIgyd ~IQ[ (Bullfight)," Bungakkai, December, 1949. If! "Meiji no tsuki a ~ (The Meiji moon),"1 Shin-gikyoku, June, 1955. Id! 558. Inukai Takeru Ik' (1896 -"Arabiajin Eruafui -4 t -.. i- v 74 (The Arabian Eruafui)," Chii6 k6ron, January, 1929. If! "Nankin rokugatsu-sai i (The June festival at Nanking)," Bungei shunjll, October, 1928.I! 559. Ishibashi Ningetsu Zr ~ (1865-1926) Ishbasi Nngetsu hy o-si & ~.4(A collection of criticism by Ishibashi Ningetsu) [in Iwanami bunko V (waam lirr) nos. 2134-2135], T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1939, 2v. 1k/ 560. Ishida Haky6 bz V0 ~ (1913 -Shaumy6 0 k (Holding life dear), T6ky6, Sakuhinsha, 1950, 191pp. IhI Kyokeihen (Changing the shape of the chest), T6ky6, Matsuo Shob6, 1949. IhI Tsuru no me gK (The eyes of the crane), T6ky6, Shara. Shoten, 1939. IhI

Page  99 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 99 561. Ishihara Shintar6 X! -1 lk3 (1932 -"'Shokei no heya &,~ (The room of punishment)," Shinch6, March, 1956. If! "Taiy6 no kisetsu *K 1 (The time of the sun), Bungakkai, July, 1955. If! 562. Ishii Naosabur6;z C (1890-1936) Seiju ~~ (Green trees)[=Mizugame s6sh6 1( (Mizugame series), no. 17], Nagoya, Mizugamesha, 1931. It! 563. Ishikawa Jun bz 0' I4- (1899 -"1Ch6 Hakutan * z0 i~y (C h6 Hakutan [personal name])," Bunko., October, 1941. /f/ "Fugen Aw 1, (Samantabhadra)," Sakuhin, June, 1936. /f/ " Kayoi Komachi -ii )I t- /I' W-F (A beautiful lady who frequently visits her love)," Chii k6ron, January, 1947. /f/ "Marusu no uta -z iL- X, o 0 (A song of Mars)," BungakaJanuary, 1938. IfT~ "Mujint5. #~!& -Ift (A perpetual light)," Bungei shujii, July, 1946. If! "Taka (A hawk), Gunz6, March, 1953.77 "Ogon densetsu - ~{~ (Agolden legend), Chd6 k6ron, March, 1946. If! "Sango ~f4~ 14 (Coral);' Gunz6, November., 1953. IfT "'Sororibanashi 'r' -tj vjL~ (Stories told by Sorori [Shinzaemon] )," Bungei hanron, beginning in June, 1936. If! "Yamazakura LI-A (Wild cherry)," B arn 1936. If! Yoshisada-ki V 6 (An account of [Nitta] Yoshisada), T6ky6, Sakurai Shob,6, 1944. If! " Yuki no Ivu ' 4" (Eve in the snow)," Bessatsu bungei shunjii, June, 1947. If! Bungaku taigai ~' (A general view of literature), Tfky6, Sh~gakkan, 1942. 1k! Moni Ogai Oki 4 (Moni Ogai), T6ky6, Mikasa Shob5, 1941. 1k! Ishikawa Jun chosaku-shii ra '4 ' (A collection of the works of Ishikawa Jun), T6ky6, Zenkoku Shob6, 1949, 4v. IzI 564. Ishikawa Tatsuz6 ~" (1905 -"Bukan sakusen A' 4 (Strategy around Wuchang and Hankow),"1 Chii6 k~ron January, 1939. If! Bokei kazoku 67- (A matrilineal family), Thky6, Shinch6sha, 19-40-. -f "Chie no aogusa (The green grass of wisdom), " Shinch6, August, 1939. If! "Hikage no muma 9 r' N (A village in the shade),"1 Shinch6, August, 1937. If! "lIkite iru heitai 1 ~ -, 3 (The living soldiers)," 6 March, 1938. If! "Kaze ni oyogu asi, <L-~ (Reeds that sway in the wind), " Mainichi shimbnpart 1, April-November, 1949; part 2, June, 1950 - March, 1951; also, T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1950 - 1951, 2v. If! "Kiseki Aj e4 (A miracle)," F~setsu, September, 1948. If! "Nozomi naki ni arazu ~ ~ rj y (It isn' t that there is no hope)," Yomiuri shimbun, July-November, 1947; also, performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Toky6 Gekij6, August, 1948. If -dO "'Saigo no ky6wakoku -t ~t c9 -*v (11~ (The last republic)," Chfi6 k6ron, April-December, 1952. If! Kekkon no seitai.9 -kv c 4_ 0 (The true nature of marriage), To-ky6, Shinch6sha, 1938. If! "'Sandai no kinji 4-V~ o? 4 (The pride of three generations)," Bungei shni, August, 1938. If! "5S6b6 A,? (The people)," Sia April, 1935; also, Bungei shunjil, September, 1935. If! "Mitsugitori no uta? -) _ ' 9l 0) 4x (The song of a tax collector)," ChOi k~ron, January, 1952. If! 565. Ishikawa Toshimitsu t~ ~-'j tL (1914- "Haru nokusaA 7~~ (Spring grass)," Bungei shunjil, September, 1951. If! 566. Ishimi Tameo;~ Osorubeki seppun.)T op. ~ ' (A dreadful kiss), performed by the Kilkiza company at the Teitoza, November, 1947. Id! 567. Ishiyama Tetsur6 Aa tLA~4i~ Bungeigaku gaisetsu fj t, (An outline of literary art), T6ky6, Ko-bund6, 1929. 1W/ 568. Ishizaka Y6jir5 )D ~ f (1900 -"Akatsuki no gassh6 so a 't (Concert in the early morning)," Shufu no tomo, January, 1939 - January, 1941. If! "1Aoi sammyaku i'- (A blue mountain range)," Asahi shimbun, June-September, 1947. If! "Basha monogatari ~ (Story of a carrnage)," Nihon sh6setsu, March, 1947. If! Chiisa na dokusaisha,d V-r~ (A small dictator),' Tokyo, Kaizosha, 1941. If! "Ishinaka sensei gy6j6ki;F t~ -) '~'T Wi'C (Record of the behavior of Mr. Ishinaka),"1 Sh6setsu shinch6-, January, 1948- May, 1949. If! "lIzuko e 14 j]- ro (W here?)," Shufu no tomo, August-December, 1939. If! "Magi no koi -x t"~)~ (Maggie' s love),"1 Shinch6, June, 1947. If! "'Moyuru yuld - (The burning snow)," Yakumo, September-October, 1948. If! "'Mugi shinazu rx~ (Wheat never dies)," Bungei, August, 1936; also, To-ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1936. If! "Wakai hito A (Young people)," Mita bunau May, 1933 - December, 1937; also, T6ky6, KaizOsha, 1937, 2v. If!

Page  100 100 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS "Yama no kanata ni tJ — (On the other side of the mountain)," Yomiuri shimbun, June -December, 1949. If! Ishizaka Y~jir5 sakuhinshdl Fv 4 (A collection of the works of Ishizaka Y~jir5), T6ky6, Shinch~sha, 1951, 6v. /z/ Ishizaka Y6jir6 tampen-shii PT; V) k _ 4 (A collection of the short stories of Ishizaka Y~jir6), T6ky5, 1934. /z/_ 569. Ishizuka Kikuz6 7t- f~ -_ ii "Tensoku no koro f, / i t (About the time of foot-binding)," Bungei shunjiui, March, 1943. If! 570. Ishizuka Tomoji b ~ k:_ (1913 -"'Matsukaze ~2 (The pine winds)," Bungakkai, February, 1942. /f/ "'Soshin no t6 ~ A lantern for one's family gods)," Yakumo, June, 1943. If! 571. Isogai Hideo 9 A Shfowa bungaku sakka kenky5 q * (Studies in the authors of Sh6wa literature), Ky~to, Yanaibara Shoten, 1955. /k! 572. Isonokami Gen'ichir6 z (1910 -"Nisshoku 9 ft (A solar eclipse)," Ch~ryii, July-September, 1948. If! Ogon bunkatsu 41 4_ (The partition of gold), T6ky6, K~dansha, 1953. If! "Seishimby6gaku ky~shitsu 4 _k f~V_1 (The classroom for psychiatrics), " Chii6 k~ron, October, 1942. If! 573. Itagaki Naoko ~. 1_ it -~ (1896 -Fujin sakka hyciden -t j (Critical biographies of women writers), Tfky5, Mejikaru Furendosha, 1954. Ic! Gendai Nihon no sens6 bungaku it 9X~$~~ (War Literature in present-day Japan), T6ky6, R~kk6 Sh6kai Shuppambu, 1943. Ic! Gendai no bungei hyoron J~ K- 0 ) (Present-day literary criticism), T6ky6, Daiichi Shobb, 1941. Gendai no geijutsuhyrn A 0 (on contemporary art criticism), T~ky5, Daiichi Shob5, 1942. /c/ Gendai sh6setsuron Cc (A treatise on present-day fiction), T6ky6, Daiichi Shob6, 1938. Ic! Hayashi Fumiko cA - (Hayashi Fumiko [ name of author]) [=Sakkaron shiriizu * -;," (Series on authors), 1], T6k, T~ky5 Raifusha, 1956. Ic! Jihenka no bungaku {-a (Literature as a result of the Chinese incident), T~ky5, Daiichi Shob6-, 1942. Ic! "Shesutofu hiteiron A~( 7 (An argument negating Shestov),"1 KMM, January, 1935. Ic! 574. It6 Einosuke f, #1( i2- 4J (1903 -"Fukur6 (An owl)," Sh6setsu, September, 1936. If! "Tsuru (A crane)," Shinch6, April, 1939. If! "Uguisu (A nightingale)," Bungei shunjii, June, 1938. If! "Uma j (A horse)," Bungei shuji January, 1939. If! Natsukashii sanga tj -, -j- L._ ~C, (The beloved mountains and rivers), T6ky6, Misuzu Shob6, 1954. If! 575. It6 Sei 1I T fl t (1905 -Chata-rei-fujin no koibito -\ - A < < ([ D. H. Lawrence' s] Lady Chatterley' s lover), T6ky5, Kembunsha, 1935. ItrI "Esupuri desukarie 7, '7";z (Esprit de Il'6scalier)," CieJuly, 1940. If! "Hana hiraku tA5 (The flowers bloom)," Asahi shimbun May-July, 1953. If! "Hi no tori ~0Y (A fire bird)," Bungei shunjil, August, 1952. If! "Hi o meguru mushi kf ~_ ',) ~- ~ - (An insect which flies around a light)," Gunz6, December, 1948. If! "Hokkoku ~L~ (The north country),"~ i May, 1943. If! "Kissh5 tennyo -it — (A heavenly maiden of good luck)," Bugi January, 1940. If! "Kuichigai ' t ' (Cross-purpose)," Chisei, November, 1939. If! Narumi Senkichi ~ —41 (Narumi Senkichi [personal name]),,' T6ky6, Hosokawa Shoten, 1950. If! "Onsen ry6y6jo ' (A hot-springs sanatorium)," Ch4isi October, 1941. If! Saiban 4k +f (A trial), Tr~ky6, Chikuma Shob6, 1952. Ie! "Sakuraya Tasuke no n6to A-,- 4~ #P s / t F (An account of Sakuraya Tasuke),"1 Shnh, Februar, 1941. If! [Part of Tokun6 Gor6 no seikatsu to ikenj Seibutsu-sai ~ t _ (The festival for living creatures), T6ky6, Kinseid6, October, 1933. If! "'Sh6jo no z6 j i-af. (Image of a girl)," Fdsetsu, June, 1949. If! "'Shukke tonsei no kokorozashi ~..j~ ~~j (The aspiration for monastic seclusion),"Nngn April, 1947. If! [Part of Narumi Senkichi.] "Ito Sel-shi no seikatsu to iken (The life and opinions of Mr. Ito Sei)," Shnh May, 1951 - December, 1952'. I~f! "'TokunO GorO no seikatsu. to iken 4, WL.-T7 P I ~- ~j L ~. - (The life and opinions of Tokun5 Gord)," Chisei, August, 1940 - February, 1941; also T~kyO, Kawade Shob5, 1941. If!

Page  101 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE10 101 Tokun6 monogatari ~-. Rkl (The story of Tokun6), T5ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1942. If! "Umi no mieru machi -- i1~ (A town where the sea can be seen)," Shinch5, March, 1954. If! "Wakai shijin no sh~j6 -K '1 ~ (Portrait of a young poet)," Chad kdron, September-December, 1955. /f "Yiiki no machi A,?4#y (The street of demons)," Bungakkai, August, 1937. /f/ "Ydki no mura A,q t (The village of demons)," Bungakkai, August, 1938. If! "Zadan / (Symposium)," Bungaksh March, 1941.If "Gendai bungaku no kan~sei Wt-',L e I '1 (The possibilities of present-day literature)," Kaiz6, January, 1950. /c/ g "Gendai shiika o kataru V a (I speak about present-day poetry)," Shinch6, June, 1953. Ic! "'Monogatari no hass6 5 ~ (The conception of a story)," Bungaukkn April, 1948. /cI 'Seikatsu engisetsu shiisei' no shtisei It ~ ~ t 'aL~o 'V~- (The correction of 'The theory of a lifelike dramatic performance: a correction')," Bungakkai, November, 1954. Ic! "Seiyoku by6sha ni tsuite ftz4~, -J" z (On the description of sexual desire)," ChiZ. k6ron bungei tokushii, January, 1951. Ic! Shink6 geijutsuha to shin-shinrishugi bungaku.~ - k ~ ~ (The school of the newly rising arts and neo-psychological literature)," Kindai bungaku, August, 1950. Ic! Shin-shnrishui bungku 4 I k- ~: I- _ (Neo-psychological literature), T6kyd, K6seikaku Shoten, 1932. Ic! Sh6setsu no h6h6 4';t,9~54 (The method of the novel), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1948. Ic! "Nihon bundanshi 1 -)tt (A history of Japanese literary circles)' Gunz6, begining in January, 1952. I/W "Josei ni kansuru Jiinish6 -a — Jf r 4' + (Twelve chapters on women)," Fujin k~oJanuary-December, 1953. IeI Waga bungaku. seikatsu '?f 1 (My literary life), T~ky6, Hosokawa Shoten, 1950. IeI It5 Sei bungaku hy6ron senshdif ~ _ I1 tf 4 (A selection of literary criticism by It5 Sei), T6ky6, Jitsugy6 no Nihonsha, 1949. Ic! It6 Sei sakuhinsh& d ~ r~ (A collection of the works of 1t6 Sei), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1953. IzI 1t6 Sei shishil 1 - (A collection of the long poems of 1t6 Sei), T6ky6, K6bunsha, November, 1954. 1t6 Sei zenshra~ ~~ ~- (The complete works of It6 Sei), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1955 - 1956, 14v. IzI 576. It6 Sei, ed. Mainichi raiburarii: Nihon no bungaku. -9 f T 7' t3. -~5 (Mainichi library: Japanese literature), T~ky5, Mainichi Shimbunsha, 1951. 1k! 577. 1t6 Sei, Tsujino Hisanori iL W-f-, -.. and Nagamatsu Sadamu ~c,11A tr. "Yurishiizu z' (Ulysses [by James Joyce]),"1 Shi-genjtu September, 1930. Itr! 578. 1t6 Sei, Io Kenji Wf~ Kuwabara Takeo I ~,Saig6 Nobutsuna trE Or Takeuchi Yoshimi ~Y ~I-5 Nakano Yoshio_ Fr 1 ~'44 ~ and Noma Hiroshi ff ~with addition of Kokubun Ichitar6 -for the second of the following compilations Iwanami k5za: bungaku U ~ (wanami essay series: literature), T~kyU, Iwanami Shoten, 1953 - 1954, 8v. Ic! - Iwanami k6za: bungaku no s6z6 to kanshb~~oi (Iwanami essay series: The creation and appreciation of literature), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1954- 1955, 5v. Ic! 579. 1t6 Shinkichi 4f (1906 -Koky& 6 4. (One's native place)., Tfky6, Naigai Shob6$, 1933. IpI Shimazaki T~son no bungaku. r (Shimazaki T6son' s literature), T6ky6, Daiichi Shob6, 1936. 1k! 580. ItO Shinkichi 417 P-' 4- (1906- ed. Gendaishi no kanshO f V- (The appreciation of the modern long poem), T~kyO, Shinch~sha, 1954, 2v. Ic! 0 581. ItO Shir5 ~~.~ (1899-1956) 6gai ronk6 t - 4 (Studies on [Mori] 6gai), T~kyO, Gakugeisha, 1950, 399pp. 1k! 582. ItO Shizuo 47 (1906-1953) Waga hito ni at6ru alka 4-) t-" -tA~~? ~~ (An elegy presented to my dear one), TakyO, Kogito Hakk6jo, 1935. I7pI 1t6 Shizuo shishili 1 - (A collection of the long poems of 1t6 Shizuo), T~ky6, S6gensha, 1953. 5 83. It6 Teisuke 11 k 0/ (1901-1946) "Kinsen ~- ~ (Money)," Shnco November, 198 /d!

Page  102 102 102 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 584. -It6 Yawara 4i f 1- (1905 -Doro ~r- (Mud), T6ky6, Dorosha, 1930. /p/ 585. Iwai Sannosuke ~L ~I i-A- (1915 -"BWreiF r_ (A7 departed soul); Kindai bungau October, 1954. /p/ 5 86. -Iwakami Jun' ichi 5b -L 111- (1907 -Bungaku no_ ken ~I tt ~ ~% (The banquet of literature), T~ky5, Taikand6 Shoten, 1941. Ic! "Kangaeru setai: bungei jihy6 j~ -\ tt 4-V - ~- &4 f-O (A generation which meditates: comments on current literature)," Ch6krn April, 1940. Ic! Rekishi bungakuron ffl t >I-1 (A treatise on historical literature), T6ky6, Chii6 K6ronsha, 1942. Ik/ "Seiji to bungaku J~ PV L t~ (Politics and literature)," Ch'Ub k6ron, August, 1939. Ic! Yokomitsu Riichi # ) At -l - (Yokomitsu Riichi [name of author]), To-ky5, Mikasa Shobb, 1942. Ic! 587. Iwakura Masai 1 lr: /t7 (1903 -"Atarashiki d6gi _-A'~t (A new mo ral.),"CieArlMy 91 f "ID6ryoku * -, (Power)," Bungakkai, September, 1939. If! "Imochiby6 Aj' k, A (Rice -blight), " Ch February, 1939. If! Sonch6 nikki * -0 g e, (The diary of a village head), T6ky6, Chii6 K6ronsha, 1941. If! 5 88. Iwama Masao A Fe P — 7 (1905 -Engun ~ j (Flames), T6ky6, Shiikn Ky6iku Shimbunsha,197 It Iwata Toyoo X- W'~ 4 see Shishi Bunroku ~~ 589. Iwat6 Yukio IV - Z )Z (1903 -Chi jfrz. (Blood), T6ky6, Nihon Hy6ronsha, 1930. If! "Chingin dorei sengen VA~ - t W, (A declaration by the wage slaves)," Bungei sensen, September, 1929. If! "Kuroi hon6 9 -!'& (A black blaze)," Sekai hy6ron, January, 1951. If! "Shikabane no umi AL c2 c-+ (A sea of corpses)," Chtl6 k~ron, June, 1930. If! "'Tetsu 0 (Iron)," Bungei__sensen,- March, 1929; also, T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1930. If! 590. Izawa Rokur6. If Toppi na musume 4j rx - (A venturesome girl), performed by the Kdkiza company at the Teitoza, November, 1947. Id! 591. Jimbo K6tar6 34 ~~ (1905 -"GendFaishi no ichi 4' -- (The position of the long poem in the present day)," December, 1946. Ic! Fuyu no Tar6 9-~A~ (Tar6 [personal name] in the winter), T6ky6, Yamamoto Shoten, 1943. Ip! "Nadare t- " (Snowslide).," in Gendai shishii T -E ~ (A collection of modem long poems), T~ky6, Kawade ShobU, v. 1, 1939.!W~~ Nam~p6 shishii t47 ~- - (A collection of long poems on the islands of the south), Tfky,6, Meiji Bijutsu Kenkyijo, 1944. IpI Shok6 no toki Of )L0 (The time of the dawn), T6ky6, KMgakusha, 1945.!pI Toi~ (Birds), Tfky6, Shikisha, 1939. IpI "Y6nen ech6 4 ~p - T rj 0 (A picture album for youth)," in Gendai shijinshii A. t; A. (A collection of present-day poets), T6ky6, Sangab6, v.2, 1940.77T7 592. Jinzai Kiyoshi X-1 ff17 (1903-1957) "Haiiro no me no onna ')& (A woman with gray eyes)," Shisaku November, 1946. If! "'Shbnen -~' JT- (The boy)," Bungakkai, November-December, 1951. If "Kamen to kokuhaku to j ff L ~~~ (A mask and a confession), " Ningen, 1949. If! "Nikutai no ochiba I~ V }a~- (The fallen leaves of the flesh),"1 Tembm, December, 1946. /fI Shi to sh6setsu no aida ~ ~~ (Between the long poem and fiction), T6ky6, Hakujitsu Shoin, 1947, 273pp. Ic! 593. J6 Samon tPq 7~- rl (1904 -Kinse bura ~ -- -* t~ (Modemn viliy, Taky6, Daiichi Shobd,190!I 594. Jiiichiya Gisabur6 -h - 3 (1897 -"Kamikaze -ren f01L jT (The Kamikaze gang)," Fukuoka nichinichi shimbun,, JanuaryFebruary, 1934; also, T6ky6, Ch5i6 K6ronsha, February, 1934. If! 'T6jin Okichi / (The foreigner, Okichi),"1 Chii6 k6ron, July, 1928. If!

Page  103 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE10 103 595. Kagawa Toyohiko Vhu "( ( I (1888 -Hitotsubu no mugi - )-o (A grain of wheat), T6ky6, K6dansha, 1931. If! "Ishi no makura o tatete;F z ~- (Putting up the stone pillow)," Shin-joen, July, 1937- December, 1938. If! 596. Kagoshima Juz6 ik (1898 -KyiiseiJz (Seeking for greens), T6ky6, Shiratama Shob6, 1950, 20lpp. /t/ Ch~seki ~s (Ebb and flow), T6ky6, Kokin Shoin, 1941. It! 597. Kaizosha?t I-L %~-E comp. Shin -Man' y6shii k~- 4 (The new Man'y6shul, T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1937- 1938. /t! 598. Kaji Wataru OL f~,-R (1903 -"IIwayuru shakaishugi bungei o kokufuku-seyo N1 A ~~ '~ )t- ~~ (Vanquish the so-called socialistic literary art),," Musansha shimbun, February 5, 1927. /e/ Nihon puroretaria bungaku und6 no h~k6 tenkan no tame ni E i-~t~L 7 I T L i~~t#zF or changing the direction of the Japanese proletarian literature movement), T6ky6, Narupu Shuppambu, 1934. /c/ "R~dsha to kutsu (A laborer and some shoes)," Chii6 k6ron, April, 1930. If! 599. K~ajii Motojir6 7J4: (1901-1932) "Aru gakeue no kanjO Y 3 4 'I( Feelings on top of a certain cliff)," Bung 4i July, 1928. If! " Fuyu no hi Z~- a) u (A winter day), " Aozora, February-April, 1927. /f/ " Nonki na kanj a e) k-,I ri )t- (An easy-going patient)," Chii6 k6ron, January, 1932. If! Kajii Motojir6 sh~setsu zensh~i 1 ~,1j3t 4'L / i>f (A complete collection of fiction by Kajii Motojir6), ed. by Yodono Ry(Iz6 ~- 1 T~ky6, Sakuhinsha, 1936, 2v. /f/ 600. Kajiura Masayuki 47t,4~ -iE- 2- (1903 -Hy6 (Leopard), Tfky6, Bon Shoten, 1936. Ip/ Seiran (A blue storm), Tfky6, Shibungaku KenkyiCikai, 1939. /p/ Shun' 6 (Spring nightingale), T6ky6, Keikan Shijinsha, 1931. /p/ 60 1. Kakei Kazuhiko - Wasuareu ka ~.4v 5 4' Y~ t~ (The unforgettable face), performed by the Takada K6kichi Gekidan company at the Ky6to Minamiza in April,196 Id 602. Kamachi Kan'ichi ~ 4 It6 SeVT 4FTfT7T1-M Sei [name of author]), T6ky6, T6ky6 Raifusha, 1955. /c! 603. Karrbara Ariake -m ~j F (1876-1952) Ariake zenshish6 i 1j/T9~ t? (A selection from the collected long poems of Ariake), Taky5, Kant6sha, 1950, 240pp. /pI 604. Kambara Tai ~t/~,o (1898 -"Oreta hata fti ~t -tz- A~ (A broken flag)," hiho n January, 1934. Ip! 605. Kambayashi Akatsuki -L C (1902 -"Banshun nikki ti4., 'p, (Late Spring diary).," Shinsei, February, 1946. If! "Bara nusubito -9 ~A (A rose-thief)," Shincho, July, 1932. If! Chichi haha no ki it ~I- "?-.be (A record of my father and mother), T6ky6, Takemura Shob6, 1939. If! Den'en tsiishin Ri f 4 (Correspondence from the rural districts), T6ky6, Sakuhinsha, 1938. If! "Hika~ -~k(An elegy)," Shic6 FeI~ruary, 1941. If! "Hime ky~dai - (A small stand for a mirror).," Gunz6, April, 1951. If! "'Kono yo no minaoshi "1 &1 -Ly 07 V iLL (Another look at this world)," Bne, November, 1954. If! "'Meigetsuki OMl F);L (Record of a bright moon)," Bungei, November, 1942. If! "No W-t' (The field).," Bungei, January, 1940. If! "Ryfigaki X~ t* e. (An account of a life in exile)," Chisei, January, 1942. If! "'Sei Yohane By6in nite JP 3 / F tz (At St. John' s Hospital), Nne, June, 1946. If! 606. Kambayashi Michio ~L 4 OK (1914 -Ongaku ni tsuite:Y Z (On music), T~ky6, Gendai Shiseishinsha, 1942. Ip! 607. Kambe Yiiichi Z 7A (1902-1954) Arata na ru hi ~j -. (A new day), T6ky6, Tosho Kenkyiisha, 1943. Ip! Misaki: itten no boku.A - k,)4(t (The cape: I, a dot), Tfky6, Sakuhinsha, 1927.!p!

Page  104 104 104 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 608. Kamei Katsuichir6 t # F? -~ (19-07 -"Bi e' no ky6shii t Aa ~ ~ (Nostalgia for beauty)," Shinch6, January, 1937. /e/ Chishikijin no sh6z6 k!~ ' )~ /~k (Portrait of an intellectual), T6ky6, Bungei Shunjfi Shinsha, 1952. Ic! "'Gendai bungaku ni arawareta chishikijin no sh6z5 I. '4-V~ <if' t L. 4- 4t t-z ~V *A P_~ 4- (The image of the intellectual as revealed in modern literature),?? Gunz6, January-December, 1951. Ic! Gendai sakkaron TV- 4-V 4'A~ (on modern wri7ters([ in Kadokawa buk) T6kyQ, Kadokawa Shoten, 1954. /c/ "Gendaijin no kenkydi TV /'C,Q a)~~_t (A study of present-day man),?? Fiisetsu, May-September, 1949. Ic!??Kamigami no fukkatsu ~* a /7 (Revival of gods),?? Bungakkai,, October, 1938. Ic!??Makishimu G~rikiino ky~kun i~ k ->L ~- kY-, ay,~)~Gj (The teachings of Maxim Gorki)," Marukusu-Renin.-shugi geijutsugaku kenkyl November, 1932. Ic!??Ningen saisei no bungaku /' ] ~ (Literature for the regeneration of man),?? Bungakkai, July, 1940. Ic/??Shesutofu-ron ~1Z [1 # (OAl Shestov),?? Nihon r6manha, May, 1935. Ic! Kamei Katsuichir6 chosakushd i j (A collection of the works of Kamei Katsuichird), T6ky5, S6gensha, 1952, 6v. /z/ 609. Kamitsukasa Shaken i- 7') i (1874-1947) Ilr shimbun nendaiki L4 - A (A chronicale of newspaper U),?? Chii6 k6ron, November, 1933. Id! 610. Kamura Isota 4 (1897-1933)??Aki tatsu made tkI ~- (Till the first day of autumn),?? Shinch6 October, 1930. If!??Gake no shita - oT (Under a cliff),?? Fud~ch6, July, 1928. f??Goku T, (Retribution),?? Fud&ch6 January, 1928. If!??Toj6 4~ (On the road),?? Chii k~ron, February, 1932. If! 611. Kanda Hideo )t m3 * 5/ (1913 -G endai haiku nyiimon yrJ 4~~ I7, (A guide to present-dayhak) Takyo, Ky~iku Shorin, October, 1951. /Ik 612. Kaneko Mitsuharu. 4 J ~ (1895 -Fuka shizum~u j (A shark sinks), T6ky6, Ariakesha Shuppambu, May, 1927. IpI 613. Kaneko Mitsuharu and Moni Michiyo -(Q (1906 -Gaa~ (A mnoth), Tohky5, Hokuto Shoin, 1948.!pI Ningen no higeki U ~~ ~ (The tragedy of man), T6ky6, Sogensha, 1952. IpI Oni no ko no uta. 11 (The song of a devil's child), T~ky6, Jiijiya Shoten, 1950. IpI Rak (As ha kZ (Parachute), T6ky6, Nihon Miraiha Hakk6jo, 1948. IpI ____ A srk) T6ky6, Jimminsha, August, 1937.!p! 614, Kaneko Y6bun t ~- (1894 -Arashi no naka, no hitobito C, a) t~7 ~ A, (z (People in the storm), performed by Ennosuke and Yaeko campany at the T6ky6 Gekij6 in February, 1946. Id! Ikite iru yiirei q_ I d) 3 644 #I (A living ghost), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa. company at the Shinjuku Daiichi Gekij5 in January, 1946. Id! 6 d Kami k. (Hair), performed by the Shinkokugeki company at the Yiirakuza in June, 1946 d 615. Kanetsune Kiyosuke f, ~ -- Jx- (1885-1957) and Miyauchi Tamako '~ M. ~F Igirisu no shi Nihon no shi -k El /~ q (E-nglish poetry and Japanese poetry), T6ky6, Hokuseid6, 1954. /k 616. Kanno Masao Tsuch'i to tatakau e_ ' A (Struggling with the soil), T6ky6, Manshil IjilT Ky6kai, 1940. If! 617. Kan6 Sakujir6 ~t7 I e13 (1886-1941) Chichi no nioi a) "'v7 tA (The scent of milk), T6ky6, Makino Shoten, 1941. If!??Chichi no sh6gai L t Faerslf)?ChIkrnDecember, 1940. If! 618. Karaki Junz6 / ~'~5 (1904 - Gendi Nhonbungaku josetsu ~.4'~ ~~F'~ A nrdcint rsn-day Japanese literature), Tfky6, Shun' yado, October, 1932. 1k!. k Gendaishi e no kokoromi 4, - -N:7);A *J (Attempt at a modern history), T6ky6, Chikuma Shob6, 1949 1k Kindai Nihon shrnt,bungaku shrn ~ g'q~~(on the history of modern Japanese literature), T~ky5, Kdbund6, 1952. 1k!_ Mori Ogai A- *. 4 (Moni Ogai), T~ky6, Sekai Hy~ronsha,_1949. 238pp. 1k! Ogiinoieishin 0 4 * ~(The spirit of [Mori] Ogai), T6ky6, Chikuma Shob6, 1943. 1k!??Shutl ka gnjits ha nomnAi ' -,' ~ ~, (The problem of whether it is the subject or the reality)," Bungei, September, 1947. Ic!

Page  105 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE10 105 619. Kasai Yuriko,;~ rff - /~' }_ Sanjil rokuban ky6shitsu = ~ A- * /A ~ (Classroom number 36), performed by Oka Joji, Mizunoe Takiko and others at the Yarakuza, December, 1947. Id! 620. Kasai Zenzo a i- (1887-1928) "'Suiky6sha no dokuhaku ji- -4jq 7) J~ (j- (The monologue of a whimsical man),?? Shnc January, 1927. If! 621. Katakami Noburu KL 7 (1884-1928) "Bungei jihy6 ~, ~ (Comments on current literature)," ~hk6ro January, 1928. /c! "Hy~ron no hy6ron ~ (The criticism of criticism')," Bungei k6d&, March, 1926. Ic! "'Musan kaikydl bungaku hy~ron - tr (A criticism of proletarian literature);' Bungei k6d6, March, 1926. "Naizai hihy6 ijO no mono py r~l -_ ' ~ ~4 (Something more than internal criticism)," Shinch6, January, 1926. Ic! Roshia bungaku kenkyll c7 ~- y ji ~'_ (Studies in Russian literature), T6ky6, Daiichi Shob6, 1928. 1k! "'Seiji to bungei if& -5'~ L t (Politics and literature)," Asahi shimbnJanuary, 1928. Ic! 622. Kat~aoka ieppei~ei~lJ~- (1894-1944) "'Aij6 no mondai ci (The problem of love)," Kaiz6, January, 1931. If I "Ayasato-mura kaikyoroku ~ j4t'~$~ (Record of the inspiring exploit of Ayasato village)," Kaiz6, February, 1929. If I "Ikeru ningy6 t- it 3 K.. `~ (A living doll),"I Asahi shimbun, June-July, 1928. If! " Tsuna no ue no shojo A c - a f-t- (The girl at the top of the rope), Ka, February, 1927. If! "Geijutsu no hinkon I.44 — M (The poverty of art)," Ch56 k~ron, February, 1928. Ic! "Wakaki dokusha ni kotau,, (I answer my young readers)," Bungei jidai, December, 1924. Ic! 623. Kataoka Yoshikazu IYJI (1878-1957) Gendai sakka. rons6 it~N A'~' I T i (A collection of treatises on present-day writers), T6ky6, Mikasa Shobo6, 19 34. 1k!'_ Ihara Saikaku 4+- f!_, tk, (Ihara Saikaku), T6ky6, Shibund5, 1926. 1k! Kindaiha bungaku no rinkaku t 4-\ Aix r,~' o~- q (An outline of the literature of the modemn school), Tfky6, Hakuy~sha, 1950. 1k! "Kindai Nihon bungaku no temb6 ~_t 4-V 13l4 5~t 0 a) (The outlook for present-day Japanese literature)," Chil6 kr April, 1941. 1k! Kindai Nihon no sakka to sakuhin ~L A -c L' 4+- VP (Modern Japanese writers and their works), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1939. 1k! 624. Kataoka Yoshikazu and N-tkajima Kenz6 1 3 supervisors Bunakugojinn ~ fL (Fifty years of literature), T6ky6, Jiji Tsidshinsha, 1955. 1k! 625. Kataoka Yoshikazu, Nakajima Kenz6-, and Nakano Shigeharu I, ed. Kindai Nihon bungaku k6za ~t 4-1 Ei 0' (Essay series on modemn Japanese literature), TVky5, Kawade Shob6,2 1951-,still in process of publication. Ic! 626. Katayama Toshihiko dr 4~- ' --- 7/ (1898 -Kokoro no henreki v': a7 A-Y (The pilgrimage of the spirit), T6ky6, Ch5i6 K6ronsha, 1942. IeI 6 27. Kat6 Kakuhan PO~ F; *9 S6shun -~ 4- (Early spring), T6ky6, Shunt6sha, 1952. 628. Kat6 Kazuo ktr ~ & (1887-1951) N6min geijutsuron It~ 4+* A (A treatise on farmers' art), T6ky6, Shunjiisha, 1931. Ic! 629. Katbo Michio PI; k (1918-1953) Epis~do:r- t' v- P, (An episode), performed by the Bungakuza company at the Mitsukoshi Gekij6 in March, 1949. Id! "Nayotake tj: j t1c It, (Pliant bamboo)," Mita bungaku, May, 1946. Id! 630. Kat5 Shiiichi Ph7 *,, - (1919 -"'Aru hareta hi ni ~ u ft K 13 rz (On a certain fine day),"Nign January-August, 1949. If! "Buntai ni tsuite - - - (On styles of writing),," Bungei, September, 1948. Ic! "'Minshushugi bungaku-ron U&,' ik ep_ (A treatise on democratic literature)," BunLgei;, March, 1950. Ic! Teik6 no bungaku 4 0) - (The literature of resistance), T6ky6, Miraisha, 1952. Ic! 631. Kat6' Shilichi, Nakamnura Shin'ichir6 $r- -, and Fukunaga Takehiko ~ 7Ji Sen-kyiihuaku-yonjfI-rokunen bungaku-teki k~satsu I 4~z-~ — ~-u I! (An observation of 1946 f rom the literary point of view), Toky6, Shinzembisha, 1947. Ic!

Page  106 106 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 632. Katsumoto Seiichir6 ~ ~- ~ - ~5 (1899 -"Geijutsu-teki kachi seiji-teki kachi 6 44 ~~{~4 (Artistic value and political value)," Mita bungaku, November, 1927. Ic! "Keishiki-shugi bungaku-setsu o haisu _" ~Ar i- (I regret the doctrine of formalistic literature)," Shinch6, February, 1929. Ic! Kindai bungaku n6to it 4X I - F (Notes on modem literature), Tfky6, N6gaku Shorin, 1948. Ic! "Kindai Nihon bungaku no haaku _r A` e 4- k t a - (The grasp of modern Japanese literature)," ShinNihon bungaku, December, 1947- January, 1948. 1k! Nihon bungaku no sekai-teki ichi n c a) _ 4k (The position of Japanese literature in the world), T6ky5, Ky6wa Shoin, October, 1936. Ic! "Sekaikan geijutsu no kussetsu 4- A X 4 ", T (Changes in an art expressive of a world new)," Bungei hy~ron, no. 1, December, 1948. /k/ "Tempo kara mita gendai bungei no shos6 j & ' Y, f 4 t (Several aspects of present-day literary art viewed from the standpoint of its tempo)," Shnc5 March, 1928. Ic! Tenkeiki no bungaku (Literature during a period of transformation)," T6ky6, Naukasha, 1934. /c! Zen'ei no bungaku R OT tg (Avant-garde literature), TfkyO, Shinch5sha, 1930. Ic! 633. Kawabata B6sha (1900-1941) Kawabata B6sha kushii (A collection of haiku by Kawabata Bsha), T6ky6, Tamamosha, 1934. /h/ 634. Kawabata Yasunari I T-k (1899 -"Asakusa kurenaidan (The crimson group at Asakusa)," T6ky6 asahi shimbunD December, 1930 (intermittently); Kaiz6 and Shincho (intermittently); separately published, T6ky6, Senshinsha, 1930; continued in Bungei, 1934; incomplete. 71T" Chichi no na ~_t o);~ (Father's name)," Bungei, February-March, 1943. If! " Hana no warutsu, 0) V7 i, y (A flower waltz)," Kaiz6, April, 1936. If! "lIzu no odoriko 43 - o 4 +- (An Izu dancer)," 1 Bungei jiaJanuary, 1926. If! "Joj~ka -t' - (A lyrical song)," Ch6krn February, 1932. If! "Kake su, natsu to fuyu. bi (-t-~L~ (The Japanese jay, summer and winter),"1 Kaiz6 bungei, January, 1949. If! "Kinj~ ' -1k (A beast),"1 Kaiz6, July, 1933. If! "1Koen,tIN (The ruined garden)," Bungei, April, 1943 - February, 1945; not completed. If! "Maihime -o bj (A dancing girl)," Asahi shimbun, December, 1950 - April, 1951. If! "'Matsugo no me In 1~ o (Eyes at the moment of death),"' Bungei, December, 1933. IeI "'Meijin,* A, (The champion [go player])," Shinch6, August, 1951. "'Meijin kuy6 f, 4t (A memorial service in honor of a champion [go player])," Sekai, May, 1952. "'Meijin sh6gai ~ k (Life of a champion [fo player]),Sea, May, 1952. "Mizuumi )A -7p" ) ~h (A lake)," Shincho, January-December, 1954. If! "Moni no yrihi q) 7 (Evening sun in the forest)," Bessatsu bungei shujfAugust, 1949. If! "Nijfisei (A double star)," Bessatsu bunei shunjil, no. 24, December, 1951. If! " ISaikai * (Meeting again)," Ningen, November, 1946. If! " Sembazuru k ~ A (Thousands of cranes)," Jiji yomimono, bessatsu, May, 1949. If! "'Shigure ( e' 4 (A drizzling shower in late autumn)," Bungei January, 1949. If! "Suish6 gens5 7J( ' 4.,~ P _ (The illusion of a crystal)," Kaiz6, January, 1931. If! "Tabi e no sasoli - (Invitation for a journey)," Shin-joen, January-September, 1940. If! "Yama no ne d4 ~r- (The sound of a mountain)," Kaiz6 bungei, September, 1948. If! Yukiguni 'h' IM (The snow country), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1937. If! "Yrlgeshiki no kagami 7 -, t 4t (Mirror of an evening scene)," Bungei sun, January, 1935. If! Kawabata Yasunari senshii II 1 F 5 (A selection of the works of Kawabata Yasunari), T6ky6, K~aiz6sha, 1938 - 1939, 9v.!zI Kawabata Yasunari zenshii it, ~ - (The complete works of Kawabata Yasunari), T6ky6, Shinch6 -sha, 1948-53, 17v. IzI 635. Kawada Jun (I1 M~ "lR (1882 -Risshii 2L *k (The first day of autumn), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1933. It! Ryogan *~ /1W (Traveling wild geese), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1935. It! Yoshino-cho no hika- +, A At~.-~j (Elegies of the Yoshino dynasty), T-oky6, Daiicbi Shob6, 1938. IeI 636. 'Kawade Shobob 5"T AF~ ~ (Kawade Publishing Company), ed. Nihon bungaku k6za s i 4 tf (Essay series on Japanese literature), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1950 - 1952, 8v. Ic! Nihon bungaku, taikei a J~,P' * 7, (Outline of Japanese literature), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1938 - 1940, 24v. Ic!

Page  107 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 107 637. Kawaguchi Matsutar6 II V 7 9k 9k *- (1899 -"'Flryti Fukagawa-uta Fqt~C -5~.U7,, PQ (A song of the romantic Fukagawa)," Oru yomimono, February-April, 1935. If!; performed by the Kan'ya, Yaeko, Fujimura, Kabori, and K6bai company at the Shinjuku Daiichi Gekij6, October, 1946. /d/ Kaidan Kasanegafuchi ). i T r (A ghost story, the Kasanegafuchi abyss [originally written by San'yitei Enchb]), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Teikoku Gekij6, August, 1946. /d/ Kisobushi 0-Gin 9k 'W L, ~,, 4 (0-Gin, a singer of the Kisobushi [folk song]), performed by the ShinEngiza company at the Yiirakuza, September, 1946. Id! Kokyojin k # A, (The people in one's native village), performed by the Roppa Ichiza company at the Ytirakuza, August, 1947. Id/ Korosareta onna -I Z tL t. -&- (The murdered woman), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Tokyo Gekij6, June, 1949. Id! Meiji jogakusei no ~ 4- f t (High school girls during the Meiji era), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the TO-kyO GekijO, December, 1947. Id! Onna -- (Woman), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Shinjuku Daiichi GekijO in March, 1946. Id! Tsukiyogarasu -(The crow in the moonlight), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the T~kyO GekijO, June, 1947. Id! "Tsuruhachi Tsurujir6 % / A 3 (Tsuruhachi Tsurujir0)," Oru yomimono, October, 1934; performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Shinjuku Daiichi Gekij6 in March, 1946. If-dl Yotsuya kaidan i )6- ('. (The ghost story at Yotsuya [originally written by Tsuruya Namboku]), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Teikoku GekIj6, August, 1947. Id! 638. Kawai Suimei (1874 -Meiji daihyoo shijin B L 4-V k;(~ (Representative poets of the long poem in the Meiji era), T~kyO, Daiichi Shob6, 1937. IeI 639. Kawaji Ryiik6 I i - ST. (1888 -Mui no sekkei - (An idle plan), T6ky6, Fugaku Honsha, 1947. IpI 640. KawakamiHaie4~ (1879-1946) Gokuchiiki tl~ t L& (An account of life in prison), T~kyO, Sekai Hy~ronsha, 1949. leI Ryojin A (A traveler), T~kyO, K~f~ikan, 1946. IpI Jijoden fl (An autobiography), T~ky6, Sekai Hy~ronsha, 1946 - 1948, 4v. IeI 641. Kawakami Kikuko ((IJ /~-&Z (1904 -"'Hikari honoka nari e,( rx I (The light is dim)," Bungakkai, February, 1937. 642. Kawakami Tetsutara -h I- - f I ~ tF3 (1902 -Shin-Seisho k~gi -* T - (Lectures on the new Bible), T~kyO, Koyama Shoten, 1950. 1k! "Watakushi no shi to shinjitsu - a, (My poems and truth),"1 ShinchO, January-December, 1953. IeI 643. Kawamori YoshizO ' 43-&~ (1902- ),tr. Nij -goi t Jz- (The twenty-fifth hour [C. V. Gheorghiu' s La vingt-cinqul'm her]CTkO Chikuma ShobO, 1949. ItrI 644. Kawasaki Ch~tar6 ((I J4. -IK A (1901 -"Ba~kushii 1:& (Wheat harvest season)," ShinchO, August, 1954. If! Hadakagi ~9 (A bare tree), T~ky6, Sunagoya ShobO, 1939. If! "Hen na koi -' j iZ* (A strange love)," Sakuhin, October, 1950. If! "Hikagezaki t' o, r7 t~_ I (Blooming in the shade)," Shinch6, April, 1952. If! "H~senka ~L/L4+rC (Garden balsams)," BungakaOctober, 1952. If! "'Makk~machi 9 1 T (Street with many temples)," Bessatsu bungei shunjil, March, 1950. If! "Niseisho 1fS, j (A false will)," Shinch5, October, 1948. /f "O0chibo 9~ 'A. (Fallen ears)," Yakumo, June, 1943. If! "'Sazanka Lij I * r (Sazanka [name of a flower])," Bessatsu sh~setsu shinch6, January, 1951. If! 645. Kawatake Shigetoshi N"r~1 (1889 -Kindai _gekibungaku 'Vt - ~q~4 (Modem dramatic literature), T~kyO, Kawade ShobO, 1952. lk/ 646. Kazamaki Keijir6 C A T,; J3# (1902- )ed. Gendai Nihon bungaku tech {\ns- ~ ' (A pocket-book for present-day Japanese literature), T~ky6, S~gensha, 1951. /k/ "Kensetsuki ni iru sensO bungaku X34 (The war literature which enters into a period of construction)," Shinch6 yrn December, 1939. 1k!

Page  108 108 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 647. Kida Minoru, t- A ~ 3 (1894- "Nihon bunka no kontei ni hisomu mono - _ 4L oL J 1 - { i (That which lies hidden at the bottom of Japanese culture)," Gunz6, January-November, 1956. /e/ 648. Kikuchi Kan T ^t C (1888-1948) "Kafuku A, (Fortune and misfortune)," Shufu no tomo, September, 1936 - November, 1937. /f/ "Meib6ka Bq 9, (Misery from the bright eyes of a woman)," Fujokai, January-October, 1928. /f/ "Nihon meifu-den o t 4 -i 4{ (Biographies of famous Japanese women)," Fujokai, June, 1934 - June, 1935, in ten installments; also, separately published, T6ky6, Fujokaisha, 1935. biographies/ "Sh6hai 4 ~P. (Victory or defeat)," T6ky6 and Osaka, Asahi shimbun, 1931. /f/ "Umi yukaba -~ 4~. lI' (If I go to sea [on a battleship])," Shufu no tomo, May, 1943. /f/ Toki no ujigami 8,- s cN (A clan deity of the time), performed by the Haiyuza company at the Mainichi HOru, February, 1949. /d/ Kikuchi Kan chUhen sh6setsu senshiu -i. 1 M f' ' t iH (A selection of the long novels of Kikuchi Kan), T6kyo, Hibonkaku, 1950, 3v. /f/ Kikuchi Kan sakuhinshiu ~ 4, 9 4 (A collection of the works of Kikuchi Kan), T6ky6, Hibonkaku, 1950, 3v. /z/ Kikuchi Kan zenshiu i, E, / (The complete works of Kikuchi Kan), Tokyo, Heibonsha, 1929, 12v. /z/ Zoku-Kikuchi Kan zenshiu. f -. / i (The complete works of Kikuchi Kan, continued), TOkyO, Heibonsha, 1933, 10v. /z/ 649. Kikumura Itaru 4 T '1 (1925- "Iojima i t 7 (Iwojima)," Bungei shunji, September, 1957. /f/ 650. Kikuoka Kuri 1 1 X k'| (1909- ) Hinjiko '{ ~. (Friendship in a time of poverty), Toky6, Daiichi Shob6, 1936. /p/ Toki no gangu. ~ _. (A toy for the time), Tokyo, Nihon Bungakusha, 1938. /p/ 651. Kikuta Kazuo j e - (1908- ) Aij5 ni tsuite 't 1- (- "Z (On love), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Mitsukoshi Gekijo, September, 1947. /d/ Daitaii P q d! (An abortionist), performed by the Nichigeki company at the Nichigeki Sh6gekijo, October, 1947. /d/ Kane no naru oka H (, 3 -% (The hill where the bell rings), performed by the Nichigeki company at the Nichigeki Sh6gekij6, February, 1948. /d/ Komadori fujin,..J,,< (Madame Robin), performed by the Kan'ya, Yaeko, Fujimura, Kobori, and Kobai company at the Shinjuku Daiichi Gekijo, October, 1946. /d/ Nagasaki 4 (Nagasaki), performed by the Shinkokugeki company at the Shinjuku Daiichi Gekijo, October, 1947. /d/ Yama kara kita otoko I1 v 3 A t- - (The man who came from the mountain), performed by the Meiro Shingeki company at the Shinjuku Daiichi Gekijo in February, 1946. /d/ 652. Kimata Osamu 7' 4 /, / (1906- ) Fuyugoyomi, _ } (The winter calendar), Tokyo, Yakumo Shoten, 1948. /t/ Koshi ~. (High ambition), Tokyo, Dai-Nihon Yubenkai Kodansha, 1942. /t/ 653. Kimura Ki $ t- Pt (1894- ) Bungei tozai namboku ~ i7 j i L (The four cardinal points of literary art), Tokyo, Shinchosha, 1926. /e/ 654. Kimura Shigeo t- ~ - Akai hotaru wa koi no mushi., ~ it, ~, (The red firefly is the insect of love), performed at the Muran Ruju, July, 1947. /d/ 655. Kimura Tomiko * jt t (1890-1944) Kurozuka. i# (Kurozuka), performed by the Ennosuke and Yaeko company at the Kyoto Minamiza, May, 1946./d/ 656. Kin Ryusai A ~ - "Aisuru tairiku yo * t ~1 k (My beloved continent ')," Nappu, October, 1931. /p/ 657. Kin Shiryo / t "Hikari no naka ni * ) ', - (In the light)," Bungei shuto, October, 1939. /f/ Kokyo &t 3 (One's native home), Tokyo, Kocho Shorin, April, 1942. /f/ "Kusa fukashi,. CL (The grass is deep)," Bungei, July, 1940. /f/ "Temba,..^ (A flying horse)," Bungei shunjiu, June, 1940. /f/

Page  109 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 109 658. Kin Tatsuju (Kim Darasu) /,% A- (1919 -"Geakainada 7 4-:f (The Sea of Genkai)," Shin-Nihon bungaku, January, 1952-; also, TfkyQ Chikuma Shobo, 1953. /f/ "Hanrangun (A rebel army)," C August-September, 1949. If! "K~ei no machi 41T (A street of descendants)," Minshu Ch6sen, April, 1946 - May, 1947. /f/ "Zokufu (Racial genealogy)," Minshu Ch6sen, January, 1948 - July, 1949. /f/ "Yanotsu t6ge i (The Yanotsu pass)," Sekai, April, 1950. If! 659. Kindai Bungakusha, ed. Gendal Nihon bungaku jiten Tt A' c iq A- (A dictionary of present-day Japanese literature), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1949, 13+568+20+2pp. /k! 660. Kinoshita Junji (1914 -"Akai jimbaori 5 lit 1 9' (A red coat of arms)," Bessatsu bungei shu February, 1947; performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the T~ky5 Gekij6, December, 1947. /d/ "Fidir6 1L 4; (Wind and waves)," Ningen, March, 1947. d "Hikoichi-banashi j 11 (L (The story of Hikoichi)," Seni November, 1946. Id! "Kawazu sh6ten (Death of a frog)," Sekai, June-July, 1951. Id! "Kurai hibana 4AL (A faint spark)," k Nov ember, 1950. /d/ "Sammyaku (A mountain range)," Bessatsu geijutsu, March, 1949; also,, separately, Ky3t6, Sekai Bungakusha, 1950, 189pp. /d/ "Ydzuru V7 (The crane in the evening), kdron, January, 1949; performed by the Bud6 no Kai at the Mitsukoshi Gekij6, October, 1950. Id! "'Sannen Netar6 El — 1 - 3 (Taro-, a three year sleeper),"Asahihyr, October, 1947. /d/ 661. Kinoshita Mokutar6 KrIA (1885-1945) Kinoshita Mokutar6 shishd 5 4 (A collection of the long poems of Kinoshita Mokutar6), Tfky6, Daiichi Shob5, January, 1929. /p/ Kinoshita Mokutar6 senshii T, 4,, ~p 4 (A selection of the works of Kinoshita Mokutar6), T6ky6, Chii6 KOronsha, 1942. /z/ Kinoshita Mokutar5 zenshii t-T4A 3/ (The complete works of Kinoshita Mokutar6), ed. by Ota Masao A-.,3-T- T~ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1948 - 1951. /z/ 662. Kinoshita Ydji T~-j (1914 -Inaka no shokutaku /94 a) i (Country meals), T6ky6, Shibungaku Kenkyiikai, 1939. /p/ 663. Kinumaki Seiz6 *- 4 ) (1900 -Ashifuiikin 4 —: (Wandering), T6ky6, Bon Shoten, 1934. /pI Kowareta machi 4 -WJI- (A broken street), T6ky6, Shi no Ie Shuppambu, 1928. /p/ 664. Kishi Yamaji CTJJ- ' (1899 -"Jitsuroku-bungaku no teish6 e + & " L, o (Advocacy of authentic literature)," Bungei, May, 1935. Ic! 665. Kishida Kunio ' w (1890-1954) "BMr- 1;V7 (A watch tower)," Shin-joen, February, October, and November, 1939. "'Danryii &4 (A warm current),"' Asahi shimbun, April-September, 1938. If! "IIzumi (A spring),"1 Asahi shimbun, October, 1939 - March, 1940; also, T~ky5, Asahi Shimbunsha, 1940. If! "'Muchi o narasu onna I. -- (A woman who cracks a whip)," Jiji shimp6, October, 1931 - March, 1932. /f/ "O0chiba nikki; (A diary of fallen leaves), " Chii6 k~ron, April, 1936. If! S~menjin i The god with two faces), T6ky6, S~gensha, April, 1936. If! "Yuri Hatae &1 - ~ _j (Yuri Hatae [personal name])," T6ky6 Asahi shimbun, September, 1929 - January, 19 30. If!, "'Zemma -~, (The good demon)," Yakumo, April, 1948 - February, 1949.If "Hayami jojuku ~~ ~ ~ (The Hayami private school for girls)," MhOi k6ron, June, 1948. Id! "'Michi t6karan ~ ~ -~ (The road will probably be long)," Ningen, June, 1950. Id! "'Mura de ichiban no kuri no ki ~t~-4~~ (The best chestnut tree in the village)," Josei, November, 1926. Id! "Saigetsu ft R (Time)," Kaiz6, April, 1935; performed at the Mitsukoshi Gekijo, January, 1948. Id! "Ushiyama Hoteru. -T4 AA t,:T /i- (TUshiyama Hotel)," Chd6 k~ron, January, 1928. Id! Kotoba, kotoba, kotoba ~.~4 (Words, words, words), T~ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1926. IeI Kishida Kunio ch~hen sh~setsu-sh~i, - (A collection of the long novels of Kishida Kunio), T6ky6, Yakumo Shoten, 1947 - 1948, l0v. IzI Kishida Kunio ch6hen sh6setsu zenshil ~z Wf ~ -f,~ A1-, 4 4 (A complete collection of the long novels of Kishida Kunio), To-ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1938- 1939, 8v. IzI Kishida Kunio ch6hen sh6setsu zenshil %I -.) '' 4 4 (A complete collection of the long novels of Kishida Kunio), T~ky6, Yakumo Shoten, 1947-, 12v. Kishida Kunio zenshfi V Jnim~~4~ (The complete works of Kishida Kunio), T~kyO, Shinch6sha, 1954 - 1955, l0v. IzI

Page  110 110 110 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Kishida Kunio zenshdi: gikyoku -hen ~ \- -A /~ V 4 d (The complete works of Kishida Kunio: section on the dramas), TokyO, Shinchosha, 1954, 2v. /d/ $Kishida Kunio zenshii: sh6setsu-hen, ikkan ~ ~F — k '~ -* - k ' (The complete works of Kishida Kunio: section on novels, v. 1), T~ky6, Shinch~sha, 1954. If! 666. Kishida Yoshiko 6 kMoni Ogai-ron A 0-*~ (A discussion of Moni Ogai), Fo-ky6, Jibund5, 1950, 178pp. /k/ 667. Kitagawa. Fuyuhiko ~.,-~ (1900 - Iyarashii kami (An unpleasant god), T~ky5, Kamata Shob5, 1936. /p/ Ken'onki to hana 4 $L (A thermometer and flowers), Tdky6, Misumarusha, 1926. /p/ K6 ri AK (Ice), T6kyC6, Kamada Shob5, 1933. Ip/ Sens6 #~ ~ (War), To-ky6, K5seikaku, 1929. /p/ Uma to ffikei,$ ~- I -~y (A horse and scenery), T6ky6, Jikansha, 1952. /p! Gendaishi kansh5: Meiji, Taish6, Sh6wa A-, -*v.nl (Appreciation of presentday poetry: the Meiji, TaishU, Shfowa eras), TUky6, Daini Shob6, 1951, 2v. /c/ Shi no hanashi a (A talk on the long peom), T~ky6, H~bunkan, 1949. Ic! 668. Kitahara Hakushil 3 di{ (1885-1942) Kaihy6 to kumo 4~~ (Seals and clouds), T~ky6, Arusu, 1929. /p/ Shinsh6 Hakushfl i-k (3 (Hakushii in new form), Tdky6, Yakumo Shorin, 1940. /p/ Danryflsh6 gc l (Songs about a warm current), T6ky6, Seibunsha, 1943. /t/ Hakunampfl \J- 4i *-L- (Te white south wind), T6ky6, Arusu, 1934. It! Kaihan -4 Ck (Sea hill), T~ky5, Arusu, 1949. It! Karatachi no hana z' (Blossoms of the trifoliate orange), T~ky5, Shinch6sha, 1926. /pI Kurohi ~ (Black cypress), T~ky6, Yakumo Shorin, 1940. It! Yumedono,A (Yumedono [ hall at the Horyiiji]), T6ky6, Yakumo Shorin, 1939. It! Kitahara Hakushii sakuhin-shili L ~~ ~ ~~ (A collection of the works of Kitahara Hakushii), T~ky5, Akane Shob6, 1952, 3v. /z/ 669. Kitahara Hakushu it, IT, b-k Shaku C h6kil -4 Mokichi?T iT, i~ +, Sat Haruo t, t "Tanka wa metsub5 sezaru ka!M t. j t- ~ -r- ~;6 -1926. /k/ A!~ -r,Akutagawa Ryffnosuke oI -&i, Sait6,and Koizumi Chikage ~ ~ -- t ~ (Can the tanka help being destroyed?)," Kaiz6, July, 670. Kitahara Takeo iLc )~. ~V K. (1907 -"'Ame rb- (The rain)," 1939. If! "Haitokusha I ~t -t (An immoral person)," Buntai, December, 1949. If! "Mon rl (A gate)," Bungei shunjUl Mrh, 19 3977N "'Saisho no onna ~~~- (The first woman),"Nign April, 1946. If! "'Sakura Hoteru - j itL- (Sakura Hotel)," Shinch6, September-December, 1939. If! Tenshi ~z /It (An angel), T6ky6, Sutairusha, 1949. I/f! "lTsuma *. (A wife)," Bungei, November, 1938. If! 671. Kitazono Katsue (1902 -Shiro no arubamu ( ~. (A white album), T6kyd, K6seikaku, 1929. Ip! 672. K6 Ei & (1904 -Mizue 4$ (Young branches), T~ky6, Bon Shoten, 1934. IpI 673. K& Haruto;'Af /fA. (1906 -"'Aru tanima ~ v; (A certain gorge)," Kaiz5, October, 1948. If! 674. Koana Rydichi d', (1894 -"Futat su no e z ~i (Two pictures)," Chd6 k~ron, December, 1932.!e! 675. Kobayashi Hideo I - A (1903 -Gengogaku genron ~~~(The principles of linguistics: [Ferdinand de Saussurel s Le cours de linguistique gene'ral]), T~ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1928. ItrI 676. Kobayashi Hideo 1' A 4 ~ (1902 -Jigoku no kisetsu A- 4 a (A season in hell: [Jean Arthur Rimbaud's Une saison en enfer]), T6ky6, Hakusuisha, 1930.!tr! V "Bungei hihy6 no yukue _ L 4m /q~y (The direction of literary criticism)," Chfii k6ron, August, 1937. Ic! Bungei hy~ron t~ i t- (Literary criticism), T~ky6, Hakusuisha, 1931. Ic! "Dosutoefusukii no seikatsu -7~ 7 ~ I a) Ft (The life of Dostoevski),"1 Bungakkai, January, 1936 - May, 1939. Ic!/

Page  111 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE11 ill "Dosutoef usukii no seikatsu ~.-L~A ~; (The life of Dostoevski)," Bungakkai, January, 1936 - May, 1939. /c/ "Dosutoefusukii no seikatsu 7V '- 7 A, 0' ~ (The life of Dostoevski)," Bungakkai, January, 1954. Ic! "Ekkusu e no tegami X o N (A letter to X)," Chii6 k6ron, September, 1932. /c "Gendai sh6setsu no shomondai if ~-\' 4' IL 4I 11 X (Various problems in present-day fiction)," ChU6 k6ron, May, 1936. Ic! "Gohho no tegami Y' - I't 0 t * (Van Gogh' s letters)," Bunai April, 1949. Ic! "Kikuchi Kan t1 -C t (Kikuchi Kan)," Shnc6 January, 1937. Ic! "'Marukusu no gotatsu -z iv 7z a) q-30 At (Comprehension of Marx), " Bungei shunjqi, January, 1931. /c/ "M~tsaruto t X- 7y a (Mozart)," S6gen, December,' 1946; also, T6ky6, S-ogensha, 1946. /c/ Muj6 to iu koto T a. (The thing called ucertainty), T6ky5, S~gensha, 1946. Ic! "Rekishi to bungaku /f- ~P L tj (History and literature)," Kaiza, March, 1941. Ic! "Samazama naru ish6 4, ' rx '~ 13 E- (Various designs)," Kaizd, September, 1929. /c/ "'Sanetomo *_ *f ([Minamoto] Sanetomo),"1 Bungaa, June, 1943. /c/ "'Sens6 ni tsuite - ~~(On war)," KaIz November, 1937. Ic! "'Sens6 to heiwa - - (War and peace)," Bungakkai, February, 1942. /c/ "Shiga Naoy ~ t~' ~ ~ (Shiga Naoya [the novelist]),"SiDembr 1929. Ic! "Shish6setsu-ron - +~4'~ (On 'private' fiction)," Keizai ri May-August, 1935. Ic! "'Shis6 to jisseikatsu Y, ~ * (Ideas and real-life)," Bungei sujl April, 1936. /c/ " Taima It #*z (Taima [place name])," Bungakkai, April, 1942. "Tsumi to batsu ni tsuite e (On crime and punishment)," Bungei, May, 1934; also, S6gen, November, 1948. /c/ Watakushi no jinseikan a) A. ~~ IL (My view of life), Tdky6, S6gensha, 1949. /c/ Zoku-bungei hy~ron k (A (Literary criticism, continued), 10th printing, T6ky6, Nissan Shob6, 1950, 264ppi. Ic! Ltrr rtcsaancntne) 0hpitnTk6 Zokuzoku-bungei hy6ron Z _J Ltrr rtcsaan otne) 0hpitnTk5 Nissan Shob6, 1950, 268pp. Ic! Kobayashi Hideo zenshili 4 (The complete works of Kobayashi Hideo), Tfky6, S6gensha, 1950 - 1951, 8v. Iz/ 677. Kobayashi Hideo A' t and othe rs "Kindai no ch~koku ~t 4- ~ J (Conquest over the present)," Bungakkai, September-October, 1942. Ic! 678. Kobayashi Takiji d, T. (1903-1933) "Dokub6,- (A solitary cell)," Chii6 k6ron, July, 1931.If " Fuzai jinushi I- A- ~t t (An absentee landlord)," Chii3 k~ron, November, 1929. If! "Issen kylihyakil nijii hachinen sangatsu jilgonichi- c (March 15, 1928)," Se NovemberDecember, 1928. If! "Kanik6sen i- (A crab-canning boat)," Sni May-June, 1929. If! "1K6j6 saib6 -L+'~ 4itf R ([Communist] cells in a factory)," Kaiz6, April-June, 1930. If! "Numajirimura 3a A ~T (Numajiri village)," Kaiz6, April-May, 1932. If! "Tenkan-jidai -' (An era of transition)," ~C56ro April-May, 1933. If! Later retitled "1T6 seikatsusha,: -_ (One who lives in accordence with his party's principles)." "Bungei jihy6 g 4 (Comments on current literature)," ChU6 k5ron. May, 1931. Ic! Hiyorimishugi ni taisuru t6s6 f -~ (The fight against opportunism), T6ky6, Koppu Shuppambu, April-May, 1933. Ic!_ "Uyokuteki henk6 no shomondai ~6 10, 6_'i ( — 1 A) N4 At (Various problems concerning the trend toward the right)," Puroretariabungei, December, 1932. Ic! Kobayashi Takiji zenshil i ~ -~z4 (The complete works of Kobayashi Takiji), T6ky6, Aoki Shoten, 1953 - 1954, 12v. IzI Kobayashi Takiji zenshti d' # ~ -& -:.- 4', I (The complete works of Kobayashi Takiji), ed. by ShinNihon Bungakkai, Tfky5, Nihon Hy6ronsha, 1948 - 1950, 9v. IzI 679. Kobayashi Tatsuo 4' - ~K (1916 -"Seishiun h6k67 -~r 4' (j (Wandering in one's youth)," Shin-sh6setuNovember, 1948. If! 6 80. K6da Aya qq ) (1904 -"Kuroi suso T. (The black train [of a kimono]);' ShinchO, July, 1954. "Nagareru (It flows)," Shinch6, January-December, 1955.If "5M6s no kId 0) c' (Account of a funeral)," MhOi k5ron, November, 1947. IeI 6 81. K6da Rohan I-V xi (1867-1947) "Genda-n i.~ 4;k (Stories of visions)," Nihon h 6ron, September, 1937; also, T6ky6, Nihon Hy6ronsha, 1941. Nawa Nagatoshi % p-[6~ (Nawa Nagatoshi Lpersonal name]), T6ky6., Hakuy6sha, 1926. If! "Renkanki.,e (An account of links)," Nihon hcrn June-July, 1940. If! "Yukitataki ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ i~~~~ ~~~ ~(Knocking off the snow)," Nihon h~oMrhArl 99 d Zokuzoku- Bash6 haiku kenkyji A / J.f. f, (A study of the haiku of Bash6, part three), Tfky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1926. 1k! If!

Page  112 112 112 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Rohan zenshil: dai-ikki X 'T/~ -1 - ~ (The complete works of Rohan: the first period), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1949 - 1954, 33v. /z/ 682. 'Koizumi Chikashi jt "By6sh5 shunkc~roku g Okuj5 no tsuchi j ri~, Seigyii-shii -T f - (A -~1- 4~ (1886-1927) 4-t~, (Notes on spring scenery in a sickbed)," Bungei shunjii, May, 1927. (Soil on the roof), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1928. /t/~ collection of works by Seigyid), T6ky6, Kaiz~sha, 1933. It! 683. Koizumi Shinz5 1 (1888 -Ky~san-shugi hihan no j6shiki 4#- /4 ~- fiLt.I o (Common sense in the criticism of Communism), T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1949. /e/ Marukusu shigo gojiinen, -- A ~u: ji- (Fifty years after Marx's death), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1933. 684. Kojima. Masajir5 6 & -- ~p P (1894 -"Hitozuma tsubaki / 4 (A wife's camellia)," -Shufu no tomo, March, 1935 - April, 1937. If! 685. Kojima. Nobuo 4 (1917 -"Ame rikan sukii ru. y L. -v- (American school)," Bungakkai, September, 1954. If! "Hoshi ~k (Stars)," Bungakkai, April, 1954. If! "Kami 4 (God),"' Bungakkai,. December, 1954. If! 686. Komada Shinji ~ (1914 -"'Dasshutsu (An escape)," Ningen, JIuly, 194 8. If! "Nichireki tq /I (A calendar)," IINige January, 1949. If! 687. Komatsu Tar6 /1, t,. k, (1900 -"Nondakure seidan r) iK t-' (' ~L!r- (Holy stories told by a drunken man)," Bungei, July, 1951. If! 688. Komiya Toyotaka Komiya Toyotaka-shii bungaku zenshfij, /IV 'V, T6ky6, I f* (1884 -ff- Aj - (A collection of the works of Komiya Toyotaka) [in v. 25 of Sh6wa Kadokawa Shoten., 1953. /z/ 689. Kon Hidemi /5- 1 -1 (1903 -"'Miki Kiyoshi ni okeru ningen no kenkyil k-' %' 3 IL (A study of man as found in Miki Kiyoshi)," Shinch6, February, 1950. /f/ "Oshoku; ui ' (Corruption)," Bungei sujl May, 1954. /f/ "Tenn6 no b6s hi m (The emperor's hat),"Oryoino April, 1950. /f/ Yokub5 rinne! ~~~~(The transmigration of desires), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Shimboshi Embuj6, September, 1950. /d/ 690. Kond5 Azuma ~~ Bankokuki Al f~ Kami no bara k (1904 -(The flags of all the nations), T6ky6, Bungei Hanronsha, 1941. /p/ (Paper roses), T6ky6, Yugawa K6bunsha, 1944. Ip/ 691. Kond6 Keitar6_ ~t- #,- - K~ ~3 (1920-) "Amabune -4 *~- (Fishing boat)," Bungei shuji March, 1957. If! 692. Kond5 Tadayoshi it F;,,, (1901iNihon bungaku genron Q*,~ ~I' 1937. /k/ (The principles of Japanese literature), T6ky6, D6bun Shoin, I(Introduction to Japanese literature), T6ky6, Nihon Hy~ronsha, 1940. 693. -Kond6 Tadayoshi ~~k t &k Nihon bungaku nyiimon u - I~ ed. 694. 'Kond6 Yoshimi ~t_ 01 _ (1913 -Hokori fuku machi ft v ( Ojl- (A street where the dust blows), T6ky6, S~mokusha, 1948. It! Shizuka naru ishi -~ ~' rc - 1: (A quiet will), T6ky6, Shiratama Shob6, 1949. /t/ S6shunka y t ~ (Songs of early spring), T6kyd, Shiki Shob6, 1948. It! Gendai tanka T,,/,-~ -v - (Present-day tanka), T~ky6, Shiratama Shob6, 1953. /e/ 695. Konishi Shigeya z, rh f~l Fiiryti kokkei-dan c -~l it T~ky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1950. /tr/ (1909 -1955) (Comical stories in elegant styles: ( Balzac's Comtes dorolatiius),

Page  113 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHO5WA LITERATURE13 113 696. Konno Dairiki '~ Iff K( ~ (1904-1935) "Nemnu no hanna no saku ie 4" L' O A 1 1 Puroretaria bungei, August, 1932. /f/ (The house where silk flowers are in bloom),"1 697. Konuma Tan 0, "TMura no etoranje o )~-~>- x (The stranger in the village)," Bungei, January, 1954. /f/ "'Shiroi kiei 0a - -~,/ (The sight of a white airplane)," Guz6 October, 1954. /f/ 698. K6riyama Hiroshi AP JA ~ 5It - (1902 -Yugame ru tsuki 4 (A crescent moon), T6ky6, Eru Esu Emusha, 1927. /p/ 699. K6so Tamotsu 4 (1912-1945) K6so Tamotsu shishii 47~ (A collection of the long poems of K55so Tamotsu), T5ky5, Iwaya Shoten, 1947. /p/ 700. Kotani Tsuyoshi d,;- V~qj (1924 -"'Kakush6 4 I~f (Positive proof)," Sakka, December, 1949. "Tsubasa naki tenshi r4 (An angel without wings)," Sakka, March-December, 1954. If! 701. Koyama Itoko ''~ 3 (1901 - " K~g5- sama tr I (Our empress)," -Shufu no tomo, January, 1955 - December, 1956. If! "Kya Tj - ([Mount] Kdya)," Chfi6 k6ron, May, 1937. If! "Neppd J~k ~L (A hot wind)," ChOi k~ron, December, 1939. /f/ "Oiru shC~ru t 4,, a- ->r - vL, (Oil shale)," Nihon hy6ron, March, 1940. If! "'ShikkO ytlyo 4k iT 4 - (Putting off of the action)," C kh ro February, 1950. /f/ 702. 'Koyama Kiyoshi rVI ~-N q Dazai Osamu kenkyil )K- /~i q-~ I,v 4- (Complete works of PDazai ed. (Stuidies in Dazai Osamu) [=suppl. v. to Dazai Osamu zenshdi *, ~ Osamu)], T6ky6, Chikumna Shob6, 1956. Ic! 703. Koyama Yiishi I-' ~ (1906 -Hikatteru. onna-tachi A ~~~ — (Shining women), performed by the Gekidan Shimbutai company at the Shimbashi Embuj6, August, 1950. Id! "Tsukiyo q tz (Moonlit night)," Bungakki January, 1940. Id! 70 4. Kubo SakaeZ z (1901 -"Noborigama o 1-g (Kilns arranged in step-like pattern)," -Sinh June-November, 1951; also, Tokyo, Shinch~sha., 1951. If! Chfigoku Konansh6 % ~ -q ~4j r (Hunan Province, China), TVky6, Chii6 K6ronsha, 1949, 346pp. Id! Goryo~koku kessho ah It 3~du (A writing in blood at Gory5koku), T5ky5, Hakuy~sha, 1934; also, T5ky5, Chii6 K6ronsha, 1950, 97pp. Id! "Kazambaichi 'k r-k_ tC (The ash terrace of a volcano)," part 1, Shinch6, December, 1937; part 2, Shinch6, July, 1938; also, published together, T6ky5, Shinch6sha, 1938; performed by the Haiydza at the Yiirakuza, March, 1948. Id! "Nihon no kish6 ~~ (Japan's weather)," Shinch5, June, 1953.!d! Ringoen nikki IC. ~ E, (A diary about an apple orchard), T6ky6, Chii6 K6ronsha, February, 1947; performed by the T6ky6 Geijutsu Gekij6 company at the Teikoku Gekij6, March, 1947. Id! Osanai Kaoru a-, N_ A (Osanai Kaoru [personal name]), T6ky6, Bungei Shunjff Shinsha, 1947. IeI Kubo Sakae senshil ~,_ it * # (A selection of the works of Kubo Sakae), T6ky5, ChrI6 K6ronsha, November 1949- October, 1952, 7v. 70 5. Kubo Sakae and othe rs Sh6wa gikyokushfi ~6-~ 4 T6ky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1953. Id! (A collection of plays of the Sh~wa era) [=v. 24 of Sh6wa bungaku zenshil], Kubokawa Ineko '~i o4 _~ see Sata Ineko 706. Kubokawa Tsurujir6 I 'A ~ kt (1903 -"Fdun ~ ~(Wind and cloud)," Ch6 6ron, November, 1934.! "'Satogo ni yarareta )O-Kei f,~ A, it. (O-Kei who was placed in the hands of a nurse)," Nappu, November., 1930. IpI "Bungaku ni okeru tairitsu no genj6 ~L v t ' 'I i (The present condition of opposition in literature)," Shinch6, January, 1937. Ic! "Geijutsu-teki h~h6 to sekaikan no mondai rA i~-1 0 - At 3 S *_ )?J k (The problem of an artistic method and a world view)," Bungaku hy6ron, March, 1936. Ic! Gendai bungakuron 1~ 4 - C (A treatise on present-day literature), T6ky6, Chii6 K6ronsha, 1939. Ic! "Ningen fushin no bungaku ~ ] ~(Literature which has no faith in human beings)," Bungei, August, 1948. Ic!

Page  114 114 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS "R6manteki keik6 no d6k6 _~ -Il L 14' A (The development of a tendency toward romanticism)," Bungaku. annai, February, 1936. /c/ "'Saikin no bungaku to jiga no mondai &4 S~it ")~_f 0 4A 2 '?~ (The problem of recent literature and the ego)," Bungei, October, 1934. /c/ Saisetsu gendai bungakuron k ~. 041 (A second treatise on present-day literature), T6ky6, Sh5 -shinsha, 1944. /c/ "'Sakuhin hihy6 no Borushebiiki-teki jissen e 1~ f b - 0 PV>-V4- A (Toward a Boishevistic practice in the criticism of works)," Senki, September-October, 1930. /c/ "'Shimagi Kensaku-ron ~ ~~ (A treatise on Shimagi Kensaku)' Bungei, October-November, 1938. /c/ Tanka-ron i (A treatise on the tanka), T6ky6, Shin-Nihon Bungakkai, 1950. /c/ 707. Kubokawa Tsurujir6, Hirano Ken { 4, and Odagiri Hideo 1I Wv Vt!7 / ed. Nihon puroretaria bungaku: shi-teki te-mb6 to saikent6 no tame ni a q j77~ (Japanese proletarian literature: for a historial view and for reexamination), Toky6, Aoki Shoten, 1956. /c/ 708. Kubota Keisaku PSj (1920 -"I~in 3$ (A foreigner: Albert Camus' L'etranger)," hnhJn,15./r 709. Kubota Mantar5 A -~ (1889 -Asakusabanashi 1,) t jr r L, (A tale of Asakusa), performed by the Bungakuza company at the Mitsukoshi Gekij6, January, 1948. /d/ "'Shiseijin i1~ 4~ A. (A man of the vulgar world)," Kaizo, July-September, 1949. /f/ "Shundei t- $A (Spring mud)," Osaka asahi, Januar'y-March, 1929. /f/ Michishiba j (Turf on the' path), T6ky6, Momiyama Shoten, May, 1927. /h/ "Hanabie 4A (Cool weather in the season of cherry blossoms)," Chii6 k6ron, June, 1938. Id! Hotaru (A firefly), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Shimbashi Embuj6, May, 1950. /d/ Kusamakura `t I (A journey), performed by the Kikugor6 Ichiza company at the Yilrakuza, October, 1947. Id! Mij ikayo kt_ (A short night), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Teikoku Gekij6, May, 1946. "O6dera gakk6 K ~t (Odera's school)," Josei, January, 1927; performed by the Kikugor5 and Kichiemon company at the Teikoku Geikij6 in March, 194677Fd/ Tsuki H (The moon), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Mitsukoshi Gekijo, September, 1947. /d/ Kubota Mantar6 zenshdi A B ~,- ~~/ (The complete works of Kubota Mantar6), T6ky6, K6gakusha, 1947 - 1949, 18v. /z/ 710. Kubota Utsubo ' -# (1877 -Akanegumo (The ruddy cloud), T6ky6, Seik6 Shob5, 1946. It! Aokuchiba A-fr- (Yellowish brown with a tint of green), Tfky5, Kambe Shoten, 1929. It! Kagamiha -! (Large and shining leaves), TVky5, K5gyokud5, 1926. It! Kubota tW_- Utsubo zenkashil ji ~ i% (A complete collection of the tanka of Kubota Utsubo), Tokyo, Hibonkaku, 1935. /t/ Ky5shii ~9 4,t (Nostalgia), T6ky5, Shomotsu Temb~sha, 1937. /t/ Sazaremizu t 1- ~t $._ (Guttering water), T~kyO, Kaiz~sha, 1934. /t/ Man' y~shiilhyds haku Jt~~ {- (An annotated edition of the Man'yo-chui), T6ky6, Tokyo-d6, 1948 - 1952, 12v. 1k! 711. Kubota Utsubo and others Sh5wa tanka, Sh~wa haiku-shii 1#, -, 4. (A collection of tanka and haiku of the Sh~wa era) =v. 41 of Sh~wa bunigaku zensh],T~kyO, Kadokawa Shoten, 1954. 712. Kubota Utsubo, ed., Kono'hate ni kimi aru. gotoku z -&t (As if you were living in this world), Tfky6, ChtiO K~ronsha, 1950. /z/ 713. Kume Masao A i-$f (1891-1952) Kume Masao zenshii Z ~j (The complete works of Kume Masao), Tokyo, Heibonsha, 1930. /z/ 714. Kurahara Korehito J fr4. (1902 -Bunka undO ~i ~ - (Cultural movements)[=Nauka k~za - 'r p;-fA (Nauka study series), 11], Tokyo, Naukasha, 1949. /c/ "Futatabi puroretaria riarizumu ni tsuite ~ c-70z~fy - -~- (Again on proletarian realism)," Asahi shimbun, August, 1929. /c/ "Geijutsu hy~ka no mondali ~, (The problem of the appreciation of art)," Ch6krn August, 1933. /c/ "Geijutsu riron ni okeru Rknin-shugi no tame no t~s6 4 - IT ~- L/ u- Y-k? ~b~a (A struggle in principles of art for the sake of Leninism)," Npu November, 1931. Ic!

Page  115 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 115 Geijutsuron 4 y ~ (A treatise on art), T~ky6, Ch6ryiisha, 1932. /c/ "Geijutsu-shakaigaku no h~h6-ron It #4T 4-t ~ ~ 9 (A treatise on the methodology of the sociology of the arts)," June, 1930. /c/ "Geijutsu taishilka no mondai f4 fl ( 4-~ ~ (The problem of the popularization of art)," Chil6 k6ron, June, 1930. Ic! "Geijutsu-teki h6h6 ni tsuite no kans6 4 ~ - ~ (Opinions on artistic method)," Napu September, 1931. Ic! Geijutsu to musan-kaikydfi fk.-~i VW ~A (Art and the proletariat), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1929. /c/ "Gijutsu und6 ni okeru 'sayoku' seisan-shugi It4T~ 1h f-~;~ (t 4 (The principle of liquidation of the 'left-wing' in art movements)," Sek Octobe r, 1928. Ic! "Geijutsu und6 t6men no kinkyii mondai 4 J- 7 4af.~ Uretpolm acn h r oe ment),"1 Senki, August, 1928. Ic! V k (retpolmsfcn h r oe "Gendai Nihon bungaku to musan-kaikydfi 4- v~ M U- (Present-day Japanese literature and the proletarian class)," Bungei sensen, February-March, 1927. /c/ Kaikyii-shakai no geijutsu ~,g ~.t 4 #{*1 (Art in a proletarian society [from Georgii Valentinovich Plekhanovj), T6ky6, S6bunkaku, 1928. Ic! Kobayashi Takiji to Miyamoto Yuriko '1' 4, - ~ ~ (Kobayashi Takiji and Miyamoto Yuriko), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1953. /c/ Kokumin no bunka to bungaku 01 k Q ~L? I (The culture and literature of a people), T6ky6, Shin-hy6ronsha, 1955. /c/ Kurahara Korehito shokan-shil A- f~A (A collection of the correspondence of Kurahara Korehito), T6ky6, Narupu Shuppambu, 1933. /I/ "Marukusu-shugi bungei hihy6 no kijun -< v t. -b I;{4 c' (A basis for a Marxist criticism of literature)," Bungei sensen, September, 1927. Ic! "Marukusu-shugi bungei no hihy6 no hata no moto ni ~z IL 7;Z, 4 (Under the flag of criticism of Marxian literature)," Kindai seikatsu, August, 1929. Ic! "Musan-kaikyfi geijutsu und6 no shindankai -* ~ 4 ' (New steps in the art movement of the proletarian class),"1 Zen'ei, January, 1928. Ic! "Nappu geijutsuka no atarashii nimmu -j 4'44 -+-~ f (The new duties of the NAPF artists)," Senki, April, 1930. Ic! Puroretaria bungaku no tame ni rz, '!-L Ot a) fz (For proletarian literature), TakyO, Senkisha, 19 30. Ic! "Puroretaria bungei hihy~kai no temb6 -71 tl L, 9 1 47 t3-b~ i (A view of critical circles in proletarian literature)," Chii k6ron, October, 1929. Ic! "Puroretaria geijutsu no naiy6 to keishiki zmz u - a (The content and form of proletarian art)," February, 1929. Ic! "Puroretaria geijutsu undo no soshiki mondai Tt7~ tv L/ F 4, _-' * o W VIO (The problem of organization of the proletarian art movement)," Nappu, June, 1931. Ic! "Nihon ni okeru bunka kakumei no kihon-teki nimmu 9 -~ 1 (The essential duty of cultural revolution in Japan)," 'Bunka kakumei, March, 1947. Ic! "Puroretaria rearizumu e no michi ~~u' 71 LA- - A~- ~~ (The road to proletarian realism)," Senki, May, 1928. Ic! "Seikatsu soshiki to shite no geijutsu to musan-kaikyfi It N4 1, L zt m ~ f VIA ~k (Art as organization of life and the proletarian class)," Zen'ei, April, 1928. Ic! 715. Kurahara Korehito and Nakano Shigeharu ff, ed. Kobayashi Takiji kenkyl '1' $4* 9~ I- 5- fo q_ (Studies in Kobayashi Takiji), T6ky6, Kaih6sha, 1948. Ic! 716. Kurahara Korehito, Takeuchi Yoshimi O t~- 4-~-, Noma Hiroshi. f~9,l Hirano Ken f ft 4I, and Od~airi Hideo 4,ed Nihon puroretaria bungaku annai 5 o ~ ~ $ ~~ (A guide to Japanese proletarian literature), Kydto, San'ichi Shob6, 1955, 2v. 1k! 717. Kurahara Shinjir6 4 ~j -~ (1899 -"T6y6 no mangetsu (The full moon in the Orient)," Kogito, September-December, 1934. IpI 718. Kurahashi Kenkichi /~ -4 - -*1-a (1917-1947) Kurahashi Kenkichi shishC1 f 4- 4 (A collection of the long poems of Kurahara Kenkichi), T6ky6, Tachikawa Osamu, 1949. IpI 719. Kurahashi Yaichir6 5 i~ H6mon (Visit), T6ky6, Shishi Hakk6jo, 1930. IpI 720. Kuramitsu Toshio '~ & (1908 -"Renrakuin ~ ~ (A liaison man),"Bueisnj, September, 1942. If! "Umiwashi -i- (A sea eagle)," Bungei shunjii, November, 1943. If!

Page  116 116 116 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 721. Kurata Hyakuz6 j~ V(1891-1943) Shukke to sono deshi- f~ ~ ~- (A priest and his disciples), performed by the Konomiza company at the Shimbashi Embuj6, December, 1948. /d/ Kurata HyakuzO sakuhinshil I) VP (A collection of the works of Kurata Hyakuz6), T~ky6, Sdgensha, 1951, 6v. /z/ Kurata HyakuzO senshil j W (A selection of the works of Kurata. Hyakuz6), T6ky5, Ch6bunkaku, August, 1941. /z/ Kurata Hyakuz6 senshil ~ _ (A selection of the works of Kurata Hyakuz6), T6ky6, Dait6 Shuppansha, 1948, 13v. and 1 additional v. z Kurata Hyakuz5 senshii /e __ ~ " (A selection of the works of Kurata Hyakuz6), T~ky5, T6sei Shuppansha, 1941, 6v. /z/ Kurata Hyakuz6 senshil '9 W - $ — (A selection of the works of Kurata Hyakuz6), TUky6, Shunjfisha, 1953 - 1954, 5v. /z/ 722. Kuribayashi Issekiro Shatsu to zass6:, 'y "/ Haiku to seikatsu j i - f~ - (1894- ); also known as Kuribayashi Tamio -* 4. (, (A shirt and weeds), Daish~sha, March, 1929. /h/ (Haiku and life) [ =Iwanami shinsho, no8] yIwnm htn 195 1. Ic! 723. Kuroshima Denji p 4~ (1898-1943) "D6ka nisen 4~ ~ z (A two-sen piece of copper)," Bungei sensen, January, 1926. /f/ Guntai nikki D (Army diary), Tfky5, Rironsha, 1955. /diary/ "'Sonri (A sleigh),"1 Bungei sensen, September, 1927. /f/ 'Uzumakeru karasu no inure -1- t ~t7~~ I (A flock of swirling crows),?? Kaizo, February, 1928. /f/ 724. Kuroyanagi Fumi V ~ (1912 -"'Shimai -4 -4 (Sisters)," Kindai bungaku July, 1953 - February, 1954. /f/ 725. Kuryfi Sumio& (1904 -Sumio kushd il i (A collection of the haiku of Sumio), T6ky6, Asuka Shoten, 1947. /h/ 726. Kusano Shimpei '- ~- (1903 -Ashita wa tenki da c (Tomorrow it will be fair weather), T~ky6, Keibunsha, 1931. /p/ Bogan -~- g (Wall rocks), T6ky6, Seit6 Shorin, 1936. /p/ Dai-hyaku kaikyil T 6 9 (The one hundredth class), T6ky6, Dorasha, 1928. /p/ Fujisan -I.L (Mount Fuji), T6ky6, Sh6shinsha, 1943. /p/ Kae ru (Frogs), T6ky6, Sanwa Shob6, 1938. /p/ Nihon sabaku o t- Vfr ~ f (The Japanese desert), T~ky6, Seijisha, 1948. /p/ Ten (The sky), T6ky6, Shinch~sha, 1951. /p/ Zekkei — ~-, (A superb view), T~ky(3, Yakumo Shorin, 1940. /p/ Kusano Shimpei shishfl ~ Ty (A collection of the long poems of Kusano Shimpei), T~ky6, S6gensha, 1950. /p/ Gendai shijinron -~L /A (A treatise on present-day poets), T~ky6, Seit6 Shorin, 1951. /p/ 727. Kuwabara Takeo If, A (1904 -Bungaku nyiimon f (Introduction to literature) [ =Iwanami shinsho, no. 34], T6ky5, Iwanami Shoten, 19 50. /c/ "'Daini geijutsuron -44 (Essay on a second-class art)," Sekai, November, 1946. /c/ "1Kyomu kara no k6d5 ~ ~ ' *$$ (Action out of nihilism)," Temb6, September, 1947. Ic! "Taika to shinjin ~ A (Leading writers and new ones)," Kaiz6, December, 1947. Ic! 728. Kyo Nanki t 4 (1918 -"?Ch6se fibusuh 4.,~ I (Long poems of the Korean countryside)," Minshu Ch6sen, January, 1948 -June, 1954. /p/ Ch6sen fuyumonogatari - (Tales of the wintertime in Korea), Asahi Shob5, 1949. /p/ Fusan shishfl jA~ (A collection of long poems on Pusan), T~ky6, Minshu Ch6sensha, 1948. /p/ Keishfi shishil A I I (A collection of long poems about Keishii), Tfky5, Minshii Ch6sensha, 1948. /c! 729. Mabuchi Miiko Mabuchi Miiko shishil S6gensha, 1952. k. i -- (1904 -k t -~;- A t (A collection of the long poems of Mabuchi Miiko), T6ky6, 730. Machida Kash5 tV q Nihon mm' y5 shikashii e,' -, Miraisha, 1954. /p/ (A collection of the words of the folk songs of Japan), T6ky6, 731.Maea Fra ~O4il (1889-1954) Fura kushd 4, I~ (A collection of the haiku of Fura), Tfky6, Kobushisha, 1930. /h/

Page  117 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE17 117 Shintei Fura. kushii _1 tj - - *~ IF q z (A collection of the haiku of Fura, newly revised), July, 1937. /h/ Yukiguni 04- q1: (A snowy country), November, 1932. /h/ 732. Maeda Summnoni W (~tj. t6i (1922 -"Natsukusa t (Summer grass)," Gunz6, December, 1949. /f/ 733. Maeda Yiigure fj w 9 W (1883-1951) "'Kij5 J~' ~._ (On a plane)," Tanka gekknJanuary, 1930. it! "Shink:6 tanka ronk6 ~- fi _1 V4j- -0 3i_ (A study of the newly risen tanka)," Shik, January, 1932. /c/ Soby5 I~ 4~ (A rough sketch), 1940. /t/ "Sora yori temb5-suru 'I; - (A view from the sky)," Tanka, January, 1930. /e/ Suigen-chitai Z-. (The area of a river-head),, T~ky6, Hakujitsusha, 1932. /t! 734. Maedagawa K~ichir6 1 ] - (1888 -Owareru tamashii ~0 ~t 4-1 (The pursued soul), T6ky6, Getsuyo Shob5, 1948. /lc/ Roka-den t 4 (The life of [Tokutomi] Roka), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten,' April, 1938. /k! Roka no geijutsu 4, rc ([Tokutomi] Roka' s art), T6ky6, Kofflkan, 1943. /c/ "'Shina ~_ Vr (China), " Chii 5ro April-December, 1929. /f/ 735. Maekawa Samio A 1- $~ (1903 -Hakuh5 0i CL (White phoenix), T6ky6, Guroria Sosaitei, 1941. /t/ Sekijitsu - 9i (Many days together), Sapporo, Seijisha, 1947. /t/ Shokubutsai.!0111~ (The plant festival), T6ky6, Sojinsha., 1930. /t/ Tempy~un ~!~ (The clouds of the Tempy6), Nara, YEtksa,14./t/ Yamato< (Yamato [place name]), Tfky6i, K6ch6 Shorin, 1940. /t/ 736. Mafune Yutaka -4 W (1902 -"Gyoshin ~ (The mind of a fish)," Gunz6, December, 1950. /d/ "Uzura (A quail)," Yakumo, February, 1942. /d/ "Akai rampu 7 ' (A red lamp)," Gunz6, April, 1954. Id! "D6ke yakusha Lf (t /o- -15 (A comic actor)," Sekai, January, 1952. /d/ "Hadaka no machi 4 g T- (A naked town)," Kaiz6, January, 1936. /d/ "Hobiroi -#tf.i' (Picking up ears of grain)," Hjika Dec ember, 1948. Id! H6monkyaku 1 4m ~ (A visitor), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Shimbashi Embuj6, July, 1950. /d/ "I1tachi 04- (A weasel)," Gekibungaku, June, 1934. /d/ Kiiroi heya -J. (A yellow room), performed by the Haiyiiza company, September, 1948; first published in Sekai in 1948. /d/ "Kinuko %_ V, 4 — (Kinuko),"I Ch56r2 July, 1936. /d/ "Kogan 14. rl (A lone wild goose)," 1939; performed by the Haiyiiza company at the Mitsukoshi Gekij6, April, 1949. /d/ Mishiranu hito ktj- & (The stranger [and other plays]), T~ky6, Koyama Shoten, 1950,) 360pp. /d/ Nadare rs~ t:- #u (The avalanche), Tfky6, Koyama Shoten, 1950, 324pp. /d/ "Nakahashi k6kan ~~'~' (Nakahashi Building)," Ningen, April, 1946. Id! "'Sarukani kassen (The fight between the monkey and the crab)," Kaiz6 bungei, September, 1949. /d/ Suzume no yado (An inn for sparrows), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Teikoku Gekij6, May, 1946. /d/ "'Taiy6 no ko ~- 4i a) 4 (A child of the sun)," Shinch6, February, 1936. /d/ "'Tatsu no otoshigo t. - o~ ~,,?_ L 2- (A sea-horse).," Sekai, March, 1950; performed by the Bud6 no Kai at the Mitsukoshi Gekij6, October, 1950. /d/ "Tons6fu A- -3 (A note on escape)," Chfi6 k6ron, May, 1937. /d/ "IYamabato ~J- 14 (A turtledove)," Bungei shunjfi, November, 1935. /d/ "'Yamasand6 t J-i 1),JO_ (A mountain path to a shrine)," Bungei, September, 1939. /d/ Mafune Yutaka senshi ~j (A selection of the works of Mafune Yutaka), T6ky6, Koyama Shoten, 1950, 6v. /z/ 737. -Makabe Jin ~ ~ (1907 -Aoshishi no uta (Poems of the blue wild boar), Sapporo, Seijisha, 1947. /p/ 738. Maki Itsuma ~f ~~ 10-1935) "Chij6;- no seiza ve, Ft r (A constellation above the earth)," Shufu no tomo, July, 1932 - April, 1934. /f/ "Kono taiyo a (This sun), " Osaka mainichi and T~kyo nichinichi; also, T6ky5, Chii6 K6ronsha, November, 1930. /f/ "Tange Sazen q fj -&~ * (Tange Sazen), " T6ky6 nichinichi and Osaka mainichi, beginning in June,, 1953. /f/

Page  118 118 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 739. Makino Shinlichi Xi WT' - (1896-1936) "Kinada-mura ~ &# (Kinada village), Bungei shunjfl, December, 1934. /f/ "Mura-no-Sutoaha #T'- -, I' /;( (Stoics in a village), " Shinch6, June, 1928. If! ' Sake nusubito ~ ~ /- (A sake-thief)," Bungei shunjfi, February, 1932. If! "Sengakuji fukin Ilk -A- i- (Near Sengakuji [temple])," Shinch-, October, 1932. /f/ "'Shinshd ftikei ~. ~iL4, (The scenery of a mental image)," Bungei shunjii, March, 1933. If! "ZCron - ([My horse] Zeron)," Kaiz5, February, 1931. If! Makino, Shin'ichi-shfi (A collection of the works of Makino Shin'ichi), Ttky6, Heibonsha, 1929. /z/ Makino Shinlichi zenshd (The complete works of Makino Shinlichi), Toky6, Daichi Shoba, 1937, 3v. /z/ 740. Makiyama Katsuji L "'Haideruberuhi' no tobira -/\ v(A door at "Heidelberg'),"a Shijin, February, 1936. /p/ 741. Mamiya Mosuke (1899 -"IA ragane 1 6 * (Unwrought metal)," Jimmin bunko, May-December, 1937. /f/ Gendai no eiyri A a iA (Present-day heroes), T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1940. If! "KuJ ira ~ (A whale),"1 Kaiz6, August, 1939. If! 742. MaruokaAkira S qJk (1907 -Honi Tatsuo: hito to sakuhin if&_t - f F4 (Honi Tatsuo: the man and his writings), T~ky6, Shikisha, 1953. Chart. /c/ "Hy6 no sata ~1 cz;$t;$1~I (News of a leopard)," Gunz6, June, 1953. If! "'Madamu Marutan no namida -zp, a) s~r) (The tears of Madame Martin)," Mita bungaku, February, 19 29. If! "Nise Kirisuto / (A false Christ)," Gunzb, November, 1951. If! 743. Maruyama Kaoru 4~ L~~ (1899 -Bussh68 shishil i~ (A collection of long poems on various objects), Tdky6, Kawade Shoba, 1941. /p/ Hana no shibe & ) (The stamens and pistils of a flower), T6ky6, S~gensha, 1948. /p/ Ho, rampu, kamome;{, 7- - (Asal a lamp, and a sea-gull), Tfky6, Daiichi Shob6, 1932. Ip/ Ichij itsushfii- (A collection for a day), T~ky6, Hangas6, 1936. Ip/ Jilnen-V1- (Ten years), T~ky6, S6gensha, 1948. /p/ Kitaguni -it, (Northern country), Ky~to, Usui Shob6, 1946. IpI Namida-shita kami 4 (1 (A god who cried), Ky~to, Usui Shob6, 1942. /pI Seishun fuzai,-: t. ~j tt_ (Absence of youth), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1952. /p/ Senky6 4L ~' (An enchanted land), Sapporo, Seijisha, 1948. /p/ Tensh6 naru Tokoro ~.7, (Where the bell tolls), T6ky6, Ookasha, 1943. /p/ Tsuru no s~shiki ' (The funeral of a crane), T6ky6, Daiichi Shobo, 1935. /p/ Y~nen 4. _~- (Childhood), T6ky6, Shikisha, 1935. Ip/ 744. Maruyama Shizuka k. dA (1914 -Shimagi Akahiko 1 ~ 11 (Shimagi Akahiko), T6ky6, Yakumo Shorin, September, 1943; also, T~kya, Sh~shinsha, 1948./k 745. Maruyama Yutaka?.t- "Kadai to shite no shi no suijaku ~ K ~ ~ - (The decline of poetry as a subject), " Kyfishfi bungaku, April, 1948. /c/ 746. Masamune Hakuch65 2f- 4-. b -~ (1879 -"Azuchi no haru ~ ~ (Spring at Azuchi)," Chii6 k6ron, February, 1926. Id! "Kangei-sarenu otoko ~ q __ 4,Y (An unwelcome man), " Kaiz6, May, 1926. /d/ "Honn~ji no Nobunaga -.~ ~ 0~ -& (Nobunaga at Honn6ji temple)," Gunz6, September, 1953. /f/ "Jiisan bdsan.j (Old man, old woman)," Bungei shunjil, February, 1954. If! "Nenashigusa rA C (Rootless grass)," Nihon hy6ron, January, 1942. /f/ "Nihon dasshutsu 0 RC th (Escape from Japan)," Gunzo, January-April, 1949. /f/ "Sensaisha no kanashimi o )-~c ~) (The sorrows of a war victim)," Shinsei, January, 1946. If! "'Sh6setsu ni naranu otoko r~r (A man about whom a novel cannot be written)," Bungei shunju, December, 1951. If! "Yoso no koi a - (Others' loves)," Ch56on November, 1939 - May, 1940. If! "'Mitsuhide to sh6ha (Mitsuhide and sh6ha silk)," Chii6 k6ron, June, 1926. Id! "Bundan jimbutsu hy6ron j /V] (A criticism of persons in literary circles)," Chii6 k~ron, March, 1926; also, T6ky5, Chil6 K6ronsha, 1932. Ic! "Bungakujn no taid ~ k ~ 1 (The attitudes of men of literature)," Shinsei, November,195 Ic "Bungaku-teki jijoden i. (An autobiography of my literary life), T~ky6, Chii6 K6ronsha, 1938. Ic/

Page  119 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 119 "Shesutofu higeki no tetsugaku. 7 [- 1- (The philosophy of tragedy by Shestov)," Yomiuri shimb February, 1934. /c/ "ShisO to shinseikatsu 't 4 (Thought and new life)," Ch56 k6ron, June, 1936. /c/ "Shizen-shugi seisuishi 4 1 (The history of the rise and decline of naturalism)," Fiisetsu, November, 1948. /k! "Taishii bungaku-ron (On popular literature)," Chii5 k5ron, January, 1932. /c/ Uchimura Kanz6 \N (Uchimura Kanz6 [personal name]), T~kyd, Hosokawa Shoten, 1949. /c/ 747. Matsuda Tokiko (1905 -"KJnai no musume (Girl in a mine)," Senki, October, 1928. Ip/ Shimbezuyoi mono e A (To those who are patient), Tky5, Dajinsha Shoten, 1935. /p/ 748. Matsuda Tsunenori (1895 -Makibashira I i (White wood pillars), T6ky6, Meguro Shoten, 1947, l45pp. It! Gendai tanka no kenkyU K-V o (Studies in the present-day tanka), Bummeisha, 1948 /k/ 749. Matsumoto Seich6 A~~~ (1909 -"Aru Ogura nikkiden A, - B -e (A certain biographical diary written in Ogura)," Bungei shunjii, March, 19 5 3. /f/ 750. Matsumoto Takashi ' -P' (1906-1956) Sekkon;~ i 4 (Soul of the stone), T6ky6, Fue Hakk6jo, 1953. If! 751. Mayahara Shigeo - J. i J (k Nihon bungaku hakkinshi 0 ~_ O ~ ~- (The history of Japanese literary works whose sale was prohibited), Tbky5, S6gensha, 1952. /k/ 752. Mayama Seika J d- W? t (1878-1948) Genroku chuishingura X~i4, it- f - (The Genroku treasury of loyal retainers): various portions published in Hinode (March-April, 1934) and Kingu (February-May, 1935), and performed down to 1941. Id! 753. MikiKyoh - 3 (1898-1945) "Fuan no shis5 to sono chflkoku m-~ ~ 4 (Insecure thoughts and their overcoming)," Kaizo, June, 1933. Ic! "Hyiimanizumu no gendai-teki igi L - L- tA AL 4K (The present-day meaning of humanism)," Chfigai, October, 1936. Ic! "Neo-hy~umanizumu no mondai to bungaku ~ -~z-::: k - tV-1 ~. ~~ (The problem of neo-humanism and literature)," Bungei,_ November, 1933. Ic! Rekishi-tetsugaku Fj t ~0 (Historical philosophy), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1932. Ic! "Shesutofu-teki fuan ni tsuite e-//r x F i70~~! - - -~ z (On a Shestov-like insecurity)," Kaiz6, September, 1934. Ic! Tetsugaku. n6to:W+ - (Notes on philosophy), T~ky6, Kawade S5hb5, 1941, 2v. 7`c7 Jinseiron n6to i-( A i - F (Notes on a theory of human life), T6ky6, Sagensha, 1941. Ic! 754. Minakami Takitar5 71I-",-ff (1887-1940) " Kaigara tsuih& )f, (The purge of seashells)," Mita bungaku, January, 1918, and Tso May, 1940. Ic! " Oyabaka no ki ~ ~.o~i (An account of a father who is proverbially foolish), Mita buna, September and November, 1933. If! Minakami Takitar6 zenshfiiA i_ t Z7f (The complete works of Minakami Takitar6), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1940, 12v. IzI 755. Minamikawa Jun ~f#7 IA (1913-1955) "Chie no hashira *j c'- f (A pillar of wisom),"1 Bungei, March, 1939. If! 756. Mino, Konton YT- -L (1895 -Abukuma no kumo tij~ (The clouds of Abukuma), T~ky6, Sh6shinsha, 1954. IpI Koko no shujin wa dare na no ka wakaranai r 47 (I don't know who the master of this place is), T~ky6, Keibunsha, 1932. IpI 757. Mishima Yukio v.- P ~C, (19 2 5 -Ai no kawaki e, (Thirst for love), T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1950. If! Ao no jidai -t a)" A (A blue period), T6ky6, Shinch~sha, 1950. If! "Daijin &( k (A minister)," Shinch5, January, 1949. Id! Hanazakari no moni j4 -Y-P 1 (A grove in full bloom), T6ky6, Shichibun Shoin, 1946. If! "Higy6 5 4 (A sec ret pleasure), " Bungakki August, 1952 - June, 1953. If! Jumpakunoor (A pure white night), T6kyd, Chii6 K~ronsha, 1950. If! Kamen no kokuhaku j J- (,~i (Confession of a mask), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1949. If!

Page  120 120 120 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE ANT) RESEARCH MATERIALS Kari to emono (Hunting and game), T6ky6, Kaname Shob6, 1951. Ic! "Kashira bungaku, k (Literature for the head), Bungakkai, July, 1948. Id! "Kataku 1> (A living hell)," Ningen, November, 1948. /d/ " IKinkakuj i *1 -~, (Kinkakuji [temple])," Shinch6, January-October, 1956. /f/ "Kinjiki 1 ~ (Abstinence from sex)," Gunz6, January-October, 1951. If! "Misaki nite no monogatari ~ T (A story at a promontory)," GunzO, November, 1946. If! "Shigadera sh~in no koi ~ 44 (Love of a saint at Shigadera [temple])," Bungei shunjii, October, 1954. Shiosai ~~ (Sea roar), T~ky6, Shinch~sha, 1954. If! "Majin reihai (Worship of a demon)," in Kaibutsu, T~ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1950. Id! "Niobe ~ (Niobe), in T6dai (Lighthouse), T6ky5, Sakuhinsha, 1950. Id! " Seij o -- (A holy woman)," in T~dai (Lighthouse), T6ky6, Sakuhinsha, 1950. Id! "Sotoba Komachi ~ 15 I ~ IO (Komachi on a stupa),"1 Gunz6, January, 1952. Id! "T6dai '~'i (The lighthouse)," in T~dai, Tfky5, Sakuhinsha, 1950. /d/ "T6norikai k / (A long ride club)," Bessatsu bungei shunjii, July, 1951. /f/ "Yoru no himawari o # (A sunflower at night)," Gunz6, April, 1953. /d/ Mishima Yukio sakuhin-shil 11 (A collection of the works of Mishima Yukio), TO~ky5, Shinch5 -sha, 1953-1954,) 6v. /z/ 758. Miya Shiiji?~ - ~-7- (1912 -Banka q t (Late summer), T~ky6, Shiratama Shob6, 1951. It! Nihon banka c3 4t- (Elegies on Japan ), T6ky5, S5gensha, 1953. It! Sansei-sh6 ~1',k i (Shansi province), T~ky6, Kokeisha, 1949. It! 759. Miyajima Sukeo ~ A w Kane t, (Money), T6ky6, S~seikaku, 1926. If! 760. Miyake Daisuke +- F (1893 -Senhime to Sakazaki k J (Senhime and Sakazaki), performed by the Ennosuke and Sumiz6 company at the T~ky5 Gekij6, August, 1946. Id! 761. Miyamoto Kenji (1908 -"Bungaku hihy6 no kijun i t tr (A standard for literary criticism)," Emu Eru shugi geijutsugaku kenkyii, August, 1932. Ic! "'Bungaku to seiji ~ ~ & (Literature and politics),"I Temb6, April, 1949. Ic! Bungei hy6ron ~1_ (The criticism of literary art), T6kya, Bungeisha, 1937. Ic! "IHaiboku no bungaku ~ 7 f (The literature of defeat)," Kaiz6, August, 1929. Ic! Hihansha no hihan t~ q\ - f ~t (Criticizing the critics), T~ky6, Shinkagakusha, 1954, 2v. Ic! "Hy6ka no kagakusei ni tsuite tt I (On the scientific nature of evaluation)," Bungaku t~in, January, 1931. Ic! Miyamoto Yuriko no sekai ~ (The world of Miyamoto Yuriko), T~ky6, Kawade Shob5, 1954. Ic! Rtsnin-shugi bungaku t s6 e no michi K (The way to Leninist literary strife)," Takya, Mokuseisha, 1933. Ic! "Seiji to geijutsu: seiji no yaisei no mondai 0_~ ' / r. c -~ft (Politics and art: the problem of the superiority of politics)," Puroretaria bunka, September-October, 1932. Ic! 762. Miyamoto Kenji and Miyamoto Yuriko ~ t ifP ~- (1889-1951) "Jiini'-nen no tegami T- j "- k (Letters during twelve years)," Sekai hy~ron, December, 1950. /I! 763. Miyamoto Yuriko - f i~ -3- (1889-1951): ne~e Chiij5 Yuriko 11,~ "Asa no kaze J" a~ ~L The wind in the morning),"1 Nihon hy6ron, November, 1940; also, T~ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1940. If! "Banshii heiya. if 1j sr ~- (The Banshii plain)," Shin-Nihon bungaku, March, 1946 - January, 1948. If! "Bunryil5 A (A tributary)," Bungei, October, 1939. If! "IC hibusa 3L, (The breast)," Chii6 k6ron, April, 1935. If! "D5hy5 I V (A guide-post)," 'Tm6 October, 1947 - May, 1949, December, 1950. If! "Fuchis6 1*, (Reeds)," Bungei shunjil, September-November, 1946; also, T6ky6, Bungei Shunjfisha., 1946. If! "TFutatsu no niwa - a (Two gardens), 1' Chii6 k6ron, January-September, 1949. If! "Hiroba 4) (A public square)," Bungei, January, 1940. If! "IKokud?5~ uif (The national road)," Ch6ryil, January, 1947. If! I'Mukashi no kaji 4`6,a ~! (Fires in olden times)," Kaiz6, April, 1940. If! "TNobuko A~ -~ (Nobuko [name of a girl])," Kaiz5, September, 1924 - September, 1926. If! "Omokage -b- 4t P- W' (Image)," Shinch5, Ja nuary, 1940. If! "Sangatsu no daiyon-nichiy~bi =E- fl - * ' ri o (The fourth Sunday in March)," Nihon hy6ron, April, 1940. If! "Sugigaki P (Cryptomeria hedge)," Chii6r November, 1938. If! "Uzushio i),-~ (A swirl),"I Bungei, 'December, 1939. If!

Page  121 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE12 121 " Zatto -1 'E~ (Hustle and bustle),'" Chii6 k~ron, January, 1937. If! "Zurakatta Shinkichi X" ~ P! -Fh (Shinkichi who ran away)," Kaiz6, June-September, 1931. If! "Yabu no uguisu ik ~ " (The Japanese nightingale in the bush)," Kaiz5, July, 1939. /e/ Asu e no seishin up o ~a (The spirit for tomorrow), T6ky6, Jitsugy6 no Nihonsha, 1940. /c/ "Baruzakku ni taisuru hy6ka,',- p-', 7 3 (A criticism of Balzac),"1 Bungaku koten no saininshiki, February, 1935. Ic! "Bungaku ni kansuru kans5 ~I. ]/I-"; 1 ~ (Opinions concerning literature)," Puroretaria bungei December, 1932. Ic! Bungaku no shinro ~~'L~ (The way of literature), T6ky6, Takayama Shoin, 1941. /c/ Fujin no bungaku -W ~ (The literatue of women), T6ky5, Aoki Shoten, 1955. /c/ "Hiroi himatsu vt~;; (A big splash), " Bungei, February, 1940. Ic! "Hitotsu no peiji no ue ni —'e cL (On one page)," Bungei, March, 1940. /c/ "HyCimanizumu e no michi L —z 7,-z N j (The road to humanism)," Chii6 k~ron, April, 1937. Ic! "Ichiren no hi-puroretaria-teki sakuhin -~c -70 M 9 (A group of non-proletarian works)," Puroretaria bungei, January, 1933. Ic! "Irimidareta habataki N -( L kP -t — '4JT, (A confused flapping of the wings)," Bungei, September, 1939. Ic! "Kono kishibe ni wa 0 iv I * (On this shore)," Bungei, November, 1939. Ic! "Sen kyiihyaku sanjil yonen burujoa bungaku no d~k6 1934 -177 't.- < 7,t. 4 (I-) (Trends in bourgeois literature in 1934),"1 Bungaku hy6ron, December, 1934.. Ic! "Sh6wa no fujin sakka % i~z a~ _~ _i _ (Women writers in the Sh~wa era)," Bungei, April-June, 1940. Ic! "Sh6wa no juyonenkan q6 p~v r 4- uw- A P11 (Fourteen years of the Sh~wa era),"1 in Nihonbungaku nyrimon U *, ~'- >,? (Introduction to Japanese literature), edited by Kond5 Tadayoshi ~~~ T6ky6, Nihon Hy6ronsha, 1940. Ic! "Utagoe yo okore 4L (Singing voices, break forth)," Shin-Nihon bungaku jumbig6, December, 1945. Ic! "Zenshin no tame ni f(I (For an advance)," Puroretaria bungei, April-May, 1933. Ic! Atarashiki Shiberia o yokogiru ~ L -v,x Ir T ~'~ cross a new Siberia), TokyO, Naigaisha, 1931. Chiiya zuihitsu - ~' (Essays for day and night), T6ky6, Hakuy6sha, 1937.!eI "Fuyu. o kosu tsubomi ~- ~_ ) (Buds which pass the winter)," Bungei, December, 1934. IeI Miyamoto Yuriko senshil /-~ $, (A selection of the works of Miyamoto Yuriko), T6ky6, Aki Shob5, 1947. IzI Miyamoto Yuriko zenshili ~ -~4 (The complete works of Miyamoto Yuriko), Tfky5, Kawade Shob6, 1951-53, i 1v.!zI 764. Miyauchi Kan'ya ~ t7- - (1912 -Chfi5 k~chi t~ t ~, b (A central plateau), T6ky6, Sunagoya Shob5, 1938. If! 765. Miyazaki Mineo 9 J to Af (1908 -Pesuto -v A F (Pest: Albert Camus' La peste), Tfky5, S~gensha, 1950.!trl 766. Miyazawa Kenji ~ P- (1896-1933) Miyazawa Kenji kashil ~ (A collection of the tanka of Miyazawa Kenji), T~ky6, Nihon Shoin, February, 1946. It! Miyazawa Kenji-shii. (A collection of the works of Miyazawa Kenji), ed. by Furuya Tsunatake i~ 16 Al j [in Shincho buk, T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1951, 2v. IzI Miyazawa Kenji-shii: shukusatsuban I V v I~ 4- q *(I R (A collection of the works of Miyazawa Kenji: pocket-sized edition), ed. by IXusano Shimpei P T-] I.~- {, T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1951.!z! Miyazawa Kenji-shii L4 * (A collection of the works of Miyazawa Kenji), T~ky6, Shinch6sha, 1951. IzI Miyazawa Kenji zenshii ~t (The complete works of Miyazawa Kenji), T6ky6, Jiijiya Shoten, 1940-1944, 6v. IzI Miyazawa Kenji zenshdi ' (The complete works of Miyazawa Kenji), T~ky6, Chikuma Shob6-, 1956, lOv. IzI 767. Miyazu Hiroshi ~~~~ (1911 -Sh~nen no machi '~f ii~- o) Wj (Boys? town), performed by the Nichigeki company at the Nichigeki Sh6gekij5, November, 1947. Id! 768. Miyoshi Jilr6:_E- 4 t 'VP (1902-kro197 d "Chinetsu t-,A~ (The heat of the earth)," Chl6 krn June,197 Id Kirare no Senta *q t7 4lL 0) 4A,~ (The slashed Senta), Toky65, Naukasha, 1934. Id! "Bui 4ui (Buoy),"1 Bungakkai, June, 1940. Id! "Haikyo. (The ruins)," Sekai hy6ron, special ed., May, 1947. Id! Hikoroku 6i ni warau 4 -,. (Hikoroku laughs heartily), performed by the Inoue Engeki D6J6, 1936. Id! "Hon6 no hito o1 $0 (The man in flames),," Gunz6, September, 1951. Id!

Page  122 122 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Inaba kozo -3 c 1P 0 (The youngster from Inaba), performed by the Shinkokugeki company at the Takarazuka Daigekijo, May, 1946. /d/ Shishi ~V 4- (The lion), performed by the Oka J~ji and Mizunoe Takiko company at the Yidrakuza, December, 1947. /d/ "Sono hito o shirazu 6 t, (We don't know the man)," Ningen, June, 194 8. /d/ "Tainai ~' (Inside the womb), " Chii6 k6ron, April-May, 1949. 7aT Ky~fu no kisetsu -- Gendai Nihon bungaku e no k6satsu i1 -.()s (The season of fear -- Some thoughts directed toward present-day Japanese literature), T6ky6, Sakuhinsha, 1950, 296pp. /c/ "Hedo-teki ni \ ~ W~ ( — (Like spitting), " Gunz6, March-December, 1949. /c/ "Shimizu Ikutar5-san e no tegami 4. jAx j (A letter to Mr. Ikutarb Shimizu)," Gunza, March, 1953. /c/ Miyoshi Jfir5 sakuhinshil 4-t- ~13 4it (A collection of the works of Miyoshi Jfir6), Thky6, Kawade Shob6, 1952. /z/ 769. Miyoshi Tatsuji -~ - (1900 -Furusato no hana pA L (The flowers of one's native heath), T~ky5, S6gensha, 1946. /p/ Gogo no yume a (Afternoon dreams), Tfky6, Hakusuisha, 1953. /p/ Hanagatami L A box for flowers), T~ky6, Seijisha, 1944. /p/ Haru no misaki A o? T (A headland in spring), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1939. /p/ Ittensh6 V (The bell telling the hour of twelve-thirty), T~ky6, Sgensha, 1941. /p/ Kankashi * (A collection of tranquil flowers), Tky, Shikisha, 1934. /p/ Kusa senri tt k I- (A thousand miles of grass), T6ky6, Shikisha, 1939. /p/ Nans6shii A h _ (A collection of south windows), Tiky5, Shiinokisha, 1932. /p/ Rakuda no kobu ni matagatte (Straddled on the bump of a camel), T6ky5, S6gensha, 1952. /p/ Sankashi A, -Tz _f (A collection of mountain fruits), TLky5, Shikisha, 1935. /p/ Sh6 mukuitaru (The quickness was rewarded), T~ky6, Sutairusha, 1942. /p/ Sokury6sen IV (Survey ship), T6ky6, Daiichi Shob5, 1930. /p/ Suna no toride (A sand fort), Ky6to, Usui Shob6, 1946. /p/ "'Shigo no h6k6 ~ / (The wanderings of poetic diction)," Temb6, December, 1949. /c/ 770. -Miyoshi Toyoichir6 -q t - ~ Shdjin- qj /,_ (Prisoner), T~ky3, Iwaya Shoten, 1949. /p/ 771. Mizuhara Shii6shi (1892 -Ch6y5 -4 (The chrysanthemum festival), T~ky6, Hosokawa Shoten, 1948. /h/ Fuyuhibari (A winter skylark), Tfky6, Daiichi Shob6, 1937. /h/ Katsushika (Katsushika), T6ky6, Ashibi Hakk6jo, 1930. /h/ Koky6 1 C (An old mirror), Tfky6, K6ch6 Shorin, 1942. /h/ Minarrikaze ~4i 40L (A south wind), Ky6to, Ky6 Kanoko Hakk6jo, 1926. /h/ Shinju J- A (Young trees), T~ky6, K6ronsha, 1933. /h/ Shden itZp (An autumn garden), T6kyb, Ryiiseikaku., 1935. /h/ Shiishi hyakku ~t 4 4- -0 ij (A hundred haiku by Shilshi), T6ky6, Haikusha, 1947. /h/ Gendai haiku-ron IV ~-\ /,I ~ * (A treatise on present-day haiku), Thky6, Daiichi Shob5, 1936. /c/ "'Shizen no shin to bungei-j5 no shin 0 ~~ ~o (Truth in nature and truth in literature)," Ashibi, October, 1931. /c/ "Takahama Kyoshi ~ ~ 4 (Takahama Kyoshi),"1 Bungei shunji~i, December, 1952. /c/ 772. Mizuhara Shii5shi and others Rensaku haiku-shii ~ j ji (A collection of haiku poems produced in collaboration), T~kyd, K~ronsha, 1934. /h/ 773. Mizutani Jun V (1904 -Hy~a senei orimnoc~ ~K~ ~ 4W ~'4' (Notebook on the captures effected by Mr. H~nTk6 D&k6sha, 1952. /f/ 774. Momota S6ji t ):7 (1893-1955) T~okacho y- c tt'.I (A note on winter flowers), T~ky6, K6seikaku, 1928. /p/ "Iwayuru minshushi no k~zai eq & L i- m -jp r (The merits and demerits of the so-called democratic poems)," Nihon shijin, May, 1925. /c/ 775. Morimoto Kaoru -. (1912-1946) Dot5 -t_ Aj (Surging waves), performed by the Bungakuza company at the Teikoku Gekij6, November, 1947. /d/ Hanabanashiki ichizoku 4 V- (A prosperous family), performed by the Bungakuza company at the Mitsukoshi Gekij6-, May, 1950. /d/ Ogi A (The fan), performed at the K~t5 Gekij5, October, 1945. /d/ Onna no issh6 -fr- a) - q (The life of a woman), performed by the Bungakuza company at the Mitsukoshi Gekij6, August, 1947. /d/

Page  123 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE12 123 Morimoto Kaoru zenshii V-* 4 (The complete works of Morimoto Kaoru), T6ky6, Sekai Bungakusha, 4v. /z/ 776. Morita S~hei ~ 4 f (1881-1949) "Hosokawa Garashiya fujin oI' p — y ~A (Madame Galatia Hosokawa)," Nihon hy~ron, JanuaryOctober, 1949. /f/ "Kirake n hitbito 4 ~A. ~ (The people of the Kira family)," T6ky6 asahi, April-ue 19.If "Yonjfi hachinin-me %a 4-i A (The forty-eighth person)," Kaiz6, October, 1929. /f/ Natsume S6seki L 4 ~ ~ (Natsume S6seki) Tfky6, K6ch6 Shorin, 1942. /k/ Zoku-atsue S~eki I e~ -*z A (Natsume S6seki, continued), TfkyO, KMch5 Shorin,193 1k 777. Morita Tama f (1894 -Momen zuihitsu V, (Essays on cotton), T6ky6, Chii6 K~ronsha, 1936. /e/ 778. Moriyama Kei 4zJ- A (1904 -"'Emp6 no hito ~~A (A man from a distant place)," Bungakkai, May, 1941. If! "Nihon kaihen 5 4 IV7- (The seacoast around Japan)," Bungakkai, March-April, 1938. "Nobudo V (Wild grapes)," Bungaki October, 1938. If! Umi no 5gi -)~ -~q (A fan of the sea), T-oky6, Bungei Shunjiisha, 1942. If! "Kawa f (The river),"Sni October, 1928. If! "Nankatsu r6d~sha rq7 4 ~ Aa (Laborers of Nankatsu),"1 Senki, February, 1929. If! Sumidagawa ~X W -Ij (The Sumida river), T6ky6, Kishinsha, 1933. If! Bungakuron _~ ff- (On literature), T6ky6, Mikasa Shobd, 1935. Ic! Geijutsuj5 no rearizumu to yuibutsuron tetsugaku 4 I 1-77 q -~ ZA "WWt? and materialistic philosophy), T~ky6, Bunka Shddansha, 1933. Ic! "Shakaishugi-teki riarizumu no 'hihan' ~4 i_ -N 0 If 7-7 X- I-jr~-t ('Criticism' of Bungaku hy6ron, March, 1935. Ic! Ch~ryii & (The tide), T6ky6, Naukasha, 1940. Ip! I'S~shun 4 (Early spring)," Nappu,April, 1931. Ip! (Realism in art fsocial realism), " 779. Moriyama Teisen J'P tI-i;~-y I T~geji. *i (A mountain pass), T6ky5, Kokin Shoin, 1932. It! 780. Muneta Hiroshi W I' (1909 -Buntaich6 no shuki iL~ (The notes of a squad-leader), performed at the K~to Gekij5, November, 19 45. Id!l 781. Murakami Genz6 N i- _ ' (1910 -Kodachi o tsukau onna Y 7 -i (The woman who uses a small sword), performed at the Meijiza, November, 1945. Id! Sasaki K6jir6 -,~ 'z ~, jIe,~ (Sasaki K~jir6), performed by the Teikoku Gekij6, November, 1949. Id! 782. Murakami Kij6 N-J 1- 4_, A (1865-1938) Kij5 kushii A- o (A collection of haiku by Kij6), Osaka, Kij6kai, December, 1926.!hI Z oku -Kij5 kushfi j~ (Acleto _o___ yKjo otne) 6aa i~a, uut 93 Ih! /~ Acleto fhiub iO otne) skKjki uut 93 783. Muramatsu Sadataka if J ~ ~ — (1918 -Kindai Nihon bungaku no keifu _t A-' g -t 0 J Juseisha, 1955. 1k! (A genealogy for modern Japanese literature), 784. Muramatsu Sh~fil N Ci~- (1889 -Honch6 gajinden t, /if (Biographies of Japanese painters), T6ky6, Chii6 K6ronsha, 1940, 6v. 1k! Zangiku monogatari 0. t (The tale of Zangiku), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa, Yaeko, and Kotomura company at the T6ky6 Gekij6, December, 1946. Id! "Kindai sakkaden 1(fz 0CJ-~' 4~ (Biographies of modern writers)," Shinch6, September, 1950-1951. 1k! 785. Murayama Tomoyoshi $4t 'A -W A 4 (1901 -"Byakuya (0I k (White night),"I Chii6 k6ron, May, 1934. If! "Gekijo ~1 4t (Theatre)," Ch56 k6ron, May, 1935. If! "'Shimura Natsue LI +$4 't ie Shimur-a Natsue [a woman's name])," Puroretaria bungaku, April, 1932. If! "B6ryokudanki ~- J I) C (Record of a gang of racketeers)," June, 1929. Id!7 Hatsukoi ~ —17 (First love), performed by the Zenshinza company at the Teikoku Gekij6, February, 1946. Id! "Mayonaka no umik 0 -*~ (The sea at dead of night)," Sekai, December, 1952. Id! "Shinda umi -T - rc-, (The dead sea)," Sea July, 1952. 717T "TVy5 Shary6 K6j6:r -4 (The Oriental Rolling Stock Factory)," Nappu, June, 1931. Id!

Page  124 124 124 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS "Shingekidan daid6 danketsu no teishi6 k~ 4 ~ AC t~1 ~1 ~ (A call for the combining of the modern drama companies)," Chfi6 k6ron, July, 1934. Ic! 786. Mur6 Saisei (1889 -"'Ani im6to Y) (An older brother and a younger sister),"1 Bungei shunjfi, July, 1934. /f/ "'Dorosuzume no uta 4 ~ -ft (The song of a muddy sparrow)," Shin-joen, June, 1941 - February, 1942; also, T6ky6, Jitsugy6 no Nihonsha, 1942. If! 'Hiza' -hikyoku r I _ 0 (Sad tune on some'thighs')," Bungakkai, May, 1950. If! "Kuchinawa Ki r; i~ (A snake),"1 Shinch6, July, 194077A7 "Onna no zu -& Er~ (The picture of a woman)," Kaizo, March, 1935. /f/ "Tairiku no koto ri ~- (A Chinese harp)," T~ky6, Shinch~sha, 1938. If! "Ueno L — V~'- (Ueno[placename])," Bessatsu bungei shujl April, 1947. If! "Utsukushikarazareba kanashikaran ni ~ 5 c L~ 41" t (. t" ' kc (Not being beautiful would be sorrowful),"1 Nihon hy6ron, April, 1940. /f/ Och6 ~_ Of (The monarchical age), TUky5, Jitsugy6 no Nihonsha, 1941. /f/ "Ikiten kimi mo IV z b f, 4 (You will live too)," Chii6 koron, December, 1954. /f/ Inishie ' -- (Olden times), Ky6to, Ichij6 Shoten, 1943. IfT Kaigaragawa j arz (A river with shells), Bungakkai, April, 1953. If! Gyomind6 hokku-shii ~i. Rcr, j (A collection of haiku by Gyomind6), T~ky5, Musashino Shoin, April, 1929. /h/ Koky6 zueshil 0 t1 (A collection of pictures of my native place), T~ky6, Shiinokisha, 1927. /p/ Mur6 Saisei shishii ' 4* (The collected long poems of Murb Saisei), T~ky6, Kamakura, Shob5, 1947, 246pp. Ip! Tesshii fk I (A collection of iron), TUky6, Shiinokisha, 1932. /p/ Mur5 Saisei zenshii 1 4j1 (The complete works of Mur6 Saisei), T6ky6, Hibonkaku, 1936-1937, 14v. Mur6 Saisei shishfi 'i (The collected long poems of Mur6 Saisei), ed. by Nakano Shigeharu =x~ [Shinch6 buno no. 230], T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1951. /p/ 787. Musansha Kajin Remmei - 1k 13 *c- / (Proletarian Tanka Poets' League), comp. Puroretaria tanka-shfl io01-y' j (A collection of proletarian tanka), T6ky6, Marukusu Shob5, 1930. It! 788. Mushak~ji Saneatsu 1 '' (1885 -Ai to s~h~i Ft, (Love and death), T6ky6, Nihon Hy'Oronsha, 1939. /f/ "'Shinri Sensei 1k I-t (Professor Truth)," Kokoro, January, 1949 - December, 1950. If! "Utsukushiki kokoro no monogatari i, ". a (The story of a noble mind)," Shin-joen, JanuaryDecember, 1941. If! "'Aiyoku t ~_. (Love and lust)," Kaiz6, January, 1926. Id! Mushak~ji Saneatsu chosakushii -:~ - I' -i &t ~~ -t f~ $ (A collection of the works of Mushak~ji Saneatsu), T6ky6, Ch~washa, May, 1950 -z. Mushak6ji Saneatsu sakuhinshii dA V% F 4 (A collection of the works of Mushak~ji Saneatsu), T6ky6, S~gensha, 1952, 6v. /z/ Mushak6ji Saneatsu zenshil I &- X (The complete works of Mushak~ji Saneatsu), T~ky6, Geijutsusha, 12v. /z/ 789. Nagai Kafil -J j~~ (1879 -" Bokut6 kidan (A strange story east of the [Sumida] river)," T~ky6 asahi shibn AprilJune, 1937. If! " Fuchin &4 &'tj (Rise and fall), " Chii6 k~ron, March-June, 1946. If! "Hikage no hana v' -~ It' s AkL (The flower in the shade)," ~C ro6 August, 1934.If " Hitozuma AI- 1- (Another' s wife)," Chii6 k~ron tokuhen, August, 1949. If! "'Kunsh6 A~- (A decoration)," Shinse'i, January, 1946. If! "O0doriko + 3 (A dancer)," Temb6, January, 1946. If! Risai nichiroku 4- - 9 - (A diary of affliction), To-ky6, Fus6 Shob6, 1947. /diary/ "Towazugatari Vo a 4. vt:~( (Voluntary remarks), " Temb6, July, 1946. If! 91/f " Tsuyu no atosaki - p a) J)L (Before and after the dew)," Chii6 k6ron, October, 91 f "'Yume ~ (A dream)," Chfi6 k~ron bungei tokushU, April, 1952777f/ Henkikan gins6 'f4j A- 4,~ (Poems composed at Henkikan), T~ky6, Chikuma ShobO, 1948. It! "Tamenaga Shunsui ~, 4 y, (Tamenaga Shunsui [artist' s name])," Ningen, February, 1946. Ic! Kafil nichireki ft f I (A diary written by Kafii), T6ky6, Fus5 Shobd6, 1947, 2v. /diary/ Nagai Kafil-shdi r- 4 14 f (A collection of the works of Nagai Kafil), ed. by Kubota Mantar6~Z7.,\I and Kawamori Yoshiz6 5~f _i ~3f T6ky5, Shinch6sha, 1951, 2v. IzI Kaffi zenshtl - i ~$(The complete works of Kafil), T6ky6, Chii6 K~ronsha, 1948-1953, 24v. IzI Nagai Kafil sakuhinshii ] (A collection of the works of Nagai Kafa), T~ky6, 86gensha, 1951, 9v. IzI

Page  125 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 125 790. Nagai Takashi ~c 44: ~- (1908-1950) Kono ko o nokoshite c, } Z (Leaving behind this child), T6ky6, K6dansha, 1948, /e/ Nagasaki no kane A~ a (The bell of Nagasaki), T6ky6, Hibiya Shuppansha, 1950. /e/ 791. Nagai Tatsuo % (1904 -"'Aodensha - t -~ (The blue street car)," Shinch6, August, 1950. If! "'Asagiri (Morning mist)," Kaiz6 bungei, April, 1950. If! 792. Nagamatsu Shiljir6.4 "Fuwa zuik6 pit - _ (Echoing and following someone else)," Shin-Nihon bungaku, February, 1955. /f/ 793. Nagao Kazuo -~ r Komorinu j (Hidden marsh), T6ky6, K6gyokud6, 1926. P/p Hannin shokubutsu A t/ (Hall-human plants), T6ky6, Fuji Shob6, 1950. /pI 794. Nagata Hideo t -4 (1885-1949) "Daibutsu kaigan tz 9K, (The opening of the eyes of the Buddha)," Shinch Ma version of play first published in Ningen, April, 1920.] rh 90.I![eie 795. Nagata Mikihiko - i'TTenn6 (The emperor), T~ky5, Kurakusha, 1949. IfI 796. Nagawa Sakutar6 7~' A.k, (1918 -Shinsetsu na hitogoroshi r x A (A kind murderer), performed by the Miiran Riijju company, November, 1947.!dI 0 Ydirei hoteru / A,'-' (The hotel of the ghost), performed by the Miiran Riiju company, July, 1947. Id! 797. Nagayo Yoshir6 (1888 -"Choshun monogatari T 4 (A story of Ch~shu)," Chishikijin, November, 1948. If! "Seid6 no Kirisuto a) ([The statue of] Christ made of bronze)," Kaiz5, January, 1923. If! Sono yo t a) (That night), T6ky6, Asahi Shimbunsha, 1948-51, 3v. If! "Utsurikawari (Transition)," Kaiz6, January, 1952. If! "Yasei no yuwaku o 1 (The allurements of the wild)," February-September, 1947. If! 798. Naka Kansuke (1885 -"'Shizuka na nagare -hi rc-A, lt- (A quiet stream)," Shis6, December, 1933; March, July-October, 1934. If! Umi ni ukaban ~-j - (I will float on the sea), T~ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1936. IpI 799. Naka Keiz5 Kazoku ~ A~ (Family), T6ky6, H6gas6, 1943. IpI 800. Nakae Yoshio qr — k~ (1910 - Nijfi-sanji no onna: — l — &- (The woman at twenty-three o'clock), performed by the Nichigeki company at the Nichigeki Sh6gekij6, November, 1947. Id! Seikatsu no kawa I ~_;, I (The river of life), performed by the Miiran Riiju company, October, 1947. Id! 801. Nakagawa Yoichi t~' #1 4, - (1897 -"Giizen bungakuron 4A 1~:- ft (A treatise on accidental literature)," Shinch6, July, 1935. Ic! "Keishikishugi bungaku. riron no hatten -F A; -~ __~fA4~X (The development of a formalistic literary theory)," Bungei shunjii, February, 1929. Ic! "Keishikishugi bungaku. no ittan i -?j (An outline of formalistic literature),"1 Asahi shimbn November, 1928. Ic! "Minzoku bunka shugi R, * ~ (The principle of a people's culture)," Nihon r6mna March, 1937.IcI 802. Nakahara Chiiya t'i.t -ek (1907-1937) Arishi hi no uta c (The songs of the past), Tdky6, S6gensha, 1938. IpI Nakahara Chfiya-shd (A collection of the works of Nakahara Chilya), Tfky6, S6gensha, 1947. IpI "Nakahara Chdya tokushil f. (A special collection of the works of Nakahara Chidya)," Bungei, August, 1949. IzI Yagi no uta Ilk (Songs of goats), Tfky6., Bump6d6, 1934. IpI Ramb5 shishii -4 (A collection of the poems of [Arthur] Rimbaud), T~ky6, Noda Shob6, 1937. /trl Nakahara Chiiya zensh~ ift (The complete works of Nakahara Chiiya), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1951, 3 v. IzIF

Page  126 126 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 803. Nakajima Atsushi. k (1909-1942) "Deshi s }k (A disciple)," Ch5i k6ron, February, 1943. /f/ "Hikari to kaze to yume k (Light, wind, and a dream)," Bungakkai, May, 1942. if! " Kotan j (An old story)," Bungakkai, February, 1942. If! " Riry6 (Riry6),"1 Bungakkai, July, 1943. /f/ Nakajima Atsushi senshii t~ ~ J i 1 (A selection of the works of Nakajima Atsushi), T~ky5, Shakai Shis5 Kenkyikai, 1953, 3v. /z/ Nakajima Atsushi zenshd IL I (The complete works of Nakajima Atsushi), T\ky6, Chikuma Shob6, 1948-1949, 3v. /z/ 804. Nakajima Kenz5 4' N (1903 -Bungeigaku shiron 4 (A trial treatise on the study of literature), T~kyd, Kawade Shob6, 1942. Ic! 4 Gendai sakkaron *VI '& A (On some contemporary writers), TnkyO, Kawade ShobO, 1941. /k! Showashi 0 a (A history of the Shwa period), T-oky, Iwanami Shoten, 1957. /e/ 805. Nakajima Kenzo and Kurahara Koreto A W. 4a "Asu no bungaku no tame ni 6qs a ` c- V K0~I (For tomorrow's literature)," Ningen, February, 1949. /c/ "Bungau to iuzokse37n tsit c4' (On literature and racial characteristics)," Kaiz, March,1 806. Nakajima Kenz6 and Nakano Yoshio (1903- ed. Hikaku bungaku josetsu tL J _ (Preface to comparative literature), T~kyO, Kawade ShobO, 1951. 1k! 807. Nakajima Kenz6 and Nakano Shigeharu Pi, ed. Sengo jiinen: Nihon bungaku no ayumi J ~-4 e- Af- 4' (Ten years of the postwar era: the course of Japanese literature), Tokyo, Aoki Shoten, 1956. 1k! 808. Nakajima Kenz6 and Sat6 Masaaki 4 —k 4 Kaigi to sh6ch5.1f _V -e~ t (Skepticism and symbolism: Paul Ambroise Vale'ry's Variete), T~ky6, Sakuhinsha., 1934. ItrI 809. Nakajima Kenz6 and others, ed. Gendai sakkaron sosho #L 4Q( ir ~ (A series of studies on contemporary writers), Tfky6, Eih6sha, 1955, 7v. Ic! 810. Nakamoto, Takako I' 1'4 (1903 -"Byakue sagyO 0 -t~ 4'- f (ork by people in white robes)," Bungei, September, 1937. If! "Kichi no onna o*-i (Women at a military base)," Gunz6, July, 1953. If! "Nambu tetsubinkd 4j -:- (The workers of an iron-kettle factory in Nambu)," ShinchO, February, 1938. IfI 811. Nakamura Jihei 4 (1908 -"Asa no suzume " o; (Sparrows in the morning)," Sekai, September, 1949. If! "Ch6j ikoku. hy57rydki - ~:, te- (Record of shipwreck on the country of long ears)," Chisei, December, 1940. If! G imai k 44~ (A sister-in-law), T~ky6, Koyama Shoten, 1948. If I "Namp5 yiishin r47 I 34 (News from the south)," Bungakkai, April, 1938. If I "Nettai no shushi *4 ~~ (Seeds from the torrid zone)," Sakuhin, January, 1932. IfI 812. Nakamura Kenkichi 4 (1889-1934) Keiraishid 4~ % — (A collection of light thunder), TdkyO, Motoi Shoin, 1931. ItI Nakamura Kenkichi zenshdi _'4'-~T (The complete works of Nakamura Kenkichi), TfkyO, Iwanami Shoten, 1937, 4v. IzI 813. Nakamura Kenkichi and Yamaguchi Seison JA t ~4j Gendai haiku zakkan AL i (Miscellaneous thoughts on the contemporary haiku), 1954. Ic! 814. Nakamura K~suke 4'* Tsuchi no uta 4- o -,-f. (The song of the soil), TOkyO, Geijutsu to Jiyiisha, 1926. It! 815. Nakamura Kusatao 4' -fj.1 f~ (1901 -Banryoku 44 T A_ green expanse), Tfky6, K~ch6 Shorin, 1941. IhI Ch~shi 4 } (The oldest son), TVky6, Sara Shoten, 1936. 1W/ Ginga izen ~:~ (The Milky Way remains unchanged), TdkyO, Misuzu Shob6, 1953. IhI Koshi kata yukue ~~~ (The past and the future),; TdkyO, Jibund.O, 1947. IhI

Page  127 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 127 816. Nakamura Masatsuneq 41,.iE- ~ (1901 -"Maka'roni - r i (Macaroni)," Kaiz6, May, 1929. If! 817. Nakamura Mitsuo 4 ~4~~ (1911 -"Futabatei Shimei-ron 4 (On Futabatei Shimei)," Bungakkai, April, 1936; also, Tfky6, Shinrosha, 1947. Ic! Fiizoku sh6setsu-ron Cl A~6- J), Z. * (On genre novels), Tokyd, Kawade ShobO, 1950. Ic! "Hirotsu-shi no 'Ih~jin'-ron ni tsuite -: v,~?, fP A,-, 4 t- - zt (On Mr. Hirotsu' s views concerning 'The foreigner' [Albert Camus' LE'Etranger])," Gunz6, October, 1951. Ic! Sakka to sakuhin 4 (Writers and their works), T~kyO, Chikuma Shob6, 1947. Ic! Sakka no seishi 4'~ e ) (The life and death of writers), T~kyO, S~gensha, 1949. Ic! Sakka no seishun A )0- (The youth of a writer), T~ky6, S~bunsha, 1952. Ic! Sakkaron ~ On some writers), T~kyO, Masu Shob6, 1941. Ic! "'Shiga Naoya-ron A (On Shiga Naoya),"1 Bungakkai, January, 1953; also, T~kyO, Bungei Shunjil Shinsha, 1954. /c/ "Tanizaki JunlichirO - -rA ~ (Tanizaki Junlichird-),"1 Gunz6, April-May, 1952. Ic! Nijisseiki no sh~setsu +i eq~g /1, ~- (Novels of the twentieth century), T~kyO, Chikuma Shob6, 1949. Ic! "Warai no s~shitsu ji (The loss of laughter),"1 Bungei, July, 1948. Ic! Nihon no kindai sh~setsu ~ x' L. (Japan' s mode rn f iction), TfkyO, Iwanami Shoten, 19 54. 1k! 818. Nakamura Mizue f1 N "'Shimoyake nikki A. t 1- - (Frostbite diary)," Shinch6, December, 1953. If! 819. Nakamura Murao, jX 4 K (1886-1949) "Dare da? Hanazono o arasu mono wa!?~ f it! (Who is this invading a flower garden?)," Shinch6, June, 1928. Ic! 820. Nakamura Shinlichir6 41 -~ (1918 -Comprising parts of a long novel: "'Shi no kage no moto ni oi. T- i (In the shadow of death)," K~gen, October, 1946 - September, 194 7. Ifl Shion no musumera ~~g- (The young girls of Chillon), T~ky5, Kawade Shob6, 1948. If! "Aishin to shishin to (The god of love and the god of death), " Bungei, November, 1948 -June, 1949. If! Tamashii no yo no naka o 4 er (Through the night of the soul), Tokyo, Kawade Shobd, 1951.If I Nagai tabi no owari ni -f,, j - (At the end of a long journey), T~ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1952. If! "'Shojo j -& (A virgin)," Bungei, February, 1948. If! Shishii S4 Jf (A collection of long poems), T~ky6, Shoshi Yuriika, 1951, 129pp. IpI "Idai na chishikijin 44,- v& ij~t A. (A great intellectual)," ShinchO, March, 1947. Ic! Gendai bungaku nyilmon: ~$~~y (Introduction to present-day literature), T~kyO, T~dai Shuppankai, 1948. Ic! 821. Nakamura Teijo 4 4'[;f- (1900 -Miyak~odori j (Oyster catcher), Tdky6, Shink~ch5, 1951. IhI 822. Nakano Hideto 1 A (1898 -Seikata-i t 4t * (A g roup of hymns), TdkyO, Bunka. Saishuppatsu no Kai, 1940. IpI 823. Nakano Minoru r' ff (1901 -Hana hiraku 4& -t ( (The flowers bloom), performed by the Roppa Ichiza company at the Yiirakuza, January, 1947. Id! Joydi to shijin -~- 4'{~~A (An actress and a poet), performed by the Kdikiza company at the Teitoza, August, 1947. Id! 824. Nakano Shigeharu 41 if;/P (1902 -"'Dai-issh6 f (The first chapter)," ChilO k~ron, January, 1935. If! "Goshaku no sake -4i ia~, (Five shaku of sake)," Temb6, January, 1947. If! "Harusaki no kaze t-, AC (The wind in early spring)," Senki, August, 1928. If! "Kaikon M1 Y_ (Reclamation of waste land)," Ch55 k~ron, June, 1931. If I " Kawase s~ba A, q A/~~ (Exchange rates)," Chi56 k~ron, April, 1936. If! "Isha no kamataki -A *a~*~. (The fireman of a train)," ChilO k~ron, June, 1937. If! "Kilsfka to shinario — i- A (A dreamer and a scenario),"1 Bungei, August-November, 1939. If! "'Machi aruki dhA- ) (A stroll on the street)," ShinchO, June-July, 1940. If! "'Muragimo & r t (The spirit)," Guz6 January-July, 1954. If! "'Mura no aramashi no hanashi A#i a) X). _; La) (A rough outline of a village)," ChilO kron, April, 1932. If! "'Mura no ie J4V 0,9 (The houses in a village)," Keizai raMay, 1935. lf I "1Sat6 no hanashi ky o)t (The story of sugar)," KaizO, February, 1930. If! "Sh~nen -- (A boy)," Puroretaria bungei, August, 1927.77

Page  128 128 128 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS "Sh6setsu no kakenu sh6setsuka III 0. t It ' (A writer of fiction who is unable to write fiction)," Kaiz6, January, 1936. If! "Suzuki, Miyakoyama, Yasojima d-$ i' A\ (Suzuki, Miyakoyama, Yasojima ['placenames]), Bungei, April, 1935. /f/ "'Tetsu no hanashi a) ~A (The story of iron)," Senki, March, 1929. /f/ "Uta no wakare 4 9 *L ~ (Departure with a song)," Kakushin, February, 1939. /f/ "Uzura no yado (The nest of quails)," Kaiz5, March, 1941. If! "Wakamono k? 'p a (A youth)," Senki, September, 1929. /f/ Yoru to hi no kure? )# & (Night and the end of day), T6ky6, Chikuma Shob6, 1955. I/f! "Ame no furu Shinagawa-eki 04 f 3 k~l "I (Shinagawa station in the rain)," Kaiz5., February, 1929. Ip/ "DMro o kizuku kisha - (To construct the road; and, A train), Roba, February, 1927. /p/ "Konlya ore wa omae no neiki o kiite yaru ' J - ~5' 1 ' ~ ~ ' ~'t b~ (Tonight I shall listen to your breathing while you sleep)," ChU6 k6ron, August, 1931. Ip/ "'Musansha shimbun dai-hyakug6 ~ ~- ~ (The proletarian news, no. 100),"1 Musansha shimbun, 1928. /p/Nakano Shigeharu shishd 4if of~ ~ (A collection of the long poems of Nakano Shigeharu), T~ky6, Naukasha, 1935. /p/ "Uta Jft (A song)," Roba, September, 1926. /p/ "Yoakemae no sayonara, L it -l t '1- 4 ri (Parting before dawn)," Roba, May, 1926. /p/ "Yokari no omoide o)'J~ Y, v (Remembrances of harvesting at night)," Sen~ki, October, 1928. /p/ "Bungaku ni okeru shin-kanry6-shugi 5~ v -~~-''1ti- (The new bureaucratism in literature)," Shinch6, March, 1937. /c/ "'Bungakusha ni tsuite' ni tsuite r, - -f 4 — z (On 'About literary men')," K6da, February, 1935. /c/ "Geijutsu ni kansuru hashirigaki-teki oboegaki ~4 3 1 /LL'j t ~~C~_ (Some hasty notes on art)," Puroretaria geijutsu, October, 1927; also, Tfky6, Kaiz6sha, 1929. Ic! "Geijutsu ni seijiteki kachi nante mono wa nai -Q~ j~4-r ~z ~ o? ri - (There is no such thing as political value in art)," Shinch6, October, 1929. Ic! "Hihy6 no ningensei t~ $'f c) k 1~ td-t (The humanness in criticism)," Shin-Nihon bungaku, July, 1946. /c/ "Ideorogii-teki hihy6 o nozomu 4, 7P t k" * # 1- ' ~ tL (I request ideological criticism)," Bungaku hydron, November, 1934. Ic! "Iwayuru geijutsu no taishuka-ron no ayamari ni tsuite.Z~ ~4'~g~ ~~ ~~' (On the mistakes in the arguments concerning the so-called popularization of art)," Senki, June, 1928. Ic! "Kaiketsu-sareta mondai to atarashii shigoto -tr" kk 4- L (Solved problems and some new tasks),." Sni November, 1928. Ic! Kataru koto kaku koto no jif 7~d (Freedom in talking and writing), September, 1954. Ic! "KanshO to hihy6 to 4- ~~~ (Appreciation and criticism)," Shinch6, January, 1937. Ic! "Kokin-teki, Shin-Kokin-teki o - ~, 7 (Kokin-like and Shin-Kokin-like),"1 Kaiz6, January, 1941. Ic! "1Ky~do b6keishi ni arawareta funnu 46A - f<u -T- (Anger that appeared in the long poems depicting the distant scenes of one's native village)," Roba, October, 1926. Ic! "'Mondai no nejimodoshi to sore ni tsuite no iken?,'I1t,~ A~ 4 - J~ U t U -~ " -Za - (Twisting back the problem and my opinion concerning it)," Senki, September, 1928. Ic! Ogai: sono sokumen 4,.# - ~ o) (91il ([Mo~riT]Ogai: his profile), T6ky6, Chikuma Shob6, 1952. Ic! Ogai to yuigonj6 i~-~ jj (Ogai and his will), Tdky6, Yakumo Shoten, 1944. Ic! "Puroretaria-shi ni tsuite -7. t7 - 17 - - (On the proletarian long poem)," Kaiz6, November, 1928. Ic! Rongi to sh~hin 1, A (Discussions and short pieces of writing), T6ky6, Gendai Bunkasha, 1935. Ic! Sait6 Mokichi n~to 11~ 4 (1;- (Notes on Sait6 Mokichi), T6ky6, Chikuma Shob5, 1942. Ic! "Shinjitsu wa kat6 de ariuru ka,. - (Can the truth be vulgar?)" Shinch6, September, 1937. Ic! "Soto to no tsunagari 0 %o - ' 1 (Connections with the outside)," Shin-Nihon bungaku., April, 1955. Ic! "Urii nigatsu nijii kunichi ftj, (February 29th of a leap year)," Shinch6, April, 1936. Ic! Nakano Shigeharu shishfi * (coltinfthlngpems of Nakano Shigeharu), T6ky6, Koyama Shoten, 1947. IpI 825. Nakano Shigeharu ''~~- ed. Puroretaria-shi no sho-mondai il ~-p ~'_ r1 J A~ (Various problems concerning the proletarian long poem), Toky6, Sobunkaku, 1932. Ic! 826. Nakano Shigeharu and Shiina Rinz; 461~ ed. Bungaklu no riron to rekishi 5L~ (The theory and history of literature), T6ky6, Shinhy6ronsha, 1954. Ic! 827. Nakano Suzuko '' ~ also known as Ichida Aid - T7 "Misoshiru ~;I (Bean soup)," Nappu, August, 1931. IpI

Page  129 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE12 129 828. Nakano Yoshio 'j L4~ (1903 -"Kindai bungaku. no ummei iif & ~_t e?~ (The fate of modern literature)," Sekai, March, 1947. Ic! Gendai no sakka 4,~q (Present-day writers) [=Iwanami shinsho, no. 216], T~ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1955. /c/ 829. Nakatogawa Kichiji 4 I - (1896-1942) "Zokuaku naru fiich6 e no fumman a~;', (f t~' A (Anger at vulgar trends)," Bungei shunjtl, February, 1932. Ic! 830. Nakatsuka Ippekir6 ~ -~4 (1887-1946) Shibafu jL;I (A lawn), T6kyd, Kaik6sha, 1932. /h/ 831. Nakaya Ukichir6 ~7 ~~~ (1900 -Kasuiboku K7 z (Flowers, water, and trees), T6ky6, Bungei Shunjti Shinsha, 1950. /e/ 832. Nakayama Gishd Lb A - (1900 -"Atsumonozaki rT- TV '~ (Pompon chrysanthemums)," Bungakkai, April, 1938. If! "Burai na kaze tK k rX (&r A (A villainous wind)," Bungei shunjil, June, 1954. If! "Haitokusha 4 4-f- i-~ (An immoral person)," Bungei drai, May, 1947 - July, 1949. If! "Hi;4 (A tombstone)," Bungei shunjil, 1939. 7f7 "Jakurenge: 7KIrc (A: solitary lotus)," Bessatsu bungei shunji1, February, 1952. If! "Kashoku -f I (A marriage ceremony)," Kaiz6, April, 1947. If! "Kini ni yuragu fujinami A (- ~ -t4 (A wave of wistaria flowers in a fog)," Bessatsu bungei shunjil, July, 1951. If! "'Makoku ~ (A mysterious valley)," Fdsetsu, March, 1949. If! "Romei (A transient life);' Shinch6, September-October, 1954. If! "Sakaya /J- (A sake shop)," Bummei, July, 1946. If! "'Seifdi sassatsu A4 C- ~. (A fresh wind is rustling)," Shinch6, April, 1940. If! "Sh6nen shikeishii #-F - 4, 1-j (Boy under a death sentence)," Bessatsu bungei shunjii, December, 1949. If! " S h5 no hana *_ 'J At (The flower of ugliness)," Kaiz6, March, 1940. If! "'S6renka j. ~ _ (An evening primrose)," Bessa'tsu bungei shunjdl, April, 1952. If! "Teniyan no rakujitsu j9- (The last day of Tinian)," Shinch6, September, 1948. If! "Utsukushiki kuni t ~ _ (A beautiful country)," Bungakkai, June, July, and November, 1940. If! 833. Nakayama Sh6zabur6 LkJ ~~ (1904-1947) Hy6by6 5 (A vagueness), T6ky6, Koyamia Shoten, 1942. IpI 834. Nakazato Kaizan V~ T /'A!, (1885-1944) Daibosatsu T~ge 7K fit (The Daibosatsu pass), T6ky5, Saik6sha, 1951-53, 20v.; T~ky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1955, 27v.; in Bessatsu kokumin zenshd ii 7 ~i (The people' s anthology in separate volumes), 1956, 8v. The first publication of this work goes back to 1913.!fI 835. Nakazato Tsuneko 7 "Banka ft _f (Elegy)," Fujin k6ron, April-August, 1946. If! "Ikiru tochi Ti '-L -t. (Thie living land)," Shin-joen, January-December, 1940. If! "'Mariannu monogatari -, 1)J ft A~ (The story of Mary Anne)," Ningen, February, 1946. If! "Noriaibasha A ' + (A horse-drawn carriage)," Bungei shunjii, March, 1939; also separately, Ty6ky, Koyama Shoten, 1939. If! 836. Nan'e Jir6 t47 -4 r4 (1902 -Nanshi no hana 0 AL (The flowers on the branches to the south), T6ky6, Shinch~sha, 1927. Ip! 837. Naoki Sanjdgo + - (1891-1934) "Nangoku taiheiki 7 - (An account of peace in a southern country)," Osaka mainichi and T6ky6 nichinichi, June-October, 1930. If! 838. Nihon Bungaku Ky~kai e -_ ~ ~-1:A (Society for Japanese Literature), ed. Nihon bungaku. k6za V9 f (Essay series on Japanese literature), T6ky6, T~dai Shuppankai, 1954-55, 7v. Ic! 839. Nihon Gendai Bungakushi Kenkyiikai &N ~ (Association for the Study of the History of Contemporary Japanese Literature), ed. Nihon no gendai bungakushi g (A history of modern Japanese literature), T~ky6, San'ichi Shob6, 1954. 1k! 840. Nihon Puroretaria Sakka D~mei 0 L, -y ~ ~ (Association of Japanese Proletarian Writers) Akai jilka J~ 1-11 )I (Red gunfire), T6ky6, Nihon Puroretaria Sakka D6mei, 1932. IzI Senretsu # ~ (A line of battle), T6ky6, Nihon Puroretaria Sakka D6mei, 1933. If!

Page  130 130 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 841. Nii Itaru i-~~ (1888-1951) and Fukazawa Sh6saku -,t 4tr/ Daichi +L~ (The earth: Pearl S. Buck's The good earth), T6ky6, Daiichi Shob, 1935-1936, 3v. /r 842. Nishida Kitar6 vki w A-&t tP (1870-1945) Hataraku mono kara miru mono e og - (From a worker to an observer), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1927. /e/ 843. Nishimura Y~kichi f v (1892 -Hareta hi i (A fine day), T6ky6, K6gyokud5, 1927. It! Hod6 no uta. (Songs of the pavement), T~kyd, Sojinsha, 1932. /t/ Midori no hata. 4 (A green flag), T6ky6, Sakkas6, 1939. It! 844. Nishino Tatsukichi 01 W (1916 -"Beikei Nichijin (A Japanese citizen of American ancestry)," Shin-Nihon bungaku, March, 1952. /f/ "Chichibu Kommint,6 I+] 0 t (The Chichibu party for distressing the people)," Shin-Nihon bungaku, March, 1954 - February, 1956; also, T6ky6, K6dansha, 1956. /f/ "Haitei Tokihito-ki (An account of the deposed emperor Tokihito)," Bungei, September, 1947. "Shii-machi de no n6to t / - (Notes on a town, 'C')," Gunz6, February, 1954. If! 845. Nishiwaki Junzabur5 \#7 R# 1 (1894 -Ambaruwaria Y) (-, t' ~ 42~ (I (Ambarvalia), T6ky6, Shiinokisba, 1933. Ip/ Arechi ~, T (The waste land: T. S. Eliot's The waste land), T6ky6, S6gensha, December, 1952. /tr/ Kindai no gdwa It (Modern fables), Toky6, S6gensha, 1953. /p/ Tabibito kaerazu (The traveler has not returned), Foky6, T6ky6 Shuppan Kabushiki Kaisha, 1947. /p/ Ch6genjitsu-shugi shiron (A treatise on surrealistic poems), T6ky6, K6seikaku, 1930. Ic/ 846. Nitta Jun *k & `X (1904 -"Gake77 c7liff)," Bungei, December, 19 34. /f/ "Kiseru I (A tobacco pipe)," Nichireki, 1933. If! "'Tsuma no yukue ~ q 1 (The place where the wife went)," Bummei, January, 1948. /f/ 847. Niwa Fumio T] 57J ti,~ (1904 -"Aiyoku no ichi 0 - $- (The place of passion)," Kaiz-5, June, 1937. If! "Aruchizan -~' L If- it,- (An artisan)," Gendaijin, March, 1948. If! Aru onna no iiansei ~ (The half of a lifetime of a certain woman), TUky6, Kawade Shobo6, August, 1940. If! "Ayu,~ (The ayu [a fish])," Bungei shunjdi, April, 1932. If! Chdnen '34 (One's middle years), T6ky6, Kawade Shobi5, 1941. /f/ "Gendaishi 0- V~ ~_ (Present-day history)," Kaiz6, April-October, 1942. If! "Gy6an 1#. V, (Darkness at dawn)," Chii6 k6ron, August, 1941. If! "Hachfirui 4 ' ft, (The reptiles)," Bungei shunjii, January-June, 1950; Bungakkai, July-December, 1950. If! " Hebi to hato kW -e JA (A snake and a pigeon)," Sh~ikan asahi, February-September, 1952. If! "Iyagarase no nenrei - x W - K ~ (The disagreeable age),"1 Kaiz6, February, 1947. If! "Jinsei annai K -~t X (A guide to life)," Kaiz6, February, 193777717 "Kaeranu chdtai Vr ~ ~r~ (A company which will not return)," Chii6 k6ron, December, 1938. If! Kaimen A- r-7 (The surface of the sea), T6ky6, Takemura Shob6, 1939. /f/ "Kaisen i4- t( (A naval battle)," Chii6 k6ron, November, 1942. If! Kinn6 todokeide -*, I- $,,t (A report on loyalty to the emperor), T6ky5, Taikand6, 1942. If! "IK6fuku e no kyo ri 4~ * \- ~ (The distance to happiness)," Gunz6, October, 1951. If! "lKokuheki (A wailing wall)," Gunz6, October, 1947 - February, 1948. If! K6rarui ~4# (The carapace family)," Waseda bungaku, July, 1934. If! "Nangokush6 4 ~*j]\ 1 (Notes on a southern country)," Nihon hydron, April, 1939. If! "Ningen moy6 k?4] 4- j (A mortal pattern),"1 Nihon sh6setsu, beginning in June, 1943. If! "Nyfibi no hito (A gently coquettish lady),"1 Shinch5, April, 1954. If! "'Seishun no sho -a (A book for youth), " Shin-joen, January, 1938-December, 1938. If! "Shadanki - ' (A crossing gate)," Shinch6, November, 1952. If! " Tais6j i fukin A 1 - A4 -i (Near Taisboji temple)," Bungei, December, 1939. If! "Tarachine t _ (A mother),"1 Bungei, January, 1951 —7717 "Tdsei munazan'ly, k,,t ppg -1 qI (A calculation of debts for today), " Chii6 k~ron, October-December, 1949. If! "IZeiniku -V V4 (Superfluous flesh)," Chii6 k6ron, extra edition, July, 1934. If! Niwa Fumio bunko 4-~3 (The Niwa Fumio library), T6kyd, Tfh~sha, 1953-1955, 25v. (incomplete). Niwa Fumio senshdi 413- I/d ~L J*(A selection of the works of Niwa Fumio), ed., by Furuya Tsunatake -~~ j~, Tdky6, Takemura Shob6, 1939, 7v. IzI

Page  131 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 131 Niwa Fumio senshii -p-0J 4 4 (A selection of the works of Niwa Fumio), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1948-1949, 7v. /z/~ 848. Noda Utar6 r-1 iW 4- (1909 -Shin-T6ky6 bungaku sampo 4 I- ~ L4- -19L - (A literary walk through a new T6kyoD, Tfky6, Nihon Dokusho Shimbunsha, 1951. /k/ Pan no kai i'\c' '> ~ o (The Pan club), T6ky6, Rokk6 Shuppansha, 1949; afterwards revised, enlarged, and published as Nihon tambiha no tanj6 u- a)~( oL + (The birth of the Japanese Aesthetic School), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1951. 849. Nogami Yaeko Pi ~A1- -~ - (1885 -"'Machiko ~~4 (Machiko)," Kaiz6, August, 1928- May, 1930, and Ch56 k6ron, December, 1930. This novel was published as follows: "'Machiko - ~ 4 (Machiko),"1 Kaiz6, August, 1928. "'Aru sosharisuto il -~ -I -Pi7 (A certain Socialist)," Kaizd, September, 1928. "'Dannasama, kodomo, mnu is,4C. i- ( (Her husband, children, dog)," Kaiz6, January, 1929. "lTsumetai moya 4 p (A cold mist)," Kaiz6, March, 1929. "'Moyuru bara 2 (Burning roses)," Kaiz6, October, 1929. "Gin dokuraku. 1z - (Enjoying the silver by oneself)," Kaiz6, January, 1930.."Kanojo to haru L~ #- (That certain woman and spring)," May, 1930. "1C hi -'-& (Blood)," Chuo5 ko-ron, December, 1930. Meiro 4 VY (A maze), part 1, T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1948; part 2, T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1948; parts 3 --4, T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1952. If! "O6ishi Yoshio ff- 1 4 (6ishi Yoshio [personal name]," ChU6 k6ron, September, 1926. A/f "Wakai musuko t 4~- (Young son)," Chu- 6ron7 December, 1932. If! 850. Noguchi Fujio Vt ri kt (1911 -"Kaze no keifu AL a) f, i (The family tree of the wind), " Bungakusha, April, 1940. If! 851. Noma Hiroshi_ T, t1 4 (1915 -Chi no tsubasa - ~?1 (The wings of the earth), T6ky6, Kawade Shob,6, 1956. If! "IH6kai kankaku A ot, (A disintegrated feeling)," Sekai hyo-ron, January-March, 1948. If! "Kao no naka no akai me 4,, f,- (The red eyes in the face)," S5g6 bunka, August, 1947. If! "Kaze to hon6 k, t (Wind and flame)," Nihon hy6ron, December, 1950. If! " Kurai e elI~ (A dark picture),"1 Kibachi, January-March, 1946. If! "Me Rk (Eyes)," Bessatsu geijutsu, March, 1949.!f! "'Semnen no wa - (The circle of youths)," T6kyO, Kawade Shob6, 1949-1950, 2v. If! Shinkid chitai (A vacuum zone), Tfky6, Kawade Shob6, 1952. If! "Yuki no shita. no koe ga... r r- ~ 0,' (The voice beneath the snow... )," Gunz6, September, 1952. If! "IZanz6 4k {~_ (The remaining image)," Ch6ryii, November, 1947. If! "Nijisseiki bungaku to minshushugi bungaku tf t- w Py ~ 0 ~!- 7~ (Twentieth century literature and democratic literature)," Bungaku, June-December, 1953.!c! "'Tenkei ni tsuite i- - - (On what is meant by a model)," Shin-Nihon bungaku, May-September, 1955. Ic! Seiza no itami ~ i (The pain of a constellation), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1949. IpI Noma Hiroshi sakuhinshii -~ (A collection of the works of Noma Hiroshi), Ky6to, San' ichi Shob6, 1953, 3v. IzI 852. Nomura Kiyoshi Wt l (1900 -R~taku. (A miserable dwelling), T6ky6, R6samb5, 1934. IpI Hofutsu - (A close resemblance), T6ky6, IKoch6 Shorin, 1939.!pI 853. Nomura Kod6 It -t- i~ (1882- ) also known as Ara Ebisu Y ~ Zenigata Heiji torimonocho 4-t;Ff; ~ (The Zenigata Heiji detective stories), principally in Oru yomimono, April, 19314o date. If! 854. Nozawa Fumiko ~4 ~ 4 Renga j ok6 It f, -k- -ri (Women workers in a brick factory), Tk6, Daiichi Kdronsha, 1940. If! 855. Numazawa Tatsuo -5 R ~ Nihon bungakushi hyo-ran cI 0* ~i - P ~I (Tables for the history of Japanese literature), T6ky6, Meiji Shoin, 1934,) 2v. 1k!

Page  132 132 132 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 856. uy amaHroshiAa~? &' v75L-;also, Hiroshi Nuyama LA) Ue'? 04;Nishizawa Ryiiji tfv -* [t ~_ (1903 -Amigasa ~k ~-1 (A braided hat), T~ky6, Nihon Minshushugi Bunka Remmei, 1946. /p/ "Tsurumi t6sdshi 1, 0L 4 (The history of the fighting at Tsurumi)," Senki, June, 1930. If! 8 57. Oba Hakusuir6 ~ 7 < P (1890 -Hakusuir5 kushti f(-i 4K f ~ (A collection of haiku by HakusuirO), T6ky6, Momiyama Shoten, 1928. /h/ 858. Oda Sakunosuke 1w 3- 0 (1913-1947) "Doyo fujin 1- P# *., (The Saturday ladies)," Yomiuri shimbun, August-December, 1946. If! "'Meoto zenzai -k -&~ *k ' (It's good to be man and wife)," Bungei, July, 1940. /f/ "'Ses6 # ~M (A phas e of life)," Ningen, April, 1946. "Kan6sei no bungaku. i] ~L K,7 ~_Qf_7A literature of possibility)," Kaiz6, December, 1946. Ic! "Niryai bungakuron j $ ) (On second-rate literature)," Kaizd, October, 1946. Ic! 859. Oda Takeo dP, (1900 - "J~gai 4~ 4~J (Outside a castle),"1 Bungaku seikatsu, June, 1936. /f/ 860. Odagiri Hideo f' V;JJ # (1916 -Gendai bungakuron ~ X (On present-day literature), T~ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1949. Ic! Joj6 no kaih6 4~{ R ~ ~ i (The liberation of lyricism), T6ky6, Yakumo Shoten, 1948. /c/ Kindai Nihon no sakkatachi it Al 9 t (The writers of modern Japan), T6ky6, K6bunsha, 1954, 2v. Ic! Kobayashi Takij i (1, (Kobayashi Takiji [the author]), Ti~ky5, Kaname ShoboZ, 1950. Ic! "Kydsanshugi-teki ningen -t A4~ (Communistic people),"Nngn December, 1949. Ic! "Ningen no shinrai ni tsuite / -' (On man's faith)," Sekai, November, 1954. Ic! "Niwa Fumio no mondai -P~ -11 (The problem of Niwa Fumio),"1 Ch55 k~ron, April, 1950. Ic! Samazama na shis5 no atarashii kankei ni tsuite r- I - _4 -? " - (On the new relationships among various ideas) [in Kawade shinsho (New Kawade books]), T~ky6, Kawade Shobd, 1956. /c/ "'Sedai no sakeme -go Axj ii (A c rack in a generation)," -Sekai, February, 1954. Ic! "Shin-bungaku sdz6 no shutai il l A j A17 (The main elements in the creation of a new literature)," Shin-Nihon bungaku, June, 1946. Ic! "Tanka hiteiron It A-,~, _; (Essay denying the tanka its existence)," Jimmin tanka, March, 1946. Ic! Man'y6 no dent6 o) Jt- (The traditions of the Man'y6 [poems]), T6kyt3, Hikari Shob6, 1941. 1k! Nihon kindai bungaku: kindai Nihon no shakai kik6 to bungaku 4 -j(\V- ~ la k 4- i T (Modern Japanese literature: The social structure of modern Japan and literature), T6ky6, Aoki Shoten, 1955. 1k! Nihon kindai bungaku kenkyfi U + L4z -' 0 (Studies in modern Japanese literature), T6ky6, Tddai Ky6so Shuppambu, 1950. 7k 861. Odagiri Hideo, ed. K6za kindai Nihon bungakushi -,o rf- - ~~~ (Essay series: The history of modern Japanese literature), T6ky6, Otsuki Shoten, 1956-1957, 5v. 1k! Puroretaria bungaku saikent5 6, rt L, q I y~_ (A re-evaluation of proletarian literature), TMy5, Ytizankaku, 1948. lc! 862. Qe Mitsuo ~' A -- A Lt (1906 -Chi no hana ga hiraku toki t 'Lii (When the flowers of blood open), T~ky6, Seishid6 Shoten, 1928.!p! Nihon kairyil e - (The currents of the Japanese seas), T6ky6, Sangab6, 1943. IpI 863. Qe Ry6tar6 & r ~A V (1901 -Haru, aki it. c t (Spring, fall), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Mitsukoshi Gekij6, September, 1947. Id! 864. Ogawa Masako 4,1'' 4-s Koj ima no ha ru 4,, (Spring on a small island), TVky5, Nagasaki Shoten, 1939. If! 865. Ogawa Shinkichi A- _ -r- A Sekishu ni ikiru,~ (To live with one arm), Ty6ky, Rokko- Sh~kai Shuppambu, 1941. If! 866. Ogiwara Seisensui ~! t~4 (1884 -Bongy6hon g, (A collection of haiku on pure actions), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1932. Ih! Kaizange % A~4~ (A complete confession), T~ky6, S6unsha, 1928. IhI Mushozai -:4t ~z~t4 (Having nothing to do), T~ky6, Mikasa Shob6, 1935. IhI Seisensui kiishii 4t- 71, 7 - (A collection of haiku. by Seisensui), T6ky6, Kdbunsha, 1946, By. 1h!

Page  133 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 133 867. Oguma Hideo (1901-1940) "G6rudo rasshu (The gold rush)," Shiseishin, April, 1934. /p/ Oguma Hideo shishfi Oguma Hide shihi,- *_~ (A collection of the long poems of Oguma Hideo), T6ky6, K6shinsha, Oguma Hideo shishii 7 (A collection of the long poems of Oguma Hideo), T-oky5, Chikuma Shob6, 1953. /p/ "Rumin shishii $k, W (A collection of long poems by a hobo)," Gendai bungaku, April, 1940; also, Ky~to, San'ichi ShobW, 1947. /p/ "Shdy6 shishff i. & 4 I (A collection of long poems on strolls)," Gendai bungaku, March, 1940. Ip/ "Yokub6 no nami 6 - (The wave of desire)," Shiseishin, March, 1935. /p/ Tobu sori k, j, (A flying sleigh), T6ky6, Zens~sha, 1935. /p/ 868. Ohashi Matsuhei $c. # k (1893-1952) Kadogawa r i.1 (Kadogawa), T6ky6, S6sakusha, 1936. It! 869. Oi Hirosuke "Bungakusha no kakumei jikk~ryoku 7 (The ability of literary men to bring about revolutions)," " February, 1956. Ic! 870. Oikawa Hitoshi, I (1913 -Da-jd —kydi t5kan ~ (The nineteenth ciass official), T~ky6, Miraiha Hakk6j6, 1950.Ip Dai /P/iit~a Yokota-ke no oni a (The demon of the Yokota family), TOky6, Hirasawa Setsuko, 1938. / 871. Oka Fumoto [; S (1877-1951) Asagumo -q! (The morning clouds), T6kyd, Iwanami Shoten, 1936. /t/ Fuyuzora 4 (The winter sky), T~ky6, Kaname Shobd, 1950. It! Ozasa~fu Pt -- (Dwarf bamboo trees), TVky5, Iwanami Shoten, 1936. /t/ 872. Okada Sabur5 IM 60 _~ t (1890-1954) "Asa fP1 (The morning)," Bungei, March, 1940. If! "Shinroku gy6j6ki 4. ~ (A record of Shinroku's behaviour)," Shinchd, June, 1940. If! 873. Okamoto Jun la], (1901 -Bachiatari wa ikite iru r$' I zit (The damned are living), T6ky6, Kaih6 Bunka. Remmei, February, 1933. I51! Ranru no hata. I* (A tattered flag), T6ky6, Shinzembisha, 1947. Ip! Yoru kara asa e ir~ (From night to morning), Tdky6, Sojinsha, 1928. Yoru no kikansha Pt ' ]r (A locomotive in the night), TVky6, Bunka Saishuppatsu no Kai, 1941.!p! Okamoto Jun shishii (A collection of the long poems of Okamoto Jun), TVky5, K6bund6, 1954.II 874. Okamoto Kanoko l '' f 13 (1889-1939) "Boshi joj5 9P44~+ (The expression of feeling between mother and child)," Bungakkai, March, 1937. If! "Kan'ei funka ~~ (Eruption in the Kan'ei era)," Bungakkai, July., 1940.!f71 "Kawaakari on i (A light reflected on a river)," ChWi k6ron, April, 1939. If! "Kingyo ry6ran 4z, *.t~ -~ (A group of goldfish in confusion)," Chii6 k~ron, October, 1937. If! "Rdgish6 ~L hA4 f (The story of an old geisha)," Chfi6 k6ron, November, 1938. If! "Seisei ruten It!Q $4-. # (The impermanency of life),"1 Bungeikai, August, 1939.If "Tsuru wa yamiki I (A crane is ill),"1 Bungakkai, June, 1936. If! 875. 'Okamoto Kid6-1 f-] *,i (1872-1939) "Gonza to Sukejd A $ fj { (Gonza and Sukejd),"1 Kabuki, July, 1926. Id! 876. Okawa Hakuu( Jr5 Mo ri Ogi7 7k * (Moni Ogai), T~ky6, K~gakusha, 1949, 2'7Opp. 1k! 877. Okawa Shdmei I( (WI] (1886 -K~kinisn-ropyaunenshi~i _ -!- jz ~ - ~ (The 2600-year history of the reign of the emperors), T ky, Daiichi ShobI5, 1941.!e! 878. Okazaki Yoshie [~ - (1892 -Nihon bungeigaku. R L (The study of the literary arts in Japan), T6kyd, Iwanami Shoten, 1935. 1k! "Nihon bungeigaku no juritsu _ 4 k t~q (Teesalihen f ierr rt in Japan)," Bungaku, October, 1934. 1k!,j Teetbismn fltrr 879. Oki Atsuo -k *,' also &.A (1895 -Aki ni miru yume +-~(-, (Dreams seen in autumn), Tdky6, Arusu, 1926. Ip! Kiken shing6 5 (Danger signals), T~ky6, Arusu, 1930.!p!

Page  134 134 134 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 880. Oki Minoru < 2 (1913 -Basue no ko 4 - k (The children of the outskirts), T~ky6, Sunagoya Shob6; 1939. /p/ Enrai 4_ ~P (Distant lightning), T6kyd, Sakurai Shoten, 1943. /p/ Hatsuyuki ~-1 1' (The first snow), T6ky6, Sakurai Shoten, 1946, /p/ Koky6 9-161 (One's native heath), T6ky5, Sakurai Shoten, 1943. /p/ Roj i no ido W- iAz ~ q (The well in the lane), T~ky6, Sakurai Shoten, 1948. /p/ Yane 4% fg (A roof), T6kyd, Sunagoya Shob6, 1941. /p/ Yume no ato -* -~!q (The traces of one's dreams), Ky6to, Usui Shob6, 1947. /p/ 881. Okubo Yasuo K& /t + 4 f, (1905 -Kaze to tomo ni sarinu 4b?- A - l- - 1 (Gone with the wind: Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the wind), T6ky6, Mikasa Shob6, 1938. /tr/ 882. Okuma Ch6jir6 k '.- Okuma Ch6jir5 zenkashii JK, -41k 1 (A complete collection of the tanka composed by O5kuma Ch6jir5), T6ky6, Kaiz~sha, 1933. It! 883, Okuno Takeo ~, f~ Gendai sakkaron W /-~ 'qg, (On contemporary writers), T~ky5, Kindai Seikatsusha, 1956. Ic! 884. Omori Yoshitar6 ~( ~ /~~ (1898-1940)(Teprlxtofhersn-dyiel "Gendai chishiki-kaikyii no konwaku ifi. Pj -, Vt ~k ~ (TeprlxtWftepeetdyitl lectual class)," Kaizo, November, 1934. Ic! "KMd6shugi bungaku hihan ~ ~ # (The criticism of activist literature)," Bungei, February, 1935. Materiarisumusu miritansu - '&3 f ~~3 (Materialism and militancy), T6ky6, Chii6 K6ronsha, 1934. Id/ 885. Onchi Terutake ve- (1901 -Gendaishi no taiken ~ ~ 4 ~ (My experiences in the modern long poem), T6ky6, Sakai Shoten, 1957. I-c! "Nekoyanagi I & /,<~ (A sallow)," Puroretaria-shi, February, 1931. Ipx Ningen-by6 kanja A<p ~.-~ (Patients with the human ailment), K~be, Seiju Shijin Ky6kai, 1929. Ipx Gendaishi no taiken (My experiences in the modern long poem), T6ky6, Sakai Shoten, 1957, 257pp. Ic! 886. Ono T6sabur6,I rT { t-~ (1903 -Fiikei shish5 CL f, 4 ~V (A selection of long poems on the natural scene), T6ky6, K~bunsha, 1943. Ipx Furuki sekai no ue ni ~, 9 o -~ (On top of an old world), T~ky5, Kaih6 Bunka Remmei, 1934. /pI Hambun hiraita mado i- (A half-opened window), T6ky6, Taiheiy6 Shijin Ky6kai, 1926; also, T~ky6, Sojinsha, 1928. Ipx Taikai no hotori ~C a? I (The coast of the ocean), T6ky6-, Kosumosu, 1946. Ipx O~saka- K 13v (Osaka), Tfky6, Akatsuka Shob6, 1939; also, T6ky6, Sdgensha, 1953. Ipx Shiron P. * (A treatise on poetry), T6ky6, Shimzembisha, 1948. Ic! Tanka-teki joj5 ~f _j~ D, tt- {- (The lyricism proper to the tanka), T6ky6, So-gensha, 1953. Ic! Gendaishi tech6 (-V t, I t r (Handbook for the contemporary long poem) [in S6gen tech5 bunko lg. r~(S6gen handbook library)], Osaka, S6gensha, 1953. 887. Onoe Saishfi 1_ - -', -#J- (1876-1957) Kamposhfi r -j (A collection of slow walks), Nagoya, Mizugamesha, 1930. It! 888. Ooka Sho-hei Ac *4 (1909 -"Furyoki f/- j' (An account of a prisoner of war)," Bungakkai, February, 1948./f "Haha -- (The mother)," Chii6 k6ron bungei tokushd_, June, 1951. If! "Musashino fujin 4 k V H1 1 (The Musashino lady)," Gunz6, January-September, 1950. If! " Nobi Tf 'A (Fires in the field)," Temb6, January-August, 195 1. If! "Reite no ame i- I ~ 4 (The rain at Leyte),"1 Sakuhin, August, 1948. If! "'Sans6 ji-~ (oxygen)," Bungakkai, January-December, 1952. If! "Tsuma ~ (The wife)," Bessatsu bungei shunjii, October, 1950. /f/ Zoku-furyoki 4 J (An account of a prisoner of war, continued), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1949. /f/ Sutanddru 7, - (Stendhal: Alain' s Stendhal), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1939. /tr/ Origuchi Shinobu hj '1P A See Shaku Ch6kii ~ii~

Page  135 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHO5WA LITERATURE13 135 889. Osanai Kaoru /1, LI t O$ *- (1881-1928) "Mori Arinori, ' (Mori Arinori),"1 ZkUk6ron July, 1926. Id! Musuko -~- (The son), performed by the Kikugor6 and Kichiemon company at the Teikoku Gekij6, March, 1946. Id! Enshutsusha. no shuki e, (A note by a producer), Tokyo, Genshisha, May, 1928. Id! 890. Osaragi Jir6 (1897 -"IAk6 r6shi 4k. #f- (The masterless samurai of AkO)," T6ky6, Nichinichi shimbun, November, 1927 - November, 1928. If! "'Dorefyusu jiken L/ v b Z~ ~ (The Dreyfus case); Kaiz6, May, 1930. If! "Kamon 4'A~ (The flower crest)," Shin-joen, January, 1938 - April, 1939. If! "IKiky6 _0 WV (Home-coming)," Mainichi shimbun, April-November, 1948; also, T6ky5, Kurakusha, 1950. If! "'Munakata ky6dai T, 3i 4& 4.~ (The Munakata sisters)," Asahi shimbun, beginning in 1949; also, T~ky6, Asahi Shimbunsha, 1950. If! Osaragi Jir6 sakuhinshd 4i i ~ CF z (A collection of the works of Osaragi Jiro), TVky6, Bungei Shunjdisha, 1951, 7v. IzI 891. Osawa Mikio K 2A k (1911 -Buki to jiyd7 -A V ) -- (Weapons and liberty), performed by the Shinky6 Gekidan company at the Yiirakuza, March, 1947. Id! 892. O5shika Taku K ~(1898 -Watarase-gawa i tL (The Watarase River), T6ky6, Ch56 K~ronsha, 1941. If! 893. Ota Mizuho;&S - V K (1876-1955) Fuunna i~~ (Chinese rape), Tfky6, Kyorftsusha, 1927. It Tanka ritsugen!Ky 47 - (An expression of opinion on the tanka), T~ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1921. Ic! 894. Ota SaburO Kvf s Bungaku no riron -~C tt (The theory of literature; Rene' Wellek and Austin Warren's The theory of literature), T~ky6, Chikuma Shob6, 1954. ItrI Hikaku bungaku ct (Comparative literature), Tfky5, Kenkydsha, 1955. 1k! 895. 6ta Y6ko Al ~ (1906 -"Hanningen t K N] (Hall a human)," Sekai, March, 1954. If! Rydiri no kishi -:A " (The shores of a distant country), T6ky6, Koyama Shoten, 1939. If! "'Sakura no kuni 4 (A land of cherry blossoms)," Asahi shimbun, March-July, 1940. If! "ISan~jO Lk- -L — (On top of a mountain)," Gunz6, May, 1953. f Shikabane no machi rx o~ 4 *T (A city filled with dead bodies), Tfky5, T~ga Shob6, 1950. If! "fUji Mj. (Maggots)," Sekai, February-March, 1951. If! "Zanshii tenten -4 Oh (The ugliness remaining here and there)," Gunz5, March, 1954. If! 896. Otake Yasuko 7k, 4 J By~insen -9 M # (The hospital ship), TVky6, Joshi Bun'ensha, 1939. IeI 897. Ote Takuji 4Ui~U~ (1887-1943) Aiiro' no hiki ~ (An indigo toad), To-kyO, Arusu, December, 1936. IpI Hebi no hanayome, 4'r (The snake bride), T~kyO, Ryiiseikaku, 1940. IPI Ikoku no kaori (The scents of a strange country), T~kyO, Ryiiseikaku, 1941. Ip (tr)I 898. Otsuka Kinnosuke A20.4z~ $ (1892 -"Kurushisa < (Suffering)," Araagi January-March, 1927. It! "'Musansha tanka 4 - 4- Tetnao tepoeait, Marumera, May, 1927. It! 899. Ouchi Hye AA~ ~'IT (1888 -Ouchi Hy~e-shfi 1*~l-4 t It (A collection of the works of Ouchi Hy6e) [in v. 37 of Sh6wa bungaku zenshii], T~kyO, Kadokawa Shoten, 1954. IzI 900. Ouchi Takao K V`94 - 1fr Gen' ~T, rTA field), Tfky6, Sanwa ShobO, 1939. ItrI [A collection of fiction written by Manchurian writers]. 901. Oya S~ichi 74~ 1:L- (1900 -Bungaku-teki senjutsu-ron 9i - (Comments on literary strategy), T~kyO, ChilO K~ronsha, 1930. Ic! "Bungei hihy6 no zahy6 ni tsuite 4- -z(ncodntsfrleayciiim)"Kdi seikatsu, July, 1929. Ic! O oriae o itrr rtcs)"Kna "Chiteki r~d6 no shddanka ni tsuite -V 0 0)71 A - (On the organizing of intellectual labor)," Shinch6, June, 1928. Ic!

Page  136 136 136 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AN]) RESEARCH MATERIALS "S6g6-geijutsu to shite no bungaku.$ 17~ '117j L z P (Literature as composite art),' Shinch6, April, 1929. Ic! 902. Oyama Tokujiro 5{ i- 189 Shiratama-shil b %4_ (A collection of white gems)[=Shinkashd s6sho ~- ~(A series of new tanka anthologies), *no. 1], T~ky6, K6gyokud6 Shoten, 1928. /t Tofu no sugagomo ~_- a, o ~ -. (A broad sedge mat), T6kX6, Shin-Kigensha, 1946. /t/ 903. Ozaki Hirotsugu 1g ~ 51 (1914 -Shingeki no ashioto, 41~ a (The footsteps of modern drama), Tfky6, T6ky6 S6gensha, 1956. /k! 904. Ozaki H6sai ItL (1885-1926) ozora77 ~77(The big sky), T6ky5, Shunjiisha, 1926. /h/ 905. Ozaki Kazuo (t, JtAT - 1h (1899 -"'Monoui haru f~~ (A dreary spring)," Fiisetsu, March-September, 1949; T6ky6, Rokk6 Shuppansha, 1950. If! "Mushi no iroiro a) -'7 "-p7 (Various kinds of insect)," Shinch6, January, 1940. /f/ "Nagai ido t, ~ ~ (A deep well)," Bungei shunjdl, November, 1940. /f/ "Namekuji yokoch5 rjs Ys < t Wf (A bystreet of snails)," Gunz6, October, 1951. /f/ Nonki megane it iL g $. A (The carefree eyeglasses), TOkyO, Sunagoya ShobO, April, 1937; also in Bungei shunjid, August, 1937. /f/ "Tsuma hokeru 1- T it h~ (A wife becomes senile)," Bungei shunjil, August, 1954. /f/ Ozaki Kazuo sakuhin-shii tT, -j /I 'fit(7 4 (A collection of the works of Ozaki Kazuo), T~kyd, Ikeda Shoten, 1953-1954, lOv. /z/ 906. Ozaki Kihachi- {. *4- \, (1892 -K6gen shish5 *r (A selection of long poems on a highland), T~kyd, Aoki Shoten, 1942. /p/ K~j in no uta iQ - (The songs of a traveler), TdkyO, Ryiiseikaku, 1940. /p/ K~ya no hi T 4 (The fires on a plain), T~ky6, Sojinsha, 1927. IpI Natsugumo (Summer clouds), T~ky6, SeiensZ6, 1946. Ip/ Nijinen no uta -, 17 -,J~ (Songs of twenty years), TdkyO, Mikasa Shobd, 1943. /p/ Zankash6 ~* P. (A selection of remaining flowers), To~ky6, Gembunsha, 1948. /p/ 907. Ozaki Shir6 / 4~h A tP (1898 -"'Ch6bohei 4q t. 4rl (Soldiers at all times)," KaizO, 1943. If! Ishida. Mitsunari ~ i (Ishida Mitsunari [personal name]), TfkyO, Ch5O K~ronsha, 1938. /f/ "Jinsei gekijO K 4V (The theater of human life),"1 Miyako shimbun; March-December, 1933: Seishun-hen ~ Z (Adolescence); October-December, 1934: Aiyoku-hen 1- ~t (Passion); May-December, 1936: Zanky5-hen (Late manhood); August-December, 1939: Filun-hen "Kagaribi * ~Q_ (A bonfire)," T~kyO, Sakurai Shoten, 1941. If! Tenn6 kikansetsu 4k_ V J IV] L (The theory that the emperor is only an instrument), T~kyO, Bungei Shunjd Shinsha, 1951. If! KffsJburaku i - -- (An imaginary hamlet), Tokyd, Shinch~sha, 1936. If! "Usun kuriiku 1-7 (The Woosung creek)," h] k Ion February, 1939.If! Waseda Daigaku -~ 4( W~ (Waseda University), F'oky6, Bungei Shunji Shnh,193 f "Yoake no kaze i~ t ita) W- (Wind at dawn)," Shinch6, April and July, 1940. If! OzaivSir senhi ff~- (A selection of the works of Ozaki ShirO), T~kyO, Heibonsha, 1941, 908. Ozawa Fjo'' ~ s (1912 -GunrO 4 jtz (Wolves in a pack), performed by the Kilkiza company at the Teitoza, March, 1948. Id! Kuroi taiy6 y -, 7y f (The black sun), performed by the Shinkokugeki company at the T~kyO Gekij6, July, 1950. Id! 909. Ozawa Kios iI -A (122 "'Machi k~jO V j- (A factory in a town)," Shin-Nihon bungaku, July, 1946. If! 910. Poetoroa AV~ is 1- 7 Amer'ika-shi tokushil ~ j 'I b9 ~- Jq (A special collection of American poems), 1954. ItrI

Page  137 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE13 137 91 1. Rai Sekiyu 1 Sabaku no uta. ty g (A song of the desert), T~ky5, Zens~sha, March, 1935. Ip/ Rekitei shishii rit-~c -4~ (A collection of long poems [published] in Rekiteji), T6ky6, Sangab6, 1941. /z, 913. Rvd Shintar6 - f~A (1900 - Ryil Shintar6 —shiiu - (A collection of the works of Ryui Shintar6) [in v. 37 of Sh6wa bungaku zenhuJ7YT~ky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1954. /z/ Apaito no onnatachi to boku to 77 ~ c) - - et (The women of an apartment building and IT6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1929. If! Fushichd Tr~i (A phoenix), To-ky5, Kaizd3sha, 1952. /f/ "IH6r~jidai ~X 4 -k' (A roaming period),"1 Kaiz5, April, 1928. /f/ Kaseki no machi x. J-Sr!7?O (A petrified street), T6ky6, Shinch~sha, 1931. If! 915. Saij6 Yaso - t (1892 -Ichiaku no hani - 4d7 * (A handful of glass), T~ky6, Ydikeisha, 1947.!p/ Kanoj o -- (That certain girl), TUky6, K6ransha, 1926. /p/ Mizuiro no yume < ' (Pale blue dreams), T6ky6, H6bunkan, 1950, 249pp. /p/ Murasaki no keshi (Purple poppies), T~ky5, K6ransha, 1928. /p/ Parii sh6kyokushd - - (A collection of short pieces on Paris), T6ky6, K6ransha, 1926. /p/ Utsukushiki kane ~ (The beautiful bell), T6ky6, H~bunkan, 1949, 219pp. /p/ Utsukushiki soshitsu (A beautiful loss), T~ky6, Kamiya Shoten, 1929. /p/ 916. Sait5 Fumi -A- k 3- (1909 -Shilten, { K (The red sky), T~ky6, K~ch6 Shorin, 1943. It! 917. Sait6 Kiyoe xg3 (1a93 -Bash6 -Tj, (~Basho6), T6ky5, Komeji Shoten, 1950, 198pp. /kI 918. Sait6 Mokichi (1882-1953) D6basamb6 yawa - (Night stories at D~basan cottage), T~ky6, Yakumo Shoten, 1944, 2v. En'y~i _ g (Atrip abroad), Tdky5, Iwanami Shoten, 1947. /t/ G y6k6 ~~ (A crimson dawn), T~ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1940. /t/ Hakut6 0-M (White peaches), T-oky-o, Iwanami Shoten, 1942. It! Henreki (Travels), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1948, 378pp. It! Kan'un ~ (Cold clouds), T~ky6, Kokin Shoin, 1940. It! Nenjushil, t4~~ (A collection of beads), T~kyd, Tett6 Shoin, 1930. It! Shiroki yama f-j ~ L1- (A white mountain), T~ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1949. It! Sh~en jI- (A tiny garden), T~ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1948. It! Takachiho -mine ~ A-~ (Mount Takachiho), T~ky5, Kaiz6sha, 1940. It! Takahara t — it ~ Aigh meadow), TUky5, Iwanami Shoten, 1950. It! Tomoshibi ~~ 4Ct " (A light), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1950. It! Tsuyujimo —, v~ L- (Dew and frost), TUky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1946. It! Kakinomoto no Hitomaro ~ f (Kakinomoto no Hitomaro), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1934-1940, 5v. Ik/ Minamoto no Sanetomo (Minamoto no Sanetomo), T~ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1943. 1k! Shinsen kinkaishdi shish6 -ij (My scrap book on the Shinsen kinkaishiu) T6kyd, Shun'y5d6, 1926. 1k! Tanka shasei no setsu - M! (An opinion on imagery in the tanka), T6ky6 Tett6 Shoin, 1929. 1k! "'Tenkanki no Araragi 0- ~ " (The Araragi shoolljat its turning point)," Tanka zasshi, July, 1926. Ic! Sait6 Mokichi zenshii il t it (The complete works of Sait6 Mokichi), TVky5, Iwanami Shoten, 1952, 24v.+, /z/ 919. -Sait6 -Ry:U tj -'Vj (1879-1953) Hat6 4 '~ (Waves), Ky6to, Jimbun Shoin, 1939. It! 920. Sait6 Takeshi *{ t (1887 -Shis6 o chiis'hin to seru Eibungakushi ' -,- -!- ~,I~ - -t -b Jk 92J -, (A history of English literature, with the emphasis on its ideas), T~ky6, Kenky~sha, 1927. 1k! 921. Sakaguchi Ango -~ r-7 -Vt -3- (1906-1955) "D~ky6 ~t L (D6ky5 [name of a priest])," Kaiz~ aur, 97tf Fubuki monogatari tY- - (The tale of a snowstorm), T6ky5, Takemura Shob6, 1938. If! "Furenzoku satsujin jiken $ k f K~ (A discontinuous murder case),"1 Nihon sh6setsu, September, 1947 - August, 1948; also Ivuningu Sutdsha, 1948. If!

Page  138 138 138 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS "Hakuchi b i-$ (An idiot)," Shinch6-, June, 1946. /f/ "Hi ~:C (Fire)," Gunz6, November, 1949 - January, 1950. /f/ "Inochigake 4 t ii PI'r (A matter of life and death)," Bungakkai, July, 1940. /f/ "Kaze hakase f I.' -:L (Dr. Kaze),"1 Aoi uma, June, 1931. /f/ "Kigi no sei, tani no sei 7 (A dryad and the spirit of a valley)," Bungei, February, 19 39. /f/ "Koi o shi ni yuku L ~j (To go to make love)," Shinchb, January, 1947. /f/ "Oda Nobunaga ~ { ~ (Oda Nobunaga [16th century military leader]), "Sakuhin, August, 1948. /f/ "Shinju I 4 (Pearls)," Bungei, June, 1942. /f/ "'Darakuron t7~ ~k- 4 (on degeneracy)," Shinchb, April, 1946. /e/ "Ky~so no bungaku ~ v )~Y ) (The literature of the founder)," Shinch6, June, 1947. /c/ "Nihon bunka shikan ~ Ay_ ji; (A private view of Japanese culture)," Tada no bungaku, March, 1942. "Seishunron ~7 (On youth)," Bug November-December, 1942. /c/ Sakaguchi Ango senshii -, ti -!- 3,-~ ff _ (A selection of the works of Sakaguchi Ango), TokyO, Ginza Shuppansha, 1948, l0v. /z/ 922. Sakakiyama Jun- 7$* Lk 4 (1900 -"Rekishi #K ~_ (History)," Bungakusha, October-December, 1939. /f/ 923. Sakamoto EtsurO ~k + 4W * (1906 -Boshun shishii T fl9 (A collection of long poems on late spring), T~ky6, Kinseid6, 1934. /p/ Kaigara no haka ~ (A grave of shells), T~ky5, Bon Shoten, 1933. /p/ Kaihen ryojo — ~ t h (To beguile the tedium of a journey along the sea), Ky~to, Usui Shob6, 1942. KafihO-shdi 4 -/A (A collection of sea bubbles), T~kyO, Sh~shinsha, 1936. /p/ Kajuen -~ I4_ f%] (Orchard), T~kyO, Akatsuka Shob5, 1940. /p/ Yuki no ish6O o (A garment of snow), T~kyO, K~seikaku, 1931. /p/ Shi no sh~ii rP (-l~ (Around the outer margins of the long poem), T~ky6, K6shinsha, May, 1935. /c/ 924. 'Sakamot RyO i t- I~ (1904 -Tampopo f~- VW (~ I10 (Dandelions), TdkyO, Dorasha, September, 1927. /p/ 925. Sakanaka Masao Fk t+ &1-;< (1901 -"iUma! (A horse),"1 Kaiz6, May, 1932. /d/ 926. Sakka D~mei N~min Bungaku Kenkyiikai- 4 -~ (Society for the Study of Farmers' Literature of the Writers' League), ed., N~min no hata t Al- (The flag of the farm-ers), T~kyO, Shinch~sha, November, 1931. /f/ 927. Sako Jun' ichir6 A'- 6 - 1 Kobayashi Hideo n~to,JI A4;7$.I (Notes on Kobayashi Hideo), T~kyO, Ichikod6, 1955. 928. Sakurada Tsunehisa 7- J (1897 -"iaga Gennai ~-J (Hiraga Gennai)," Sakka seishin, October, 1940; also, Bungei shunjdi, March, 194 1. /f/ 929. Samukawa K6tar6 z 7 ' LA (1908 -"Mitsury~sha %, *j (A poacher),"1 Bungei shunjdi, March, 1940. /f/ 930. Sano Manabu W1 ~ Otor (1892-1953) "Iwayuru tenk6 ni tsuite i' Aq '~ - -7 1 T (On conversion, so-called)," ChU6 kO ron, May, 1934. /e/ 931. Sarashina Genz6 "+#- 4 I-1 Al (1904 -Taneimo 74 1 Seed potatoes), T~ky6, Hokui Gojddosha, 1930. /p/ Tdgen no uta 4 If ~ -ft (Songs of a frozen plain), TOkyO, Futaba Shoin SeikOkan, 1943. /p/ 932. Sasaki Kiichi 4 — ~ * $ "Jikkan bungakuron!~& FA~- - "Riarizumnu no geijutsusei - I Riarizumu no tankyd I -p il7-z Sh6wa bungakuron q,Tr.~ _~ (1914 -4 (On a literature of actual feelings)," Bummei, April, 1947. /c/ IL' A If) 4 ~ 4 (The artistic nature of realism)," Ningen, July, 1949. 45,, 7$ r-_ t,-(The search for realism), T'bky6, Miraisha, July, 1953. /c/ (A treatise on Sh6wa literature), Toky5-, Wakosha, 1954. /c/ 933. Sasaki Nobutsuna k!,- 4> ' 7 (1872 -KayO no kenkyii -.t7 ~j:a FL- (A study of poems and songs), T~ky5, Maruoka Shuppansha, 1944. /k/ Shii no ki ~* a? A (A pasania tree), T~ky6, Shin'y~sha, 1936. /t/ Toyohatagumo *-j* W, (A pretty bank of clouds), T~kyO, JitsugyO no Nihonsha, 1928. It!

Page  139 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE13 139 934. Sasaki Takamaru 4~- ~z* 4U, (1898 -Nagasaki no kane V * 5~At (The bell of Nagasaki), performed by the Baraza company at the Mitsukoshi Geikija, March, 1948, based on an essay by Nagai Takashi. Id! Yoru A- (Night; Marcel Martinet's La nuit), T6ky6, Kinseid6, 1926. /tr/ 935. Sasaki Toshir6 ~-f '! _i "Kuma no deru kaikonchi t5 a 5~' ~ 7, -E4{ (Reclaimed land where bears appear)," Bunsh6 kurabu, May, 1929. /f/ 936. Sasazawa Yoshiaki - f (1898- ) and othe rs Gendaishi no ayumi I- (The progress of the long poem in the present age), T~ky6, H6bunkan, 1952. 7k!/ 937. Sata Ineko Ali- t~4 (1904- );married name Kubokawa Ineko I It I Xi "Botan no aru ie Tf:L 4+ c'1 3 (A house with peonies), " Ch55 k~ron, June, 1934; also, T6ky6, Chii6 K6ronsha, 1934. If! "'H6matsu no kiroku 4;` (Record of a bubble)," Hikari., September, 1948. /f/ "Kambu jok6 no namida -4:r (Tears of a factory girl in a responsible post)," Kaiz6, January, 19 31. If! "Kigi shinryoku -#-t '1 z (The trees are freshly green)," Bungei, May, 1938. If! " Kurenai < L ti d< (Crimson)," Fujin k6ron, January-May, 1936. If! " Kyarameru k6j5 kara ~ —,v L, / 'u' ~ i-pi ~ (From a caramel factory)," Puroretaria geijutsu, February, 1928. /f/ "'Midori no namikimichi?b, f- c~ I, [ (A road lined with green trees)," Shin-Nihon bungaku, Nov., 1951; Kaiz6, December, 1951. If! "Nani o nasubeki ka 4q ~ 'Y. ~ " \ (What ought to be done?),"1 Chil6 k~ron, March, 1932. If! Shinro ~~ (A way), Tfky6, Chfl6 K6ronsha, 1933. If! Suashi no musume 4 ~~- (A bare-footed girl), T~ky6, Shinch~sha, 1940. /f/ "Tabako k6j 6 'Pt ~ — r4 (A tobacco factory)," Senki, February, 1929. If! Watakushi no Tdkyd chizu -%~ (My map of Tfky6), T6ky6, Shin-Nihon Bungakkai, 1949. If! 938. Sat6 Haruo 4k A_ 4 (1892 -"Ai no sh6ka C m - (Asninpasoflv)"Sn-joen, September, 1956 - August, 1957. /f/ "1K6seiki -j v _ (An account of rehabilitation)," Fukuoka nichinichi shimbun, May-Otbr 99 f "Nan sharan kiroku 0)h L( C~ P-\ b;, (A record of nonchalance)," Kaiz6, January, 1929. If! "R6zan 4, AJ (one's remaining old age)," Kaz November, 1949. 7i-7 "Saku no dairi 4 —YZ a~- If (himeial palace at Saku),"1 Gunz6, October, 1954. If! "Sh6setsu Takamura K~tar6 f1r LzC (A fictionalized Takamura Kftard)," Shinch6, July, 1956.!f! Joj5 shinshii t4 -1- IT -f (A new collection of lyrical poems), T~ky6, K6gakusha, 1949, 10lpp. IpI Maot ~ (A witch), T6ky6, Ishi. Ch~insha, 1932. IpI Sh6hai yorekishdi 'i fA - ~Z f- (A collection of drops left in a small wine cup), Toky(3, Kisambo, 1942. Saku no kusabue 4k (The grass flute of Saku placename in Nagano prefectureJ), T~ky6, T(3kyd Shuppan Kabushiki Kaisha,1946. Ip! T~ten akashi tffr. (The eastern sky is recD, T6ky6, Chi56 K6ronsha, October, 1938. IpI "Akutagawa Ryfinosuke o kokusu ~ ~ ~~ (I lament the passing of Akutagawa Ryi~nosuke),"1 Chid k6ron, September, 1927. IeI Kindai Nihon bungaku no temb6 /1z -) tL (A view of modemn Japanese literature), T6ky6, K6dansha, 1950. Ic!Bungei issekibanashi ~_ - A - ~, (A story of literature told one evening), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1928. Ic! Shajinshd ~~~ (A collection of dust raised by a passing car), T6ky6, Musashino Shoin, 1929. Itr! Sat6 Haruo-hen Ath t 4 (The section on Sat5o Haruo) [in v. 20 of Gendai chohen sh~setsu zenshii], T6ky6, Shinch~sha, 1928-1930. Iz! Sat6 Haruo senshii T 4 (A selection of the works of Sat Haruo), T6ky6, K6gakusha, 1949.!zl Sat6 Haruo shishii ~~4 (A selection of the long poems of Sat6 Haruo), T6ky6, Daiichi Shob6, 1926. IpI Sat6 Haruo zenshishil 4k- r - - (A complete collection of the long poems of Sat6 Haruo), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1952. IpI Sat Haruo zenshii -, f (The complete works of SatO Haruo), T(3ky6, Kaiz~sha, 1931-32, 3v. IzI 939. Sat5 Haruo and Satomi Ton q- t ~ Satomi Ton Sat Haruo-shii tj t tit_ ~)_ (A collection of the works of Satomi Ton and Sat Haruo) [ =v. 29 of Gendai Nihon bungaku zenshu], Tky, Chikuma Shob5, 1927. IzI 940. Sato Kiyoshi 4-vr- *I- (1885 -Kumo ni tori 9 y (Clouds and birds), Tokyo, Shibata Shob6, 1929. IpI 941. Sato Saku 4-ri- and Shirai K6ji (, # ->v;jo JiyGi e no michi 0 j (The road to freedom: Jean Paul Sartre's Les chemins de la liberti), Ky~to, Jimbun Shoin, 1950-1952, 3v. ItrI

Page  140 140 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 942. Sat5 Satar6 4~- OL A- /,, (1909 -Kich6 go -h (The returning tide), T6ky6, Daini Shob5, 1952. /tr/ Tachibusa IL- A- (Bouquet), ThkyO, Shiratama ShobO, 1950, l'76pp. /t/ 943. Satomi Ton - - (1888 -"Ai to chi to (Love and wisdom)," Shin-joen, January-December, 1940. If! "Amakara sekai i5'' f~l $I (A sweet and bitter world)," Chii6 k6ron, April, 1936. /f/ Anj6ke no ky~dai Y- ~ (The brothers of the AnjU family), Tdky6, Chii6 Ko-ronsha, 1931. If! "Daido mumon i (A main road without a gate)," Fujin k6ron, May, 1926. If! "Fdenl& (A fiery wind)," Nihon hy6ron, April-December, 1942. -f/ "Hachij 6ki /\., 4 e' (Aaconofneih-mat room), T6ky6, Chti6 K-ronsha, 1942. /f/ "Honne ~- -` (One's true intention), " T~ky5, Koyama Shoten, 1939. If! "Migoto na s hfibun )~ -- " -f, t (A splendid scandal), " Kaiz5, January, 1947. If! "Muh5ji n 4 (An outrageous fellow)," ChUI6 k~ron, July'-August, 1933. If! "'Mumenkyo kyfi 41 ~ Cueizing with moxa without a license)," Bungei shunjil, October, 1939. /f/ "Tsuru kame ~ ~ ( crane and tortoise)," Bungei shunjii, January, 1939. /f/ Shinju *T -r. (A young tree), performed by the KikugQr6 and Kichiemon company at the T6ky6 Gekij6, May, 1946. /d/ Tanomu. o t- (I beg you), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Mitsukoshi Gekij6, September, 1947. /d/ 944. Satomi Ton and Sat6 Haruo Satomi Ton and Sato Haruo-sh~i W i4-_~ (A collection of the works of Satomi Ton and Sat6 Haruo) [ =v. 29 of Gendai Nihon bungaku zenshril, TOky6, Chikuma Shobo, August, 1927. /z/ 945. Satomura Kinz6 ~ -KN i Daini no jinsei W A. n (A second life), T~kyd, Kawade Shob6, 1940, 2v. /e/ "'Kisuka tesshii sakusen At x 0 1) 1~ R, (Strategy of the withdrawal from Kiska)," 1942. If! "Kantoku no shuki (The notes of a supervisor), Bungaku. hy6ron, July, 1935. /f/ 946. Sawa S6ichi I$f - (1907 -Min'y6 goyomi C~ A- -~ (The calendar of folk songs), 1943. 947. Segawa Haruo I/ t j 4 Tengu ni sarawareta otoko k, 4~ ~ t '~ (The man kidnaped by a long-nosed goblin), performed by the Takada K6kichi Gekidan company at the Ky6to Minamiza, April, 1946. Id! 948. Senuma Shigeki -A ~~ (1904 -"Nikutai no rinri V,- (The logic of the body)," Sekai bunka, November,2 1947. Ic! Kindai Nihon bungaku no naritachi ~ — AN- I C vj~ __ rj t-_ (The elements of modern Japanese literature), T~ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1951. /k/ Kindai Nihon no sakka to sakuhin \(r ({ oc 0 f; (Writers and their works in modern Japan), TfkyO, Kaname Shob5, 1955. /c/ Shimazaki T6son - i (Shimazaki T6son), T6ky5, Sekai Hy6ronsha, 1949. /k! Sh~wa no bungaku (Sh~wa literature), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1954. /k! 949. Serizawa K6ir - (1897 -Ai to shi no sho (A book on love and death), T~ky5, Koyama Shoten, 1940. /f/ "Burujowa 1"- /L,-7 7 (The bourgeoisie),"1 Kaizo, April, 1930. /f/ "Hashi no temae j (This side of the bridge)," Kaizo, April, 1933. If! Nemurarenu. yo qL, 4,y 0_ (A sleepless night), T~ky6, Jitsugy6 no Nihonsha, 1939. If! "O0toko no sh6gai q_~ I-~ (The life of a man)," Shin-joen, July, 1940 - May, 1941. If! 950. Shaku Ch~kd i - Origuchi Shinobu Y'~ L- r{1 (1887-93 Haru no kotobure 4- 4- (A harbinger of spring), Tdkyd, Azusa Shob5, January, 1929. It! "Kindai hish~shii u- (Songs of lament for modern times)," Ningen, February, 1946. /p/ Kodai kan'aishd i (Songs in deep affection of ancient times), T~ky5, Seijisha, 1947. /p/ "Tanka no enjaku-suru. toki i (When the tanka. attains enlightenment)," Kaiz6, July, 1926. Ic! "Nihon bungaku. no hassei \I 2- ~ (The beginnings of Japanese literature)," Ningen, 1947. 1k! Nihon kodai joj5 shishif Q ]2 t (A collection of long lyric poems of Japan' s ancient age), T~ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1953. IZI Origuchi Shinobu zenshil Y1* tr 4 e (The complete works of Origuchi Shinobu), T5ky6, Chii6 K6ronsha, 1954, 25v. IzI 951. Shiba Fukio t {. % (1903-1930) Fukio kushdi + PI (A collection of haiku by Fukio), -Amanokawa, Onga Branch, 1934. Ih!

Page  141 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE14 141 952. Shibaki Yoshiko ~ 44 -+ (1914 -"Seika no ich-i 4 -1 (A vegetable market)," Bungei shunjdi, March, 1942. If! "Suzaki Paradaisu -if 74 (Paradise at Suzaki)," Ch56 k6ron, October, 1954. If! 953. Shibund6) it ~ (Shibund6 Publishing Company), ed. Nihon bungaku ky6y6 k6za 0 } A__~ ~_tA ~ (Essay series on the understanding of Japanese literature), T6ky6, Shibund6, 1950-52, 15v. 954. Shibuya Eiichi. -;,4- f- - Mafuyu ~fk ~- (Midwinter), T6ky6, Nakanishi Shob6, 1929. /p/ Akaki jiijika f, I -+!~ g (Red cross), T~ky5, K~ransha, 1931. /p/ 955. Shibuya Teisuke -,- ~,- # * Nora ni sakebu YI e- q-: t4 (To cry in the field), T6ky6, Manseikaku, 1926. /p/ 956. Shiga Naoya IL _- _U (1883 -"'Akikz 5z> (Autumn wind),"1 Kaiz6 bungei, August, 1949. /f/ "Akugi.I (A piece of mischief)," Zayiih6, April, 1946. If! "An'ya k6ro (Road through the dark night)," Kaiz6, January, 1921 - April, 1937. If! "Haiiro no tsukijc ' (A gray moon),"1 Sekai, Januar'y, 1946. /f/ "Han no hanzai - (Han's crime)," Gendai, March, 1936. If! " Kuniko, V 9- (Kuniko),"1 Bungei shunj~i, October-November, 1927. /f/ "Kur6to shir6to /, A- A ~ (Experts and amateurs),"1 Zayidh6, April, 1947. If! " Manreki akae '1 A (Akae-ware of the Manreki era)," Ch56 k~ron, September, 1933. /f/ "Sabishiki sh6gai It~ / - (A lonely life)," ChWi k6ron, January, 1942. If! "Sdshun no tabi,q n< (A trip in early spring)," Bungei shunjd, February-April, 1941. /f/ "Tottori,rl 49 (Tottori)," Kaiz6, January, 1929. /f/ " Usagi ~ (A rabbit),," Sunao, September, 1946. If! " Yamashina no kioku LLZ~-~ ~~ 4.- (Memories of Yamashina)," Kaiz6, January, 1926. If! " Kutsukake nite t (At Kutsukake),"1 ChUl6 k~ron, September, 1927. If! " Kokugo mondai I J/ (Problems of the national language), " KaizO, April, 1946. Ie! Shiga Naoya gakuhinsi ~4 (Acletoofhewrs of Shiga Naoya), TfkyO, S~gensha, 1951, 5v. IzI s Acletono h ok Shiga Naoya senshii5 7 (A selection of the works of Shiga Naoya), T6ky6, Kaizdsha., 1949 -1951, 8v. lz! Shiga Naoya zensh~ii~j (The complete works of Shiga Naoya), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1931, 8v. IzI Shiga Naoya zenshild ~~~~ (The complete works of Shiga Naoya), T~ky63, Kaiz6sha, 1937-38, 9v. Iz/ 957. Shigetomo Ki (1899 -Chikamatsu no hitobito S~i 7 (The characters in Chikamatsu' s plays), T6ky6, Shi no Koky~sha, 1950, 2l2pp. 1k! 958. Shiina Rinz6 ~ (1911 -Akai kodokusha ~ (A solitary Communist), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1951. If! Eien naru joshd ~- (Eternal prologue), Tokyd, Kawade Shobd, 1948. If! "Fukao Masaji no shuki 3- ~ 7~ e_ (Fukao Masaji's notes)," Kosei, January, 1948. If! "1Jiyfi no kanata de - o v (Beyond freedom)," Shincho, May, 1953.77fI "Kaiko A- *_ (A chance meeting)," Gunzb, May, 1952. /f "Kan'in -4 (Adultery)," Shinch5, October,2 1951. If! "Ningen K lJ (Human beings)," Bungei jidai, January, 1948. If! "Omoki nagare no naka ni -I 1- k o7 )r h-I- (In the middle of a heavy stream)," Temb5, June, 1947. If! "Shin'ya no shuen ~111 fz 0) - (A feast in the dead of the night)," Temb6, February, 1947. If! "'Sono hi made ~ -) i -4 T- (Till that day)," Temb5, June-July, 1949 77N7 " Ung a &t;1j (Canal)," Shinch6, October, 1955 - March, 1956. If! "Utsukushii onna ~~ (A beautiful woman)," Chii6 k6ron, May-September, 1955. If! 959. Shimada Seijir6 97 rV ~ kI (1899-1930) Chij6 *, j-7: (On the earth), T~ky6, Shinch6sha, part 1, June, 1919; part 2, February, 1920; part 3, January, 19 21; and pa rt 4, January, 1922. If! 960. Shimagi Kensaku 9 ~ i4- {~ (1903-1945) "Akagaeru fr T&~ (A red frog)," Ningen, January, 1946. If! "Arashi no naka o) r (In the storm)," Nihon hy~ron, November, 1939 - January, 1940. If! "Aru sakka no shuki 4 ' ia) j (A certain writer's notes)," Kaiz6, January, 1940. If! "Daiichigi no michi k (The way of the first principle)," Chuo ko6ron, February, 1936. If! "Hitotsu no tenki -- (A turning-point)," KaizO, October, 1935. /T Ishizue k (The basis), Toky6, Shinchosha, 1944.77 " Ku roneko,. It (A black cat)," Shinch6, November, 1945.!f! " M6moku t Q (Blindness),"1 Chii6 k6ron, extra edition, July, 1934. If!

Page  142 142 142 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE ANT) RESEARCH MATERIALS "Ningen fukkatsu AI? 0,t (Recovery of man), Fujin k6ron, beginning in January, 1939; also, Tdkyd, Chii6 K~ronsha, 1940. If! "Nishin gyoja El4 (A fishing-place for herring)," Bungaku hy~ron, May, 1934. If! "Rai -~ (Leprosy)," Bungaku hyoron, April, 1934. /f/ "Reimei (Dawn)," Kaiz6, February, 1935. /f/ Saiken (Reconstruction), TVky6, Chii6 K~ronsha, 1937. /f/ Seikatsu no tanky5i ~ ~ 4 (Life's search), Tdky6, Kawade Shob6, 1937. If! "Shuppatsumae f h Tj (Before the departure), " Shin-joen, February-December, 1942. If! "Ummei no hito ~_L A~, ~ (A man of destiny)," -Shinch5, July, 1940. /f/ Zoku-seikatsu no tankyil A4 ~ (Search for life: continued), Tfky5, Kawade Shob65, 1938. If! Shimagi Kensaku sakuhinshi C4l4 (A collection of the works of Shimagi Kensaku), T6ky6, S~gensha, 1953, 5v. /z/ Shimagi Kensaku zenshii z 4l- /~ ' (The complete works of Shimagi Kensaku), ed. by Kobayashi Hideo 4' #C;Y4 and others, T~ky6, S6gensha, March, 1947 - December, 1952, 14v. /z/ 961. -Shimao Toshio. 4 z A (1917 -"Chippoke na avanchilru i~ -~e -j its y r, ~9- '- (A tiny adventure)," Shin-Nihon bungaku, May, 1950. /f/ "'Kis6sha no ydutsu YU 1 _ _ & A (The melancholy of those returning to their nests)," Bungakkai, April, 1954. /f/ Nisegakusei ' 2 (A pretended student), TFoky6, Kawade Shob6, 1950. /f/ "Tandoku ryokosha f it iTA (A lone traveler)," Geijutsu, May, 1948. /f/ "Tokunoshima kobkaiki ~-~ 6~~ (Record of a voyage to Tokunoshima)," Geijutsu, October, 1948. /f/ "Ware fukaki fuchi yori k4. (I from a deep pool)," Bungakkai, October, 1955. /f/ "Yume no naka de no nichij6 ~ ~-. (Everyday affairs in a dream)," S5g6 bunka, May, 1948. If, 962. Shimazaki T~son t +t# (1872-1943) "Arashi C (A storm)," Kaiz6, September, 1926. /f/ "Bumpai ~- 0C9 (Sharing)," Ch56 k6ron, August, 1927. /f/ " T6h5 no mon _ ' (An eastern gate)," Chii6 k6ron, January, 1943. If! "Yoakemae it~ (Before the dawn)," Chfi6 k6ron, January, 1929 - Octo'ber, 1934. /f/ "Junrei ~~ ~[_ (A pilgrimage)," Kaiz5, June-November, 1937; also, TI'ky5, Iwanami Shoten, 1940. /e/ Shisei ni anite i~ i7~ J)I (Living in the vulgar world), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1930. /e/ Shimazaki TUson sakuhin s~sho 4 (A series of works by Shimazaki Tdson), T6ky6, Shinch~sha, 1953-1954, 9v. /z/ Shimazaki T6son-shii z 4 #I- ~4 (A collection of the works of Shimazaki TVson), T~kyo, Shun'yWd, 1929. /z/ A Shimazaki T6son zenshd,l 4~ i~ ~ (The complete works of Shimazaki T6son), TVky6, Shinch6sha, 1948-1952, 19v. /z/ Shinsen Shimazaki T6son-shii d, 4 j (A new selection of the works of Shimazaki T6son), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1929. /z/ T6son bunko )1 I_ (T6son library), T6kyd, Shinch6sha, 1935-39, 10v. /z/ 963. Shimba Eiji ~ (1912 -"i5'A:- (Zao [placename]),"1 Bungei, March, 1949. If! 964. Shimizu Chiyo -~ +1( k~ Ak~ Shiromokuren b- L~ - (White magnolias), T~kyO, Gogy6sha, 1935. It! 965. 'Shimizu Kikichi -A -7<t (1918 -"Karidachi PI il:- ~ (The rise in flight of wild geese)," Nihon bungakusha, October, 1944. If! 966. Shimomura Chiaki T' 41 A -k ~9 (1893-1955) Machi no rumpen ~j-,), v -, ~. 1, (Hobos on the street), Tdkyd, Shinch6sha, 1931. If! Shikamo karera wa 3yuku L p, — t~ - - ~j < (Moreover, they go on), Tfky6, Kaiz6sha, 1930. "Tengoku no kiroku )~ i~ o) j (An account of heaven)," Chil6 kdron, July, 1930. If! "Yoru no ie 0j ")~ (A home at night)," -Bessatsu bungei shunjfl, April, 1947. If! If! 967. -Shinch~sha 4~-7A~ Juido zenshdi > A i"' 4: i, (The complete works of Gide), T6ky6, Shinch~sha, 1950-1951, 16v. Itr! 968. Shinj6 Yoshiaki 44 rt 9 (1904 -Wakaki musume -tachi -tI 4 i- (Young girls: Henri de Montherlant' s Jeunes filles), TokyCF, Shinch~sha, 1947. ItrI 969. Shinoda Taro r*c qI1 I ~ Shiteki yuibutsuron yori mitaru kindai Nihon bungakushi tj r~ ~ 1/ -~ )O - - U t)' *k ~t (The history of modern Japanese literature from the viewpoint of historical materialism), T5ky6, Shun'yWd, 19 32. 1k!

Page  143 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE14 143 970. Shioda Ry6hei 4' W {'K (1899 -Gendai Nihon bungeishi IV 4- 4 7 ~ (A history of present-day Japanese literature), Thky6, Mikasa Shob6, 1942. /k! 971. -Shiojiri K6mei ~. &i 1,~Of (1901 -Aru isho ni tsuite aA 3 ~ (On a certain will), Tdky6, Shinch6sha, 1948. /e/ 972. Shirakawa Atsushi (5~ ' 4-)~ (1907 -Aokusa ni zasu 1- ~ (I sit on the green grass), T6ky6, Dai-Nilhon Ydibenkai K6dansha, 1956, If! Asashio yiishio jf, k ~t'5- (Morning tide, evening tide), Takyo, Dai-Nihon Yfibenkai K~dansha, 1956, If! 973. Shirasu K6suke fi 7 Sutor-aiki sengen 7, ' (The proclamation of a strike), T6ky6, K~gyokud6, 1930. /p/ 974. Shiratori Sh6go ( ~ (1890 -Noibara no michi 4 (A lane with wild roses), T6ky6, Daichisha, 1926. 975. Shishi Bunroku 5-A -; also, Iwata Toyoo t v / (1893 -Zoku-obdsan 4 Y, ~~(- (The grandmother, continued), performed at the Shinjuku Daiichi Gekij6, October, 1945. Id! "IJiyd gakk5 0 ~~t'# (The school for freedom)," Asahi shimbun, May-December, 1950. If! "Kaigun -;- W, (The Navy)," Asahi shimbun, Novembe'r, 1943. If!_ "Koshfo musuko M$ ~k Y_ 5- (Pepper boy)," Shufu no tomo, August, 1937 - July, 1938. /f/ "'Musume to watakushi 4 tA 4, (My daughter and,1), Shufu no tomo, January, 1953 - May, 1956. If! "Ten'ya wan'ya Z k~ '(' ( < (Hustle and bustle)," Mainichi shimbun, December, 1948 - April, 1949. If! Shishi Bunroku sakuhin senshrO ~ ~ Z5-: j t (A selection of the works of Shishi Bunroku), Tfky6, Bungei Shunjusha, 1952. IzI 976. Sh6no Junz6 TA ' ~7 (1921 -"IPdrusaido sh6kei 7' -tL-~-41 /1'V -T~ (Small scene at the side of a pool)," Bungei shunjil, March, 1955. If! "Ryllboku a~~~ (Driftwood)," Bungei shunjdl, March, 1954. If! 977. S6gensha ~jQ ed. Gendaishi k6za r ~ - (Essay series on the present-day long poem), 1950, 4v. 1k! 978. S~ma Gyofii ai&_ (1883-1950) Issa to Ry6kan to Bash5 I * (Issa, Ry6kan and Bash6), T6ky6, Shunjiisha, 1949, 305pp. IeI 979. Sono Ayako, '0 ~ft z5 (1931 -"'Enrai no kyakutachi 0 ) (Vistors from afar)," Bungei shunjti, September, 1954. If! 980. Sotomura Shir6 ' (1891 -Purehdnofu geijutsuron 7' 1 - 7 ([Georgy Valentinovich] Plekhanov's theory of art), T6ky6, S6 -bunkaku, 1928.!tr! Shakaishugi-teki riarizumu no mondai k q 77 tj ~ (The problem of socialistic realism), T6ky6, Bunka Shfidansha, 1933. ItrI 981. Sugamo Tankakai- f Ik -4v (The Sugamo Tanka Society), Eg Sugamo (Sugamo), TokyO, Daini ShobO, 1953. It! 982. Sugi Toshio ~)/ ttA. (1904 -Yoru. no buki At- a) (Weapons for the night), Tfkyy3, Hakusuisha, 1951. ItrI 983. Sugie Shigehide Pt~ Hone I' (Bones), Tfky6, Tempy6 Shoin, 1930. IpI Kumo to hito '!~ ~ A. (Clouds and men), T6ky6, T6hoku Shoin, 1932. IpI Yume no naka no machi 0 ~ (A street in the middle of a dream), T6ky6, Shinrinsha, 1926. Ip/ I 984. Sugita Hisajo # W ~, -k- (1890-1946) Sugita Hisajo, kushii,z A p f (A collection of haiku by Sugita Hisajo), T6ky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1952. IhI 985. Sugiura Mimpei ejsf (1913 -Gendai Nihon no s95akk -a (Writers of contemporary Japan), T6ky6, Miraisha, 1956. Ic! " Kichi roppyakugo -g6 0~ (Military base no. 605),"1 Gunz6, October-December, 1953. If! "Norisoda s6d6ki /1I' --. (Report of the disturbance at Norisoda),"1 Kindai bungaku, September, 1952 - April, 1953; also, T6ky6, Miraisha, 1953.If

Page  144 144 144 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Saib6 seikatsu *i~ 4,'t (Life in a cell), T~ky6, K6bunsha, 1956. /f/ Sait6 Mokichi *' 011 N 1 (Sait6 Mokichi [name of poet]), T~ky6, Kaname Shob5, 1954. 7k! Taifd jiisang6 shimatsuki 10 CL -t ~ 4, ~_ g (Record of the life of typhoon no. 13)[=Iwanami shinsho, no.213], T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1955. /reportage/ 986. Sugiyama Heisuke 4~1 P 4k 0 (1895- 1946) Bungei gojiinenshi jL~ -{~ (Fifty years of the literary arts), Tdky6, Masu Shob6, 1942. 7k/ "Katoki no bungakusha ~u~ - (Men of letters in a transition period)," Chii6 kdron, September, 1939. /c/ "ITenk6 no ryiik6 ni tsuite (PI a) -u z (On the fashion of conversion)," Yomiuri shimbun, January, 1934. /c/ 987. Sugiyama Hideki ~'- Baruzakku no sekai 'v 7 - (The world of Baizac), T~ky5, Chi56 K~ronsha, 1942. /k/ "'Sekaikan to s6saku ho-ho to no mujun ni tsuite Yf T- C e- fj 4~ 4 - z (On the contradiction between the outlook on world affairs and the method of story telling)," Yuibutsuron kenkyil, December, 1936. /c/ 988. Sui Hajime -, also Kaga K6j i /]ti "Akatsuki-mae no shi f 07 (Death before the dawn)," Bungei, June-August, 1935. /f/ "Ki no nai mu ra 4at 4 (A village without trees)," Chii6 k6ron, October, 1932. /f/ Kiyomizu-yaki fiikei ~iK/ IkU - (A view of Kiyomizu ware), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1932. /f/ "IR6d6sha Genz6 i: —~ 1, (GenzG, a laborer)," Kaiz6, November, 1933. /f/ "Wata i, (Cotton),"I Nappu, August-September, 1931. 7~ 989. Sunouchi Tdru;AitL )-4 (1913 -"Natsume no ki no shita T a (Under a Chinese date tree)," Gunz5, 1950. /f/ 990. Susukida Kyilkin 4 (1877-1945) Juka sekij6 ~-#-,t T ~ i (Traveling and sleeping out in the fields), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1931. /e/ 991. Suzuki Miekichi,rk Tsuzurikata dokuhon I4; -:~ ~i (1882-1936) (A reader on compositions), Tfky5, Chi36 K~ronsha, 1935. 7k/ 992. SuzukiSini 4 Keisha ara kanjO (5 ~~ - (Slanted feelings), T6ky5, Seijusha, 1932. /p/ 993. Tabata Shiiichir6 ~j~ -~ (1903-1943) Ishi Takama Fusaichi-shi ~ ~ ~j4 - k (Takama Fusaichi, M. D.), T6ky6, Sunagoya'Shob6, 1941. /f/ Ky6 shii '~gV -t (Nostalgia), T6ky5, Yokusan Shuppan Ky6kai, 1944. /f/ "'Miyakejima tsiishin ~ 4 (Correspondence from Miyakejima)," Waseda bungaku, July, 1935. /f/ "Toba-ke no kodomo A j K'% (The children of the Toba family), T6ky6, Sunagoya Shob6, 1938. /f/ 994. Tachihara Michiz6 37 j (19 14-1939) Akatsuki to yiibe no shi ' - (Poems on dawn and evening), T6ky6, Filshinshi Shisha, 1937. /p/ Tachihara Michiz6 shishii -1.z (A collection of the long poems of Tachihara Michiz6), T6ky6, Yamamoto Shoten, 1941. /p/ Wasuregusa ni yosu tem.- (To miscanthus grass), T6ky6, Ffishinshi Shisha, 1937. /p/ Yasashiki uta 4 ~ - (Gentle songs), Tdkyd, Kadokawa Shoten, 1947. /p/ Tachihara Michiz6 zenshil 1-kf- (The complete works of Tachihara Michiz6), T6ky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1951, 3v. /z/ 995. Tada Hirokazu x~ f (1912 -Ch6k6 deruta t';Ixr- ~~ (The delta of the Changkiang), T6ky6, Bungei Shunjiisha, 1942. if! 996. Taguchi Takeo W tv h-~k -f (1910-1948) Bunka guin 511 A L A 0! (A civilized member of the Diet), performed by the Haiyiiza company at the Shimbashi Embuj6, December, 1949. /d/ "Ky6to Sanj6-d6ri -,1 I 9,t 1 ( (Sanj6 street in Ky6to)," Gekibungaku, January, 1935. /d/ 997. Takada. Tamotsu ~ xi 42 (1895-1952) Takada Tamotsu chosaku-shfl V l (A collection of the works of Takada. Tamotsu), Tdky5, S~gensha, 1953, 5v. /z/

Page  145 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE14 145 998. Takagi Hidekichi %04K-~~ Hensfi L# (A remote district), T6ky5, Bokushin Shisha, 1931. /p/ Tanza i4 t (Sitting upright), Tfkyd3; Bokushin Shisha, 1931. /p/ Tsuki to jumoku ~ 4 (The moon and trees), Tfkyd, Shinshin Shijinsha, 1926. /p/ 999. Takagi Hisao j / (1899 -Tend~sai K jf (Festival of heaven), Nagoya, Tdbund6, 1929. Ip/ 1000. Takagi S~kichi `6, (1893 -Reng6 kantai shimatsuki ~ ~(The story of the combined squadron in its last moments), 1949. /e/ 1001. Takagi Taku ~j M] (1907 -Hopp6 no seiza 31-t, ~" ' ~ (A constellation in the north), Tfky6, Taikand6, 1941. If! Fukushiiudan /j IIJ (Stories about vengeance), Tfky6, Konnichi no Mondaisha, 1943. If! Murasaki monogatari I A,#7_;_j_ (A purple tale), T6ky6, Kumoi Shoten, 1957. /f/ "Ono no Komachi I,j11- (Ono no Komac hi), " 194 1. /f/ Uta to mon no tate -e (The shield of a song and a gate), T~ky5, Mikasa Shob5, 1940. /f/ "Rekishi sh~setsu ni tsuite ~ ~ Z~ (On historical novels)," Bungei, April, 1941. Ic! 1002. Takahama Kyoshi it, ~ (1874 -"Niji ~ic (A rainbow)," Kuraku, January, 1947. /f/ Gohyakku:b. - 17 (Five hundred haiku), T6ky6, Kaiz~sha, June, 1936. /h/ Haiku e no michi4 7 j (The road to the haiku) [=Iwanami shinsho, no. 192], T6kyd, Iwanami Shoten, 1955. Ic! Kijuen. _ ' k (For my seventy-fifth birthday), Tfky6, Sb-gensha, 1950, 166~pp. /h/ Kyoshi kushil ~~ (A collection of haiku by Kyoshi), T6ky6, Shunjdisha, 1928. IhI Kyoshi kushfil f (A collection of haiku by Kyoshi), T6ky6, Kaiz~sha, 1930. IhI Kyoshi ky6yii kuroku 1-,~' ~ g, ~, (A record in haiku of Kyoshi's visit to Ky6to), Ky6to, Tomi Shoten, 1948, 164pp.Ih Kyoshi-sen zatsuei senshfl(I- ~l (A selected collection of miscellaneous haiku chosen by Kyoshi), Tfky6, Jitsugy6 no Nihonsha, March-June, 1928. IhI "'Shasei no hanashi % T ) (A talk on imagery)," Hototogisu, August, 1928. Ic! Teihon Kyoshi zenshti k f i& 4c _ (The complete works of Kyoshi: with authenticated text), Osaka, S6gensha, 1948-1950, 12v. lzl Nendaijun Kyoshi haiku zenshii 24- i- 4.-~ 'lp & 4~ * 1 '~ f,. (A complete collection of haiku by Kyoshi in chronological order), Tfky6, Shinchdsha, 1940-41, 4v. IzI Takahama Kyoshi zenshii (Tecmlt ok fTkhm ysiT)k6 azsa 1934-1935, 12v. IzI / Tecmlt ok fTkhm ysiTk6 azsa Takahama Kyoshi zenshil (The complete works of Takahama Kyoshi), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1948-1950, 12v. IzI 1003. Takahashi Shinkichi ~-1 4 (1901 -Amagumo r-j 4 (Rain clouds), Tokyo, Hangas65, 1938. IpI Shinkichi shish6 4 4r (A selection of the long poems of Shinkichi), T6ky6, Hangas6, 1938. IpI Takahashi Shinkichi shishii (A collection of the long poems of Takahashi Shinkichi), T6ky6, Nans6 Shoin, 1928. IpI 1004. Takahashi Yoshitaka ~ j (1913 -"Henshin f- ~ (Disguised; Franz Kafka's Die Verwandlung),"1 Shic6 June, 1952. ltrl Marukusu-shugi bungaku riron hihan -Zt fV, 7 7; j- A~(Ciics o)aritierr tery, Chii6 k6ron, December, 1955. Ic! ~ ~ Ciiimo aritltrr hoy, 1005. Takakura Teru 17 7 9~L' J~(1891 -"Hakone y~sui 1i (The Hakone irrigation ditch)," Ch6ryii, December, 1949.II Takakura. Teru meisakusen 9 r- u L- /I ~ (A selection of the masterpieces of Takakura Teru), Tokyo, Rironsha, 1953, 6v. IZI 1006. Takami Jun ~j Y ', (1907 -"A iya na koto da 'A t24 's r f-, (Ah, what a disagreeable thing!)," Kaiz6, June, 1933. If! "Akai seUl no mib~jin A- y- o ct &,& (A widow in a red sweater)," Kaizo, January, 1954. If! "Gaishigaisha ~ ~~ -k (A company backed by foreign capital)," Shincha, July, 1937. If! "][ka naru hoshi no moto ni -titr if ri 3 -- ~ (Under which star?)," Bungei, January-December, 1939; also, T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1940. If! "Interigencha I i,, =9 1r) z f (The intellectuals)," Sekai, April, 1951. If!

Page  146 146 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS "Kaette kara no dokuhaku k'- z ~'t j~ (Talking to myself after returning home),'" Kaiz5, February, 1943. If! "Kish6 tenten Q (From one poetic sentiment to another)," Bungei shunjdi, October, 1935. /f/ "Kokyd3wasurebeki 1Q6 4t - (How can we forget our old friends?)," Nichireki, February-July, 1935; Jimmin bunko, March-September, 1936. If! "Kono kami no hedo, d ~~ (This god's vomit)," Gunzo, January-November, 1953.If "Rya1boku 1f.~ (Driftwood)," Bungei, October, 1937.!17T "Seimei no ki T~ ~V a) (The tree of life)," Gunzd, September-December, 1956. If! "Shaboten Ad-' A, ~ (A cactus)," Gunzd, March, 195077Y/T "Shins,6 ~ 1 (The truth)," Kaiz5, July, 1947. /f/ "Waga mune no soko no koko ni wa*- it ]67Cr (Here at the bottom of my heart)," Shincho, March, 1946 - April, 1947. /f/ "Bungaku hiryoku-setsu (A treatise on the powerlessness of literature)," Shinch6, June, 1941. /c/ "By6sha no ushiro ni nete irarenai 1z~ A f: (I cannot sleep behind imagery)," Shinch6, March, 1936. /c/ Taidan gendai bundanshi (The history of modern literary coteries, discussed in a series of conversations), TOky5, ChWi K~ronsha, 1957. Ic! "Ningenz5 no zeijaku A- 0f~~~ (The weakness of human beings)," Bungei, July, 1938. Ic! Jumokuha K (The trees school), Tky5, Nihon Miraiha Hakk6jo, 19507/p/ "Sh6wa bungaku seisuishi 96 _0 Z (The history of the rise and fall of literature during the Sh~wa era)," Bungakki August, 1952. /k/ Jisen sh~setsu-shii 0J I I, X_ f (A collection of works selected by the author himself), To-kyo-, Takemura Shoten, 1941. /z/ Takami Jun shishild ~ ~~~ (A collection of the long poems of Takami Jun), T6ky6, Kawade Shobd, 1953. / Takami Jun s~sho j ' * (The collected works of Takami Jun), Tdky6, Rokkj Shuppansha, September, 1949-, 15v.+ /z/ 1007. Takamura K6tar5 N I (1883-1956) "Angdi sh5den ~~ V4 (A brief biography of a fool)," Temb6, July, 1947. /p/ Chieko -sh6 'YL- (A selection [of long poems] on Chieko), TMy5, Ryiiseikaku, 1941. /pI Chieko-sh6 sono go (After a selection [of long poems] on Chieko), T6ky6, Ryiiseikaku, 1949. /pI Kiroku -pjt q. (Record), T6ky6, Ryd~seikaku, 1944. /pI?F7Hnaru hi ni rs- v ~ (On a great day), Tdky6, D6t6sha, 1942. /pI Ojisan no shi ~'j A- (An uncle's long poems), T6kyd, Taiy6 Shuppansha, 1943. /p/ Takamura K6tar5 sh-sh~ii pt t p (A collection of the long poems of Takamura K6taroD), compiled by Kusano Shimpei, T~kyd, Kamakura Shobd, 1947, 253pp. Ip/ Tenkei 4k,- NL (A model), Tfky6, Ch5i6 Kdronsha, 1950. /p/ Hakufu b * (A white ax), Tfky5, Jiljiya Shoten, 1947. It! Bi ni tsuite I- L —,.' (On beauty), T~ky6, D~t6sha, 1941. /e/ B6getsu b6jitsu,, -E (A certain day in a certain month), T6ky6, Ryiiseikaku, 1943. /e/ Dokkyo jisui JT A J07 (Living alone and cooking for oneself), T6kyQ, Ryflseikaku, 1952. /e/ Michinoku no tegami )j.. k (Letters from the northern provinces), Tfky6, K6ronsha, 1953. /e/ "Hi-Yfroppa-teki naru. 3 1 j ti - (To be anti-European)," Chil6 k6ron, April, 1932. Ic! Rodan tu ~~ - (Rodin), T6ky5, Arusu, 1927. 1k! Z6kei biron A -: (A treatise on the formative arts), T6ky6, Chikuma Shob6, 1942. 1k! Takamura K6tar5 senshiit i t _- 'p 34 t (A selection of the works of Takamura KMtar6), T6ky5, Chii6 K6ronsha, 1951-1953, 6v. IzI Takamura K6tar6 shishfii~ 4 i 1~ (A collection of the long poems of Takamura Kftar6), T~ky6, Shinchasha, 1950. /p/ Acleto o h ogpeso akmr ~a6,Tk6 Ta gensha, 1951.6 s ihIi t A. (A collection of the long poems of Takamura Kftar6), T~ky6, Takamura K6tar6 'shishil (Acleto fte ogpeso aarua-a6,Tk5 Shinch~sha, 1953. IpI 1008. Takamura K6tarj, ed. Nihon no shiika 7 - (Japan' s poetry) [ in Mainichi raibrail TOkyd, Mainichi Shimbunsha, 1953. /kI 1009. Takamura K~otaro and others Sh6wa shishii t ~ (A collection of the long poems of the Shdwa period)[ =v. 47 of Sh6wa bungaku zenshii], T~ky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1954. IzI

Page  147 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE14 147 1010. Takano Tatsuyuki ~Z7 'flT Nihon kay6shi c ~- ti -4 - (A history of Japanese songs and ballads), T6ky6, Shunjiisha, 1926. 1k! 1011. Takashima Takashi t.- A (1910 -Kita no kao 4L 01 i~ (Features of the north), T6ky6, Kusahara Shob65, 1950, lO7pp. /p/ 1012. Takasugi Ichir5 vt -~ r " Kyokk5 no kage ni 6 -) p) P K('(Z (1908 -(Under the northern lights),"1 Ningen, August-December, 1950. 1013. Takata Namikichi (1898 -Kawanami til - (Ripples on a stream), T6ky6, Kokin Shoin, 1929. It! 1014. Takayasu Kuniyo ~J- f] - (1913 -Yoru. no aoba ni o I c (On the green leaves at night), T~ky5, Shiratamna Shob5, 1955. It! 1015. Takeda Rintard (1904-1946) "Arappoi mura- '. (A rough village)," Chii6 k6ron, August, 1930. /f/ "IB6ryoku ~I (Violence)," Bungei shunjil, June, 1929.7 "'Densetsu ~t (A legend)," Kaiz6, January, 1939. /f/ "'Gekai no nagame 1 - j (A look down upon the earth)," Miyako, shimbun, August, 1936 - February, 1937. If! "Gendaishi 10- 4-'C (The long poem in the present age)," -Kaiz6, January, 1936. If! "Ginza hatch6 4, $, (The eight blocks of the Ginza)," -Asahi shimbun, August-October, 1934. / "IKanj6 P ft (The bill)," Keizai 5rai, July, 1933. If! " Kamagasaki I a'r - (Kamagasaki), " ChU6 kdron, March, 1933. If! "'Myaku utsu kekk6 (K Tf - - (Blood circulation with a high pulse)," Chfi6 k6ron, January, 1930. "Nihon sammon opera 0 ~ (A penny opera in Japan), " Chdh3 kdron, June, 1932. /f/ "'Shiseiji ~ ~- (An incident in the vulgar world)," Kaiz6, May, 1933. If7~ "'Shiseiji daisampen:-: j (Third incident in a vulgar world)," Bungakkai, October, 1933. If! "Zoku-Ginza hatch6 1*4 j4 t I, - (The eight blocks of the Ginza, continued)," M~dan Nihonj JanuaryDecember, 1936. If! "Taiky6 nokuji & ~ ~ (The lottery of extremely bad luck)," Kaizb, Septembr 99 f "Tampen sh~setsushfii * ~~ (A collection of short stories).,"1 Kaiz5., September., 1939. If! Takeda Rintar6 zenshdi ~ ~ (The complete works of Takeda Rintar6), T6ky6, Rokk6 Shupp1948-1950., 14v.!zI If! )ansha, 1016. Takeda Taijun W f (1912 -"'Ail no katachi (The shape of 'love')," Jokyoku, December, 1948. If! "Ffba ika ft. 4 4& (Filbaika [an anemophilous flower])," Gunz6, January-November, 1952; also, TOky6, K6dansha, 1952. If! "Hikarigoke -t;'> i-t (Hikarigoke [plant name])," Shinch6, March, 1954. If! "I1gy5 no mono -m4? -f* (A monstrous fellow)," Tembb-, April, 1950. If! "Kiken na. busshitsu 41 f (Adngru substance)," Kosei, May, 1948. If! "Kurohata.Y- (A black flag), Geijutsu, May, 1948. If! "'Mamushi no sue ~~) (The end of a viper)," Shinro, August-October, 1946. If! "'Mimai no injo 4- 4 - (Prostitutes of the future)," Bessatsu bungei shunjdi, October, 1949. If! "'Misshitsu. (A secret chamber)," Bungei shunjii, December 1954. If! "Nikurashiki mono (Someone provoking)," Bungei, March, 1949.! "Runind nite ~c -~z (On the way to exile)," ShinchO, March, 1953. If "'Saishi kajin 4-4/ (A wit and beauty), " Ningen, July, 1946. If! Shiba Sen j j (Ssu-ma Ch'ien), T6ky6, Nihon Hy6ronsha, December, 1942. 1k! Takeda. Taijun sakuhinshii 7X\,EV~ 4 (A collection of the works of Takeda Taijun), T~ky6, K~dansha, 1954, 4v. IzI 1017. Takenaka Iku (~F (1904 -D6butsu j iki -* b &> (Animal magnetism), T6ky6, Ozaki Shob6, 1948. IpI Eda no shukujitsu )k- 1~ (The festival of branches), Kobe, KaikO3 Shijin Kurabu, 1928. Ip! Ryiikotsu - (The keel), Osaka, Yugawa Kdbunsha, 1944. IpI Shomei — 3 (Signature), T6kyd, Dalichi Shob6, 1936.!p! Zdge kaigan r;- (The Ivory Coast), Tdky6, Daiichi Shob6, 1932. IpI 1018. Takenouchi Shizuo ~VF t1 _ (1913 -"oudamu-go no senc6 y i (The captain of the 'Rotsudamu')," Sakuhin, October, 1949. If!

Page  148 148 148 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 1019. Takeuchi Katsutar3 &-i 1 ~i4 % /k- (1894-1935) Asu YM n (Tomorrow), T6ky6, Atoriesha, 1931. /p/ Haru no gakki 4 '? T (The musical instruments of the springtime), T~ky5, Ko6bund6 Shob5, 1926. /W Haru no gisei ~P 0 l~f:t (A victim of the springtime), T(5ky6, Kobundo Shob5, 1941. /p/ Kurohy5 f ~1} (Black leopard), T6ky6, S-ogensha, 1953. /p/ Shitsunai % 0~. (Inside the room), T~ky6, S6gensha, 1928. /p/ 1020. Takeuchi Teruyo tNU- z ~ - (1904 -Hana to magokoro &? -~ ~" - 7 (The flowers Somuku *K (I oppose), T6ky6-, Kamiya Nobu, Takeuchi Teruyo sakuhinshai WI Ni'r ' ~ 4 'V I H~bunkan, 1953, 4v. /z/ and my innermost heart), T6ky6, Keibunsha, 1933. /p/ 19 30. /p/ (A collection of the works of Takeuchi Teruyo), Tdkyd, 1021. Takeuchi Yoshimi I'[ N- 4kj (1910 -Gendai Chiigoku-ron 1*L 4<V t (A treatise on present-day China), Toky6, Kawade Shob6, 1951. Kokumin bungakuron ~ ~ R ~: _~ (Treatise on a people' s literature), TO~ky6, To~ky6 Daigaku Shuppankai., 1954. /c/ Rojin *-' ~~ (Lu Shun), T~ky6-, Nihon Hyoronsha, 1944. /k/ Roj in nyiimon ~-e -_7, r (Introduction to Lu Shun), T~ky5, T~y6 Shokan, 1953. /k/ Rojin sakuhinshii (A collection of the works of Lu Shun), T~ky6, Chikuma Shob5, 1953. /tr/ 1022. Takeyama Michio~ J-6- LI A- 4 ( 19 03 - Ushinawareta seishun t I A —~ -4 4 - (One's lost youth), T~ky5, Hakujitsu Shoin, 1947. /e/ 1023. Taki Shigeru W7 1 (1907 -Kikai shishfii ~ L (A collection of long poems on machines), Tokyo, Bungaku. Annaisha, 1937. /p/ Matsugabana-watashi o wataru LA rr AL L i _A - (To cross by ferry at Matsugabana), O~saka, Sakka D~mei Kansai Chih6 Iinkai, February, 1934. /p/ 1024. Takii Kosaku AN'2, (1894 - "Kini no hageyama /< c, ~ ( J-i (A bare mountain), " Kaiz6 bungei, January, 1950. /f/ Mugen h~y5 -~ r 4&< (An endless embrace), T5'kyO, Kaiz~sha, 1927. /f/ "Sekisetsu tv (Drifted snow)," Kaizo, May, 1937. /f/ "'Sh~hen tsu-shin ~77 ~m 1 (Correspondence from the lakeside)," ShinchO, August, 1923. /f/ "Yokuboke (. f (A distracted miser)," Bungei shunjii, September, 1933. /f/ Orishiba kushfi 4~ 4T 4q (A collection of haiku gathering brushwood), Yokohama, Yabonna Shob5, 1931. /h/ 1025. Tamiya. Torahiko Wi t, 7~ (1911 -"Ashizuri Misaki k h (At Cape Ashizuri)," Ningen, October, 1949. /f/ "Ch~sen dariya 4 7 1-i (Korean dahlias)," Gunz5, October, 1951. /f/ " Ehon I ~ (A picture-book), " SeIgai, June,190 77 " E nji ~ R -y (Rouge), " Mita. bungaku, June, 1937. /f/ " Itan no ko ~-C 4j* ~~ (A pagan child)," ChuoO__k~ron, February, 1952, /f/ " Kikuzaka +] t- (Chrysanthemum hill)," ChGiO k~ron, June, 1950. /f/ " Kini no naka, 1 a) tV (In the mist)," Sekai bunka, November, 1948. /f/ "Rakuj6 A_ A1 (The fall of a castle)," -Bungaku kaigi, April, 1949; also, T~kyO, T~ky6 Bunko, 1951. /f/ 1026. Tamura Akiko Vt? -~ ~- (1900 -Himeiwa 4~ _ (The small rock), performed by the Bungakuza company at the Mitsukoshi Gekij6, March, 1949. 1027. Tamura Taijird (J V (1911 -Konnichi ware yokuj6-su k i V) ~W' (Today I am tempted sexually), performed by the Shimpil ShU7 company at the Nichigeki Sh~gekij5, May, 94. f-d "Nikutai no mon rk A - (The gate of the flesh)," Gunz6, March, 1947; also, TfkyO, Fiisetsusha, 1947; performed by the Kdkiza company at the Teitoza, August, 1947. /f - d Nyotai nantai -~_ 44~ ~ /it (A woman' s body, a man's body), performed by the Nichigeki company at the Nichigeki Sh~gekijO, March, 1948. /f- - 1028. Tanaka Fuyuji M:- (1894 -Aoi yomichi 4~t_ (A blue night journey), T~kyO, Daiichi Shobd, 1929. /p/ Hanabie;1 1 4 X. (The f rost on the flowers), Tokyo, Sh~shinsha, 1936. /p/ Koen no uta 0 (4 (Songs of one's native place), TokyO, Aioi ShobO, 1940. /p/ Shunshfi 4 - (Spring sadness), T~kyO, Iwaya Shoten, 1947. /p/ Tochi no k~y6 ~ ) -+ V (Teatm ooso h os-chestnut), Ky~to, Usui ShobO, 1943. /p/

Page  149 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 149 Umi no mieru ishidan - 7 ~~ (Stone steps from which one may see the ocean), T~ky6, Daiichi Shobd, 1930. /pI Yamaguni shishili tIA A hl (A collection of long poems on a mountainous country), Ti~ky6, Seiens6, 1947. /p Yamashigi LIA tg (Woodcock), T~ky6, Daiichi Shob6, 1935. /p/ 1029. Tanaka Hidemitsu t; 1 ~A-U (1913-1949) "Chikashitsu kara 1'- ~ (From the basement room)," Geijutsu, May, 1940. If! "Nogitsune -j~ #U (A wild fox)," Chishikijin, May, 1947. If! "Orimposu no kajitsu P X, (The fruit of Olympus)," Bungakkai, September, 1940. If! "Yo ido re fune v' &t (A drunken boat)," Sogo bunka, November, 1948. If! "Say6nara rj t (Goodbye), " Kosei, November, 1949. /f/ "Sh6jo V- (Young girl)," Shin-Nihon bungaku, September, 1947. /f/ Tanaka Hidemitsu senshfii W~ -t 2 (A selection of the works of Tanaka Hidemitsu), T6ky63, Getsuy6 ShobO, 1950. /z/ 1030. Tanaka Katsumi ~1 t k-, (1911 -Minami no hoshi 471 oI (The southern star), Foky6, S6gensha, 1944. /p/ Seik6sh6 iov ) (Sikang province), T6ky6, Kogito llakk6jo, 1938. /pI Tairiku emb6 kj44 (A distant view of the continent), Ti~kyi5, Shibun Shob5, 1940. /pI 1031. Tanaka Sumie ~ J (1908 -Akujo to me to kabe 9.-a- # i (The bad woman, the eye, and the wall), performed by the Bungakuza company at Mainichi Ho-ru, February, 1949. /d/ 1032. Tanaka Takahisa ~l t~ It oh K6d5 kikan -* ~4_ I (Return from the ecliptic), T6ky6, Taikad~o, 1949, 234pp. /p/ 1033. 'Tanigawa Tetsuz6 it - - _: (1895 -"Bungaku keishiki mond6 4 (Questions and answers on the forms of literature), " Kaizo, March, 1929. Ic! "Gendai Nihon no bunka-teki j~ky6 1{, 4-V aJ9 L r (Cultural conditions in present-day Japan)," Chii6 k~ron, August, 1937. Ic! 1Ky~ju to hihy6 I i ~- Thst ~f (Enjoyment and criticism), T6ky6, Tett5 Shoin, 1930. /c/ "Marukusu-shugi bungaku riron no ichihihan -i- fL — ~ A- ~_~~-~ - fm. PI (A criticism of the theory of Marxian literature)," Shis6, April, 1929. Ic! 1034. Taniya Mitsuru 6/it (1904 -Nani o nasu beki ka - ~ (What should we do?), performed by the Ennosuke and Yaeko company at the_ T6ky6 Gekij6, February, 1946. /d/ 1035. Tanizaki Jun'ichirO,i d'h, ~_ - tr (1886 -"Ashikari f #'J (Ashikari), Kaiz5, November-December, 1932. /f/ "Bushii-k6 hiwa ~ ~-y (Secret stories about the Lord of Bushai),"1 Shin-semnen, January, 1932. Genji monogatari &11 0t1 It (The tale of Genji; by Murasaki Shikibu), T6ky6, Chii6 Ki~ronsha, May, 1951 December, 1954. If! "Kagi (The key)," Ch5i6 k6ron, January-December, 1956; also, Tokyo, ChCI6 K~ronsha, 1957. If! "Manj i F1T (The Buddhist cross)," Kaiz-o, March, 1928. If! "Mi~moku monogatari ' 9 ~ (The tale of a blind man)," Ch56 k6ron, September, 1931. If! "'Monjosh6 V t- 4$ (An account of investitures)," T6kyc3, Nichinichi shimbn January, 1935. If! "Neko to Sh~zo to futari no onna VI a 4 (A cat and 5h6z5 and two women)," Kaiz5, January, 1936. If! "Rangiku monogatari -~L, (A tale of some chaotic chrysanthemums, Ti~ky6 and Osaka, Asahi shimbun, 1930. If! "Sasameyuki ", W7 (The delicate snow)," Chii6 k6 ron, January, 1943-February, 1943; v. 1, privately printed, 1944; alsoJ, vols. 1-2, Ti~ky6, Chii6 K6ronsha, 1946-47; v. 3 in Fujin k6ron, March, 1947 - October, 1948 and separately, Chii6 Ki~ronsha, 1948. If! "Shsh6 Shigemoto no haha. ' I1A #~ 1 -1-~ (The mother of Lesser Commander Shigemoto),"1 Mainichi shimbun, November, 1950- March, 1951. If! "Shunkin-sh6 t- X - 4 (The story of Shunkin), " Chii6 k6ron, June, 1933. /f/ "Tade kuu mushi ) l (There's no accounting for tastes)," Thky6 nichinichi shimbun and Osaka mainichi, December, 1928- June, 1929. /f/ "Tsuki to ky6genshi ~~ (The moon and a comedian)," Ch56 k6ron, January, 1949. If! "Yoshinokuzu k -j (Arrowroot starch made in Yoshino),"1 Chil6 k6ron, January-February, 1931. If! Mumy6 to Aizen -*_of ~r -k (Mumy6 and Aizen), performed by the Ennosuke and Sumizo6 company at the T6ky5 Gekijd, August, 1946. Id!

Page  150 150 150 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Sasameyuki ~-, I- (The delicate snow), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company, July, 1950. /d/ Bunsh6 dokuhon Q - P ~ (A reader for writing), T~ky5, Ch5i6 K6ronsha, 1934, 1949. /k/ "Gei ni tsuite I '-~ (On art)," Kaiz6, March, 1933. e "In' ei raisan 1~ t u * (The praise of shadows),"1 Keizai orai, December, 1933. /e/ "J6zetsuroku itk -4; (An account of loquacity), " Kaiz6, January, 1927. /e/ "Kin6 ky6 A,) i, it J (Yesterday and today)," Bungei shunjei, June-November, 1942. /e/ "Seishun monogatari 4 -t ]~ (A story of youth)," Chd65 k~ron, September, 1932; also, T~ky5, Chid Kdronsha, 1933. /e/ Tanizaki Jun' ichir5 sakuhin-shil 4 V41F (A collection of the works of Tanizaki Junlichir6), Toky6, Sogensha, 1950-51, 9v. /z/ Tanizaki Jun' ichir6 zenshii 4- 4 - - 0 ~ (The complete works of Tanizaki Jun'lichiro), T~ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1930-31, 12v. /z/ Tanizaki Jun'ichir5 zuihitsu senshdi T - (A selection of the essays of Tanizaki Jun'ichiroD), T6kyO, S6geisha, 1951, 3v. /e/ 1036. Tanizaki Seiji 4- t~6 *q:- (1890 -"Sengo no bungaku ni tsuite iy — z(On postwar literature)," Waseda bungaku, December, 1945. /c/ Sh~setsu keitai no kenkytiG ~.~~ (A study of the forms of fiction), T6ky6, K~dansha, 1951. /k/ 1037. Tanka Shimbunsha 4 k. 4- I WI- (The Tanka News Company), ed Gendai kadan keit6zu tk- k ~, t# (The genealogy of schools in present-day tanka circles), T6ky6, Tanka Shimbunsha, 1937. /k/ 1038, Tateno Nobuyuki -k- Tt &t~I '-(1903 -"Guntaiby5 ~ (Military sickness)," Senki, May, 1928. /f/ Hanran iL (Rebellion), Tdky6, Rokk5 Shuppansha, 1953. /f/ "Haru A (The springtime)," Puroretaria bungaku, January-May, 1932. /f/ "Inochi no k6zu,' o) a~ ")4~ (The composition of life)," Gunzd, May, 1947. /f/ "Nagare 4-, k { (A stream)," pt. 1, Bungaku hy6ron, March-August, 1935; pt. 2, May-July, 1936, and. Jimmin bunko October, 1936 - March, 1937. /f "Yiij6 ~_ 1k~ (Friendship), " Chii6 k6ron, August, 1934. /f/ 1039. Tateyama Kazuko LA ~ (1896 -Puroretaria ishiki no moto ni T~L ~~~ I (Under a proletarian consciousness), privately printed, September, 1929. /t/ 1040. Tatsuno Yutaka 1. If T! A (1888 -S a e ra ~ t3 --- (Here and there), T6ky6, Hakusuisha, 1934. /e/ 1041. Tayama Katai tnJ dI-i A '~ (1871-1930) "'Momoyo I A_ (A hundred nights)," Fukuoka nichinichi shimbun, February, 1927. /f/ 1042. Terada. Torahiko -~- tV V,- (1878-1935) Kareidosuk~pu A -~ k X (Kaleidoscope), T6ky6, Tett6 Shoin, 1929. /e/ Terada Torah-iko zenshii 4, U j3 W,?~t f (The complete works of Terada Torahiko), T~ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1950, 18v. /z/ 1043. Terada. T6ru -T 195 Gendai Nihon sakka kenkyfl I'. AN 0~ 9 t (Studies in Japanese authoTbky6, Miraisha, 1954. /k/ Sakka shiron (Personal notes on some writers), Tdkyd, Kaiz6sha, 1044. Terazaki 1(6 A~ 2 (1904 -"'Daen no myaku I4T L1j- (f< (An elliptic vein)," Kaiz5, November, 1935. /f/ Sammyaku J,~ NIJ (A mountain range), T6kyC6, Takemura Shob5, 1941. /f/ ors of the present day), Li1949. /c/ 1045. Teruoka Yasutaka ~f 4- f i, (1908 -Saikaku: hy(3ron to kenkyil 10 7~ A__ "~ 1950, 2v. 7k/ (Saikaku: criticism and studies), T~ky5, Chii6 Kdronsha, 1046. Tezuka Hidetaka k~ q- 4,- (1906-bug Nvme198 f "Chici no ~ky5 L _.- ~. (Father's going to T ukyu),"I Shin-Nhnbnau oebr 98 f "'Shirami jL (Lice)," Nappu,, April, 1931. /f/

Page  151 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE15 151 1047. Todai Shun'ichi A 4 - ed. Miyamoto Yuriko kenkydl ~ ~,~~ (Studies in Miyamoto Yuriko), TokyO, Shunch~sha, 1952. Ic! 1048. T6dai Gakusei Jijikai Gakusei Shuki Henshd Iinkai ~ ~ r ~ (To-ky5 University Student Self-government Associ-ation, Committee for the Compiling of Student Memoirs), ed. Haruka naru. sanga ni ( t ' ~ 0 (In far-away mountains and rivers), Tdkyd, T6dai Ky~so Shuppambu, 1948. /l/ Kike wadatsumi no koe ~ - ')k ~A (Listen to the voices of the sea), T~ky5, T~dai Kyoso Shuppambu, 1948. /1/ 1049. Togaeri Hajime -I ~ (1914 -Gendai bundanjin gunz6 tt/,4f1 (Groupings of modern literary men), Osaka, Rokugatsusha, 1956. Ic/ Gojdnin no sakka K tA ) - (Fifty writers), T~ky6, Dai-Nihon Ydbenkai K~dansha, 1955. Ic! Jidai no sakka N$A) 4p (The authors of the day), Tfky6, Akashi Shoten, 1941. Ic! Gembaku shishii?. -~&; 1 Engeki goidnen $o; -j,-t (19 17-1953) (A collection of poems on the atomic bomb), TakyO, Aoki Shoten, 1952. (1915 - (Fifty years of the drama), T~ky6, Jiji Tsiishinsha, 1950. /k! 1052, Toki Zemmaro ~. dg- 4 1 (1885- ); also known as Toki Aika ~- A~, Akibare 4)~ 4 (The clearness of an autumn day), T~ky5, Yakumo Shoten, 1945. It! Fuyunagi $2- ~&i (A winter calm), T~ky6, ShunjUisha, 1947. It! Haruno,~- T- (A field in spring), T~kyO, Yakumo Shoten, 1949. It! Natsugusa (Summer grass), Osaka, Shink6 Shuppansha, 1946. It! Rokugatsu. (June), T~kyO, Yakumo Shorin, 1940. It! TokiZemmro hinkshdsakhin chi L PT 4 t f~,~- (A new collection of tanka by Toki Zemmaro: the works., 1), T~kyO, Kaiz~sha, 1933. It! Toki Zemmaro-shn I L~ A 4 (The collected works [tanka] of Toki Zemmaro), TfkyO, Shinjinsha, 1948, 281pp. It! 1053. Tokuda Kazuho -- 1 - Shibarareta onna C0t p, -%Torinokosareta machi q (1904 -(A bound woman), TlkyO, Sunagoya Shobd, 1938. If! pft 5 (The deserted town), TMyO, Aoki Shoten, If! 1054. Tokuda Shiisei ~L- \ C 17-93 "Chibi no tamashii4-U )if (The soul of a very small man),?? KaizO, June, 1935. If! " Furooke 40L (A bathtub)," Gendai, March, 1935. If! "Hana ga saku "&K (The flowers bloom)," KaizO, May, 1924. If! Hikari o otte 4.~~ (Chasing after the light), T~ky6, Shinchosha, 1938. If! "IKas5 jimbutsu jP A (A disguised person)," Keizai 5rai, July, 1935; Nihon hy~ron, November, 1936. If! "Kinko sh~wa 4 '' (A little story of a money safe)," Bungei, January, 1934. If! "IKunsh6 (A medal),"I ChiiO k~ron, October, 1935. If! "'Machi no odoriba VT '1 i (A dance hall in town)," Keizai 5rai, March, 1933. If! "Moto no eda e Ak ) - (To a former branch)," KaizO, September, 1926. If! "Shi ni shitashimu & -~- f tt- (To get close to death)," Kaiz6, October, 1933. If! "Shukuzu A, f (Epitome),"1 Miyako shimbun, June-September, 1941. If! Shiisei zenshd )4i~~ (The complete works of Shtrsei), Tokyo, Hibonkaku, 1936-37, i5v. IzI 1055. Tokunaga Sunao ~~ (1899 -"Bungaku s-akuru T_~ tu - v (A literary circle), ChilO k~ron, January, 1933. If! "Fassho 'i -, (Fascism)," ChilO k~ron, February, 1932. If! "'Fuyugare $2- jCu (Withering in winter),"1 Chd6 k~ron, November, 1934. If! "Hachinensei x3- j (The eight-year system)," Nihon hy~ron, June, 1937. If! Hataraku ikka i (A working family), TokyO, Sanwa Shob6, 1938. If! "Hataraku rekishi i- -t' - K (History of work)," Chffj k~ron, June, 1941. If! Hikari o kakaguru hitobito, 9j P 5 <-k K" //, A (People who bring light [People who bring glory to the nation]), T~kyO, Kawade Shobo-, November, 1943. If! "Hikdki koz6 & / ~' )- 4~ (Air-plane boy)," Ch5iO k~ron, May, 1937. If! "Kajikawa Tsuru no shi $. 'if 'y /i- o? ~- (The death- of Kajikawa Tsuru)," Shakai hydron, March, 1935. If! "Kusaikire _W %,% u (The steamy heat in the fields)," ShinchO, August-September, 1956. If!

Page  152 152 152 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS "Nihon no katsuji $ ' ' — (Japanese printing type)," Kaiz5, March, 1942. /f/ "N6ritsu iinkai KE - /~ (A committee [to promote]' efficiency)," Chii6 k6ron, October, 1929. /f/ "Reimeiki ~~4 (The dawning)," pt. 1, T~ky5, Naukasha, 1935; pt. 2, Bungaku hydron, January-April, 1936. If! "Saisho no kioku M~~ (The first remembrance)," Shinch6, October, 1938. If! "Shitsugy~doshi T~ky5 -1 11_ (T~kyd, a city of unemployment), " Chii5 k~ron, February, 1930. /f/ "Taiy6 no nai machi ~Z. J (A street without sunshine)," Senki, June-November, 1929. If! Taiy6 no nai machi K _a~rj (The street without sunshine), performed by the Shinkyo Gekidan company at the Yiirakuza, July, 1946. Id! "Tanin no naka &A f (In the midst of others), " Shinch5, April, 1939./f "T~ky6 no katasumi. (A corner of T6ky5)," Bungei, March-July, 1940. /f/ "Tsuma yo nemure r - 41> (Sleep, my wife:),"1 Shin-Nihon bungaku, March, 1946 - October, 1948. /f! "Watakushi no reimeiki -*L, Jq i (My time of dawning)," Chii6 k6ron, April, 1934. /f/ "Puroretaria bungaku no ichih6k5 tf q~ o- (One course of proletarian literature),"1 Chd5 k~ron, March, 1932. Ic! A "Sayoku bungaku no shin-tenkan ~ ~ Lv$ ~~(The new turn in left-wing literature)," ChiI6 ko-ron, September, 1933. /c/ ( e uni h ehdo tr-rtn) h "'Sosaku h6h6 no shin-tenkan O]4~( e uni h eho fsoywiig, hi k6ron, September, 1933. /c/ 1056. Tokutomi Roka lk "I" (1868-1927) Fuj i 4 (Mount Fuji), T~ky6, Fukunaga Shoten, 1925-27, 3v. If! 1057. Tokutomi SohO 6 (1863 -Sh~wa kokumin dokuhon (A reader for the people of the Sh~wa era), T~ky6, T6ky6 Nichinichi Shimbunsha, 1939. /e/ 1058. Tominaga Tar6 9< 3 (1901-1925) Tominaga Tar5 shi-shil d (A collection of the long poems of Tominaga Tar5), privately printed, August, 1927. Ipx Tominaga Tar6 shi-shil5 9<K (A collection of the long poems of Tominaga Tar5), T~ky6, Chikuma Shob6, 1941. /pI Tominaga Tar?) shi-shfid j<J (A collection of the long poems of Tominaga Tar6), TMy6, S6gensha, 1949. /p/ 1059. Tomiyasu Filsei j- U1 (1885 -Ajisai I, ~t & (Hydrangeas), T6ky6, Meguro Shoten, 1946. IhI Jiisan' ya -t,? (The thirteenth night), TMy6, Rytiseikaku, 1937. IhI 1060. Tomizawa Uio $ 4 -rlP (1902 -"Chichdkai - (The Mediterranean Sea)," Bungei shunjG~, April, 1937. If! 1061. Tonomura Shigeru 1~ (1902 -"Haru no yo, no yume -a (A dream on a spring night)," Ftisetsu, December, 1949. If! Kusaikada (A grass raft), T~ky6, Sunagoya Shob5, 1938. If! "Mogamigawa - I r (The Mogami river)," Bungei, February, 1950. If! Momijiakari 1~ ONs~ (The coloring of the maples), T~ky6, Sekaisha, 1947. If! S~shun nikki tg (Diary for early spring), T6ky5, Kawade Shob5, 1948. If! "Mugen h6ei 2 - (Transcience)," Bungei shunjii, April, 1949. If! "Yibae ~/~ (The evening glow), " Shinch6,Juy 1954. 1062. osakaJun f (1900-1945) "Bungaku ni okeru giizen to hitsuzensei 1 4 -~2. (The accidental and inevitable in literature)," Bungei hyo-ron, June, 1935.!cI "Bungei hy6ron no h6h6 ni tsuite z. - z (On methods of literary criticism)," Bungei, June, 1937. Ic! "Hand~ki ni okeru bungaku to tetsugaku f ~~z1 - (Literatuire and philosophy during a reactionary period)," Bungei, October, 1934. Ic! "Nihon no minshil to 'Nihon-teki naru mono' 'O a~-,~ -~, >- t & r -~ (The Japanese masses and 'things Japanese')," Kaiz5, April, 1937. Ic! "Ninshikiron to shite no bnau (Literature as epistemology)," Yuibutsuron kenkydi, January, 1937. Ic! Shis6 to fd-zoku Y_. 4M_ r_ (Thought and manners), T~ky6, Mikasa Shob5, 1936. Ic! Shis6 to shite no bungaku L-7u " - (Literature as thought), T~ky6, Mikasa Shob6, 1936. Ic! 1063. Toyoda Masako & - (1922- e Tsuzurikata ky~shitsu (A classroom for composition), T(3ky5, Hato Shob5, 1951.Ie

Page  153 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITETATURE15 153 1064. Toyoda Minoru a 4 (1920 -"Ny5 Karedonia 7 t. T (New Caledonia)," Shinchd, April, 1947. If! 1065. Toyoda Sabur6( "Ch6ka f Au (Flowers for condolence)," Shinch5, February, 1935. /f/ "Kamen tenshi WR 7 K j~ (A disguised angel)," Bungaku kaigi, October, 1947. If! "Kokubyaku I. b (Black and white)," Bungakkai, August, 1949. /f/ Seishun - *-z (The springtime of life), Tdky5, Kadokawa Shoten, 1956. If! 1066. Toyoshima Yoshio (1890-1955) "Asayake A & t (The morning glow)," Hikari, July, 1947. / D6ke 0 kL (Buffoonery), Tdky6, Genkai Shob6, 1935. If! "DMkeyaku j I (The role of a clown)," Chii6 k~ron, July, 1934; also, T6ky6, Genkai Shob5, 1935. /f/ "IGyinyi to uma (Milk and a horse)," Shisaku, November, 1949, /f/ "Hakut6 no uta (The song of a white tower), T~ky5, Kfbund5, 1941. /f/ "Hatano-tei I (The mansion of the Hatanos), Temb6, August, 1946. If! "Ri Eitai (Ri Eitai)," Bungei shunjd, December, 1938. If! "Shumm5 (Spring blindness)," Ningen, April, 1951. If! 1067. Tsuboi Sakae 4 i (1900 -"Akai sutekki Af 7 (A red cane)," Chi36 k6ron, February, 1940. If! "Daikon no ha K Irk I (Radish leaves)," Bungei, September, 1938. If! "Kaze L (A wind)," B November, 1954. / "Koyomi I (A calendar)," Shinch6, February, 1940. If! "Uchikake A ~0 (Long overdress)," Gunz6, August-December, 1955. If! 1068. Tsuboi Shgjir41, (1898 -Kaijitsu 1, ~ (Fruit), Tdky6, Jiigatsu Shob6, 1946. IpI Kami -no shimobe itonamitama Maria By~in ~ri a) L t V, t~ )JT' 2 (The Maria Hospital operated by the servants of God), Fukuoka, Kydishil Hy6ronsha, 1937. /p/ Tsuboi Shigeji shishilf,-;. (A collection of the long poems of Tsuboi Shigeji), T6ky6, Seijisha, 1942. /p/ 1069. Tsubono Tek i k Iff V % (1906 -Hyakka -0,u (A hundred flowers), T6ky6, Shomotsu Tembdsha, 1939.It Kugatsu tsuitachi -F3 i (The first of September), T~ky5, K~gyokud6, 1941. It! 1070. Tsubota J6ji {- J - (1890 -"Himawari 9I -4 V (Sunflowers)," Bungei shuto, August, 1934. If! "Kaze no naka no kodomo J~k j*4{4 (The children in the wind)," T6ky6 and Osaka asahi shimbun, June, 1936. If! "lKodomo no shiki 4 'w (The children's four seasons)," Miyako shimbun, January, 1938. If! "Obake no sekai ~ A~ t~~ (The world of goblins,),"? Kaiza, March, 1935. If! Tsubota J5ji zenshu d (The complete works of Tsubota J6ji), T~ky5, Shinch6sha, 1954, 8v. IzI 1071. Tsubouchi Shv h' -!t (1859-1935) Kaki no obi - a i (The persimmon sash), T~ky6, Chtfd K6ronsha, July, 1933. Ie! 1072. Tsuchiya Bummei 9- 4 ) ~ (1891 -Jiryilsen 0, -A (A spring of my own), T6kyd, Chikuma Shoba, 1953. ltI Minatsuki kaze ' Mj ( (The winds of June), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1942. It! Okanshu- ii ~F!s A (A collection of correspondence), Tdky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1930. It! San'ya-shii LI-\,f (A collection [of tanka] on mountain valleys), TFoky-5, Iwanami Shoten, 1935.!tI T~seishii I~- (A collection of green leeks), Tboky6, Seijisha, 1946. It! Yamashitamizu < (Water from the foot of a mountain), T6ky6, Seijisha, 1948. It! Man' y~shii shichd ~ t,~ (A personal commentary on the Man' y6sh,T6ky6, Chikuma Shob5, 1949, 20v. 1k! 1073. Tsuji Jun L 1 (1885-1944) Tsuj i Ju-h LIJ~(A collection of the works of Tsuji Jun), T6ky6, Kindaisha, 1954-1955, 2v. Iz! 1074. Tsuji Masanobu L A{ (1902 -Jiigo-tai-ichi - - (Fifteen to one), T6ky6, Kant6sha, May, 1950. le! Senk6 sanzenri -,4 (Traveling in disguise for three thousand ri), T6ky6, Mainichi Shimbunsha., 1950. IeI

Page  154 154 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 1075. Tsuji Ryoichi LA? -- (1914 -"Ih~jin f i1K (A foreigner)," Bungei shunjil, October,190 /f 1076. Tsumura Nobuo (1909-1944) Aisuru kami no uta (The song of my beloved God), privately printed, November, 1935. /pI Aru henreki kara. (From a certain tour), Osaka, Yugawa Kobunsha, 1944. /p/ Chichi no iru niwa 6, (The garden where my father is), Kyoto, Usui Shob5, 1942. /p/ Saraba natsu no hikari yo (Farewell, light of the summer), T~ky5, Yashiro Shoten, 1948. /p/ 1077. Tsunekawa Hiroshi (1906 -"Geijutsuha sengen t KV (Proclamation of the artistic school)," Shinch6, April, 1930. Ic! 1078. Tsurumi Yisuke (1885 -Haha -~q (My mother), T~kyCO, Dai-Nihon Ydbenkai, June, 1929. If! 1079. Tsuruta Tomoya t! (9 -Koshamain-ki c (An account of Koshiyamain), TokyO, Kaizosha, 1937. If! 1080. Uchida Hyakken V (1889 -"'Awa ressha V q (The train through Awa)," Sh6setsu shinch5, June, 1952. If! Gansaku wagahai wa neko de aru (A counterfeit "I am a cat"'), T~ky6, Shinch-sha, 19 50. If Ryojun nyiij~shiki -7* (lip NiAtk A~ (The ceremonies on the occasion of entering Ryojun fort), T~ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1934. /f/ "Sarasdte no ban ft z7 V1-~ i (Sarasate's discus)," Shinch6, November, 1948. /f/ "Yamataka bC~shi L tr y ~ (A bowler hat)," ChG6 k~ron., June, 1929. /f/ Hyakkien zuihitsu I,Ig (Essays of Hyakkien), T~kyO, Mikasa ShobO, 1933. /e/ 1081. Uchiki Muaj T4 /-~ 44 — / (1904 -Buraku-shi 43j (The history of a hamlet), T~kyO, Sunagoya Shob6, 1938. If! 1082. Uchimura KanzO V (1861-1930) Uchimura Kanz5 zenshii 1) j-. (The complete works of Uchimura. Kanz6), T~ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1932-1933, 20v. /z/ 1083. Uchimura Naoya V'- J -k (1909 -E riko to tomo ni () A (Together with Eriko), T~kyO, H~bunkan, 1950, 3v. Id! E riko to tomo ni 4-~ (Together with Eriko), performed by the Gekidan Shimbutai company at the Shimbashi Embujo-, August, 1950. /d/ 1084. Uchimura Naoya and Tanaka Chikao Wv 4' I 4- *.k (1905 -Shingeki tech5 I j tb (A pocket-book for the new drama), TdkyO, S~bunsha, 1952. /e/ 1085. Uchino Kni~~j ~~ (1899-1944) Nankin-mushi TtvjR 4. (Bed-bug), TOkyO, Bunsenkaku, 1937. /pI 1086. Uchiyama Kenji I 1 V k~ (1889 -Omoide no ki (A book of reminiscences), Tokyo, Shunjfsha, 1926. /Mainly a translation of Constance Garnett's The memoirs of Alexander Herzen/ 1087. Ueda Hiroshi -1- 3 (1875 -Chinetsu ticAk (The heat of the earth), TkkyO, Bungei Shunjdsha, 1942. If! "Hombu nikki (I v/ 'I" I- (The diary at headquarters)," ChilO k~ron, January, 1940. If! "Kensetsu senki VI ~ (A record of the struggle of construction)," Kaiz5, 1940. If! Kijun ~' (Submission), T~kyO, Kaiz~sha, 1939. If! "IK~jin - (Yellow dust)," Tairiku, October, 1938. If! "'ShidO monogatari ~ A story of leadership)," CheiO k~ron, July, 1940. If! 1088. Ueda Susumu w A4 (1907-1947) Marukusu Engerusu no geijutsuron -i L.,-; s fr A' ' (The theories of art of Marx and Engels), T~kyO, Iwanami Shoten, 1934. ItrI f0 "'Sov~to bungaku riron oyobi bungaku hihy6 no genj6 It7> A 1 9 -t" Z _ r(The theory of Soviet literature and the present situation in Soviet literary criticism)," Marukusu-Reninshugi geijutsugaku kenkyi3, July, 1932. Ic!

Page  155 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 1089. Uematsu Hisaki 0ii- -~, f 1 (1890 -K~kamon t 4 - (Ko-ka gate)[ =.Kokumin bungaku s~sho I Ty [ -,h - ~AJ series), 9], Tdky5, K~gyokud6 Shoten, 1927. It! 155 (People's literature 1090, Uemura Tai AP 49 ' (1903 -Ai to nikushimi no naka de It e- )j6 (- -' ~4' r' 1947. /p/ Ihdj in I ~f /. (An alien), T~ky6, Min'y5 Rebyiisha, 1932. /p/ (In love and hatred), T6ky5, Kumiai Shoten, 1091. Umezaki Haruo J~ aI"J *-~ (1915 -")Bii-to fiibutsushi B~ C qj (An account of the natural features of B island),I Sakuhin, Augus 1948. If! "Esu no senaka $ ~~~ (The back of a person called 'S')," Gunz6, January, 1952. If! " Fien CL $- (Death watch on a windy day)," Waseda bungaku, August, 1939. If! "Haru no tsuki R-"~~ (Spring moon), Shincho, March, 1952. If! " Hi no hate 0- z7 (The end of a day)," Shisaku, September, 1947. /I/ "Kuchiki ~5 *. (A decayed tree)," Bungaku kikan, December, 1947. If! "Kuroi hana X, 4.'?- (A black flower)," Sh6setsu shinch5, February, 19 50. If! "'Mikkakan o rpj (Three days)," Shin-shOsetsu, January, 1953. /f/ "Nise no kisetsu! o~ (A spurious season)," Nihon sh6setsu, November, 1947.! "Runeta no shiminhei v,, o ~ (The city soldiers of Luneta),"1 Bungei shunjdl, August, 1949. If! "Sakurajima XO $7 (Sakurajima [the name of the island])," Sunao, September, 1946. If! "Sunadokei ~'R ~~ (Hourglass),"1 Gunz5, August, 1954 - July, 1955; also, T~ky6, Kodansha, 1955. "Yamana no baai AP4 i- (The case of Yamana),"1 ShinchO, November, 1951. If! st If 1092. Uno Chiyo IT If 'i- 4'K (1897 -"Inazuma -~ J- (Lightning)," Ch55 k~ron, March, 1929. If! "Iro zange.- V, it' (The confession of amours)," ChU5 k~ron, February, 1934 - March, 1935. If! "Keshi wa naze akai tf f, I r~ it, +$ (Why is the poppy red?)," Chi6 krn November, 1930. /fI "Wakare mo tanoshi _~, VW ) U (Parting too is a joy)," KaizO, June, 1935. If! 1093. Uno K~ji ~ (1891 -"Akutagawa Rydnosuke $Yr i- hq4 (Akutagawa Ryiinosuke)," Bungakkai, January-December, 1952; also, TVky5, Bungei ShunjU Shinsha, 1953. Ic! "Bungaku -teki sampo 0 ~ 10 - __r (Literary stroll)," Kaiz6, January-December, 1942. IeI Bungeizammai *i ~ (Absorption in literary arts), Tokyo, Chikuma Shobo, 1940. IeI " Fuchin -A (Rise and fall),"1 Temb6, February, 1946. If! " Fuj imi K6gen I *1k' (Fujimi Heights)," Tembd, April, 1949. If! "Gunkan k6shinkyoku 4 T I (A battleship march)," Chib3 k6ron, February, 1927. If! "Kareki no aru fiikei f3~ *L - (A scene with a dead tree), " Kaiz5, January, 1933. If! "Kareno, no yume it f (A dream of a desolate field)," Chii6 k~ron, March, 1933. If! "Ko no raireki 4 ~~ (The life history of a child)," Nihon hy6ron, July, 1933. If! "IKiy6 bimb6 ~4 (Clever poverty)," Bungei shunjii, June, 1938. If! Ku no sekai ' 9 -1 k (The world of suffering), Tdkyd, Kaiz6sha, 1933. If! " Mi no aki *_'~ ) (The autumn of my body)," Chii6 k6ron, November, 1941. If! "M6na hatarakimono -fri ft 1-, e (A strange worker)," Chd-6 k~ron, November-December, 1939. If! Ningen-d6shi k 1 1 i&o (Fellow men), T6ky5, Koyama Shoten, 1944. If! "Ningen orai /K j ~- E (The coming and going of human beings)," Chii6 k~ron, November, 1934. If! "'Omoigawa - ', (The river of mutual love)," Ningen, May-October, 1948. If! "'Omoigusa v (The grass of remembrance)," Ningen, November-December, 1946. If! "Takamagahara 47 ~ - R, (Takamagahara)," KaizO, April, 1926. If! "Yoki oni, waruki oni I- (A good devil, a bad devil)," Kaiz6, December, 1939. If! "Yume no kayoiji ~ ~ (The road of dreams)," Chd6 k~ron, January, 1937. If! "'Tomogaki bk t~i (Friends).," Shinch6, September-October, 1953. 7fT "Shirarezaru kessaku *,v ~) W- ~ 4 V (An unknown masterpiece)," Shinch6, September, 1928. If! "Bungaku no sanjdnen < ~- - (Thirty years of literature)," ChU6 k~ron, March-June, 1940; also, Tfky6, Chii6 K~ronsha, 1942.!e! "Yo ni mo fushigi na monogatari tv- Ir:- 4.= - rs~ q-P g~ (A story strange even to the world)," Bungei shunjd, September, 1953. IeI Uno K~ji chosaku-sha T T - 4'T- (A collection of the works of Uno K6ji), T~kyO, Kangensha, 1953, 2 v. IzI Uno, Kdj i- shii -~ (A collection of the works of Uno K~ji)[ in Kawade bunko], ed. by Yamamoto Kenkichi j,, T~kyd, Kawade Shobbo, 1954. IzI

Page  156 156 156 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 1094. Uno Nobuo r W- (1904 -Jinch~ge -fy (A sweet-smelling daphne), performed by the Ennosuke and Yaeko company at the T~ky5 Gekijd, April, 1946. /d/ Mukashi no haha C- ij' - L" -si- (A mother of olden times), performed by the Kikugord and Kichiemon company at the T~kyd Gekij6, May, 1946. /d/ 1095. Usuda ArO (3 MIi ~ (1879-1951) Ryoj in- 1- A (A traveler), T~kyO5, K6ronsha, 1937. /h/ 1096. Usui Yoshimi (3 -i K_ (1905 -'Kindai bungaku rons6 Jr 4k -! t (The literary controversy concerning modern literature)," Bungakkai, January, 1954 - March, 1956; also, T~kyO, Chikuma ShobO, 1956. /c/ "Kiroku to kiroku bungaku. # - (Documents and documentary literature), " Ningen, September, 1949. /c/ 11'Ningen shikkaku' -ron IQ,j (An essay on 'Man disqualified')," Hikari, September, 1948. /c/ Ningen to bungaku < q] (Man and literature), TUk5*, Chikuma Shobl5, 1957. /c/ "Tanka. ketsubetsuron _ Pi A (Departure from the tanka)," Temb6, May, 1946. /c/ 1097. Utsuno Ken ~ 13T Komure /< (A group of trees), Thky6, Hakut~sha, 1927. /t/ Shunkan-sh6 Y- 1$ (Account of the lingering cold in spring), 1933. /t/ 1098. Wada Katsuichi jrc, W v - (1900 -Kawa A- (The river), performed by the Bungakuza company at the T~ky6 Gekijd, March, 1946. /d/ 1099. Wada Tsut5 -z 7 tl (1900 -"'Saigo no haka -&- it ~ (The last grave)," ChU5 k~ron, July, 1929. /f/ Yokudo I.K J — (Fertile soil), T~kyO5, Sunagoya Shobd, 1937. /f/ 1100. Watanabe Junz6- igS! l" (1894 -Atarashiki hi -f~ El 3 (A new day), Osaka, Shink6 Shuppansha, 1946. /t/ Reppfi no machi ~ ~ VT (The street of a violent wind), Tl~kyO, Bunsenkaku, 1939. /t/ Seikatsu. o utau Ab I (To sing of life), T~kyO, K~gyokud5, 1927. At! Se iki no hata Ay (The f lag of the [twentieth] century), T~ky6, Bunsenkaku, 1935. /t/ Shiidan k~shin A g (A mass march), Tl~ky5, Bunsenkaku, 1936. /p/ Shiteki yuibutsuron yori mitaru kindai tankashi ~ ~It/ (I # r, t- JrA~ jt<,i}kThe modern history of the tan~ka, from the viewpoint of historical materialism), T~kyO5, Kaiz~sha, 1932. 1k! 1101. Watanabe Kazuo 1Af ~ (1901 -Maboroshi zakki I Li'., ~ (Phantasmal miscellanea), TdkyO, Kawade Shob6, 1950, 23Opp. /e/ Raburei kenkyii oboegaki ~- (Notes on some studies of Rabelais), T~kyO, Hakushinsha, 1943. /k/ 1102. Watanabe Suiha TA 1!7- 7K- E6 (1882-1946) Hakuj its u (0 U (The daytime), Tokyo, Koronsha, 1936. /h/ Kumazasa ff, A- (The low, striped bamboo), Tokyo, Kyokusuisha, February, 1935. /h/ 1103. Watsuji Tetsur5: _31 i ',r (1889 -Fiido C. I- (Natural features), T~ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1935. 7k! Sakoku ~I (The closing of the country), T~ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1950. /k/ 1104. Yada Tsuseko fA~ 1 -3- (1907-1944) "Joshin shui - (Gleanings from a woman's heart)," Bungakkai, December, 1936. /f/ "Kagurazaka -~P_ (Kagurazaka)," Jimmin bunko, March, 1935. /f/ 1105. Yagi Jilkichi * if 1, (1898-1927) Kami o yob6 x-_ t t'-! Li (Let's invoke God), T~kyO, Shinky6 Shuppansha, 1950, 200pp. /p/ Mazushiki shinto, L (A poor believer), T~ky6, Nogikusha, 1928. /p/ 1106. Yagi Ryiiichir5 A. (1906 -Hadaka no tonosama 4f4- (The naked lord), performed by the Ennosuke Gekidan company at the H~gakuza, January, 1946. /d/ Haha no nij i -b — '? ti (The mother's rainbow), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at the Shimbashi EmbujO, May, 1950. /d/ Onna no kett.5 -&- co -k r~j (A duel by women), performed by the Shinsei Shimpa company at T~kya Gekijj, June, 1949. /d/ Umi no hoshi -A- a) I (The star over the sea), performed by the Inoue Masao, Oka Jaji, and Sayo Fukuko company at the Shinjuku Daiichi GekijO, May, 1947. /d/

Page  157 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 157 Yukiguni no hito I C A (Men of the snow country), performed by the Zenshinza company at the Shinjuku Daiichi Gekij6, November, 1945. /d/ 1107. Yagi Yoshinori- N\ ~, ~k (1911 -"lAzarashi (A seal)," Waseda bungaku, February, 1936. If! "'Oga no ko (Mother's children)," Waseda bungaku, July, 1937. /f/ " Ryi_ Kfuku If, A (Ryii K2fuku), 1944. /f/ "Watakushi no S~niya -~IN V)::-Al (My Sonya)," Kosei, July, 1948. If! "Unga no onna o - (The woman on the canal), " Bessatsu bungei shunj, February, 1949. /f/ 1108. Yamada Utako LIA t-i- name taken by the drama company presenting the following as a play], "IIkiru It (I live)," Bungaku no tomo, March-July, 1954. If! 1109. Yamada Seizaburd J-' f- (1896 -"Gogatsusai zengo I ~ (Just before and after the festival in May)," Senki, May, 1929. If! "Jigo zange N '#f ~ (A whispered repentance)," Bungakkai, June, 1938777/e "'Saishi chinjutsu -f. jt (The last statement)," Ningen, March, 1951. If! "Shiiteki PQ (The imprisoned enemy)," Nihon hysron, October, 1938. /f/ Tenk6ki #$ ~6 g (Record of reconversion), T6ky6, Rironsha, 1957-58, 3v. Ic! Na~ n ni aht -1- -i' t7- k-~ (Standing in the fo re of the Nappu f ront), T~ky6, Hakuy6sha, 1931. Ic! Nihon puroretaria bungei und~shi e 71, r~l 4 7'I -(The history of the Japanese proletarian literature movement), T6ky6, S6bunkaku, 1930. /lc/ Nihon puroretaria bungaku riron no hatten el t 7. t7 L' 4' 'I F ~U ~(The development of the theory of Japanese proletarian literature), T6kyd, Sdbunkaku, 1931. /k! Puroretaria bungakushi -10 u t,4 y,t (A history of proletarian literature), T6ky6, Rironsha, 1954, 2v. 1k! 1110. Yamagishi Gaishi "A 4 (1904 -Ningen Kirisuto-ki (A record of Christ the man), Ky6to, Suzaku Shoin, 1941. /c/ 1111. Yamaguchi Mokichi Li- 7 (1902 -Akatsuchi i~j Jt- (Red soil), Tfky6, Bokusui Shob6, 1941. It! Kaijitsu -4 o (The sun rising over the sea), Sapporo, Seijisha,. 1946. It! 1112. Yamaguchi Seishi i-' Li f- -- (1901 -Bankoku ~~ (The eventide), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1948. IhI Enchfid ~ (The hot midday), T6ky6, Sanseid6, 1938. IhI Gekir6 4 (Rough waves), T6ky6, Seijisha, 1946. Ih! Gent6 N (Deep winter), T6ky6, Sojinsha, 1937. Ih! ___ -i (A yellow flag), T~ky6, Ryiiseikaku, 1935.!hI T6boshi 4 k (A distant star), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1947. IhI T~74 - t (A frozen port), T~ky6, Sojinsha, 1932. IhI Gendai haiku-ron -#- A_\ 141 (A treatise on the present-day haiku), T~ky6, Sanseid5, 1948. Ic! 1113. -Yamaguchi Seison J-~ t:7 Ff (1892 -Zass6en 4 - (The garden of weeds), To-ky6, Ryiiseikaku, 1934. IhI Yukiguni C- fil (A country of snow), T6ky6, Ryiiseikaku, 1942. IhI 1114. Yamamoto Kazuo LI- * *V/k (1907 -Hana saku hi AZL ' o (The day that the flowers bloom), Ky6to, Rakuy6 Shoin, 1943. IpI Suzume o kau sh6jo- (A young girl who keeps sparrows), T6ky6, Akane Shob6, 1952. If! 1115. Yamamoto Kenkichi L- ~ (1907 -"Gendai bungaku oboegaki i A'kt'~~ (Notes on present-day literature)," Shinchb, April, 1956. /c! Gendai haiku.~ Oc Af I (Present-day haiku), T6ky6, Kadokawa Shoten, 1951, 2v-. Ic! Koten to gendai bungaku (The classics and present-day literature), Tdky6, K~dansha, 1956. Ic! Shish6setsu sakkaron /,,-~ 4I- (The authors of "private" fiction), T6ky6, Jitsugy6 no Nihonsha, 1943. Ic! 11 16. Yamamoto Yiiz6 l' - (1887 -" IBuj i no hito -. I A (A peaceful person)," Shinch6, April, 1949. If! "'Fujaku shimmy6 {T4 4 (Not valuing one's life)," Kingu, January, 1934. If! "I[ki to shi ikeru mono 't, i-f I -~ t " (All the living)," -Asahi shimbun, September, 1926. If! "Kaze ~ (The wind)," Asahi shimbun, October, 1930. If! " INami (The waves),"1 Asahi shimbun, July-November, 1928. If! "Onna no issh6 -L — q - Pkz (The life of a woman)," -Asahi shimbun, October, 1932 - June, 1933. If!

Page  158 158 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS "Rob no ishi 0 El (The stone at the roadside)," Asahi shimbun, January-June, 1937; rev. ed., Shufu no tomo, October, 1938 - July, 1940. If! "Shinjitsu ichiro _ - (The one road to the truth)," Shufu no tomo, January, 1935 - September, 1936. Eijigoroshi ~~ 2 (Infanticide), performed by the Ennosuke, Yaeko, and Masao company at the Tdky6 Gekij6, October, 1948. /d/ '1Kome hyappyO *? - 4m (A hundred bags of rice)," in Iki to shi ikeru mono, T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1950. /d/ "Nyonin aishi -4, if ~ (An elegy on women),, a" Fujokai, January, 1930. /d/ Sakazaki Dewa-no-kami t~ _4 ~1 ~J 4fI- (Sakazaki, Lord of Dewa), performed by the Ennosuke company at the T6ky6 Gekij6, July, 1949. Id! Yamamoto Ydz5 bunko ~> 4 1 (Yamamoto Yd~z6 library), T~ky6, Shinch6sha, 1947, liv. /z/ Yamamoto Yidz6 sakuhin-shil LI fq14- (A collection of the works of Yamamoto Yiizd), T~ky6, S6gensha, 1953, 5v. / Yamamoto Yiz5-sh5i (A collection of the works of Yamamoto Ydz6), Toky6, Shinch6sha, 1951, 2v. Iz/ Yamamoto Yuiz6 zenshu (The complete works of Yamamoto Yz6), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1931. /z/ Yamamoto Ydz6 zenshdi jk (The complete works of Yamamoto Ydz6), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1939-1941, 10v. /z/ 1117. Yamanishi Eiichi (1899 -Rasha to shisha ~ L- (The naked and the dead [original by Norman Mailer]), T~ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1950. /tr/ 1118. Yamanoguchi Baku (1903 -Shiben no sono ~, f ~ ~~ (A garden for speculation), T6ky6, Murasaki Shuppansha, 1938. IpI 1119. Yamanoi Ry6 D "'Mado kara kaze ga- 2 "L (The breeze coming in through the window)," Nappu, June, 1931. /p/ 1120. Yamanouchi Yoshio L- -kt (1894 -Chib5-ke no hitobito, -'rA ~o A (The people of the Thibeault family: R. Martin du Gard's Les Thibault), T6ky6, Hakusuisha, 1950. /tr/ 1121. Yamashiro Tomoe J-n P "1Fuki no t6 Al a)t (The flower of the butter-bur)," Taishii kurabu,. February, 1948. If! 1122. Yamashita Hiroshi LI-' 1 4 Haidan no zemb5 41 ~t ~ (The entire picture of haiku circles), T~kyd, Chdk6sha, 1948. Ic! 1123. Yamazaki Yasuo LI',\/ (1899 -Sankakusu chizu =;A i (City plan for a delta), T~ky6, Kyfibisha, 1944. Ip! 1124. Yanagida Kunio (1875 -Fuk6 naru ge-rf ot (An unfortunate art), Toky3, Chikuma Shob5, 1953. /k/ Momotar6 no itj f~ ~ ~ r (The birth of Momotaro_), Tokyo, Kadokawa Shoten, 1933. /e/ 1125. Yashiro T6son 44 (1889-1952) Ichigii yori - A I- / (From a corner), T~ky5, Hakujitsusha, 1931. It! S~shun ~ # (Early spring), Thky6, Shink5 Shuppansha, 1936. It! 1126. Yasuda Yojfir6 Al \V -~R * t (1910 -"Hakuh6 Tempyo no seishin 4t (The spirit of the Hakuh6 and Tempy5 eras)," Shinch5, July, 1937. Ic! "Han-shimpo-shugi bungakuron k V (A theory of anti-progressive literature)," -Nihon r6manha, May, 1935. Ic! 1 c Kindai no shilen.y (The end of the modern era), T~ky6, Sh6gakkan, 1941 c "Nihon bungakushi taik6 ~ - 'W 1 (Outline of the history of Japanese literature), " Bungei, November, 1943. Ic! "Nihon no hashi V * j A (Bridges in Japan)," Bungakkai, October, 1936. Ic! Nihon r~manha no tachiba 4a 4 (The standpoint of the Japanese romantic school), 1954. Ic! 'Nihon-teki naru mono' e no hihyO ni tsuite 'el 0 7 -ri Z 7~. ~ (On the criticism of 'things Japanese')," Bungakkai, April, 1937.!cI "Taikan sijin no alichinisha ~ X (The highest ranking man among the poets laureae, Kogito, July, 1936. Ic!

Page  159 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE15 159 1127. Yasuoka Sh~taro -; t - 190 "Inki na tanoshimi AY k. _rx ~ (A gloomy pleasure)," Shinch5, April, 1953. /f/ "Mugiwarab6shi no koro f- f ~4 (About the time of straw hats)," Bungakkai, December, 1953. If! "Taionkei 4 V (A thermometer)," Shinch6, October, 1954. If! "Warui nakama /I~ (Bad companions)," Gunz6, June, 1953. If! 1128. Yasutaka Misako 1J 4 P Y (1914 -Onna no rekishi 4 — 1~# (The history of women), Tfky6, Shinch~sha, 1950. If! 1129. Yasutaka Tokuz,5 {~ 47 f t- (1889 -"'Aru shi7 ru sei 9'~ 3 #L.. 5- 3 T_ (A certain death, a certain life)," Kaiz6, December, 1939. If! "'Deinei.~i (Mud)," Kaizo, May, 1928. If! Sh~ja haja ~ ~ - (A victor and a loser), T6ky5, Kaiz6sha,19./f 1130. YodonoRiz -)& 4 (1904- )and others Ushinawareshi toki o motomete;< uI It ~- 4 L c'r Y Z (Searching for a lost time: Marcel Proust's A la recherche du temps perdu), T~ky6, Shinch6sha, 1953-1955, 13v. Itr/ 1131. Yokomitsu Riichi t 411 (1898-1947) "'Atama narabi ni hara r ti ~ 4t'v (The head and the stomach)," Bungei jidai, October, 1923. If! "IBish6 ~ (A smile)," Ningen, January, 1948. If! "'Jikan ~~ (Time)," Ch56 k6ron, April, 1931. If! "Kazoku kaigi - ( ~ A family council)," T~ky6 nichinichi shimbun, August-December, 1935. If! "'Kikai M (A machine)," Kaiz6, September, 1930.T If! "'Mi imada. jukusezu * '4i<~~ (The fruit is still unripe)," Shin-onbeiiginArl198 also, T6ky6, Jitsugy6 no Nihonsha, 1939. If I "Monsh6 4,(Z -k (The family crest)," Kaiz6, January, 1934. lf I "Naporeon to tamushi?t t, vt,-'?t w?~_7Napoieon and a ringworm)," Bungei jidai, January, 1926. If! "'Ryoshd *k t (Loneliness on a journey)," T~kyd nichinichi and Osaka mainichi, April-August, 1937; also, Bungei shunjii, May, 1939- February, 1943. If/~ "Ryoshii zokuhen j* 11 Pk A (Loneliness on a journey, continued)," Bungei shunjil, May, 1939 - April, 1940, May, 1942 - February, 1943. lf I Shanhai 2- (Shanghai), T6ky5, Kaiz6sha, July, 1932. If! "'Shin'en (The imperial mausoleum)," T6ky6 nichinichi and O5saka mainichi, November-December, 1939; also, T6ky6, Chil6 K6ronsha, 1932. If I "Suiren Ot I (Water-lilies)," Bungei shunjid, July, 1940. Yo ru no kutsu j~ ~ ~L (The' shoes worn at night), T~kyd, Kamakura Bunko, 1947. If! "Junsui sh5setsuron 4 ~ t j (A treatise on pure fiction),"1 Kaiz6, April, 1935. Ic! Kakikata s~shi t &,t!, (A book on how to write), Toky6, Hakusuisha', 1931. Ie! Yokomitsu Riichi sakuhin-shuii 4~- (A collection of the works of Yokomitsu Riichi), T6ky6, S6gensha, 1952. /z! Shinsen Yokomitsu Riichi-shil - (A new selection of the works of Yokomitsu Riichi), T~ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1928.!Zl Yokomitsu Riichi-shiid ~ ' (A collection of the works of Yokomitsu Riichi), T6ky6, Shinch~sha, 1951, 2v.!z! Yokomitsu Riichi zenshii f -,~~ (The complete works of Yokomitsu Riichi), T6ky6, Hibonkaku, 1936. IzI Yokomitsu Riichi zenshil - d (The complete works of Yokomitsu Riichi), T~ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1948, 26v. IzI 1132. Yokoyama Seiga i L-' (1902 -Aozora ni oyogu -j (I swim in the blue sky), T~ky6, K6ronsha, 1927. IpI Saigetsu no hanataba 6? (A bouquet for time), Tfky6, K6ronsha, 1930. IpI 1133. Yonezawa Junko 'lipf~ 4 (1894-1931) Yonezawa Junko, shishii5;- qi4 (A collection of the long poems of Yonezawa Junko), T~ky6, Daiichi Shob6, 192.l/ 1134. 'Yosano Akiko YJ vt ', 4- (1878-1942) Haku6shiW- I7J, (Collection of white cherry blossoms), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha, 1942. It! Teihon Yosano, Akiko zenshdi & 4* _0* q tv,, -I 1~t (A complete collection of the authentic works of Yosano Akiko), 1950. IzI 1135. Yoshida Genjir6 (1886 -"Tabi no machi, tabi no hito ~ - o (A tourist resort and tourists)," Shin-joen, JanuaryDecember, 1941.!f!

Page  160 160 160 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 1136. Yoshida Issui v- W - 4 (1898 -Miraisha 7- (The future man), Tdky5, Seigisha, 1948. IpI Raten bara * '] -* ~( (Rosae latinae), T6ky5, Sangabb, 1950, 166pp. /p/ Umi no seibo - T -L~- (Mother of the sea), Tdky5, KinseidQ, 1926. IpI 1137. Yoshida Masatoshi -A wV 41L- (1902 -Shukahen -*c c, t~l (The petals of red flowers), Sapporo, Seijisha, 1946. It! 1138. Yoshida Mitsuru,+ vvGunkan Yamato ~,ft K *t (The warship Yamato), T6ky5, Masu Shob5, 1949. /e/ 1139. Yoshida Seiichi Nihon kindaishi kansh6 [ =Temmei s~sho Nihon kindaishi nyffmon Shob6, 1953. /k! Shizenshugi no kenkyfi Temb6 Nihon bungaku U?' W 4 (9 El + &iL AN) -, N K i Tm (The appreciation of the modern Japanese long poem) lei series), Yokosuka, Temmeisha, 1946-48, 3v. /k! (An introduction to modern Japanese poetry), T~ky6, Kaname (Studies in naturalism), T6ky6, Toky6d6, 1956. /k! (A view of Japanese literature), T6ky5, Shilbunkan, 1940. /k! (A treatise on present-day Japanese literature), Tokyo, 1140. Yoshida Seiichi and Hirano Ken 2- t 1 Gendai Nihon bungakuron k 4- 41 / Shinki~sha, 1946. /k! 1141. Yoshii Isamu r 7 (1886 -Amabiko K I~ (Amabiko), T~kyC5, SOgensha, 1947. It! 1142. Yoshikawa Eiji 4a4 (1892 -"'Miyamoto Musashi (Miyamoto Musashi [personal name])," Asahi shimbun, August, 1935 - July, 1939. If! i "Shin-Heike monogatari # (A new Tales of the Heike)," Sh~kan asahi, April, 1951 - March, 19 57. If! "'Shinran 0. 11 (Shinran)," Nagoya, Fukunichi, Hokkai taimusu, and two other newspapers, 1937. If! Shinsho Taik6-ki -fV *, /k ~j i6 (A new account of Taik6 [Toyotomi Hideyoshi])," Yomiuri shimbun, beginning in 1938; also, T6ky6, Rokk6 Shuppansha, 1947. If! Miyamoto Musashi t * 41 A (Miyamoto Musashi), performed by the Shinkokugeki company at the Yffrakuza, February, 1948. /f -d/ 1143. Yoshimura Teiji t ~I! ~1 (1908 -Honi Tatsuo: tamashii no henreki to shite {~ ~ - a ~ ~z~ (Honi Tatsuo: as the pilgrimage of a soul), To-ky6, To-ky6 Raifusha, 1955. Ic! Mishima Yukio 1~v, (Mishima Yukio [the author]) [=Sakkaron shiriizu ~ ' (Series on authors), 2], T~ky6, T~ky6 Raifusha, 1955. Ic! 1144. Yoshioka Zeniid5 6 W, - Ginkan # (The Milky Way), Zenjid6 ku-shl 4 A,-/ 4] ~ t A I nj (1889 - Fukuoka, Amnanokawa Hakk6jo, 1932. /h/ (A collection of the haiku of Zenjid6), T6kyd, Sojinsha, 1935. /h/ 1145. Yoshiya Nobuko _ 6 1 (1896 -"Arashi no bara -x 4L 4- -) 4 k (The rose in the storm)," -Shufu no tomo, July, 1930 - April, 1931. "Ataka-ke no hitobito V ~1- '1 '. I? (The people of the Ataka family)," TOky5 asahi shimbun, August, 1951 - February, 1952. If! "O0nibi %. )~ (A demon fire)," Fujin k~ron, February, 1951. /f/ " Onna no y~ij -#t- o P (Friendship among women)," Fujin kurabu, January, 1933 - December, 1934. If! "Otoko no tsugunai a ' (The recompense of a man)," Shufu no tomo, July, 1935 - July, 1937. If! "'Ris5 no otto 4 ~1 (An ideal husband)," H6chi shimbu-n, February-August, 1933, and OctoberDecember, 1935. If! Yoshiya Nobuko zenshd ) 4 - (The complete works of Yoshiya Nobuko), Tdky6, Shinchdsha, 1935-1936, lov. /z/ 1146. Yoshiyuki Junnosuke -rk - 4 k- %f (1924 -"Shiiu V.-4 ii (A shower)," Bungakkai, February, 1954. If! 1147. Yuasa Katsue / 4 C lt "IHon6 no kiroku %,a Wl, T "IKannani -p 4,- ~ = (Kannani [' (1910 -(A memoir of flames)," Kaiz6, April, 1935. If! Korean girl's name])," Bungaku hyoron, April, 1935.

Page  161 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHOWA LITERATURE 161 1148. Yiiki Ais6ka- Ti (1893 -Sanroku '$ (The foot of a mountain), T6kyd, Iwanami Shoten, 1929. /t/ Sudama (A demon), Tdky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1935. It/ 1149. Yuki Shiek I rC.' + (1902 -'Hon no hanashi (The story of books)," Sakuhin, March, 1949; also, Bungei shunjdl, September, 1949. If! "Keishi s6kan no warai A- IA~ (The laugh of the inspector-general of police)," -Bungakkai, September, 1949. If! 1150. Yukitomo Riffil 1 (1877 -Hazama Shinroku A (Hazama Shinroku), performed at the K6t6 Gekijb, November, 1945. /d/ Kunisada Chiiji ~ &~ (Kunisada Chdji), performed by the Shinkokugeki company at the Takarazuka Daigekij6 in May, 1946. /d/

Anthologies of Showa Literature


pp. 162-189

Page  162 CHAPTER FOUR ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE The established authors of Showa literature are frequently represented in the available anthologies. In fact, the number of anthologies in which an author's works appear is one of the indices to his importance and popularity. In the following listings, the term "Showa author" designates any writer (who may have started his literary career in the Meiji or Taish6 eras) who has published one or more creative works in the subsequent Showa era. For references to the various anthologies in which a particular author is represented, see Appendix II, the Index of Authors and Editors. Because of the large number of anthologies of Sh5wa writings that are constantly being published, the following list cannot pretend to completeness. For a longer list which is analyzed in accordance with the authors represented (and sometimes naming the actual works that are being reprinted), the student may wish to consult Kotens6o d -$, Meiji, Taish6, Sh6wa zenshui sosho kambetsu shomei jiten a] - -E ~( ^/- f, -t - (A list of anthologies of the Meiji, Taisho, and Showa eras, indexed according to the works contained in each volume), T6ky6, Taishf Shob6, 1950. 1151. Akai tori d6wa meisakushiu, --,. i 4 A t (A collection of the masterpieces among the children's stories in Akai tori), ed. by Tsubota J6ji e; ~ - and others, T6kyo, Komine Shoten, 1949. 1152. Akutagawa-sh6 zenshiu 3 "o. / 4 (Anthology of the prize-winning works of the Akutagawa competition), T6ky6, Sujaku Shorin (v. 1) and Koyama Shoten (v. 2-6), 1940-1949, 6v. The authors represented in the respective volumes are the following: 1. Ishikawa Tatsuz6 Oda Takeo Tsuruta Tomoya 2. Ishikawa Jun Ozaki Kazuo Hino Ashihei 3. Nakayama Gishf Nakazato Tsuneko Handa Yoshiyuki Hase Ken 4. Samukawa Kotar6 Sakurada Tsunehisa Tada Yakei Shibaki Yoshiko 5. Kuramitsu Toshio Ishizuka Kikuz6 Higashinobe Kaoru Yagi Yoshinori 6. Obi Jiuz Shimizu Kikichi Yuki Shigeko Kotani Tsuyoshi 1153. Anakisuto shishi 7 t 7 N, t (A collection of anarchist long poems), ed. by Suzuki Ryusuke J * 4p /4, T6kyo, Anakisuto Shishui Shuppambu, 1929. 1154. Arechi shishiu, + L -74 (A collection of long poems on the waste land), T6ky6, Hayakawa Shob6, 1951. Contains poems by: Kitamura Tar6 Miyoshi Toyoichir6 Ayukawa Nobuo Kuriyama Osamu Takahashi Munechika Hikida Hirokichi Horikoshi Hideo Kihara Koichi Morikawa Yoshinobu Kuroda Sabur6 Nakagiri Masao Tamura Ryfiichi 1155. Arechi shishui sen kyuhyaku goju ninen-ban t 4 t. I91 2 -~,. (A collection of long poems on the waste land: 1952 edition), T6kyo, Arechi Shuppansha, 1952. 1156. Arechi shishui sen kyuhyaku gojf sannen-ban,t,- q 9.3 - - (A collection of long poems on the waste land: 1953 edition), Toky6, Arechi Shuppansha, 1954. 1157. Arechi shishui sen kyuhyaku goju yonen-ban, A tk f ( 5 4 — $ (A collection of long poems on the waste land: 1954 edition), Toky6, Arechi Shuppansha, 1954. 1158. Ashibi s6sho.. - / 2 X t (Ashibi Series), T6ky6, Ashibi, 1930-37, 15v. Includes the haiku of the Ashibi group: Mizuhara Shiiushi, Shinoda Teijiro, Ishibashi Tatsunosuke, and others. 162

Page  163 ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE16 163 1159. Bungei hy6ron daihyo- senshil: Sh~wa nijiinen kugatsu yori Sh~wa nijii sannen jiinigatsu made k- 4~ ~~ ~~ ~~-~~- ~~ (A selection of representative literary criticism), ed. by Nihon Bungeika Ky6kai g (Japanese Writers' Association), T~ky6, 1949. On literature: Nakano Yoshio Ito Sei Kubokawa Tsurujir6 Kuwabara Takeo Kitahara Takeo Kuribayashi Tamio Oda Sakunosuke Nakaj ima Kenz6 Shirai K~ji Kikuchi Sh5ichi Aono Suekichi 0On politics and literature: Hirotsu Kazuo Sugiura Mimpei Miyamoto Yuriko Kurahara Korehito Kawakami Tetsutar6 Nakamura Shin' ichirO Yokemura Yoshitar6 Ara Masahito Iwakami Jun' ichi Hirano Ken Odagiri Hideo Nakano Shigeharu Fukuda. Tsuneari Essays: Sakaguchi Ango Niwa Fumio Hanada. Kiyoteru Kambayashi Akatsuki Watanabe Kazuo Tamura Taijird Kawabata Yasunari Takami Jun Funabashi Seiichi 1160. -Bungei hy6ron daihy5 senshii by Nihon Bungeika Ky6kai K~ronsha, 1950. Includes the works of: Hirano Ken Kat6 Shiiichi Togaeri Hajim~e Senuma Shigeki Takayama Takeshi Kubokawa Tsurujird Sasaki Kiichi Nakaj ima Kenz6 Aono Suekichi Niwa Fumio 4~- jk t * ~; (A selection of representative literary criticism), ed. El t k it * W7 (Japanese Writers' Association), Tdky6, ChiO Nakamura Mitsuo It6 Sei Nakano Yoshio Miyamoto Yuriko Noma Hiroshi Odagiri Hideo Hirata Jisabur5 Kawabata Yasunari Ikushima Ryoichi Ara Masahito Hanada, Kiyoteru Terada T~ru Kobayashi Hideo Sat6 Haruo Dazai Osamu Shiga Naoya Fukuda Tsuneari Kawakami TetsutarO 1161. -Cho-hen sh6setsu meisaku zenshdi -& A 1)2tI (Anthology of masterpieces of the long novel), ed. by Nihon Bungeika Ky6kai u 4 /A"- (Japanese Writers' Association), T~kya, K~dansha, 1950, 21v. The Sh~wa authors represented in the respective volumes are the following: 1. Nomura Kod6 2. Yoshiya Nobuko 3. Tamura Taijir6 4. E dogawa Rampo 5.Yoshikawa Eiji 6. Osaragi JirO 7. Koj ima Masaj irO 8. Ishikawa TatsuzO 9. Ishizaka Y6jir6 10. Kawaguchi Matsutar6 11. Niwa Fumio 12. Tsunoda Kikuo 13. Shishi Bunroku 14. Funabashi Seiichi 15. Tomita Tsuneo 16. Yokomizo Masashi 17. Fujisawa Takeo 18. Inoue TomoichirO 19. Yamate KiichirO 20. Hamamoto Hiroshi 21. Kat6 Takeo

Page  164 164 164 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 1162. Ch6hen sh6setsu zenshi -f A 4' I T- (Anthology of long novels), Tdky6, Shinch6sha, 1953, 19v. The Sh~wa authors represented in the respective volumes are the following: 1. Ishikawa Tatsuz6 2. Ishizaka Y6jir5 3. Inoue Tomoichir5 4. Inoue Yasushi 5. Ozaki Shir6 6. Osaragi Jir5 7. Kawabata Yasunari 8. Shishi Bunroku 9. Takami Jun 10. Dan Kazuo 11. Niwa Fumio 12. Hayashi Fusao 13. Hino Ashihei 14. Funabashi Seiichi 15. Thuse Masuji Nakayama Gishii 16. Uchida Hyakken Hirotsu Kazuo 17. Genji Keita Mishima Yukio 18. Kon Hidemi Nagai Tatsuo 19. Hayashi Fumiko Hirabayashi Taiko 1163. Dai-shis6 bunko $& /E. / (Library of great ideas), TokyO, Iwanami Shoten, 1935-36, 26v. The Sh6wa authors represented in the respective volumes include: 2. Miki Kiyoshi 5. Ide Takashi 7. Kuroda Masatoshi 8. HaniGor6 10. Abe Yoshishige 17. Amano Teiyii 18. Watsuji Tetsur6 19. Chino Sh~sh6 20. Kuwaki Gen' yoku 1164. Gakk6- shishiiu ~ - (A collection of poems from the schools), ed. by ItO Shiakichi fff, 1', Toky6-, Gakk6- Shishii Hakk~jo, 1929. 1165. Gendai bungaku daihy6saku zenshil ft ~(V Q 4~ ~ (Anthology of present-day literature), ed. by Hirotsu Kazuo tp and others, Toky6, Banrikaku, 1948-49, 8v. The Sh~wa authors represented in the respective volumes are the following: 1. Akutagawa Ryiinosuke Ikenoya Shinzabur6 Oda Sakunosuke Okamoto Kanoko Kasai Zenzd Kajii Motojir6 Kataoka Teppei Kan5 Sakujir6 Kamura Isota Kamitsukasa Sh~ken 2. Kikuchi Kan Kuroshima Denji Koj ima Takashi Kobayashi Takiji Sasaki Toshio Sat6 Toshiko Satomura Kinz6 Jdlichiya Gisaburd Shimazaki T~son 4. Hayama Yoshiki Hirabayashi Hy~go H~j6 Tamio Honj6 Rikuo Makino Shin' ichi Matsunaga NobuzO Mayama Seika Minakami Takitar6 Yada Tsuseko Yokomitsu Riichi Yoshiyuki Eisuke Inoue Yasushi Dazai Osamu 5. Asahara Rokur6 Asami Fukashi Abe Tomoj i Amino Kiku Araki Takeshi Inoue TomoichirO Ibuse Masuji ItO Einosuke It6 Sei ItO Sakio Ikeda Kogiku Ishikawa TatsuzO 6. Ishikawa Jun Ishizaka Y~j ir5 Isonokami Gen' ichir5 Ishizuka Tomoj i Ishimitsu Shigeru Ichinose Naoyuki Inuta Shigeru Inagaki Taruho Iwakura Masaj i Iwad5 Yukio Ueda Hiroshi 7. Uno Chiyo Eguchi Kan Edajima Ichijir5 Ema Nakashi Enji Fumiko Qe Ke nj i Oshika Taku Ota Chizuo Ota Y~ko 8. Uchiki Muraji Otani Fuj iko dhara Tomie Otaki Shigenao Ogawa Mimei Oda Takeo Ozaki Kazuo Okada Sabur5 Kaj i Wataru

Page  165 ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE16 165 1166. Gendai bung6 meisaku zenshii TY 4,4' i - (Anthology of masterpieces by the great authors of the present day), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1954, 25v. The Sh~wa authors represented in the respective volumes are the following: 1. Akutagawa Rydnosuke 2. Mushak~ji Saneatsu 3. Tanizaki Jun' ichir6 6. Yokomitsu Riichi 7. Shiga Naoya 9. Yamamoto Yiiz5 11. Shimazaki T6son 12. Kawabata Yasunari 15. Tayama Katai 16. Kikuchi Kan 17. Izumi Ky6ka 18. Satomi Ton 19. Sat6 Haruo 21. Tokuda Shiisei 22. Masamune Hakuch6 23. U no K6j i 24. Nagai Kafil 1167. Gendai ch6hen meisaku zenshil + \ - z ~ ~7 (Anthology of the masterpieces of the present-day long novel), T6ky6, K6dansha, 1953, 17v. The Sh~wa authors represented in the respective volumes are the following: 1. Yoshikawa Eiji 2. Ishikawa Tatsuz5 3. Tomita Tsuneo 4. Funabashi Seiichi 5. Murakami Genz6 6. Osaragi Jir6 7. Yoshiya. Nobuko 8. Niwa Fumio 9. Yamate Kiichir6 10. Shishi Bunroku 11. Ishizaka Y6jir6 12. Inoue Tomoichird 13. Tamura Taijir6 14. Genji Keita 15. Kawaguchi Matsutar6 16. Inoue Yasushi 17. Nomura Kod6 1168. Gendai ch6hen sh6setsu zenshii Tdky6, Shinch6sha, 1928-1930, The Sh6wa authors represented 1. Kikuchi Kan 2. Nagata Mikihiko 3. Satomi Ton 4. Nakamura Murao 5. Kikuchi Yiih6 6. Shimazaki T6son 7. Kat6 Takeo 8. Tanizaki Jun' ichir6 9. Mikami Otokichi 10. Tokuda Shdsei 11. Yoshida Genjir5 12. Sat6 K6roku 13. Kume Masao 14. Izumi Ky~ka 15. Yoshii Isamu 16. Kamitsukasa Sh6ken 17. Tayama Katai 18. Yoshiya Nobuko 19. Kosugi Tengai 20. Sat6 Haruo 21. Kagawa Toyohiko 22. Osanai Kaoru. WT / -V * 'I I 4 ' ' 24v. in the respective volumes are (Anthology of the present-day long novel), the following: Uno Kdj i Okino Iwasabur6 Tanizaki Seiji

Page  166 166 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 23. Hosoda Tamiki 24. Shimada Seijiro Miyake Yasuko Ema Nakashi 1169. Gendai gikyoku senshil t 4k IV 0 I (A selection of present-day dramas), selection supervised by Kishidla Kunio C UiI Kubota Mantaro /, and Masamune Hakuch6 iL,~ ~,g Tokyo, Kawade Shob6, 1954, 5v. The Sh6wa dramatists represented in each volume are as follows: 1. Satomi Ton Mafune Yutaka Hdj6 Hideji Igayama Sh~z5 Morimoto Kaoru Kinoshita Junj i Akimoto Matsuyo 2. Kubota Mantar6 Mizuki KyOta Yagi Ryiiichir6 Hisaita Eijir5 Koyama Yiishi Kawaguchi Ichir6 3. Masamune Hakuch6 Kishida Kunio Kikuta Kazuo Uchimura Naoya Agi Osuke Tanaka Sumie Honie Shir6 Hotta Kiyomi 4. Kishida Kunio Tanaka Chikao Tamura Akiko Taguchi Takeo Nakae Yoshio Nogami Akira Umeda Haruo 5. Kubota Mantar6 Mafune Yutaka Sakanaka Masao Iizawa Tadasu Kat6 Michio Mishima Yukio Yamada Tokiko 1170. -Gendai gikyoku zenshii 3P 4 7 (Anthology of pres Tosho -Kabushiki Kaisha, 1924-26, 20v. The Sh~wa dramatists represented in the respective volumes include: 2. Okamoto Kido 3. Takayasu Gekk5 Yamazaki Shik 7. Mushak6ji Saneatsu 8. Kurata Hyakuz6 Nagayo, Yoshir6 10. Yoshii Isamu Satomi Ton 14. Akita Uj aku Nakaki Teiichi 15. Masamune Hakucho Kond5 Keiichi 16. Ikeda Daigo Kaneko Y~bun 17. Mayama Seika Kawamura KarydKishida Kunio Seto Eiichi 18. Tsubouchi Shik6 Katsumoto Seiichir6 Oka Onitar5 19. Suzuki Senzabur6 ent-day drama), T6ky6, Kokumin Ihara Seiseien Fujii Masumi Sekiguchi Jir5 Kunieda Kanji Okamura Shikd 1171. Gendai haiku daihy6saku senshi It Q V~ 4c 4'~! (A selection of representative present-day haiku), authorized by the Zenkoku Haishi Remmei 'i f-J;4't- L* -D. (National Federation of Haiku Journals) and ed. by Furukawa Katsumi tj, TOky6, Taik6d6, 1950. Many authors and works are represented in this selection. The separate sections are devoted to various fhemes, beginning with spring, summer, autumn, and winter. 1172. Gendai kinr6sha haiku senshi T W - % 4 ty (A selection of haiku by present-day laborers), ed. by Shin-haikujin Remmei (The New Federation of Haiku Poets), Toky6, Jinigatsu Shob6, 1950. 1173. Gendai Nihon bungaku senshdi 4X u - __ (A selection of present-day Japanese literature), ed. by Nihon Pen Kurabu ~ - 7' (Association of Japanese P. E. N.), Toky6, Hosokawa Shoten, 1948-1950, 8v. The Sh6wa authors represented in the respective volumes include: 1. Mushak6ji Saneatsu Shiga Naoya Nagayo Yoshird Satomi Ton Takii K~saku Amino Kiku 2. Masamune Hakuch5 Kume Masao Hirotsu Kazuo Mur6 Saisei Ozaki Kazuo Inoue Tomoichird Tamura Taijir6 Kitahara Takeo 3. Tanizaki Jun' ichir6 Nogami Yaeko Abe Tomoj i Takami Jun 1t6 Sei Maruoka Akira 4. Sat Haruo Uno Chiyo Funabashi Seiichi Ishikawa Jun Sakaguchi Ango Nakazato Tsuneko Dan Kazuo 5. Toyoshima Yoshio Serizawa K6jir6 Hashimoto Eikichi Hirabayashi Taiko Tateno Nobuyuki 1t6 Einosuke Ishikawa Tatsuz5

Page  167 ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE 167 6. Kawabata Yasunari Hayashi Fumiko 7. Uno K6ji Kawasaki Ch6tar6 Mori Michiyo 8. Fujimori Seikichi Tokunaga Sunao Sata Ineko Ibuse Masuji Ishizaka Yojir5 Niwa Fumio Terazaki KO Masugi Shizue Maedagawa Koichir5 Miyamoto Yuriko Hori Tatsuo Kambayashi Akatsuki Nakayama Gishi Nitta Jun Nakano Shigeharu Tsuboi Sakae 1174. Gendai Nihon bungaku zenshdu T V,' A 9 f ~ (Anthology of present-day Japanese literature), Toky6, Kaizosha, 1926-31, 63v. The Sh6wa authors represented in the respective volumes are the following: 2. Tsubouchi Sh6y6 4. Tokutomi Soh6 5. Miyake Setsurei 8. K6da Rohan 14. Izumi Ky6ka 16. Shimazaki Toson 17. Tayama Katai 18. Tokuda Shusei 21. Masamune Hakuch6 22. Nagai Kafu 24. Tanizaki Jun' ichiro 25. Shiga Naoya 26. Mushakoji Saneatsu 29. Satomi Ton Sat6 Haruo 30. Akutagawa Ryunosuke 31. Kikuchi Kan 32. Chikamatsu Shuko Kume Masao 33. ShOnen bungakushiu A- -- t (A collection of children's literature). 34. Gendai gikyoku meisakushiu W tv * 0 1'- A - (A collection of present-day drama). This collection contains works by the following authors who have written plays in the Showa period: Oka Onitar6 Nakamura Kichizo Osanai Kaoru Ikeda Daigo Kinoshita Mokutar6 Nagata Hideo Yoshii Isamu Akita Ujaku 36. Kik6 zuihitsushu, ~ T 1j _ t (A collection of essays on travel). Many authors and works are found this collection, which includes two pieces of fiction by Shimazaki TOson. 37. Gendai Nihon shishiu i, ' B v -, (A collection of present-day long poems) and Gendai Nihon kanshishal >4' 4 - v, i (A collection of present-day Chinese poems by Japanese authors). 38. Gendai tankashu I -A -,. t (A collection of present-day tanka) and Gendai haikushd ~ ^' If G-] t (A collection of present-day haiku). 39. Shakai bungakushu.+,_ t rp I (A collection of works on social problems). This collection contains works by the following authors: Abe Isoo Sakai Toshihiko 40. Takahama Kyoshi 41. Hasegawa Nyozekan 42. Suzuki Miekichi Morita S6hei 43. Okamoto Kido Nagata Mikihiko 44. Kubota Mantar6 Nagayo Yoshir6 Mur6 Saisei 45. Ishikawa Takuboku 46. Yamamoto Yuzo 47. Yoshida Genjir6 Fujimori Seikichi 48. Hirotsu Kazuo Kasai Zenz6 Uno K6ji 50. Shink6 bungakushiu f- _,t _ (A collection of works by authors of "newly rising" literature). This collection contains works by the following authors: Maedagawa K6ichir6 Kishida Kunio Yokomitsu Riichi Hayama Yoshiki Kataoka Teppei 51. Shimbun bungakushiu P- J 1 (A collection of newspaper literature). This collection contains works by eighteen well known journalists. 52. Shuky5 bungakushiu $t - _ - + ~ (A collection of religious literature). This collection contains works by such authors as the following: Niijima J6 Nishida Tenk6 53. Kosugi Tengai 54. Iwaya Sazanami 55. Sat6 K6roku 56. Nogami Yaeko Chujo Yuriko

Page  168 168 168 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 57. Rafuaeru Kdberu (Raphael Koeber) Noguchi Yonejira 58. Shimmura Izuru Yoshimura Fuyuhiko 59. Kagawa Toyohiko 60. Osaragi Jir5 61. Shink6 geijitsuha bungakush~ii~t- Newly Rising Aesthetic School). This collection contains Jfiichiya GisaburJ Kawabata Yasunari Nakagawa Yoichi Ryfitanj i YEi 62. Puroretaria bungakushil 7 r~z L- 7 7 This collection contains works by the following authors: Hayashi Fusao Kobayashi Takij i Fuj isawa Takeo Murayama Tomoyosh Nakano Shigeharu, Tokunaga Sunao 63. Gendai Nihon bungaku dainempyo TV 4 0 EJ present-day Japanese literature). SaitO Mokichi (A collection of works by authors of the 3works by the following authors: Ikenoya Shinzabur6 (A co, Li illection of proletarian literature). Takeda Rintard Kis hi Yamaj i Ochiai Sabur5 (A chronological table of 1175. -Gendai Nihon bungaku zenshii W- ture), T~ky6, Chikuma Shob6, 1954-, The Sh6wa authors represented in the 1. Tsubouchi Sh~y5 3. K6da Rohan 5. Izumi Ky~ka 8. Shimazaki T6son 9. Tayama Katai 10. Tokuda Sh~isei 12. Yanagida Kunio 13. Chikamatsu Shdk6 14. Masamune Hakuch6 15. Yosano Hiroshi 16. Nagai KAM~ 17. Osanai Kaoru 18. Tanizaki Jun' ichirO 19. Mushak6ji Saneatsu 20. Shiga Naoya 22. Terada Torahiko 23. Sait6 Mokichi 24. Takamura Ko-tard 25. Satomi Ton 26. Akutagawa Ryiinosuke 27. Kikuchi Kan 28. Nagayo Yoshiro 29. Minakami Takitar6 30. Sat5 Haruo 31. Yamamoto Yaiz6 32. Hirotsu Kazuo 33. Toyoshima Yoshio 34. Kan6 Sakujir6 Kamura Isota 35. Miyamoto Yuriko 36. Yokomitsu Riichi 37. Kawabata Yasunari 38. Hayama Yoshiki 39. Hirabayashi Taiko Tsuboi Sakae 40. Takii K(5saku Kambayashi Akatsuki 41. Thuse Masuji 42. Kobayashi Hideo 43. Kajii Motojir6 44. Abe Tomoj i 45. Okamoto Kanoko 46. Takeda Rintar6 47. Niwa Fumio 48. Ozaki Shir6 49. Ishikawa Jun 0' ~ <$ t~ 4_ f +- (Anthology of present-day Japanese litera97v. plus 2 supplementary v. in all, not quite completely published. respective volumes are as follows: Yosano Akiko Kitahara Hakush~i Kinoshita Mokutaro Morita S~hei Hagiwara, Sakutaro Kume Masao Yoshii Isamu Suzuki Miekichi Miyazawa Kenji Mur6 Saisei Nogami Yaeko Kubota Mantar6 U no K6j i Kishida Kunio Kasai Zenz5 Makino Shin' ichi Kobayashi Takiji Sata Ineko Nakano Shigeharu Amino Kiku Ozaki Kazuo Tonomura Shigeru Miyoshi Tatsuji It6 Sei Hayashi Fumiko Shimagi Kensaku Funabashi Seiichi Hino Ashihei Sakaguchi Ango Honi Tatsuo Nakayama Gishd Uno Chiyo Takami Jun Ishikawa TatsuzO Dazai Osamu

Page  169 ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE16 169 50. Mafune Yutaka Kubo Sakae Miyoshi Jilr6 Kinoshita Junj i 56. Kosugi Tengai Okamoto Kid6 Mayama Seika 58. Tsuchii Bansui Susukida Kyfikin Kambara Ariake 61. Shimazaki T~son 62. Tayama Katai 63. Tokuda Shasei 66. Takahama Kyoshi 67. Masamune Hakuch5 70. Tamura Toshiko Takebayashi Mus~an Ogawa Mimei Tsubota J~ji 71. Tanizaki Jun' ichir6 72. Mushak6ji Saneatsu 73. Noguchi Yonejird Miki Rofti Senke Motomaro Hinatsu K6nosuke 74. Abe Jir6 Kurata Hyakuzo 75. Naka Kansuke Uchida Hyakken 76. Shaku Ch~kfi 77. Maedagawa Koichir6 Fujimori Seikichi Tokunaga Sunao Murayama Tomoyoshi 78. Aono Suekichi Hirabayashi Hatsunosuke Kurahara Korehito Nakano Shigeharu 79. Jiiichiya Gisabur5 Tabata Shfiichir6 H~j6 Tamio Nakaj ima Atsushi 80. Osaragi Jir6 Ishizaka Y6j ir6 81. Nagai Tatsuo Inoue TomoichirO Oda Sakunosuke Inoue Yasushi 82. Shiina Rinz6 Noma Hiroshi Umezaki Haruo 83. Tamiya Torahiko Ooka Sh~hei Takeda Taij un Mishima Yukio 86. Sh6wa sh~setsu-shii (ichi) V8, -~tz '~ (A collection of Sh~wa fiction, 1): Kuroshima Denji Iwad6 Yukio Hashimoto Eikichi Sui Haj ime Iwakura Masaj i Moriyama Kei Satomura Kinz6 Kon TWk Tateno Nobuyuki Kataoka Teppei Serizawa K6jir5 1t6 Einosuke Wada Tsuto Rytitanj i Yil Fukada Kyu-ya Fujisawa Takeo Tominosawa Rintar6 Shimomura Chiaki Sasaki Toshiro Asahara Rokur6 Kuno Toyohiko Yasutaka Tokuz6 Inukai Takeru Takahashi Shinkichi Ikenoya Shinzabur6 87. Sh6wa sh6setsu-shiu (ni) c 4 (A collection of Sh~wa fiction, 2): Nakamura Jihei Towada Misao Nitta Jun Sakakiyama Jun Koyama Itoko Nakatani Takao Tomizawa Uio Tsuruta Tomoya Oda Takeo Takagi Taku Oshika Taku Honj Rikuo Ueda Hiroshi Terazaki K6 Asami F'ukashi Cho6 Kakuchii Nakazato Tsuneko Enj i Fumiko Araki Takashi Shibukawa Gy6 Masugi Shizue Samukawa K6tar6 Hase Ken Shibaki Yoshiko Maruoka Akira Fukuda Kiyoto Kiyama Sh~hei Ishizuka Tomoj i Otani Fuj iko Yada Tsuseko 88. Sh6wa sh6setsu-shii (san) q -~ v 4' ~t (A collection of Sh~wa f iction, 3): Kitahara Takeo Hara Tamiki Kon Hidemi Kawasaki Ch6tar6 Isonokami Gen' ichir6 Nakamoto Takako Yagi Yoshinori Dan Kazuo Ota Yoko Jinzai Kiyoshi Tanaka Hidemitsu Hotta Yoshie Tamura Taijir6 Kida Mino ru and others 89. Gendai shishd i#~ (A collection of long poems of the Sh~wa period): has, on pp. 422 -445, an essay by Murano Shiro Az{ r u' entitled "Gendaishi sh6shi; 'q (A short history of the modern long poem). Kawai Suimei Kaneko Mitsuharu Kitazono Katsue Irako Seihaku Takeuchi Katsutar6 Kond6 Azuma Yokose Yau Fukao Sumako Miyoshi Toyoichir6 Kawaj i Rytiko Oki Atsuo Ayukawa Nobuo Hattori Yoshika Yoshida Issui Tamura Ryflichi Fukushi K6jir6 Sato Ichiei Ozaki Kihachi Mitomi Kyiiy6 Murano Shir6 Takenaka Iku

Page  170 170 170 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Saij6 Yaso Horiguchi Daigaku Yanagisawa Ken Kitamura Hatsuo Ikuta Shungetsu Sat6 Kiyoshi Tomita Saika Shiratori Shdgo Momota S56ji Yamamura Boch6 Kat,6 Kaishun Sato S6nosuke Ote Takuj i Ogata Kamenosuke Tanaka Fuyuj i Tachihara Michiz5 Tanaka Katsumi Sakamoto Etsur6 90. Gendai tanka-shd.QC-~ 430, an essay by Kimata Osamu (Review of the modern tanka): Sasaki Nobutsuna Onoe Saishii Kaneko Kun'e Kubota Utsubo Hirano Banri Ota Mizuho Maeda Ydgure Toki Zemmaro Oka Fumoto Koizumi Chikashi Ishihara Jun Kawada Jun Tsuchiya Bummei Yoshiue Sh6ry6 Ishigure Chimata, Aizu Yaichi Hashida T~sei Nishimura Y6kichi Matsumura Eiichi Uematsu Hisaki 91. Gendai haiku-shil i k24 42:3-438, an essay by Kanda Hide( (Short history of the modern haiki Akimoto Fuj io Azumi Atsushi Awano Seiho Anzai Okaishi Iida Dakotsu Ishii Rogetsu Ishikawa KeirO Ishida Haky5 Ishizuka Tomoji Ishibashi Hideno Ishibashi Tatsunosuke Usuda Ar6 Ono, Rinka Ozaki H~sai Ogiwara, Seisensui Kakurai Akio Kat6 Shdson Katsura Nobuko, Kaneko T6ta Kawabata B~sha Kawahigashi HekigotO Ky6goku. Kiy6 Kuribayashi Issekiro Yokoyama HakkO Watanabe Hakusen Takahashi Shinkichi Okazaki SeiichirC5 Kusano Shimpei And5 Ichir6 Yagi Jiikichi Hishiyama Shfiz6 Hagiwara Kyojiro5 It Sei Tsuboi Shigeji Sasazawa Yoshiaki Ono T~sabur6 J6 Samon Okamoto Jun Iwasa TI-ichir6 Oguma Hideo Kurahara Shinj ird It6 Shinkichi Yamanoguchi Baku Nishiwaki Junzabur65 Kikuoka Kuri Haruyama Yukio Oe Mitsuo Kitagawa Fuyuhiko Hemmi Ydkichi Anzai Fuyue Fujiwara Sadamu Yamamoto Tard Maruyama Kaoru Tominaga Tar5 Nakahara Chuiya Tsumura Nobuo Itd Shizuo Jimbo K~taro- Tanikawa Shuntar6 Oki Minoru Hiraki Niroku #c(A collection of tanka of the Sh~wa period): has, on pages 403 -2V~ i {'~ entitled "Gendai tanka. tembO 5i- Handa Ry~hei Yamashita Mutsu Yashiro To-son Utsuno, Ken Shiga Mitsuko Jkadai Kaichi Wakayama Kishiko Kagoshima Juzo3 Usui Taiyoku Got6 Shigeru Tsuchida K~hei Hozumi Kiyoshi Migashima Yoshiko Maekawa Samio Imai Kuniko Hasegawa Ginsaku Sugiura Suiko Gomi Yasuyoshi Iwaya Bakuai Yamaguchi Mokichi Okuma Nobuyuki Kimata Osamu Okayama Iwao Tsubono Tekkyi] Watanabe Junz6 Sat6 Satar6 Okano, Naoshichir6 Yoshino Hideo Hashimoto Tokuju Got6 Miyoku Matsuda Tsunenori Fukuda E iic hi Fuj isawa Furumi Sait6 Fumi Takata Namikichi Miya Shiiji Matsukura Yonekichi Kubota Sh~ichirO Yd-ki Ais~ka Kond5 Yoshimi E7 (A collection of haiku of the Sh~wa period); has, on pages 3 entitled Gendai haiku sh~shi TL ~ '7 a): Got6 Yahan Sat6 Kib Sait6 Sanki Sawaki Kin! ichi Shinowara H~saku Shinowara Bon Shiba Fukio Sugita Hisajo Suzuki Murio Takata ChOi Takano Suji! Takaya S~shii Takayanagi Shigenobu Taneda Sant~ka Tsuda Kiyoko T~go Sayil Tomnizawa Kakio Tomnita Moppo TomiyasuF~isei Nait Toten Nait6 Meisetsu Nakaj ima Takeo Nakatsuka Ippekird Yoshioka Zenjido Nakamura Kusatao Nakamura Teijo Nagata K~i Nishijima Bakunan Hashimoto Takako Hashimoto Mud6 Hara Sekitei Hino S~j6 Hirahata, Seito Hiroe Yaezakura Furusawa Taiho Hoshino Tatsuko Hosomi Ayako Hosoya Genji Matsuse Seisei Matsune T~y~j5 Matsumoto Takashi Maeda Fura Mitsuhashi Takajo Mizuhara Shfi~shi Mu rakam i Kij O Yamaguchi Seison Yamaguchi Seishi Watanabe Suiha

Page  171 ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE 171 92. Gendai gikyoku-shii 0. I~ (A collection of present-day dramas): Nagata Hideo Ikeda Daigo Hisaita Eijir6 Matsui Sh6O Suzuki Senzabur6 Morimoto Kaoru Akita Uj aku Kaneko Ydbun Kat6 Michio Nakamura Kichiz6 Kawaguchi Ichiro Iizawa Tadasu Oka Onitar6 Sakanaka Masao Tanaka Chikao Sekiguchi Jir6 Uchimura Naoya Koyama Ytshi 93. Gendai yakushi-sh~i (A collection of modern translations of poetry): includes works of the Sh6wa period by: Horiguchi Daigaku Sat6 Haruo Yamauchi Yoshio Hinatsu Kon6suke 94. Gendai bungei hy6ron-shii(ichi) 3TF 4 (A collection of present-day literary criticism, 1): includes the works of the following authors who have written in the Sh~wa period: Tokutomi Soh6 Akagi K6hei Hasegawa Nyozekan Tobari ChikufE Watsuji Tetsur6 Miki Kiyoshi Hasegawa Tenkei Kat6 Kazuo Tanigawa Tetsuz6 Kaneko Chikusui Tsuchida Ky6son Tosaka Jun Shirayanagi Shdko Yoshie Takamatsu Omori Yoshitaro Got6 Chilgai Chiba Kameo Sugiyama Heisuke Katayama Koson Nii Itaru Yazaki Dan Abe Yoshishige Komiyayama Meibin Yasuda Yojlr6 Tanaka Odro Katsumoto Seiichiro Sugiyama Hideki Homma Hisao Oya S~ichi Yokemura Yoshitar6 Soma Gyofil Miyamoto Kenji 95. Gendai bungei hy6ron-shii (ni) -j,t V (A collection of modern literary criticism, 2): Kawakami Tetsutar6 Yamamoto Kenkichi Hanada Kiyoteru Karaki Junz5 Usui Yoshimi Sasaki Kiichi Kamei Katsuichir6 Ara Masahito Kubokawa TsurujirO Nakamura Mitsuo Hirano Ken Iwakami Jun' ichi Ito6 Se i Honda Shbugo Yamamuro Shizuka Senuma Shigeki Togaeri Hajime Sugiura Mimpei Asami Fukashi Odagiri Hideo Oi Hirosuke 96. Gendai bungei hy6ron-shii (san) W~-Q~j~(A collection of modern literary criticism, 3): Tatsuno Yutaka Honda Akira Takahashi Yoshitaka. Hayashi Tatsuo Nakano Yoshio Yoshida Kenl ichi Watanabe Kazuo Katayama Toshihiko Takeuchi Yoshimi Nakaj ima Kenz6 Takeyama Michio Terada Tdru Abe Rokur6 Ikushima Ry6ichi Nishimura K6ji Ichihara Toyota Fukase Motohiro Nakamura Shin' ichirO5 Kuwabara Takeo Jinzai Kiyoshi Kato Sh~uichi Kawamori Yoshiz6 Tezuka Tomio 97. Bungaku-teki kais5-shiu ~Zr'' [-iLJ t. f (A collection of literary recollections): Tsubouchi Sh6y6 Hirata Tokuboku Supplementary volume 1. -Gendai Nihon bungakushi V_ A-( Ql ~ t (A history of modern Japanese literature): The Meiji period, by Nakamura Mitsuo; the Taish6 period, by Usui Yoshimi; and the Sh6wa period, by Hirano Ken. Supplementary volume 2. Gendai Nihon bungaku nempy6 ~ 4Qn ~ — 4 (A chronology modern Japanese literatr) 1176. Gendai Nihon shijin zenshfi v 4 l t 4 4 (A complete collection of present-day Japanese writers of the long poem), Toky6, S~gensha, 1953, 15v. 1177. -Gendai Nihon sh6setsu taikei AL 4~ El V 4 'U i L (Outline of present-day Japanese fiction),. ed. by Nihon Kindai Bungaku Kenkytlkai El ~ A&4 tf k~ (Society for the Study of Modern Japanese Literature), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1951 -1952, introductory plus 60 volumes plus 4 supplementary volumes. The volumes are grouped together according to genre and then according to the dates of the works. The Sh6wa authors represented in each volume are as follows: Introductory volume: Tsubouchi 5h6y6 1. Tsubouchi S5hy6 3. K6da. Rohan Supplementary volume to 1, 2, and 3: Iwaya Sazanami 4. Izumi Ky6ka 6. Kosugi Tengai 8. Shimazaki T6son Tayama Katai 9. Tayama Katai Tokuda Shdsei

Page  172 172 172 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 10. Shimazaki TUson 11. Tayamna Katai 12. Masamune Hakuch6 14. Tayamna Katai 15. Kamitsukasa Sh~ken Kan6 Sakujir6 17. Terada Torahiko Naka Kansuke 18. Takahama Kyoshi 20. Nagai Kafii 21. Minakami Takitar5 Kinoshita Mokutard 23. Mushak6ji Saneatsu 24. Shiga Naoya 27. Shiga Naoya 28. Nagayo Yoshir5 29. Nogami Yaeko 30. Arahata Kanson Hasegawa Nyozekan 31. Akutagawa Ryilnosuke 32. Yamamoto Yiiz6 33. Hirotsu. Kazuo 34. Sat5 Haruo, 35. Satomi Ton Tanizaki Juntlichird 36. Kan6 Sakuj ir6 Motoki Shizuko Okada Sabur6 Fuj imori Seikichi 37. Shimnazaki T6son Masamune Hakuchd 38. Nagai KafUi 39. K~da Rohan 40. Hayamna Yoshiki Satomura Kinz6 Imano, KenzO Eguchi Kan 41. Tokunaga Sunao Iwad6 Yukio 43. Hayashi Fusao Kobayashi Takij i Kataoka Teppei Kawabata Yasunari Kon T6k6 44. Makino Shint ichi Inagaki Taruho 45. Ry~itanj i Yid Abe Tomnoj i Serizawa K6jir6 46. Yokomitsu. Riichi 47. Hirotsu Kazuo Toyoshima Yoshio 48. Nakano Shigeharu 49. Funabashi Seiichi Nakayama Gishii 50. Ishizaka Y6jir5 51. Kishida Kunio 52. Thuse Masuji Kambayashi Akatsuki 53. Hori Tatsuo 54. Sakaguchi Ango H6j6 Tamio 55. Miyamoto Yuriko Otani Fuj iko Fukuda Kiyoto Moriyama Kei Tokuda Shtlsei Mayama, Seika Masamune Hakuch6 Nakamura Seiko Suzuki Miekichi Uchida Hyakken Tanizaki Junt ichiro Kubota Mantard Tokuda Shiisei Tokuda Shiisei Ogawa Mimei Morita S~hei Osanai Kaoru Satomni Ton Arishima Ikuma Miyamoto Yuriko Kamitsukasa Sh6ken Miyaji Karoku Kikuchi Kan Toyoshima Yoshio Kasai Zenz6 Mur6 Saisei Sat6 Haruo Tanizaki Seiji Kat6 Takeo Ozaki Shiro Tokuda Shdsei Tanizaki Junt ichir5 Izumi Ky6ka Kaneko Y~bun Miyajima Sukeo Kuroshima Denji Sata Ineko Kaga K~j i Nakano Shigeharu Murayama Tomoyoshi Fujimori Seikichi Nakagawa Yoichi Ikenoya Shinzabur6 Uno Chiyo Hayashi Fumiko Thuse Masuj i 1t6 Sei Fukada Kyiiya, Kawabata Yasunari U no Koj i Shimagi Kensaku Ishikawa Tatsuz6 1t6 Einosuke Abe Tomoj i Ozaki ShirO Ozaki Kazuo It6 Sei Dazai Osamu Ishikawa Jun Nakaj ima Atsushi Sata Ineko Tsuruta Tomoya Hirabayashi Hy6go Wada Tsut6 Og,-awa Mimnei Miyamoto Yuriko Kume Masao Uno K~j i Takii K~saku Kubota Mantar6 Soma Taiz6 Yoshida Genjir6 Sasaki Mosaku Tayamna Katai Yamakawa RyO Maedagawa K6ichir6 Yamada SeizaburO Hashimoto Eikichi Hirabayashi Taiko Tateno Nobuyuki Takeda Rintaro Yokomitsu Riichi Kataoka Teppei J~iichiya Gisabur6 Kamura Isota, Hori Tatsuo Kajii Motojir5 Fuj isawa Takeo Mur6 Saisei Takamni Jun Niwa Fumnio Tokunaga Sunao Hino, Ashihei Hayashi Fumiko Tsubota J~j i Okamoto Kanoko Tabata Shiiichir6 Tanaka Hidemnitsu Tsuboi Sakae Honj 6 Rikuo Araki Takashi Iwakura Masaj i

Page  173 ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE17 173 56. Takeda Rintar6 Terazaki K6 Yada Tsuseko Sakakiyama Jun 57. Asami Fukashi Okada Sabur6 Nagai Tatsuo Tonomura Shigeru 58. Shimagi Kensaku 59. Niwa Fumio Ueda Hiroshi 60. K~da Rohan Tokuda Shiisei Supplement 1: Sakaguchi Ango Ishikawa Jun Supplement 2: Ihuse Masuj i Abe Tomoj i Supplement 3: Shiina Rinz6 Mishima Yukio Ooka Sh6hei Shibukawa Gy5 Kitahara Takeo Takagi Taku Oshika Taku Oda Takeo Amino Kiku Kawasaki Ch6tard Mamiya Mosuke Ishikawa Tatsuzd Hibino Shir6 Nagai Kaffi Dazai Osamu Nakayama Gishai Noma Hiroshi Nakamura Shin' ichirO Nitta Jun Inoue Tomoichiro Tomizawa Uio Yasutaka Tokuzo Nakamura Jihei Ishizuka Tomoji Maruoka Akira It(5 Einosuke Hino Ashihei Masamune Hakuch6 Oda Sakunosuke Hirabayashi Taiko Umezaki Haruo Takeda Taijun (Anthology of present-day Japanese fiction), 1178. Gendai Nihon sh6setsu. zenshti k kV. A G $' T6ky6, Atoriesha, 1936-37, 26v. An incomplete listing of volumes and authors includes: 1. Kikuchi Kan 2. Yoshikawa Eiji 4. Osaragi Jir6 9. Hasegawa Shin 14. Nakamura Murao 15. Sasaki Kuni 16. Kat6 Takeo 1179. Gendai Nihon zuihitsusen jV 4- (A selection of present-day Japanese essays), T~ky6, Chikurna Shob6, 1953, 7v. The Sh6wa authors represented in each volume are as follows: 1. Kawabata. Yasunari Ihuse Masuj i 2. Uchida Hyakken Shishi Bunroku 3. Tokugawa Musei Takada Tamotsu 4. Morita Tama Hayashi Fumiko 5. Akutagawa Rydnosuke Kikuchi Kan 6. Uno K0j i Hirotsu Kazuo 7. Shimmura. Izuru Kindaichi Ky6suke 1180. "Gendai sakkaron tokushfi WV- IV 4'F '~ A - writers)," Bungakusha, October, 1939. 1181. Gendai shijin zenshil 4. 4< A. 41 /- i~ (Anthology of T6ky6, Shinch~sha, 1929-30, 12v. The Sh~wa poets included in each volume are as follows: 1. Takeshima Hagoromo 2. Shimazaki T~son Tsuchii Bansui 3. Kambara Ariake Noguchi Yonejir6 4. Kawai Suimei Yokose Yau 5. Kitahara Hakushil M iki Rof 7. Hinatsu K~nosuke Saij6 Yaso 8. Ikuta Shungetsu Horiguchi Daigaku 9. Takamura K6tar6 MurO Saisei 10. Fukushi K~jirO Sat5 S~nosuke 11. Shiratori Sh6go Fukuda Masao 12. Yanagisawa Ken Tomita Saika (Special anthology of essays on present-day works by present-day authors of the long poem), Susukida Kyilkin Kawaj i RyflkO Kat6 Kaishun SatO Haruo Hagiwara Sakutaro Senke Motomaro Noguchi Uj6 Momota S~j i 1182. Gendai shijinshii:fv Q~: ~'J A.!~ T6kyd, Sangab6, 1940. (Anthology of works by present-day writers of the long poem),

Page  174 174 174 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 1183. -Gendai shishd - v V (Anthology of the present-day long poem), T~ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1939, 3v. 1184. "Gendaishi tokushfii~ (A special anthology of present-day poems)," Bungei, July, 1949. 1185. Gendai sh6setsu daihy6- senshd i(d. X (A representative selection of presentday fiction), ed. by Nihon Bungeika Ky6kai 4 z~ (Association of Japanese Writers), T6ky6, K~bunsha, 1950, 6v. 1186. Gendai taishdi bungaku zenshd 1f47 (Anthology of present-day popular literature), T~kyd, Heibonsha, 1927-1930, 40v.;suppl. anthology, 1930-32, 20v. The initial anthology includes the works of: 3. Edogawa Rampo 9. Hamao Shir5 10. K~ga Sabur6 -16. Shimomura Etsuo 17. Motoyama Tekishdi 18. Murakami Namiroku 19. Usui Ky6ji 25. Ihara Seiseien 27. Takakuwa Gisei 28. Yukitomo Rifti The supplementary anthology includes the works of: 1. Hayashi Fub6 2. Sasaki Mitsuz5 3. Usui Ky6ji 4. Oshita Udaru 6. Mikami Otokichi 7. Yukitomo Rifd 8. Naoki Sanjil~go 9. Haj i Kiyoj i 10. Yoshikawa E ij i 11. Hasegawa Shin 12. Maeda Shozan 13. Kunieda Shir6 14. Osaragi Jir6 15. Nomura Kodd 16. Honda Bizen 17. Ikuta Ch6suke 18. Yokomizo Masashi Hoshino Tatsuo Hamao Shir6 19. Muramatsu Shbfu- Ushioyama Ch~z5 20. Edogawa Rampo 1187. Gendai taishii bungaku zenshil k'Ci~ ~r4 (Anthology of present-day popular literature), Tdkyd, Shun'yod6, 1949 -The Sh~wa authors represented in the respective volumes include: 1. Kojima Masajir6 2. Tsunoda Kikuo 3. Nomura Kodd Shishi Bunroku 4. Edogawa Rampo 6. Naoki Sanjilgo Yokomizo Masashi Takeda Toshihiko 7. Sasaki Kuni 8. Hasegawa Shin Hayashi Fub5 Shirai Ky6ji Okamoto Kid6 1188. Gendai tanka taikei 1953, lov. 'T / k AA i,f -/ - Z (Outline of the present-day tanka), T6ky6, Kawade Shob6, 1189. Gendai tanka, zenshii T / ~ -F/, J i7 P,1 b~ 1929-31, 21v. The Sk6wa authors represented in the several volt 3. Sasaki Nobutsuna 4. Nagatsuka Takashi 6. 1t6 Sachio Oka Fumol 7. Onoe Saishil Kubota Uts 8. Kaneko Kun' en Ota Mizuhc 9. Kitahara Hakushi] Yoshii Isai (Anthology of the present-day tanka), T6ky6, Kaiz6sha,

Page  175 ANTHOLOGIES OF SHO5WA LITERATURE17 175 10. Toki Zemmaro 11. Wakayama Bokusui 12. Sait6 Mokichi 13. Koizumi Chikashi 14. Ishigure Chimata, 15. Nakamura Kenkichi 16. Oyama Tokujir5 18. Imai Kuniko Hara Asao 19. S6ma Gyofii Toyama Akimasa 20. Iwaya Bakuai Handa Ry6hei 21. Poems in the spoken Maeda Yi~gure Shimagi Akahiko Shaku Ch~kii Kinoshita Toshiharu Tsuchiya Bummei Matsumura Eiichi Yanagiwara Byakuren Shiga Mitsuko Mii K~shi Katayama Hiroko Hashida T6sei Migashima Yoshiko language: Nishimura Y~kichi and 16 other poets. Ishihara Jun Kawada Jun Yoshiue Sh6ry6 Wakayama Kishiko Hirano Banri Uematsu Hisaki 1190. Gendai tanka zenshd &J ~-\ kp, 1 i!L (A complete collection of present-day tanka) [in S~gen bunko Ajj 5t- (S~gen library)], T6ky6, S~gensha, 1952 -53, 8v. Each volume is edied by a different poet and concluded with an explanatory article. The names of the editors and of the poets of the Sh~wa era represented in each volume are as follows: 1. Ed. by Kagoshima Juz6: Shaku Ch6kd Oka Fumoto Ishihara, Jun Hirafuku Hyakusui Migashima Yoshiko Hama Asao Soma Gyofff 2. Ed. by Sat6 Satar5: Sait6 Mokichi Nakamura Kenkichi Koizumi Chikashi Tsuchiya Bummei Tsuchida K~hei Imai Kuniko Kaneko Kun' en Ota Mizuho Ishigure Chimata Oyama Tokujir6 Hashida T6sei 3. Ed. by Kimata Osamu: Yosano Akiko Chino Masako Hirano Banri Kitahara, Hakushil Yoshii Isamu Okamoto Kanoko Kuj 0 Takeko Yanagiwara, Byakuren Yoshiue Sh~ry6 4. Ed. by Kubota Sh6ichirU: Sasaki Nobutsuna Kinoshita Toshiharu Kawada Jun Onoe SaishfI Wakayama Bokusui Maeda Yiigure Ishii Naosabur6 Iwaya, Bakuai Kubota Utsubo, Handa Ry6hei Matsumura Eiichi Uematsu Hisaki Toki Zemmaro 5. Ed. by Ohashi Matsuhei: Okano Naoshichiro Kagoshima Juz6 Saito Fumi Sugiura Suiko Takata Namikichi Takeo Chiikichi Tsubono Tekkyii Nakajima Air6 Hashimoto Tokuju Fuj isawa Furumi Mizumachi Ky6ko Yamashita Hidenosuke Yiiki Aiso-ka Wakayama Kishiko 6. Ed. by Okayama Iwao: Abe Shizue Utsuno Ken Okuma Nobuyuki Kimata. Osamu Koizumi T&6z Got6 Shigeru Sat5 Satar6 Taraki Takashi Tsuzuki Sh~go, Nakahara Ayako Nakamura Sh6j i Horiuchi Michitaka. Yashiro T~son Yamaguchi Mokichi Yoshida Masatoshi 7. Ed. by Hashimoto Tokuju: Akashi Kaij in Ikadai Kaichi Ohashi Matsuhei Okayama Iwao Kitami Shioko Got5 Miyoko Gomi Yasuyoshi Shibata. Minoru Hasegawa Ginsaku. Hozumi Kiyoshi Maekawa Samio Matsuda Tsunenori Yamashita Mutsu Yoshino Hideo 8. Ed. by Nakamura Sh6ji: Ubukata Tatsue Qi Hiroshi Oda Kanke i Kubota Sh6ichir6 Kogure Masaji Kond6 Yoshimi Shiga Mitsuko Daigob6 Toshio Tani Kanae Nakagawa Mikiko Hattori Naoto Matsukura. Yonekichi Miva Shdiii Yamamoto Ydicihi — j- -.-..- A. 1191. Gendai yiimoa bungaku zenshfl W. ~ --- - -E 7T I 4 (Anthology of present-day humorous literature), Tfky6, Surugadai Shob6, 19315,2v The Sh6wa authors represented in the respective volumes are as follows: 1. Sasaki Kuni 2. Nakano M ino ru 3. Tokugawa Musei 4. Settsu Mowa 5. Genji Keita 6. Miyazaki Hiroshi 7. Ui Mushfi 8. Ima Harube

Page  176 176 176 ~~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 9. Kashima K~j i 10. Sat6 Hachir5 11. Tachibana Sotoo 12. Inui Shin'ichird 13. Kitamura Komatsu 14. Kitamachi Ichir6 15. Sugawara Tsudsai 16. Ishiguro Keishichi 17. Tamnakawa Ichir6 18. Minami Tatsuhiko 19. Togawa Yukio 20. Konto meisakushfl 21. Sasaki Kuni 22. Nakano M ino ru p1-I ~ Th jl (A collection of famous short stories) 1192. Gendai zuihitsu senshiil 3V 1. ~ I I '_ ~ (A selection of present-day essays), ed. by Fukuoka Masuo 4 ji r,fI Tfky6, Kinseid6i, 1948-1949, 2v. The Sh6wa authors represented in volume 1 are: Abe Yoshishige Okakura Yoshisabur5 Kinoshita Mokutar6 Kindaichi Ky~suke Koizumi Shinz6 Shimmura Izuru Tatsuno Yutaka Togawa Shidkotsu Tobari Chikufil Nogami Toyoichir5 Hisamatsu Sen' ichi Hirata Tokuboku Yanagida Kunio The Sh~wa authors represented in volume 2 are: 1t6 C hdta Ishihara Jun Oka Asajir5 Omachi Fumie Tanaka Akamaro Tanaka Shigeho Tamura Tsuyoshi Hayashi Takashi Masaki Fujokyrl Moni Oto Yoshimura Fuyuhiko 1193. Gendai zuihitsu zenshii TV 4 (Anthology of present-day essays), T~ky6, Kinseid6, 1935, 12v. The Sh6wa authors represented in the various volumes include: 1. Kuwaki Gen' yoku Tokun6 Bun Kinoshita Mokutar6 Hirata Tokuboku. Tanigawa Tetsuz6 Abe Yoshishige Okada Tetsuz6 Toki Zemmaro Tobari Chikuffl Hisamatsu Sen' ichi Togawa Shiikotsu Nogami Toyoichir6 Kindaichi Ky6suke Okakura. Yoshizabur6 2. Yoshimura Fuyuhiko Tanaka Shigeho Oka Kunio Takada Giichird 3. Nagai KAfM Nagayo Yoshir6 Takii K6saku Kikuc hi Kan 4. Toyoshima Yoshio Satbo Haruo Tokuda Shilsei Jiiichiya, Gisabur6 Mur6 Saisei 5. Noguchi Yonejir-6 Susukida Kyiikin Miki Rof i Sat6 S6nosuke Hagiwara Sakutaro 6. Narusawa Reisen Nabei Katsuyuki Kimura S6hachi Kojima Usui Kanetsune Kiyosuke Masaki Fujokyil Tamura Tsuyoshi Oka Asajird Tanaka Akamaro Matsuoka Yuzuru. Nakagawa Yoichi Uno K~j i Shimazaki T6son Akutagawa Ryiinosuke Mikami Otokichi Kishida Kunio Kawabata Yasunari Kume Masao Horiguchi Daigaku Momota 56j i S~ma Gyofil Yanagisawa Ken Kitahara Hakushdi Yanagisawa Yasutoshi Yoshie Takamatsu Ishikawa Kin' ichi Tsubouchi 5h6y6 Fukushi K6jir6 Omachi Fumie Hayashi Takashi Monr Oto Ishihara Jun Itf Chiita Shiga Naoya Maeda Akira Tayama Katai Yokomitsu Riichi Kurata Hyakuz6 Nakamura Hakuy6 Musbak6ji Saneatsu Nakamura Murao Wakayama Bokusui Maeda Yfigure Yoshii Isamu Ogiwara Seisensui Takahama Kyoshi Ichikawa Sanroku. Yonekawa Masao Kammuri Matsujir5 Kamichika Ichiko Murobuse K6shin

Page  177 ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE17 177 7. Ebe O5son Takashima Beih Okamoto Kanoko Ishimaru Gohei Tanaka Chigaku 8. Sakamoto Setch6 Ihara Seiseien Mitamura Engyo Nakayama Tar6 9. Kosugi Hdan Tomimoto Kenkichi Nakagawa Kazumasa Asakura Fumio Tsuda Seifii 10. Okamoto Kid6 Hirayama Rok6 Muramatsu Sh6fii Tanaka K6tar6 Hasegawa Shin 11. Ichikawa Sanki Sasakawa Rimpfi Tatsuno Yutaka Tanabe Hisao Fukuhara Rintar6 12. Horiguchi Kumaichi Ichijima ShunJ6 Sakurai Tadayoshi Kobayashi Ichiz6 1194. Gendai zuis6 zenshd W 1953-1955,. 30v. Writers of the Sh~wa era 1. Yanagida Kunio 2. Hasegawa Nyozekan 3. Abe Yoshishige 4. Abe Jir6 5. Tatsuno Yutaka 6. Koizumi Shinzd 7. Kawai Eijir6 8. ODuchi Hy6e 9. Masamune Hakuch6 10. Terada Torahiko 11. Nagai Kafli 12. Shiga Naoya 13. Miki Kiyoshi 14. Suzuki Daisetsu 15. Oyama Ikuo 16. Shiojiri K6mei 17. Miyagi Otoya 18. Takahama Kyoshi 19. Ichihara Toyota 20. Nakano Yoshio 21. Miyoshi Tatsuji 22. Ihuse Masuj i 23. Fujiwara Ginjlr6 24. Hayashi Funiiko 25. Ogura Kinnosuke 26. Takada Tamotsu 27. Tanaka K6tar6 28. Komiya Toyotaka 29. Ki~da Rohan 30. Akutagawa Ryiinosuke, Tomomatsu Entai Tokiwa Daij 6 Kat6 Genchi Nakano Iwasaburo Yamaniuro Gumpei Shimmura Izuru Yanagida Kunio Kubota Utsubo Kawahigashi Hekigoto Ishii Hakutei Masamune Tokusabur6 Arishima Ikuma Ota Sabur6 Fujita Tsuguji Shiraishi Jitsuz6 Takahata T6zai Nishikawa Isso-tei Uchida Roan Sait6 5h6z6 Miki Kiyoshi Hinatsu K6nosuke Sat Kiyoshi Yano H6j in Komai Taku Chiba Kameo Ogasawara Ch6sei Shimomura Kalnan Nii Itaru Hoashi Riichir6 Imai Sabur6 Kagawa Toyohiko Itazaka Takaho Taketomno Sofd Jugaku Bunsh6 Tomnita Keisen Mizushimna Niou Okamoto Ippei Nagami Tokutar6 Arisaka K6tar6 Kaburagi Kiyokata Sait5 Mokichi Tanabe Jiij i Makino Tornitar6 Nait6 Arj Nishiwaki Junzabur6 Suzuki Bunshir5 Koizumni Shinz6 Hasegawa Nyozekan /Ak' ff_# i (Anthology of present-day essays), T6ky6, S6gensha, represented in the respective volumes are: Ryil Shintar6 Fukuhara Rintar6 Watsuji Tetsur6 Amano Teiyd Uchida Hyakken Ikeda Kiyoshi Tanigawa Tetsuz6 Nambara Shigeru Kobayashi Hideo Nakaya Ukichiro Tanizaki Juti'ichiro Mushak6j i Saneatsu Shimizu Ikutara Kurata Hyakuz6 Suekawa Hiroshi Kimura Kenk6 Tsuru Shigeto Saito Mokichi Takeyama Michio Kawamori Yoshiz6 Yoshikawa K6jir6 Kawakami Tetsutaro Kobayashi Ichiz6 Miyamoto Yuriko Otsuka Kinnosuke, Tokugawa Musei Tsuned6 Ky6 Kishida Hideto Yanagida KenjduroInoki Masamichi Minami Hiroshi Shaku Ch6kti Kamei Katsuichiro Kuwabara Takeo Q5yama Teiichi Nakaj ima Kenz6 Fuj iyama Aiichir6 Nogami Yaeko Uehara Senroku Shibusawa Hideo Sakisaka Itsur6 Yanagi Soetsu Kikuchi Kan St au Sat6 Haruo

Page  178 178 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 1195. Gikyoku daihyo senshui, ni $ jh X _ X. - (A representative selection of drama, v. 2), ed. by Nihon Bungeika Kyokai a, L,. I f t (Association of Japanese Literary Men), T6ky6, Hakusuisha, 1954. Includes works by: Mishima Yukio Masamune Hakucho Uno Nobuo Kinoshita Junji Kubo Sakae Osaragi Jir6 H6j6 Hideji Shiina Rinz6 Takahashi Takeo Kubota Mantar6 1196. Hibiya bungei senshiu E t t z 4, i X (The Hibiya selection of literary works), T6ky6, Hibiya Shuppansha, 1950. Contains the works of the following Sh6wa authors: Yoshiya Nobuko Osaragi Jir5 Shishi Bunroku Nomura Kod5 1197. Iwanami shinsho, -t ft * (The Iwanami new books), T6ky6, Iwanami Shoten, 1937-, approximately 300v. to date. A series covering political science, economics, sociology, history, and the technical sciences as well as literature. The most widely read series of this type, it began as a group of approximately 100 volumes published from 1937 through World War II. Publication was resumed in March, 1949, at which time the editors declared that the following objectives were being sought: to preserve the tradition of democratic cultures throughout the world and to forge a scientific and critical spirit, to spread anew the progressive elements in Japan's cultural legacy and thus revive national pride, and to build a new culture tied to the life of the people. Among the published items bearing on modern Japanese literature are: 34. Kuwabara Takeo, Bungaku nyutmon (Introduction to literature) 58. Kato Shuichi, Teiko no bungaku (The literature of resistance) 81. Kuribayashi Tamio, Haiku to seikatsu (The haiku and life) 192. Takahama Kyoshi, Haiku e no michi (The road to the haiku) 213. Sugiura Mimpei, Taiff jusang5 shimatsuki (An account of the particulars of typhoon number thirteen) 216. Nakano Yoshio, Gendai no sakka (The authors of the present-day). 1198. Kawade bunko -~J T < t (Kawade library), Toky6, Kawade Shobo, v. d. The forerunner of this series is the Shimin bunko i k )t /f (People's library). The following authors of the Sh6wa era are represented in the respective volumes: 2. Mushak6ji Saneatsu 3. Hayashi Fumiko 4. Noma Hiroshi 5. It6 Sei 6. Kawabata Yasunari 7. Kaneko Mitsuharu 8. Nakamura Mitsuo 9. Hirano Ken 14. Yoshida Seiichi 15. Muramatsu Sadataka 16. Yokomitsu Riichi 17. Dazai Osamu 18. Aono Suekichi 19. Senuma Shigeki 20. Tanizaki Jun' ichir6 21. Nakamura Shin' ichir6 22. Matsuoka Yuzuru 24. Uchida Hyakken 25. Tamiya Torahiko 26. Horiguchi Daigaku 27. Hinatsu KOnosuke 28. Ishikawa Jun 29. Nagai Kafu 36. Ooka Shohei 37. Shiina Rinz6 38. Takeda Taijun 39. Ishizaka Y6jir6 40. Ishikawa TatsuzO 41. Shiga Naoya 43. Sato Haruo 44. Nakano Shigeharu 45. Hirabayashi Taiko 46. Akutagawa Rydnosuke

Page  179 ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE17 179 47. Hori Tatsuo 48. Nakahara Chfiya 49. Takahama Kyoshi 50. Nakamura Kusatao 56. Miyamoto Yuriko 58. Nagayo Yoshir6 59. Miyamoto Kenj i 61. Kikuchi Kan 63. Uno C hiyo 64. Kis hida Kunio 65. Takeda Rintar6 66. Ota Y6ko 67. Masamune Hakuch6 69. Takami Jun 70. Nakayama Gishd 71. Suzuki Miekichi 72. Shishi Bunroku 73. 1t6 Einosuke 76. Uno K6j i 77. Miyoshi Jtir6 78. Hirotsu Kazuo 79. Kobayashi Takij i 80. Takii K6 saku 2026. Kuwabara Takeo 3001. Abe Tomoj i 3003. Nakaj ima Kenz6 3004. Ara Masahito 1199. Kinr6sha shisenshii / 4 (A selected collection of long poems composed by laborers), ed. by the Shin-Nihon Bungakkai 5C- r~' 4~ (New Japan Literary Association), T6ky6, Shink6 Shuppansha, 1948. 1200. Machine Poechikku shishil -q 4- x- -- 7 4 (A collection of the long poems of the Matine Poetique school), ed. by Nakamura Shin' ichir6 qg * - ~ and others, Tfky6, Shinzembisha, 1943. 1201. -Meiji Taish6 Sh6wa bungaku zenshii EFi ~, - v XrI ) - (Anthology of Meiji, Taish6, and Sh6wa literature), T6ky6, Shun'y6d6, 1927-31, 60v. The original title, Meiji Taish6 bungakushil (Anthology of Meiji and Taish6 literature), was changed to the above in v. 50. The following authors of the Sh6wa. era are represented in the respective volumes: 22. Masamune Hakuch6 25. Tokuda SIfisei Kasai Zenz6 26. Tanka and haiku poets 29. Morita S6he-i 36. Poets of the long poem: Tsuchii Bansui Takayasu Gekk6 Kambara Ariake S6ma Gyofti Kitahara Hakushid Takamura K6tar6 Mur6 Saisei Hagiwara Sakutar6 Hinatsu K6nosuke Saij5 Yaso Horiguchi Daigaku Sat6 Haruo Noguchi Yonej ir6 Shiratori Sh6go Momota S6j i Fukao Sumako Anzai Fuyue Nakano Shigeharu Kitagawa Fuyuhiko Maruyama Kaoru It& Shinkichi Miyoshi Tatsuji Oki Atsuo 37. Arishima Ikuma 40. Shiga Naoya Sat Haruo, 41. Fujimori Seikichi Toyoshima Yoshio Matsuoka Yuzu ru Tamura Toshiko 42. Uno K6j i and others 43. Satomi Ton 47-50. Plays 52. Hosoda Genkichi Hosoda Tamiki Shimomura Chiaki Makino, Shin' ichi 53. Kat6 Takeo Nakamura Murao 54. Osaragi Jir6 Maki Itsuma 55. Yokomitsu Riichi 56. E dogawa Rampo Okada Sabur6 Kozakal Fuboku Oshita Udaru

Page  180 180 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 57. Sasaki Kuni 58. Hasegawa Shin 59. Sasaki Mitsuz6 60. Hayanma Yoshiko Tatsuno Ky~ishi Shirai Ky6ji Naoki Sanjdgo Katayama Teppei and others 1202. Nappu shichinin shish~i ~ V 7,+ /< -; A 1, poets), ed. by Nakano Shigeharu tj7 (A collection of long poems by seven Nappu )T6ky6, Hakuy6sha, 1931. 1203. -Nenkan gendai shishiil~ 4- FI 4 QV 2 It 4_ (An annually published anthology of long poems of the present a) ed. by Gendai Shijinkai 4y_ A-' k (Association of Present-day Poets), Tokyo, H~bunkan, 1954. 1204. Nenkan kashd -T 1c (Annual collection of tanka), ed. by 1t6 T6ichi 47 10z '4, Tokyo, Shin-kajinkai -- A 4 (Association of New Tanka Poets), 1951, 1952, 1953, and 1954. 1205. Nenkan Nihon bungaku. 4- UJ~ 4~ r 5 -t (Japanese literature annual), Tdky6, Chikuma Shob6, 1953. The following Sh5wa authors are represented: Tamiya Torahiko Nishino Tatsukichi Toyoshima Yoshio Takeda Taijun Ishikawa Jun Matsumoto Seich6 Mishima Yukio Nagai Tatsuo Koyama Kiyoshi Sakaguchi Ango Ihuse Masuji 1t6 Sei Tsubota J~ji Mushak6ji Saneatsu Kawabata Yasunari Sata Ineko Kawasaki Ch6tar,6 Gomi Yasusuke 1206. -Nihon bungaku arubamu H A _ -'1 (An album Shob6, 1954-1956, 20v. The Sh6wa authors represented in the respective volumes are: 1. Shimazaki T6son 2. Kitahara, Hakushil 4. Honr Tatsuo 6. Akutagawa Ryilnosuke 10. Kobayashi Takiji 11. Mushak6ji Saneatsu 12. Shiga Naoya 13. Authors of puroretaria bungaku (proletarian literature) 14. Miyamoto Yuriko 15. Dazai Osamu 16. Yosano Akiko 17. Hagiwara Sakutar6 19. Takamura K6tar6 20. Hayashi Fumiko of Japanese literature), T6ky6, Chikuma 1207. Nihon bungakusen El k ~_t f (A selection from Japanese literature), Tfky6, K6bunsha, 1950. Contains Ho ri Tatsuo' s Naoko. 1208. Nihon bungei shinsen U / 4 i- k ' 4t - (A new selection of Japanese literature), ed. by Okazaki Yoshie rJ d4 A, -- Tdky5, Keisd Shob5, 1950, 4v. Vol. 4 is separately entitled Gendai bungei _A\ - 4 -J (Modern literature). 1209. Nihon gendai gikyoku zenshii El A' b ~ (Anthology of present-day Japanese drama), ed. by Iwata Toyoo ~ t =no. 15 of Shinch6 bunko (Shinchd library), 'Blue" series], T~ky6, Shinch6sha., 1953, 5v. The Sh~wa authors represented in the respective volumes are as follows: 1. Kishida Kunio Kubota Mantar6 Iwata Toyoo 2. Mafune Yutaka Kawaguchi Ichir6 Hisaita Eijir5 3. Tanaka Chikao Iizawa Tadasu Sakanaka Masao Uchimura Naoya 4. Morimoto Kaoru Koyama Ydshi Taguchi Takeo 5. Kat6 Michio Mishima Yukio Fukuda Tsuneari Tamura Akiko Kinoshita Junji

Page  181 ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE 181 1210. Nihon kaiho shishu V $ % I. ~ (A collection of long poems on the liberation of Japan), ed. by Tsuboi Shigeji, - and Onchi Terutake, Tkyo, lizuka Shoten, 1950. Includes poems by: 2. Nakano Shigeharu Miyoshi Juro Kubokawa Tsurujiro Kin Ryusai Ito Yawara 3. Oguma Hideo Taki Shigeru Omoto Seijiro Kitagawa Fuyuhiko Fukao Sumako Kaneko Mitsuharu 4. Tsuboi Shigeji Nuyama Hiroshi Okamoto Jun Uemura Tai Yoshizuka Kinji Yamada Imaji Mori Michinosuke and others 1211. Nihon meisaku gikyoku zenshfi 0 f-; 4' 4' Ji t - (Anthology of masterpieces of Japanese drama), Tokyo, Hojo Shoten, 1950-, incomplete. The following Showa authors are represented in the respective volumes: 2. Okamoto Kido Tsubouchi Sh6yo 15. Fujimori Seikichi 1212. Nihon puroretaria bungaku taikei E l 7o~ v 1 '/ 7 1 9,2 (Outline of Japanese proletarian literature), ed. by Noma Hiroshi n #J N and others, Ky6to, San'ichi Shob6, 1954, 9v. Many authors and works are represented. In each volume separate sections are devoted to fiction, criticism, proclamations, the long poem, poetics, tanka, and haiku, followed by an explanatory article and chronology. The respective volumes cover the following periods: Introduction: 1897-1916 1. 1917-1923 2. 1924-1928 3. March, 1928 - June, 1929 4. July, 1929 - July, 1930 5. August, 1930 - 1931 6. 1932-1933 7. 1934-1937 8. July, 1937 - August, 1945 1213. Nihon puroretaria ch6hen shosotsushu a j 7~ r2? T' 77 -k Jk /,1 [ - (A collection of Japanese proletarian novels), Ky6to, San'ichi Shob6, 1954-1955, 8v. The Showa authors represented in the respective volumes are as follows: 1. Kataoka Teppei 2. Hosoda Tamiki 3. Kishi Yamaji 4. Tokunaga Sunao 5. Kaga Koji 6. Hashimoto Eikichi 7. Yamada Seizabur6 8. Honj6 Rikuo 1214. Nihon puroretaria shishu 0 ~ 7~ t -7 '1 1 74 - (A collection of Japanese proletarian long poems), ed. by Tsuboi Shigeji 4 ~, ~ and Onchi Terutake 4 j 4. ', T6ky6, Shin-Nihon Bungakkai, 1949. Many poets and poems are represented in chronological order from 1928 through 1936. 1215. Nihon puroretaria shishu sen kyuhyaku niji hachi-nen-ban E 7~ - 7 ~ 7'T 7 t 1928 - (A collection of Japanese proletarian poems, 1928 edition), ed. by Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei 4- - j t # t _I (Association of Pan-Japanese Proletarian Art), T6ky6, Marukusu Shobo, March, 1928. Includes poems by: Nishizawa Ryuji Kubokawa Tsurujir6 Omori Jir6 Kubota Kei, and 7 others 1216. Nihon puroretaria shishu, sen kyfihyaku niju ku-nen-ban El 7' P- -7 =h t -7 7 (A collection of Japanese proletarian poems, 1929 edition), ed. by Sakka D6mei 1' ~ I~ _ (Authors' Union), Toky6, Senkisha, 1929.

Page  182 182 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 1217. Nihon shinario bungaku. zensh - 4 (Anthology of Japanese scenarios), T6ky6, Rironsha, 1955-1956, 12v. The authors represented in the respective volumes are as follows: 1. Kinoshita Keisuke 2. Shindo Kaneto 3. Kurosawa Akira 4. Kikushima Ryiiz5 5. Hisaita Eijir6 6. Yamanaka Sadao 7. Otsu Yasujir6 Noda K~go 8. Iba Mansaku 9. Mizuki Y6ko 10. Shiina Rinz6 Abe Kobo 11. Yagi Yasutar6 Yamagata Yiisaku 12. Yoda Yoshikata Kurata Bunjin Yagi Yasutar6 Ikeda Tadao Yagi Naoyuki 1218. Puroretaria tankashil issen kyiihyaku nijd kunen-ban 7 cY L, L7 T 7 *J - - h (A collection of proletarian tanka, 1929 edition), ed. by Watanabe Junz, Toky5, Kdgyokud6 Shoten, 1929. Contains 292 poems by Izumoto Mikio Okabe Fumio Watanabe JunzO Tsubono Tekkyd Nakamura K6suke Yanagita Shintar6 Maekawa Samio Asano Jun'ichi, and 10 other poets. 1219. Puroretaria tankashui issen kyihyaku sanjdnendo-ban L- 47 R 0 _(A collection of proletarian tanka, 1930 edition), ed. by Watanabe Junz6 O T6ky6, K6gyokudd Shoten, 1930. 1220. "Puroretaria-shi goninshfi 70 V -' 7 b - (Proletarian poems by five poets)," ChU kdron, September, 1931. 1221. -Nihon teik6 shishii 9 -~ (A collection of Japanese long poems of resistance), ed. by Noma Hiroshi,T11 0 T6ky6, San'ichi Shob6, 1953. 1222. -Nihon zen'ei shishtl U (A collection of Japanese advance guard long poems), ed. by Geijutsu Zen'ei AR ~ T6ky6, Jilnigatsu Shob6, 1950. 1223. Puroretaria shishii 70 t24- ~~ (A collection of proletarian long poems), ed. by Nihon Puroretaria Geijutsu Remmei El *- -7 T tz L.~ (The Japanese Proletarian Art Federation), T~kyo6, Marukusu Shob5, 1927. 1224. -Puroretaria shishdi [issen kyuihyaku nijui hachinen] 70 zu?17 [1928], (A collection of proletarian long poems [1928]), ed. by Zen-Nihon Musansha Geijutsu Remmei 4~_ u } 4 ~,.(The All-Japan Proletarian Art Federation)., T~ky6, Marukusu Shobd, 1928. 1225. Sandai meisaku zenshi]d4F i (A complete collection of the masterpieces of the three eras [of Meiji, Taish6, and Sh6wa], Tdky6, Kawade Shobd, 1941 -1943, 23v. The Sh5wa authors represented in the respective volumes, as listed at the end of the first volume (containing the works of Futabatei Shimei), are: 6. Tayama Katai 9. Shimazaki T6son 10. Tokuda Shdsei 11. Mushak6j i Saneatsu 12. Shiga Naoya 14. Satomi Ton 15. Kikuchi Kan 16. Akutagawa Rydnosuke 17. Yamamoto Yiiz6 18. Kishida Kunio 19. Yokomitsu Riichi 20. Kawabata Yasunari 21. Takeda Rintar6 22. Niwa Fumio 23. Takami Jun

Page  183 ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE 183 1226. Seishonen engeki kyakuhon hyakuhen kaisetsu / i- J l oo | F X (Commentaries on 100 play-scripts for young people), ed. by Seishonen Engeki Kenkyuikai i * -; ] ' ' (Study Group for Young People's Plays), Tokyo, Geijutsu Bunka Kyokai, 1950. 1227. Sen kyuhyaku sanjd gonen shishu - Pi _ I-. (A collection of long poems for 1935), T6kyo, Zens6sha, 1935. Contains the poems of: Arai Tetsuya Oguma Hideo and others. 1228. Shi no hai shishu Gendai Shijinkai f 'c k i/ 1", (An anthology of long poems on the ashes of death), ed. by ~' & - A / (Association of Present-day Poets), Tokyo, H6bunkan, 1954. 1229. Shimin bunko i, / ~ (Citizens' library). The forerunner of Kawade bunko, which see. 1230. Shina-jihen kashii t p t A- - (A collection of tanka on the China incident), ed. by DaiNihon Kajin Ky6kai $ g u 1 /,*,44 /4 (Japanese Association of Tanka Poets), Toky6, 1938. 1231. Shin-bungaku zenshu - t ' /i 4 (Anthology of new literature), Tokyo, Kawade ShobO, 1952 -1954, 2v. The Sh6wa authors represented in the respective volumes are as follows: 1. Inoue Yasushi Ooka ShOhei Shiina Rinzo Takeda Taijun Tamiya Torahiko Noma Hiroshi Mishima Yukio 2. Umezaki Haruo Kato Michio Nakamura Shin'ichir6 Hotta Yoshie 1232. Shincho bunko k * L /! (Shincho library), Toky6, ShinchOsha, v. d. Published in two series, one banded green and the other blue. In the green series, which includes fiction for the most part, are found the works of the following Showa writers: 1. Kawabata Yasunari 2. Yokomitsu Riichi 3. Ishizaka Y6jir6 4. Hori Tatsuo 5. Tanizaki Jun'ichir6 6. Dazai Osamu 7. Toyoshima Yoshio 8. Hino Ashihei 9. Nagayo Yoshir6 11. Funabashi Seiichi 12. Tokuda Shisei 13. Kubota Mantaro 15. Ishikawa Tatsuz6 17. Niwa Fumio 18. Suzuki Miekichi 19. Fukada Kyuya 21. Nakayama Gisha 22. Ishikawa Jun 23. Takii K6saku 24. Sakaguchi Ango 25. Akutagawa Ryunosuke 26. Uchida Hyakken 27. Uno Chiyo 28. Kikuchi Kan 29. Ozaki ShirO 30. Shiga Naoya 31. Abe Tomoji 32. Miyamoto Yuriko 33. Uno K6ji 34. Ibuse Masuji 36. Minakami Takitar6 37. Oda Sakunosuke 38. Satomi Ton 39. Takami Jun 40. Okamoto Kanoko 41. Hirabayashi Taiko 43. Tokunaga Sunao

Page  184 184 184 ~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 55. 57. 58. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 75. 76. 77. 78. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 116. In 1. 5. 7. 10. 13. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Kitahara Takeo Shimagi Kensaku Tsubota J6j i Takeda Rintar6 Kambayashi Akatsuki Ozaki Kazuo Mishima Yukio Shiina. Rinz6 Tamura Taijir6 Nakano Shigeharu Shimazaki T~son Mushak6ji Saneatsu Kume Masao Yamamoto Yffz67 Hayashi Fumiko Kishida Kunio Inoue Yasushi Dan Kazuo Qoka Sh6hei Umezaki Haruo Hayashi Fusao Inoue Tomoichird Nagai Kafil Sat6 Haruo Masamune Hakuchd Serizawa K6jir6 Shishi Bunroku. Nagai Tatsuo Tanaka Hidemitsu Nakaj ima Atsushi Takasugi Ichir6 Kubo Sakae Hirotsu Kazuo Sata Ineko Osaragi Jir6 Kobayashi Takiji Tamiya Torahiko It6 Einosuke Hotta Yoshie Rtd Sei Kinoshita Junji Nakagawa Yoichi Takeda Taijun Miyazawa Kenji Kamura Isota Kaj ii Motoj ir6 H6j6 Tamio Naka Kansuke Kasai Zenz5 Ogawa Mimei Hamada Hirosuke Tsuboi Sakae Mur6 Saisei Fukuda Tsuneari Shimomura Kojin Tsubota J6ji Noma Hiroshi Honj6 Rikuo Agawa Hiroyuki the "blue" series, including poetry, criticism, and drama, Miyazawa Kenji Kawabata Yasunari Kitahara Hakushil Hagiwara Sakutard Miyoshi Tatsuji Nihon gendai gikyoku zenshii (see entry for this collection) Sat3 Haruo Horiguchi Daigaku Kida M ino ru Tachihara Michizd are found the works of:

Page  185 ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE 185 20. Kusano Shimpei 21. Mur6 Saisei 22. Nakano Shigeharu 23. Wakayama Bokusui 24. Kamei Katsuichir6 26. Masamune Hakuch6 27. Morita Tama 28. 1t6 Shinkichi 30. Saij6 Yaso 31. Kaneko Mitsuharu 32. Tsuchii Bansui 33. Kinoshita Mokutar6 35. Yoshii Isamu 38. Uchida Hyakken 42. Horiguchi Daigaku. 43. Mushak6ji Saneatsu 45. Yoshida Seiichi 46. Kubota Utsubo 48. Ozaki Kihachi 49. Hinatsu K~nosuke 50. Miki Rofi 54. It6 Sei 1233. -Shin-Nihon daihy~saku senshdi Japanese literature), ed. by Nihonshal 1949-1950, 6v. The following Sh6wa authors y El 4V oc t f- (A selection of representative works of Hirata Jisabur6 ~ w -;,P -=i and others, Tfky6, Jitsugyd5 no are represented in the respective volumes: 1. Ishikawa Jun Oda Sakunosuke 1t6 Sei 2. Shiina, Rinz6 Haniya. Yutaka Nakamura Shin' ichiro 3. Kawabata Yasunari Thuse Masuji Hayashi Fumiko Ishikawa Tatsuz6 4. Hirabayashi Taiko, Nakano Shigeharu Ozaki Kazuo Funayama Kao ru 5. Kuwabara, Takeo Fukuda, Tsuneari Honda Shilgo Takahashi Yoshitaka 6. Takashima Zen'ya, Nawa T6ichi Mashita. Shin'lichi and others Dazai Osamu Niwa Fumio Kitahara Takeo Takeda. Taijun Noma Hiroshi Mishima Yukio Toyoshima Yoshio Abe Tomoj i Isonokami Gen' ichir6 Funabashi Seiichi Tokunaga Sunao Sata Ineko Fujiwara Shinji Miyoshi Jdr6 Odagiri Hideo Sekine Hiroshi Hanada Kiyoteru Iwakami Jun' ichi Umemoto Katsumi Honda Kiyoj i Takami Jun Sakaguchi Ango Tamura Taijir5 Umezaki Haruo Shimao Toshio Yokomitsu Riichi Ishizaka Ydjir6 Jinzai Kiyoshi Miyamoto Yuriko Nakayama G ishii Tanaka Hidemitsu Terada T6ru Sasaki Kiichi Miyamoto Kenj i 1t6 Sei Takakuwa Sumio Matsumura Kazuo 1234. Shin-Nihon shishii.Shin-Nihon Bungakkai Bungakkai, 1947. Ifr El *- ~+O- A= (A collection of new Japanese long poems), ed. by the (New Japan Literary Association), T6ky6, Shin-Nihon 1235. -Shin-Nihon shishii issen kydhyaku yonjii hachinendo-a Pr9 i-; /b - k, W (A colcinf new Japanese long poems: 1948 edition), ed. by the Shin-Nihon Bungakkai, T6ky6, Shin-Nihon Bungakkai, 1948. Includes the works of: Kaneko Mitsuharu Momota 56j i Nakano Suzuko Osada Tsuneo Suzuki Hatsue Taki Shigeru and 58 other poets. 1236. Shin-Nihon shishii issen kyiihyaku yonjii kydnendo-ban 4 El ~ -h E L- (A collection of new Japanese long poems: 1949 edition), Tfky6, Shin-Nihon Bungakkai, 1949. Includes the works of: Anzai Fuyue Eguchi Kan Ide No rio Inoue Mitsuharu Kyo Nanki K6riyama Hiroshi Noma Hiroshi Ono T6sabur6 Yoshizuka Kinji and 75 other poets.

Page  186 186 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 1237. Shinsen taishii sh6setsu zenshu -P. { t /),) I / z (Anthology of newly selected popular novels), T6kyo, Hibonkaku, 1933-1934, 23v. The following Showa authors are represented in the respective volumes: 1. Kikuchi Kan 2. Osaragi Jir6 3. Maki Itsuma 4. Kat5 Takeo 5. Yoshikawa Eiji 6. Sat6 Koroku 7. Shirai Ky6ji 8. Mikami Otokichi 9. Naoki Sanjugo 10. Kume Masao 11. Hasegawa Shin 12. Nakamura Murao 13. Shimozawa Kan 14. Hosoda Tamiki 15. Sasaki Mitsuz6 16. Satomi Ton 17. Tanizaki Jun'ichir6 18. Muramatsu Shofu 19. Hirayama Rok6 20. Kitamura Komatsu 21. Hamamoto Hiroshi 22. Kawaguchi Matsutar6 23. Kunieda Kanji 1238. Shinshin kessaku sh6setsu zenshiu y. -,I' o / ~ (Anthology of masterpieces of fiction by new writers), Tokyo, Heibonsha, 1929-1930, 15v. The following Showa authors are represented in the respective volumes: 1. Inukai Takeru 2. Ikenoya Shinzaburo 3. Sasaki Mosaku 4. Yokomitsu Riichi 5. Kataoka Teppei 9. Hayama Yoshiki 10. Okada Sabur6 Ozaki Shiro6 11. Kawabata Yasunari 12. Takii Kosaku Makino Shin ichi 1239. Shin-taishu sh6setsu zenshii Shoten, 1950, 12v. The following Showa authors 1. Kume Masao 2. Kawaguchi Matsutar6 3. Yoshiya Nobuko 6. Tsunoda Kikuo 8. Nakano Minoru 9. Yamate Kiichir6 10. Nomura Kod6 12. Takeda Toshihiko f < P ' i' t z (New anthology of popular fiction), T6ky6, Yagi are represented in the respective volumes: 1240. Shirakaba sZsho 0 7 -~ I (Shirakaba library), Toky6, Kawade Shob6, 1940-1941, 6v. Contains the works of the following Sh6wa authors: Mushak6ji Saneatsu Shiga Naoya Nagayo Yoshiro Satomi Ton Arishima Ikuma 1241. Shishui taisei: gendai Nihon shijin zenshdu P ~ kf ~: EL 4 _ a /E /*, (Complete collection of anthologies of the long poem: anthology of present-day Japanese authors of the long poem), Tokyo, Sogensha, 1953-1955, introductory and 15 volumes. The following Showa poets are represented in the respective volumes: Introductory volume: Shimazaki TOson Tsuchii Bansui Yosano Tekkan Yosano Akiko Kawai Suimei 1. Susukida Kylkin Kambara Ariake Kitahara Hakushf 2. Miki Rofu Kinoshita Mokutaro Takamura Kotar6 3. Kawaji Ryuko Mur5 Saisei Senke Motomaro Noguchi Yonej iro

Page  187 ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE18 187 4. Yamnamura Boch6 Fukushi K6jir6 5. Sat5 Haruo Ikuta Shungetsu 6. Ote Takuj i Hirado Renkichi 7. Miyazawa Kenj i Shaku Ch6kii 8. Kaneko Mitsuharu Kitagawa Fuyuhiko 9. Fukao Sumnako Suyamna Atsutar6 10. Nakano Shigeharu Tsuboi Shigeji 11. Miyoshi Tatsuji Tachihara Michiz5 12. Kusano Shimpei Ogata Kamenosuke 13. Nishiwaki Junzabur6 Takenaka Iku 14. Okazaki Seiichir6 be Mjtsuo Fuchigamni M6sen 15. Kond6 Azumna J6 Samon Kurahara Shinjir6 Jimbo K6tar6 Hagiwara Sakutar6 Horiguchi Daigaku Satd S6nosuke Ozaki Kihachi Yoshicla Issui Takeuchi Katsutar6 Oshika Taku Ono Tdsabur6 Oguma Hideo Maruyama Kaoru, 1t6 Shizuo Takahashi Shinkichi Yagi Jilkichi Haruyama Yukio Murano Shir6 Yamanoguchi Baku Fujiwara, Tei Sasazawa Yoshiaki Hishiyama Shi~z6 Ishikawa Zensuke Hinatsu K6nosuke Saij6 Yaso Momota. S6j i Naka Kansuke Anzai Fuyue Oki Atsuo Hagiwara Ky~j ir5 Okamoto Jun Tanaka Fuyuj i Tsumura Nobuo Nakahara Chiiya Hemmi Yiikichi Kitazono Katsue Kikuoka Kuri Sakamnoto, RyO And6 Ichir6 Sakamoto Etsur6 Tominaga Tar6 1242. Sh6setsu nenkan '1 9 % ' (Yearbook of fiction), ed. by Toyoshima Yoshio ~i~~~ fr and others, T6ky6, Yakumo Shoten, 1949-1950. The periods covered and the authors of the short stories included are as follows: 1. October, 1948 - December, 1948: Abe Tomoj i Ito Sei Umezaki Haruo Tamiya Torahiko Nakayama Gishii Niwa Fumio Haniya Yutaka Hayashi Fumiko 2. January, 1949 - March, 1949: Abe Tomoj i Atsuta Gor6 Kubota Keisaku Shimba Eiji Takeda Taijun Dan Kazuo Nakano Shigeharu. 1243. Sho-wa bungaku zenshii q& - ~ 4~ ~t (Anthology of Shiowa li 1952-1955, 58 plus 2 supplementary volumes. The following Sh~wa authors are represented in the respective volumes: 1. Yokomitsu Riichi 2. Yamamoto Yuiz6 3. Terada Torahiko 4. Shishi Bunroku 5. Nagai Kafii 6. Kobayashi Takiji Nakano Shigeharu 7. Shiga Naoya 8. Miyamoto Yuriko 9. Kawabata Yasunari 10. Abe Yoshishige Amano TeiyUi 11. Tokuda Shilsei 12. Mushak~ji Saneatsu 13. Kobayashi Hideo Kawakami Tetsutar6 14. Miyazawa Kenji 15. Tanizaki Jun' ichir6 16. Kamei KatsuichirO Nakamura Mitsuo 17. Osaragi Jir6 18. Honi Tatsuo 19. Hayashi Fumiko, 20. Akutagawa Ry~inosuke 21. Ishizaka Ydjir6 22. Takamura K6tard Hagiwara SakutarO 23. Ooka Sh6hei Mishima Yukio iterature), T~ky6, Kadokawa Shoten, Tokunaga Sunao Tatsuno Yutaka Fukuda Tsuneari

Page  188 188 188 ~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 24. Sh6wa gikyoku-shiI q&6 t Kubo Sakae Murayama Tomoyoshi Tanaka Chikao 25. Abe Jir6 26. Yoshikawa Eiji 27. Koizumi Shinz6 28. Ozaki Shir6 29. Shiina Rinz6 30. Kubota Mantar5 31. Tanizaki Jun' ichir5 32. Nagayo Yoshir6 33. Satomi Ton 34. Masamune Hakuch6 35. Nakaj ima Atsushi 36. Ibuse Masuj i 37. Hasegawa Nyozekan 38. Shimagi Kensaku 39. Sat6 Haruo 40. Ishikawa Tatsuz6 41. Showa tanka Sho-wa haiku-shii 5 haiku of the Sh~wa era). Contains 42. Uchida Hyakken 43. Takahama Kyoshi 44. Funabashi Seiichi 0 * ~(A collection of Showa plays): Miyoshi Jiir6 Hisaita Eij'ir6 -Fujimori Seikichi Morimoto Kaoru Kinoshita Junj i Komiya Toyotaka Kinoshita Mokutar6 Noma Hiroshi Kishida Kunio Umezaki Haruo Nogami Yaeko Kikuchi Kan Takeda Taij un Dazai Osamu Ouchi Hy~e Okamoto Kanoko Mur6J Saisei Nakayama Gishfi selections from the works of 118 tanka Tamiya Torahiko Ryii Shintar6 (A collection of tanka and and 139 haiku poets. Ozaki Kazuo Hinatsu K~nosuke Takada Tamotsu Shaku Ch6kii 45. Uchimura Kanzd 46. Niwa Fumio 47. Sh-owa shishd- q selections from the 48. Hirotsu Kazuo 49. Nakagawa Yoichi 50. Watsuji Tetsur6 51. Shimazaki T6son 52. Takeda Rintar6 53. Sh6wa tampenshii Represented are: Abe KXob6 Inoue Tomoichir6 Oda Sakunosuke Kamura Isota Kitahara Takeo Kon Hidemi Takii K6saku Dan Kazuo Toyoshima Yoshio Hayama Yoshiki H6j6 Tamio Mafune Yutaka 54. Yamamoto Yii6 55. Hirabayashi Taiko, 56. Ishizaka Y6jir6 57. It Sei 58. Shimomura Kojin Kurata Hyakuz6 Aono Suekichi Hino Ashihei (A collection of long poems of the Shdwa era). Contains 4t7 A works of 103 poets. Uno K6ji Abe Tomoj i Takami Jun ~ 74t7 ~ ~ 4~ (A collection of short stories Amino Kiku Inoue Yasushi Kajii Motojird Kawasaki Cho-tar6 -Kume Masao Sakaguchi Ango Tanaka Hidemitsu Tsubota J~j i Nagai Tatsuo Hara Tamiki Hotta Yoshie Maruoka Akira Serizawa K~jir5 of the Sh6wa era). 1t6 Einosuke Ota Ydko Kataoka Teppei Kamnbayashi Akatsuki Kuroshima Denji Jinzai Kiyoshi Tabata Shiiichir6 Tonomura Shigeru Nakamu'ra Shint ichir5 Fukada Kyflya Makino Shin' ichi Tsuboi Sakae Ishikawa Jun 1244. -Sh6wa meisaku senshii * 4iz ~ T6ky6, Shinch6sha, 1939-1941, 23v. Contains the works of: Serizawa K6jird Nakay. Nakano Shigeharu Tsubo' Kubokawa Ineko Taked:Honr Tatsuo Ozaki Shimagi Kensaku Hayam Ishizaka Y6jir6 NiwaI Kawabata Yasunari Hino I Wada Tsut6 Sakaki (A selection of the famous works of the Sh6wa period),,ama Gishdi ita J6j i la Rintar6 Shir6 ia Yoshiki Fumnio Ashihei iyamna Jun 1t6 Einosuke Fukada Kyiiya Yokomitsu Riichi Ishikawa Tatsuz6 Okamoto Kanoko Tokunaga Sunao Abe Tomoj i

Page  189 ANTHOLOGIES OF SHOWA LITERATURE 1245. S6gen bunko,'|,. ], T6ky6, Sogensha, v. d. The following Showa authors are represented, genre by genre: Criticism: Masamune Hakuch6 Kobayashi Hideo Tanka: Kitahara Hakushu Takahama Kyoshi Haiku: Kubota Mantar6 The long poem: Naka Kansuke Kitahara Hakushd Miyoshi Tatsuji Tominaga Tar6 Yagi Jukichi Nakahara Chuya Kusano Shimpei Drama: Kurata Hyakuzo Kishida Kunio Okamoto Kid6 Fiction: Ooka Sh6hei Osaragi Jiro Kubota Mantar6 Sat5 Haruo Shimagi Kensaku Tanizaki Jun' ichiro Hayashi Fusao H6j5 Tamio Essay: Tanizaki Jun'ichir6 K6da Aya Yoshida Genjir5 Takada Tamotsu Morita Tama Kamei Katsuichiro 189 Kagoshima Juz6 Hagiwara Sakutar6 Murakami Kaita Kaneko Mitsuharu Osanai Kaoru Kishida Kunio Shiga Naoya Nagai Kaff Hori Tatsuo Miki Kiyoshi SatO Haruo Kobayashi Hideo 1246. Sosaku daihy6 senshu pi] /|l 4X' & & $ (A representative selection of works), ed. by Nihon Bungeika Ky6kai El y ~. /i / j (Association of Japanese Literary Men), T6kyo, Kodansha, 1948-1957, 20v. (still continued). 1247. Yuibutsuron zensho i ~ 4 / % (Anthology of materialistic dialectic), ed. by Yuibutsuron Kenkydkai ~ ~ ~, L ' (Society for Materialistic Dialectic), T6ky6, 1935-1936, 2 series of 18v. each. The first series includes: 1. Amakasu Sekisuke 2. Moriyama Kei 4. Saigusa Hakuto The second series includes: 4. Iwasaki Akira 5. Takai Hiroshi 7. Takaoki Y6z6 1248. Zen-shishfu taisei gendai Nihon shijin zenshiu / t 4- ' E K i 4 / ~ (A complete anthology of the long poem: an anthology of long poems by present-day Japanese poets), T6kyo, T6ky6 Sogensha, 1954, introductory plus 12 volumes.

Page  190

Appendix I


pp. 191-193

Page  191 APPENDIX I List of Publishers A Abosha j 4 1 tAioi Shob6 T 4 / 4 \ / Akane Shobo 6 t P Akasaka Shoten,i ~ Akashi Shoten s 7 t ) Akatsuka Shob5o,, t. d Amanokawa Hakkojo I T ( TPAnakisuto Shishu Shuppambu I Aogakikai Aoki Shoten Arechi Shuppansha Ariakesha Shuppambu Arusu Asahi Shimbunsha Asahi Shobo Ashibi Hakk6jo Asuka Shoten Atoriesha Azusa Shobo Banrikaku Bokushin Shisha Bokusui Shobo Bon Shoten Bummeisha Bumpodo Bungaku Annaisha Bungaku no Shakaisha Bungei Hanronsha Bungei Sensensha Bungei Shunjusha Bungei Shunju Shinsha Bungei Shutosha Bungeisha Bunka Saishuppatsu no Bunka Shudansha Bunsenkaku Buntaisha t R1 gi T F 'I I d,^ t^db ^I~- ii Elp 4 R p ff * 7? I 77 f r ' -L ~ T (' I L ) B 1 4 1 Jc) Kai^ L At, t 1 t t t <t4 8'4 L -^;^ p4L Th- W. Kai >L At S 4* o7 & ^^1 yL ^t Tokyo Toky6 Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Fukuoka Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo TOkyO Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo TOkyO Tokyo Tokyo Daichisha Daiichi Koronsha Daiichi Shobo Dai-Nihon Kajin Kyokai Dai-Nihon Yubenkai Kod Daini Shobo Daishosha Daito Shuppansha Daitokaku Dobun Shoin Dobunsha Dojinsha Shoten Dokosha Dorasha Dorosha Dotosha Eihosha Eru Esu Emusha Fue Hakkojo Fugaku Honsha Fuji ShobO Fujokaisha Fukumura Shoten Fukunaga Shoten Fusetsusha Fushinshi Shisha Fuso Shobo Futaba Shoin Seikokan lansha A F ) A^M44e -Tokyo =- -t } TOkyO 3"4 -1t~i4 TOkyO ^ t 9 + Tokyo f 6 A Tokyo x_ t A t- Tokyo 1 pL ^i- Tokyo ^.^,g Tokyo EL, Tokyo E D -k tc * - /4' $ Lt A - A 'F ) 4 I | ^ Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Chikuma Shobo Chikura Shobo Chobunkaku Choryfisha Chosen Bunkasha Chosen Nipposha Chowasha Chukokan Chukosha Chuo Koronsha C Tokyo ~ /^ ~ ~ Tokyo a 3 7 7"> t Tokyo {c 7-;, X Tokyo #", zeN t + Tokyo U, eB kL Keijb (Seoul) 31 d i Tokyo 't _ t Tokyo -~ t_ Tokyo < /^ t Tokyo Gagansha Gakko Shishi Hakkojo Gakugeisha Geiensha Geijutsu Bunka Kyokai Geijutsu to Jiyusha Geijutsusha Gembunsha Gendai Bunkasha Gendai Shiseishinsha Genkai ShobO Genrei Shobo Genshisha Getsuyo Shobo Gien Hasshunsho Ginza Shuppansha Gogatsu ShobO GogyOsha L S. MA1: $ i ^ t H^- ~ ~ 7'~ t~g G + t =fc- ^- ^ + +* 9 t}' 4 4; kx'A~ AI a tkAX' 4 t8?j ^- I 2" i t' ie *k 4 k$5 vtr.t u?t - '^ Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo TOkyo Tokyo TOkyO TOkyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo TOkyO Tokyo Tokyo TOkyO Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo TOkyo Tokyo TOkyO Tokyo 191

Page  192 192 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Goto Kentar5 Ik6 Kankc Guroria Sosaete Haikusha Hakubunkan Hakuj itsusha Hakuj itsu Shoin Hakusuisha Hakutosha Hakuyosha Hanawa Shob5 Haneda Shoten Hangas6 Hasegawa Shobo Hato Shob6 Hayakawa Shob6 Heibonsha Hibiya Shuppansha Hibonkaku Hikari Shobo Hirato Renkichi Shishu Hobun Shorin Hobunkan Hogas5 Hokokusha Hokui Gojudosha Hokuseid6 Hokuto Shoin Hosokawa Shoten 5kai AN 4 'W Osaka 4" f I ',.it A z Toky6 H t=) 0 -J X EX Ht t^ 7J< Z. ^ ^ 7^ / f W fI' K X f-1 t ^ ( "I SA (94K L Kankokai -$ / '11 A - iv- v- ~ - s t fp^^ Kank^ka 2b^4^-+^ Ib S ^ ^? ^ r) ~-t& Tokyo Tokyo Toky6 Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Toky6 Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo TokyO Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Kaiko Shijin Kurabu Kaizosha Kakushinsha Kamakura Bunko Kamakura Shobo Kamata Shobo Kambe Shoten Kamiya Shoten Kaname ShobO Kangensha Kantosha Kawade Shobo Keibunsha Keikan Shijinsha Keiko Shoin Keimeisha Kembunsha Kenkyfsha Kidachisha KijOkai Kikan Hakkoj o Kindai Seikatsusha Kindaisha Kinjo Shuppansha KinseidO Kizambo Kizankaku Shobo Kobundo Kobunsha Kobunsha Kobushisha Kocho Shorin Kodansha Kofukan Kogakusha Kogito Hakkojo Kogyokudo Shoten Koizumi Shoten Kojitsu Shoin Kokeisha Kokeisha Kokin Shoin Komeji Shoten Konnichi no Mondaisha Koppu Shuppambu Koransha Koronsha Koseikaku Koshinsha Kosumosusha Koyama Shoten Kumiai Shoten Kumoi Shoten Kurakusha Kusahara Shobo KyO Kanoko Hakkojo Kyoiku Shorin Kyokusuisha Kyoritsusha KyOwa Shoin Kyubisha Kyfshd Hyoronsha -, it;T ~- Kobe _ ' _ Tokyo t #f T Tokyo -.t Toky5 TOkyO,IVty'~ A / Tokyo zqb ~ ( = -TOkyO ~, - ~ ~ TOkyo ~ ^- -I &TOkyO ~L f ~- Tokyo { ~ ~- Tokyo, } Tokyo -;. ~ & TOkyO, > ~ ~i Tokyo ~j?~ ~_ Kamakura s. 3~ _ Tokyo,; u $~_ Tokyo ~ /7 ]h Tokyo Osaka f t iT ^- Osaka + <V ^ 7$ ^~ TOkyO i,^~ +Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo, L A Tokyo Tokyo 4 C i Tokyo b < ~-~ Tokyo g4 /Q TOkyO ^ ~~ ^~TOkyO F,9 t t4 |Tokyo '3 TOkyO i.- f' ~ Tokyo tt rL - Tokyo _ r- Tokyo,1. $L 7 Tokyo TOkyO,:~ 86 wTOkyO f t F - Tokyo TOkyO ' ci L" i 1~ Tokyo 2 s" 70 T ^~ Tokyo TOkyO ~ ~t Tokyo ~t l r.~ TOkyO,7.J_ $ TOkyO,1' h t,J Tokyo ~- ~T ky5 1L i j 1b Tokyo / o e Tokyo TokyO t - t * Tokyo TOkyO _ ], _ Tokyo / I; _ Tokyo * \' Toky5 TOkyO $ ~ ~ Tokyo 4z ] pi f Fukuoka M I Ichijo Shoten Ichikawa Shoten Ichikodo Iizuka Shoten Ikeda Shoten Ishichoinsha Ito Shoten Ivuningu Sutasha Iwanami Shoten Iwasaki Shoten Iwaya Shoten - 41^ t r^ 4 +- 2 7t /, k I / e,-k 4tS t r' ~ tt ^F 1,~ 4 1^*' _ > 7" x ^ - ^.-~ '7 Z -7 A tJ a t r J / g; j Kyoto Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Jibundo Jiipusha Jikansha Jimbun Shoin Jimbun Shoin Jimbun Shoten Jimminsha Jiji Tsiishinsha Jitsugyo no Nihonsha Joshi Bun'ensha Jugatsu Shobo Juiigonichikai Jujiya Shoten Juinigatsu Shobo Juseisha Kadokawa Shoten Kahoku Shimposha Kaiho Bunka Remmei,"- i7t ' 5t >^1 St < ~Wt +A1- -a- + tue~-t t t + ^- 1 W t- q th - ' <1I ^ Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Kyoto Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo TOkyO TOkyO Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Sendai TOkyO Mainichi Shimbunsha Makino Shoten k - E?, -^ Tokyo Tokyo

Page  193 APPENDIX I 193 Manseikaku Manry6 Kankokai Mansh Ijju Kyokai Marukusu Shobo Maruoka Shuppansha Masu Shob5 Matsuo Shob6 Meguro Shoten Meiji Bijutsu Kenkyujo Meiji Shoin Mejikaru Furendosha Mikasa Shob5 Minshu Chosensha Min'yo Rebyusha Miraisha Misumarusha Misuzu Shob6 Mizugamesha Mokuseisha Momiyama Shoten Motoi Shoin Murasaki Shuppambu Musashino Shoin M- 7 7; t ^ ^ 7 I +L 1^ g *t ZE ^n * I RN,? $ & ^H +" t-H f^- F ~. - t tAF t A v,?f ^~ X t J" t ^ ' t S L 4 4'. ' 6 t, ^ % -L ( I 4 ^ +! ^ ^ Ift ri ^ Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Nagoya Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo R Rakuyo Shoin -+ 7 Rironsha - ~ ~ Risosha w, - Rokko Shobo A r Rokko Shokai /A -- c/ RokkO ShOkai Shuppambu. i l RokkO Shuppansha 0 * _-i Rozambo Ryfjo Shoten A -t- - Ryiseikaku:>: SaikOsha Sakagamesha Sakai Shoten Sakka Domei N Nagasaki Shoten -% Naigai Shobo Nakanishi Shobo 67 Nanso Shoin Narupu Shuppambu t Naukasha-r Nihon Bungakusha Nihon TDoknlshn Shimbuhnsha I j4] *- fb * Je t 1* 78 tfp ) - *> 1~ FL r' 79 # t /7,L I3 & I * - ~, Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo 9 t i t %?1 - TOkyO Nihon Hyoronsha q U -T t I- Tokyo Nihon Minshushugi Bunka Remmei 0 -, <bk — + TokyO Nihon Miraiha Hakkojo Nihon Puroretri Sakka Tky Nihon Puroretaria Sakka Domei -` ---- -- - --- - - - -I- - -- Nihon Shoin Nihon Shuppan Kyodo Nihonsha Nissan ShobO Nishimura Shoten Noda Shobo Nogaku Shorin Nogikusha Nyonin Geijutsusha Okasha Ookayama Shoten Ozaki Shobo t 3 1~ ~ 9r F1tl4 f Tokyo Tokyo Kabushiki Kaisha 9 Af t * Tokyo u W t F Tokyo Tokyo IV ^ TOkyo T6ky5 v, Wj ^Tokyo 0r A - 'i: TOkyO 0 SakkasO Sakuhinsha Sakurai Shobo Sakurai Shotei Sando Sangabo San' ichi Shobc Sanjitsu Shobc SanseidO Sanwa Shobo Sara Shoten SeiensO Seigen Haikuk Seijisha Seijisha Seijusha Seiju Shijin K Seiko Shobo Seishido Shote Seito Shorin Seiunsha Sekai Bungaku Sekai Bunkasi Sekai Hyoronm Sekaisha Sekirokaku Senkisha Senshinsha Shakai Shiso Shi no Ie Shu Shi no Kai Shi no Kokyo6 Shi to Jinseis Shi to Shijin I Shi to Shijins] Shiba Shoten Shibata Shobo Shibun ShobO ShibundO Shibungaku KE Shibungaku KE Shichibun Sho Shii no Kisha Shiki ShobO Shikisha ShinchOsha S. t ) Kansai Chiho Iinkai ai?:yokai q A 4 an 4 -; ' Kenkyo kai -- -. ppambu shar - 0 ha - - Z-% ha - t Kenkyuikai t t Z- nkyha t nky)sha %. V L-k-.e m, Kyoto Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo TOkyO Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Osaka Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo TokyO Tokyo Kyoto Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo TOkyO Osaka Tokyo apporo Tokyo Kobe Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Osaka Kyoto Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo TokyO Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo ^1 f ^t K vq J4: rb fC -, t I 4 p Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Poetoroa Puratonsha Purotto Shuppambu t7o:r- \ 7~ 7 - ', - 7~0 a.7 Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo

Page  194 194 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Shinjinsha Shinkagakusha Shinkigensha Shink6 Shuppan Shink6 Shuppan Shinkosha Shinky6 Shuppa Shin-Nihon Bur Shinrinsha Shinrosha Shinseisha Shinshi Shob6 Shinshin Shijin, Shintaishiisha Shin' yosha Shinzembisha Shiratama Shob Shisaku Hakkoj Shisakusha Shishi Hakk6jo Shofukai Sh6gakukan Sh6kaihosha Shomotsu Teml Shoshinsha Shoshi Yuriika Shuibunkan Shubunkan Shdkan Kyoiku Shunjuisha Shuntosha Shun' y6d6 Sobunkaku Sogeisha Sogensha Sogensha Sojinsha Soj insha Somokusha Sosakusha Soseikaku Sounsha Suimei Hakkojo Sumida Shob6 Sunagoya Shobc Sutairusha (Shu Suzaku Shoin #4f t+' Vgai ~ U sha isha Lnsha ' i. [_ igakkai 4 + A' sha lo 4 tY e AT'S - f ^M bosha t ( ^ t ^ 71t > if y 1 imbunh u I L 1 ^ f? Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Osaka Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Toky6 Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo TOkyo Osaka TokyO apporo Tokyo TOkyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Kyoto Takara Shobo t- z' / t Toky5 Takayama Shoin -, t f Tokyo Takemura Shobo 5 t TOkyo Tamamosha. c ~- Tokyo Tanka Shimbunsha ~ t. ~ 1 L- Tokyo Temmeisha K ~ - Tokyo Temmeisha L * - Yokosuka Tempyo Shoin. ~ ~ Y — Tokyo Tenjinsha. /, - Tokyo Tetto Shoin ~ t. Tokyo Tobundo 6~ ~ Nagoya Todai Kyoso Shuppambu ~ L. 1$.. ~ ~.- Tokyo Todai Shuppankai k, k /k Tokyo Toga Shobo 6 Tokyo Tohoku Shoin Tokyo Tohosha f 2- Tokyo Toko Shuppansha L ' - t- Tokyo Tokyo Bunko ~,;L I Tokyo Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai ~ ti _ t TOkyo Tokyo Nichinichi Shimbunsha,~ ' T - -1 - Tokyo Tokyo Shuppan Kabushiki Kaisha,. t., 4. A' X-L TOkyo Tokyodo, t Tokyo Tomi Shoten ~ i t /e Tokyo Tonshisha ~ Tokyo Tosei Shuppansha, K ~t Tokyo Tosho Kenkyusha ( | ~, L Tokyo Toundo 6 t t Tokyo U Ummosha Usui Shobo Tokyo Kyoto w Wakosha Tokyo Y Yabonna ShobO (x - h "ri Yakumo Shorin $N % 4, Yakumo Shoten /\ i Yamamoto Shoten I $ / P Yanaihara Shoten ry, t/1 YaseidO, /- A Yashiro Shoten Yokusan Shuppan Kyokai. /. A,- # Yoshida Shobo 6 Yotokusha 4, - Yugawa KObunsha ^It I i s Yukeisha w i - Yuzankaku ' L z Yokohama Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Kyoto Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Nara Osaka Tokyo Tokyo T Tachikawa Osamu Taiheiy6 Shijin Kyokai Taikado Taikando Taikodo Taishii Shobo TaiyO Shuppansha K t I f;/- ~bhz K fT I:3 ^7 k ), ~?; if k?.! Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Gifu Tokyo Zayyih Kankokai Zenkoku Shobo Zensosha m 6 iw-,~,~ s Tokyo TOkyO Tokyo

Appendix II


pp. 195-212

Page  195 APPENDIX II INDEX OF AUTHORS AND EDITORS In the following index, a reference or references to the outline history of Sh~wa literature (numbers 1 -59) would indicate the principal school or schools with which a particular author is connected; a reference to the bibliography (numbers 384-1150) would point to his most representative works; references to articles and discussions written by other writers (numbers 123-235) would constitute a measure of his popularity and importance; and this would also be true of the number of times he is represented in the anthologies of Sh6wa literature (numbers 1151-1248). From these references, the interested student will be able to form a "profile" for each author. In general, the larger the number of references, the more important or popular the author. Abe Isoo -4 -3 - 1174. 39 Abe Jir6 fJ,4a,4b,4c,384, 1175. 74, 1194, 1243. 25 Abe K6b5 -4 - 12b, 20, 141, 254, 306, 316, 357, 366, 385, 1217, 1243. 53 Abe Rokur6 I AJ-~rA, 1175.96 Abe Shizue 13i,4 1190.6 Abe Sh6jin I - Y' ~A 5 Abe Tomoji 7T- rz,'b, 7e, 7f, 8b, 10, 187, 226, 249, 310, 386,11 (5, 1173, 1175. 44, 1177. 45, 1177. 50 1177. suppl. 2, 1198, 1232, 1233, 1242, 1243. 49, 1244 Abe Yoshishige l-~ f4-' Wt- 7, 4b,4c,345,387,1163, 1175. 94, 1192, 1193. 1, 1194, 1243. 10 Aeba K6son if s ~, 38 0 Agawa Hiroyuki KT f1 i - 8b,388,1232 Agi Osuke 11-,* ~sA 1169 Aida Ryfitar6 ~D u 101 Aizu Yaichi 4 $.-,158,389,1175.90 Akagi Kensuke z, * fal, 390 Akagi Kdhei 4~~$-! — 4a,41, 1175.94 Akamatsu Katsumaro;r4, It, 300 Akashi Kaijin 'I )4,k, 391,1190.7 Akiba Tar6 z5.~ 123. 392 Akimoto Fuj io $c- i,. ',57, 59,393, 1175. 91 Akimoto, Matsuyo;L;P 4-k, 20,1169 Akita Ujaku - vzp- -, *, 15, 94, 297, 378, 394, 1170, 1174. 35, 1175. 92 Akiyama Kiyoshi tk 4,29 Akiyama Shfik~ryd / -Tt k 1-~ 53 Akutagawa Ryiinosuke,- J-: Rir;4j,', 4b, 5, 133, 180, 265, 310, 340, 377, 395, 669, 1165, 1166, 1174. 30, 1175. 26, 1177. 31, 1179, 1193. 4,1194, 1198, 1206, 1225, 1232, 1243. 20 Amakasu Sekisuke M 396, 1247 Amano Teiyi wt, 297,1163,1194, 1243. 10 Amino Kiku $'6f6 ri Tw, 3, 10,263, 367, 382, 398, 1165, 1173, 1175. 39, 1177. 57, 1243. 53 And6 Ichird ~ 30, 32,260, 359,1175. 89, 1241I And5 Tsuguo /L ~~z,32,197,399 Anzai Fuyue 9,5 —,j~ 28, 30, 400, 1175. 89, 1201, 1236, 1241 Anzai Hitoshi - t,32 Anzai Okaishi - 4,50,1175.91 Aoi YU 13d Aoki K6 -~~- 6b Aoki Tadashi - 4,401 Aono Suekichi - 4,6a, 7e, 12a, 160, 174, 218, 262, 264, 284, 297, 310, 323, 378,402, 1159, 1160, 1175. 78, 1198, 1243. 45 Aoyagi Mizuho ~ ~7 ~,30 Aoyagi Seisei - iy,255 Aoyamna Jir6 ~ a 4:-'-,p 365 Aoyama Kason 4 ~~ 40,42 Aoyama K6ji A-~ 12b,357,403 Aoyama Toranosuke - P i- 355 Ara Masahito Ii-, 12b,99,124,125, 126, 127, 128, 151,159,172,210,253,254,272, 306,404, 405, 407, 408,9 11 59, 1160,) 117 5. 9 5, 119 8 Arahata Kanson T,1177.30 Arai Tetsuya ~-:~ ~4J,1227 Arai T6ru ~ t- ~,339,360,409 Araki Nobuo,44 Araki Takashi ~ - ~,7f, 328, 410, 1165, 1177. 55, 1175. 87 Ariki Tsutomu I- -, 290 Arima Yoriyasu -tq, 6b Arisaka YMar6 -- 4L;A13, 1193. 10 Arishima Ilkuma II, 4c, 1177. 28, 1193. 9, 1201, 1240 Arishima Takeo,4c Asahara Rokur6 I- f 7b,7d,411,412 1165, 1175. 86 Asahi Shimbunsha 0 1P 413 Asai Jidsabur6 -R-~ -- t p, 2,1 Asakura Fumio 4 ~ ~ A,1193.9 Asami Fukashi 5~,12a, 129, 130, 367, 378, 415, 1165, 1175. 87, 1175. 95, 1177. 57 Asano Akira 5 t -.,8a,416 Asano Junlichi >~ t 42,1218 Asano Shin 5',417 Ashigara Sadayuki 7. -,418 As6 Hisashi (4 2 300 Asd Isoji w.' ~ 60, 106,163 As5 Kotar6 Oz. Ft 1i k &~ 419 Atsumi Seitar6 -'& 5 8742 Atsuta Gor6 jt k — L V, 11,309,421,1242 Awano Seiho p -r,55,294,422, 1175. 91 Ayako (see Hosomi Ayako) Ayukawa Nobuo 4,k 32, 1154,01175. 8 Azumi Atsushi i~ ~ ~,423, 1175. 91 2) ~9 B Baishitsu 4 I4 1 47 Bakusui,< 48 Basho A, 7a, 41,48,54 Baudelaire, Charles Pierre, 4a, 349 Beardsley, Aubrey Vincent, 4a Becher, Johannes R., 349 Blum, Leon, 346 Boku Tenshun #!I, __, 323 Bonneau., Georges, 61 195

Page  196 196 196 ~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Bbsha (see Kawabata B6sha) Breton, Andre, 30 Buson -~ t,48 C Camus Albert, 12a Carpenter, Edward, 25 Cezanne, Paul J, 4c Chekhov, Anton Paviovich, 16,20 Chiba Kameo - *- t, y1175.94,11193.12 Chida Chiihei - 7ei' -~, 424 Chikamatsu Shiik6.rj,2,3,4a,378, 1174. 32, 1175. 13 Chino Masako ~ -,1190.3 Chino Sho-sh6 5 1163 C h6 Kakuc hii 1'f 4 425,11175.87 Ch6 Toshoku. - 323 Chiij6 Yuriko ~ -~~~ (see Miyamoto Yuriko) Cocteau, Jean, 349,359 Fujimori Tomoo -I A R t Fujimura Tsukuru 0, 4fJ- 4 ~i 107, 314, 315 Fuj ino Kohaku A E Fujisawa Asajir5 t I- ~T Fujisawa Furumi f Z 1190. 5 44 )83,88, 89,90, )48 tr 115 y437,1175.90, D Daigob6- Toshio k: r47'- i Ij ' 19 0.8 Dai-Nihon Kajin Ky6kai *cB3 1230 Dan Kazuo -,* 8a,10,253,330,426,1162, 1173, 1175. 88, 1232, 1242, 1243. 53 Darwin, Charles, 2 Dazai Osamu ik9 3, 7f, 8a, 9a, 13f, 133, 139,157,158, 169, 187, 199,215,229, 249, 259,330, 345, 351,t 357, 374, 427, 1160, 1165, 1175. 49, 1177. 53, 1177. suppi. 1, 1198, 1206, 1232, 1233, 1243. 36 Doi K~chi -t - #i k *Lt-z, 42 8 Dostoevski, Feodor Mikhaylovich, 13d, 15 Doyle, Arthur Conan, 13d Dumas, Alexandre, 380 E Ebe Oson T —,,i 1193.7 Edajima IchijirO 7 1165 E dogawa Rampo '-j,13d,356,429, 1161, 1186, 1187, 1201 Eguchi Kan $T P - 245,297,323,353,430, 1165, 1177. 40, 1236 Eliot, T. S., 20 Ema Nakashi A-r.y -, 11,1165,1168 End6 Shiisaku I ) ~~ 311,432 Engeki Hakubutsukan $4~)j!t1] ', 132,433 Enji Fumiko 1 4-,7f,9 297, 328, 334, 434, 1165, 1175. 87 F Fuj isawa Takeo te-~4~ 6c, 13b,1161, 1174. 62, 1175. 86, 1177.45 Fuj ita Sanehiko,8b Fujita Tsuguji,1193.9 Fujiwara Ginjir6,1194 Fujiwara Sadamu,31,1175.89 Fujiwara Shinji,12b,13b,1233 Fujiwara Tei,438, 1241 Fujiyama Aiichiro 6 1194 Fukada Kyfiya,7b, 7f, 8b, 183, 249, 439, 1175. 86, 1177.45 1232 1243. 53, 1244 Fukai Michiko A3 2f 259,44 0 Fukao Sumako,~/ -,271,359,1175.89, 1201, 1210, 1241 Fukase Motohiro -r,1175. 96 Fukazawa Shichiro L j 441 Fukazawa Sh~saku T, 841 Fukio (see Shiba Fukio) Fukuchi Ochi 4~ o,292 Fukuda Ayako W -3,442 Fukuda Eiichi;W - 46,1175.90 Fukuda Kiyoto,91,214,256,443, 1175. 87, 1177. 55 Fukuda Masao T,6 introd.,25, 1181 Fukuda Tsuner t ] 4B 12a,12,017 133, 134, 141,~ 221, 276, 333, 366, 40 7,444, 1159, 1160, 1209, 1232, 1233, 1243. 16 A p Fukuhara Rintar6 ~ ~ ~,12a, 445, 1193. 11, 1194 Fukumoto Kazuo i ~ ~,321,446 Fukunaga Takehiko p l2a, 32,251, 311, 366, 447 Fukuoka Masuo i~9 W 1192 Fukushi K6jir6 g7- - 25,1175.89,1181, 1193. 6,1241 Fukuzawa Yukichi,295 Funabashi Seiichi 4~ I 7b,9 7e, 7f, 10, l3b, 13e, 218, 246, 247, 248, 249, 253, 307, 308, 310,9 362, 448, 1159, 1161, 1162, 1167, 1173, 1175. 47, 1177. 49, 1232, 1233, 1243. 44 Funakata Haj ime ~J~ -,449 Funaki Shir6) jra,92 Funayama Kaoru - d1 Lb I 12b, 13b,245,450, 1233 Furukawa Katsumi E_, 451,1171 Furukawa Kiyohiko, ~ ~ j' 137 Furusawa Taiho 4.,1175.91 Furuta Daij ir6,452 Furuya Tsunatake,92, 135,136, 256,453 Flaubert, Gustavi, 186 G Freeman, Richard Austin, 13d F reud, Sigmund, 7 c, Gauguin, Paul, 4c Fuchigami M6sen 4- & u-,141Gius ene -4 1222 Fujii Masumi ~ -~ ~, 300, 1170 Gendai Shijinkai A-\ x, 454, 1203, 1228 Fujimori Hideo -tc,435 Gendaishi Jiten Henshiibu I-V; 4p JIT ~ Fujimori Seikichi rx, 6a,6c, 11, 17, 19, 93 301,336,337,351,353,357,383,436, 1173,1174.47,1175.77,Genji Keita. ~M O\. l,10281,1162,1167,1191 1177. 36, 1177.43,1201,1211,1243.24 Gide, Andre" 13d,346,349

Page  197 APPENDIX II19 197 Goering, Reinhard, 16 Goch, Vincent Van, 4c Gogol, Nikolai Vasilievich, Gomi Yasusuke —; Gomi Yasuyoshi 1190. 7 Gorki, Maxim, 16 Got5 Chiigai4 Got6 Ikuko, 4~ j Got6 Kentaro6 4j$ Got5 Miyoko ~ 1190. 7 Got6 Shigeru z- Gotd Shintar64 Got6 Tanji I Got6 Yahan I4 Gray, Thomas, 21a 16, 20 455, 1205 )44,1175.90, )378,1175.94 3- 360,k, )456 43, i1U45,46,457,11175. t 458, 1175. 90, 1190. 6 -k/. t~, 382 -A 163 + 55,1175.91 H Haga Mayumi,8a,330 Hagino Tei 2~ 285 Hagiwara Ky6jir6 ) ~,~ 28,9459, 1175.89, 1241 Hagiwara Ragetsu ~ 1,460 Hagiwara Sakutar5 IMt ) 24,26,27, 31, 215, 260,331,?340, 344, 349, 359, 461, 1175. 24, 11815, 1193. 5,1201, 1206,1232, 1241,1243. 22,1245 Haky5 (see Ishida Haky6) Hamada Hirosuke 5~W ) ~,1232 Ramada Ky~tari5 rk~ 309, 462 Hamamoto Hiroshi 3 ~ ~,13a,1161,1237 Hamao Shir6 roi lp,3d,1186 Hanada Kiyoteru 1 F. w 12a, 162,306, 333,353,463, 1159, 1160, 1175. 95,133 Hanaoka Kenj i rL (N, 464 Hanawa Shob5 4., 465 Hanawa Shob5 Henshiibu i *~ ~ % q ~ 83 Handa Ry6hei ~ ~ ~,37,466,1175.90,1189, 1190. 4 Handa Yoshiyuki 2 ~, 467,1152 Hani Gor6 ii -,1163 Haniya Yutaka tk, ~ ~,1b298,306, 468, 1233, 1242 Hara, Asao /IF Ioj, 4L A, 39,44,1189,1190.1 Hara. Sekitei Ff,r71 51,469,1175.91 HaraTakeo -I,- T 470 Hara Tamiki al, 8b,12b,199,221,311, 324, 471, 1175. 88, 1243. 53 Harada Taneo -.WI 4 ). 318 Haruyama Yukio 4 tA,7c, 28, 30, 472, 1175. 89, 1241 Hase Ken f~ -f 473,1152,1175.87 Hasegawa Ginsaku -~,~ ~,474,1175.90, 1190. 7 Hasegawa Kanajo ~ ~ It rc i 55 Hasegawa K6hei r~,~,475 Hasegawa Nyozekan -;.,_A, 245,476, 1174. 41, 1175. 94, 1177. 30, 1193.12, 1194, 1243.37 Hasegawa Reiyoshi -~,-~ ~ },51,477 Hasegawa Seiichi - - - -,94 Hasegawa Seiya -4 -.1 478 Hasegawa Shigure f p, 13a,334,479 Hasegawa Shin -r,. j,13a,29,480,1178, 1186, 1187, 1193. 10, 1201, 1237 Hasegawa Shir6 fiv i$ (1,I( 481 Hasegawa Sosei -~,- - ~,55,57 Hasegawa Susumu -z,267 Hasegawa Tenkei -1~~ 2, 369, 1175. 94 Hashida T6sei,1175. 90,1189, 1190. 2 Hashimoto E ikichi 1j~ 252, 333,482, 1173, 1175. 86, 1177.41, 1213 Hashimoto Harusuke 4t ~ 9-,379 Hashimoto Mudd 56, 1175. 91 Hashimoto Takako 4~p ~,59, 1175. 91 Hashimoto Tokuju $z ~ ~,483,1175.90, 1190.5,1190.7 Hasunii Taisaku L 14,286 Hata Toyokichi J, 484 Hattori Motoharu ~ ~4 ~,34 -Hattori Naoto - A.,1190. 8 Hattori Shis6 -.,381 Hattori Tatsu ~ ~'L,485 Hattori Yoshika ) 23,486,1175.89 Hayaba Sakae,8b Hayama Yoshiki -4 v 6a,22,0047 1165, 1174. 50, 1175. 38, 1177. 40, 1201, 1238, 1243. 53, 1244 Hayashi Fub6 4.,13a, 1186,1187 Hayashi Fumiko #z( 3-,8b, 10,13b, 144, 145 22 1, 246, 266, 284, 334, 352, 488, 1162, 1173, 1175. 45, 1177. 44, 1177. 52, 1179, 1194, 1198, 1206, 1232, 1233, 1242, 1243. 19 Hayashi Fusao, B9 ~-A, 6a, 6c,7f, 8a,10, 13b, 194, 249, 330, 338, 383, 489, 1162, 1174. 62, 1177. 43, 1232, 1245 Hayashi Itsuma 4- *, 318 Hayashi Takashi 4 i1192, 1193.2 Hayashi Tatsuo, 4. * 361, 490, 1175. 96 Hayashida Shigeo 4- I, 43,491 Hekigot5 (see Kawahigashi Hekigot5) Hemmi Hiroshi,130 Hemmi Yiikichi,31, 492, 1175. 89, 1241 Hasegawa Izumi 1~~ 137, 16 0 Henry, 0., 13d Hibino Shir6 a L 8b,375,493,1177.59 Hidaka Rokur6 R; 494 Hidejima Takeshi 4-y 495 Higashinobe Kaoru -f L.,496, 1152 Hijikata Teiichi ~L ~ -,31,497 Hij ikata Yoshi I --.,16,17 Hikida Hirokichi ~ I ~,1154 Hinatsu Kdnosuke la Th& - 24,26,30,498, 1175. 73, 1175. 93, 1181, 1193. 11, 1198, 1201, 1232, 1241,2 1243. 43 Hino, Ashihei A t,8b, 13b, 101, 226, 296, 318, 357, 499, 1152, 1162, 1175. 48, 1177. 51, 1177. 59, 1232, 1243. 46, 1244 Hino Sdj6 pi!' —,, ~ 55, 57, 59,294,1500, 1175. 91 Hirabayashi Hatsunosuke T 4,3, 6a, 174, 300, 351, 378, 501, 1175. 78 Hirabayashi Hy6go if # 44~ rf-7- 7f, 502,1165, 1177. 55 Hirabayashi TaikoJ~ ~ 9 6a, 11,13b, 139, 144, 218, 221, 264, 332, 355, 363, 503,11623,1173, 1175. 39, 1177. 41,2 1177. suppl. 2, 1198, 1232, 1233, 1243. 55 Hirado, Kenkichi i- 14 28,504,1241 Hirafuku Hyakusui i~,39,505, 1190. 1 Hirahata Seit6 -q/ R - t 2 57,59,11175.91 Hirai Hiroyuki -i_~~ 506 Hiraki Niroku -A,1175.89 Hirano Banri, 3 5, 1175. 90, 1189, 1190. 3 Hirano Fumiko T- 1.~(~ 507

Page  198 198 198 ~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Hirano Ken -e VT 41, 12a, 12b, 99, 125, 126, 127, 128, 131, 138, 139, 151, 153, 160, 162, 172, 178, 196, 253, 306,366, 405, 406,407,408, 508, 707,716,1140,1159, 1160,1175. 95, 1175. suppl. 1, 1198 Hirata Jisabur6 q7,,;k-:- 12a, 12b, 99,5 125, 127, 160, 162, 407, 509, 1160, 1233 Hirata Koroku { '' 6b,267,510 Hirata Tokuboku ~ ~ j,1175. 97, 1192, 1193. 1 Hiratsuka Raich6 d j- L 334 Hirayama Rok6 -T- t~i-, 1193. 10, 1237 Hiroe Yaezakura A ','.,50,1175.91 Hiroike Akiko Po+ 511 Hironishi Motonobu,258 Hirotsu Kazuo 2, 5, 7f, 10, 12a, 13b, 139, 249, 266, 275, 284, 290, 300, 378, 512, 1159, 1162, 1165, 1173, 1174. 48, 1175. 32, 1177. 33, 1177. 47, 1179, 1198, 1232, 1243. 48 Hiroumi Taiji,513 Hisaita Eijir6 A ~ - 12,19, 20,141, 514, 1169, 1175. 92, 1209,2 1217, 124 3.'24 Hisamatsu Sen' ichi;Z - 4:q -,8,49,6 99, 105, 106, 127, 515, 516, 1192, 1193. 1 Hisao Jiiran;Z. t ~ + 13a, 13d Hishiyama Shiiz5 ~ 30,31,260, 1175. 89, 1241 Hitomi Enkichi 'K 517 Hitomi T6mei K Q,23 Hoashi Riichira tqr~, ~ 1]- 1193. 7 Hoffmann, E rnst Theodor Amade is, 4a Hofstaetter, Walter, 90 H6j6 Hideji IL q,,t 19, 518, 1169, 1195 H6j6 Makoto Hzt, 44 X ~, 2, 13b,241, 378,519 H6j5 Tamio it i4 ~,,i 7f, 139,187, 232, 520 1165, 1175. 79, 1177. 54, 1232, 1243. 53, 1245 Homma Hisao 4'- f 2, 6 introd., 378, 521, 522, 1175. 94 Honda Akira 4'- W ~g 253,1175. 96 Honda Bizen 4'4,1186 Honda Kiyoji 4 4',1233 Honda Shdgo 7, 12a,12b,99, 125, 126, 128, 140,1 ~2, 196, 306, 320, 406, 408, 523, 1175.95)1233 Honj jRikuo 4-/ ~,7f, 8a, 278, 312,330, 336, 383, 524, 1165, 1175. 87, 1177. 55, 1213,1232 Honi Tatsuo t*A f.<;4, 7b,7c,9b,30,31,179, 183, 209, 234, 265, 301, 311, 340, 525, 1173, 1175. 43, 1177. 45, 1177. 53, 1198, 1206, 1207, 1232, 1243. 18, 1244, 1245 Horiguchi Daigaku i tA,7a, 24, 27, 30, 32, 93, 233, 260, 331,526, 1175. 89, 1175. 93, 1181, 1193. 5,1198, 1201, 1232, 1241 Horiguchi Kumaichi if,7k 1193. 12 Horikoshi Hideo YA, ~ ~,1154 Horiuchi Michitaka 4j$ p.~ 1190. 6 Hoshikawa Kiyomi FE,l 527 Hoshino, Bakujin 'K,528 Hoshino, Shizuo ~ ~~,62 Hoshino Tatsuko,55,529,1175.91,1186 Hosoda. Genkichi ~t,0 262, 1201 Hosoda Tamiki,378, 530,1168.,1201, Hotta Yoshie 4A 1-M 4k ) 139, 247, 251, 275, 316, 532, 1175. 88, 1231, 1232, 1243. 53 Hozumi Kiyoshi. -,44,1175.90,1190.7 Iba Mansaku 4~ f - ~ -,1217 lbaraki Tadashi k -,141,533 Ibsen, Henrik Johan, 15,16,20, Ibuki Takehiko f14 534 Ibuse Masuj i I:4 -, 7b,10,130,143, 158, 183, 215, 221,2 222, 229, 247, 352, 367,380, 535, 1162, 1165, 1173, 1175. 41, 1177.45, 1177. 52, 1177 suppl. 2, 1179, 1194, 1205, 1232, 1233, 1243. 36 Ichihara Toyota,1175.96,1194 Ichijima Shunjd -2~ 1193. 12 Ichij5 Shigemi - 4,142, 536 Ichij6 Tetsu - ~4i,~,43 Ichikawa Danjir6 (the ninth) + ~ ~ 14, 15, 227 Ichikawa Sadanji (the fourth) j IJ;,14, 227 Ichikawa Sanki 4 -,1193. 11 Ichikawa Sanroku 4 1193.6 Ichiko Teij i t 106 Ichinose Naoyuki - -,537,1165 IdelItsur6 F113 538 Ide No rio 4 i- ],1236 Ide Takashi ~:,1163 Igayama Sh6z6 4 g ~,1169 Iguchi Seiha 4 7 - 4k, 13c Ihara Seiseien 4 1170,1186,1193.8 Ii Y6h6 /I 4- 4 14 Iida Dakotsu k ER,, 51,54,539,1175.91 Iijima Tadashi ' -k. -. 7b, 30, 24 3, 349, 540 Iizawa Tadasu ' ~ 1,20,141,1169, 1175. 92, 1209 Iizuka Tomoichir6 132 Ijichi Tetsuo I~ T 4, 97 Ikadai Kaichi 2 -4 45, 541, 1175. 90, 1190. 7 Ikari Mitsunao 4,542 Ikeda Daigo,19, 1170, 1174. 35, 1175. 92 Ikeda Hisao W4 ~i7 'k, 543 Ikeda Katsumi $4j,v 32', 544 Ikeda Kiyoshi ~4-, 1194 Ikeda Kogiku. ~ ri, 1165 Ikeda Tadao ~4~i,1217 Ikenouchi Tomojir6 5i ) 55 Ikenoya Shinsabur5 p ~ 4 545,1165, 1174. 61, 1175. 86, 1177. 43, 1238 Ikushima Ry6ichi ~ f 4 A, — 1160,1175.96 Ikuta Ch6k6 ItF r~ ~., 3,7a,351,546 Ikuta Ch6suke fk tt, 1186 Ikuta Hanayo it 4 "t, t, 54 7 Ikuta Shungetsu ff rV4 ~ 26,548,1175.89,1181, 1241 Imai Kuniko i> Tf~~ 39, 1175. 90, 1189, 1190. 2 Imai Sabur6 5\ - j 1193. 7 Imai Tatsuo k)' A, 13a,324 Imaizumi Tadayoshi 4-. ~,116 Imamura Tsuneo /4- \ '-, 549 Imano Kenz6 / r- 1177. 40 Imaoka Hiroshi 4- i ~Lj, 550 1213, 1237 Hosokawa S~kichi tT Hosomi Ayako '~ t Hosoya Genji ~mf Hotta Kiyomi 4l ~ " I, - a, 4-4 I8b) 531 )59, 1175. 91 )1175. 91 )1169

Page  199 APPENDIX II19 199 Imoto N6ichi -t-I 59, 97 In Heigyoku,323 Inagaki Taruho, f.,7a,10,261,551, 1165, 1177. 44 Inagaki Tatsura /f,ip-A 258 Inagaki Tsuneko t~ J -- 341 Inazu Shizuo 3- ~ ~,552 Ino Kenj i ~,z 152,153,289,553,578 Inoki Masamichi 5~ih1194 Inoue Isamu #f-= 554 Inoue Mitsuharu p~ t 11,555,1236 Inoue Tetsujir6 VTh -;k~ 21a,21b Inoue Tomnoichir5 kI t -,2, 7f, 10, 12a, 13b, 13e, 247, 254, 289, 297, 357, 378, 556, 1161, 1162, 1165, 1167, 1173, 1175. 81, 1177. 56, 1232, 1243. 53 Inoue Yasushi -ti~ ~- Ar, 13b, 557, 1162, 1165, 1167, 1175. 81, 1231, 1232, 1243. 53 Inui Shin'ichir5 1191 Inukai Takeru A ~,4c, 558, 1175. 86,1238 Inuta Shigeru K rF 6b,1165 Ippekir6 (see Nakatsuka Ippekiro6) Irako Seihaku 5j f + 54 (3 1175. 89 Ishibashi Hideno rr 4 rt~ 1175. 91 Ishibashi Makio,~4,162 Ishibashi Ningetsu T 4 559 Ishibashi Tatsunosuke /;5 k~ 57,1158, 1175.91 Is hida Haky6 T -i f 57,59,560,1175.91 Ishigaki Ayako top ~ - 280 Ishigure Chimata,~4 ~,34, 44,1175. 90,2 1189, 1190. 2 Ishigure Shigeru T 4 43 Ishiguro Keishichi Tp X + L 1191 Ishihamna Kinsaku /-, ~ J-~ 4I r' 261 Ishihara Fumnio ~ ~ 4 6b Ishihara Jun,Tp *, 36, 39,42,43, 1175. 90, 1189, 1190. 1, 1192, 1193. 2 Ishihara Ryiiichi 3 365 Ishihara Shintar6,j ~. ) 561 Ishii Hakutei,4a,1193.9 Ishii Naosabur6 Ez1 41,562,1190.4 Ishii Rogetsu, 4f,48,1175.91 Is hikawa Jun ~ T 9b, 13f, 209, 221, 247, 563, 1152, 1165, 1173, 1175. 49, 1177. 54, 1177 suppi. 1, 1198, 1205, 1232, 1233, 1243. 57 Ishikawa Keir5- Fz ( 4 01, 59,1175.91 Ishikawa Kinlichi,~ r~,1193. 6 Ishikawa Takemi jiAj<,363 Ishikawa Takuboku /, 4a, 6 introd., 35, 37, 1174. 45 Ishikawa Tatsuz6 t it, 8b, 10, 13a, 13b, 101, 183, 187, 199, 226, 253, 281, 351, 357, 358, 564, 1152, 1161, 1162, 1165, 1167, 1173, 1175. 48, 1177. 49, 1177. 59, 1198, 1232, 1233, 1243. 40,1244 Ishikawa Toshimitsu b ' J) 258, 565 Ishikawa Zensuke B-il -* v, 1241 Ishimaru Gohei 4 *i - 1193. 7 Ishimi Tameo 4,566 Ishimitsu qhigeru ~ L ~,1165 Ishiyama Tetsuro LL~~~ 567 Ishizaka Y6jir6;F t& -k~J5 10, 13a, 13b, 101, 226, 246, 259, 281, 324, 332, 362, 363, 379, 568, 1161, 1162, 1165, 1167, 1173, 1175. 80, 1177. 50, 1198, 1232, 1233, 1243. 21, 1243. 56, 1244 Ishizuka Kikuz6 TP. —.B 569, 1152 Ishizuka Tonaoji /-f z. 3, 59,570, 1165, 1175. 87, 1175. 91, 1177. 57 Isogai Hideo ) - A 143, 571 Isomura Geki A4' ie, 210 Isonokami Gen' ichird;F i~ -, 13f, 572, 1165, 1175. 88, 1233 Issekiro (see Kuribayashi Issekiro) Itagaki Naoko j& ifi, 12a, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 573 Itazaka Takaho t Mt I~ t, 1193. 8 ItO C hdta k-~,1192,1193.2 1t6 Einosuke if tc ~' iA-, 6b, 351, 574, 1165, 1173, 1175. 86, 1177. 49, 1179. 58, 1198, 1232, 1243. 53, 1244 It5 Hiroshi 4 z,342 1t6 Keiichi i i -,8b 1t6 Sachio --,4b,36,39, 1189 1t5 Sakio ~ ~ ~4,8a,330,1165 153, 156, 157, 162, 199,204, 209,218, 226,246, 253, 254, 256, 270, 275, 280, 290, 349, 575, 576, 577, 578, 1159, 1160, 1165, 1173, 1175.44, 1175. 89, 1175. 95, 1177. 45, 1177. 52, 1198, 1205, 1232, 1233, 1242, 1243. 57 Ito6 Shinkichi 4 ~,29,31, 154,159,579,580, 1164, 1175. 89, 1201, 1232 It6Shir- 4Ff, 581 It6 Shizuo 4y~- 31,32,312,582,1175.89,1 1241 It6 Teisuke 4~ Q Yi~ 583 1t6 TVichi if~ 4 1204 it6 Yawa ra,4 584, 1210 Iwai Sannosuke j ~ i4-,585 Iwakanii Jun' ichi ~ -,12b, 155,323, 586, 1159, 1175. 95 Iwakura Masaji ~ ~J vC 6b,270,587,1175.86, 1165, 1177. 55 Iwama Masao T 7-'-, 44,588 Iwano H6mei i,2,23,378 Iwasa TVichir6 4f- ~i-,30, 260, 1175. 89 Iwasaki Akira,1247 Iwata San,13d Iwata. Toyoo t (also writes as Shishi Bunroku), 8b,975, 1209 Iwat6 Yukio,6a, 589, 1165, 1175. 86, 1177.41 Iwaya Bakuai,41,1175.90,1189, 1190.4 Iwaya Daishi ~ ~ ~,259,263 Iwaya Sazananii 7C i,.,jI- 1174.54,1177. suppi. to 1, 2, 3 Izawa Rokur6 o 590 Izawa Shimpei 4T - 4T:10, 43 Izu Toshihiko {y~ -2] ~~ 198 Izumi Ky6ka rE~1 i',~ I 4a, 324,1166, 1168,1174. 14, 1175. 5, 1177. 4, 1177. 39, 1218 Izumoto Miko,j ~,4-f, 1218 J Jammes, Francis, 349 Jimbo K6tarJ'j74.A 8a,31,330,591, 1175. 89, 1241 Jinzai Kiyoshi te 4,N 592, 1175. 88, 1175. 96, 1233, 1243. 53 J5 Masayuki r, 13d J5 Samon +#fV r-, 30, 260, 593, 1175. 89, 1241 Joyce, James, 7c 349 Jugaku Bunsho I 1193.8 Jiiichiya Gisabur6 -—,,13a, 261, 594, 1 16 5, 1174. 61, 1175. 79, 1177. 44, 119 3. 4

Page  200 200 200 ~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS K Kaburagi Kiyokata 1 1193. 10 Kadoda Yutaka rl, 341 Kaga K~j i PU~ 1177.41, 1213 Kagawa Kageki ) i 33 Kagawa Toyohiko V ~,352, 595,1174. 59, 1168, 1193. 7 Kagoshima Juz6,44,46,596, 1175. 90, 1190. 1, 1190. 5, 1245 Kaionji Ch~gor5 ~$~~ 13a Kaiser, George, 16 Kaizo-sha?&e h 597 Kaj i Wata ru f f- i 1 326, 338, 598,1165 Kaj ii Motoj ir6 9F )~~ 3,209,232,243, 349, 599, 1165, 1175. 43, 1177. 45, 1232, 1243. 53 Kajiura Masayuki 3-, <1 inL 600 Kakegawa Ch~nen (Nagatoshi) 4 ~ i-,311 Kakei Kazuhiko rj -,- 601 Kakurai Akio t -t - 1175. 91 Kamachi Kan'ichi -,156,602 Kambara. Ariake ~'/ ~~,22,26,603,1175. 58, 1181,2 1201, 1241 Kambara Tai ~ j?T-, 30,31,349,604 Kambayashi Akatsuki ~- 4,c 3, 10,218, 256, 259, 333, 367, 605,1159, 1173, 1175. 40, 1177. 52, 1232, 1243. 53 Kambayashi Michio J - K- A 32, 606 Kambe Yilichi i~-~ f/ -, 607 Kamei Katsuichir6 t. 4, - -, 8a, 12a, 157, 158, 218, 284, 312, 320,9 330, 367, 608, 1175. 95, 1194, 1232, 1243. 16, 1245 Kamneshima Sadao t.~ g 7 285, 379 Kameyama Iwao ~_, 342 Kamichika Ichiko 4 t 354, 1193. 6 Kamitsukasa Sh6ken ~ /01~ &, 609, 1165,1168, 1177. 15, 1177. 30 Kamiyama Shigeo J-xA~ 128 Kamiyama Yflichi 4 352 Kammuri Matsutar6i ) 1193. 6 Kamura Isota ) 3,b,3323,29 307, 610, 1165, 1175. 34, 1177. 44, 1232, 1243. 53 Kanagaki Robun 4. iz, 325 Kanda Hideo, 97,137,159,611, 1175. 91 Kaneko Chikusui ~~3 I K,1175. 94 Kaneko Kun' en 3, 34,351,1175.90,1189, 1190. 2 Kaneko Mitsuharu K~ -k4 31,154,233,271, 359, 612, 613, 1175. 89, 1198, 1210,1232, 1235, 1241, 1245 Kaneko T~ta / - 3 1175.91 Kaneko Y6bun k 3 300,614, 1170,1175. 92, 1177. 40 Kanetsune Kiyosuke f rk R,1~ 615,1193.6 Kanno Masao I` k ini -,I, 6b,616 Kan5 Akatsuki ktv 39 Kan5 Sakuj ir6- p L '7 ~ 617,1165,1175.34, 1175. 95, 1177. 15, 1177. 36 Karaki Junz5 (lip~'~ 618 Karasawa Masao / ~-E - 289 Kasai Yuriko 3/j ~ i -~, 619 Kasai Zenzd & t,' 4 2,3,5,232378, 620, 1165,9 1174. 48, 1175. 34, 1177. 33, 1201, 1232 Kashima K6j i 0-, — 1191 Kashima Sh6z6 /V 1154 Kashima Yasuo. 4 3, 153 Kasuya Masao #f A r / 352 Katagami Noburu * i- 41, 2,4c,262,378,621 Katagami Tengen tr k&.~ A~ ) also wrote as Katagami Noburu, 23 Kataoka. Teppei 4-P 4 ~-A-,7a, 246,261,622, 1165, 1174. 50, 1175. 86, 1177. 43, 1201, 1213, 1238, 1243. 53 Kataoka Yoshikazu ~r -, 7a,137,159,160, 161, 162, 163, 623, 624,625 Katayama Hiroko ~- i, I~ 3 —, 1189 Katayama Koson tk "I,,~ 23,1175.94 Katayama Toshihiko ~f Lri p( 9b, 11,626, 1175. 96 Kat6 Genchi /' ~ ~,1193. 7 Kat5lly6ko /V T Ok3- 380 Kat6 Kaishun /V1 23,1175.89,1181 Kat6 Kakuhan ~ 627 Kat5 Kazuo /z~~-,25,628,1175.94 Kato Michio pt7, I ~ 20,276,629, 1169, 1175. 92, 1209, 1231 KAt6 Noriharu /f ~ ~,341 Kat5 Shiiichi oir 12a,32,251,306,333, 366,2 630, 631, 1160, 1175. 96, 1197 Kat6 Shiison j7I R~ yk 4,p 57,59,219,1175.91 Kat6 Takeo pvP~ A' 6b,7b,268,1161,1168, 1177. 36, 1178, 1201, 1237 Katori Hotsuma t- qv ) ~ 36 Kaisumoto Seiichird rj- -, 6a, 632, 1170, 1175. 94 Katsura Nobuko, 4 13 59, 1175.91 Kawabata B~sha q 47 - 1'~ 55,633,1175.91 Kawabata Yasunari it #", 7a, 7b, 7c, 7f., 10,92,129,135,143, 162, 215,218,221, 222, 229, 246, 249, 255, 261, 265, 302, 333, 352, 634, 1159, 1160,1162, 1166, 1173, 1174. 61, 1175. 37, 1177. 43, 1177. 46, 1179, 1193. 4,1198, 1205, 1225, 1232, 1233, 1238, 1243. 9,1244 Kawada Jun 'FEU op,, 34,39,41,635, 1175.90, 1189, 1190. 4 Kawade Shob5 9TH ~A 162,163,636 Kawaguchi Ichir6 (,I t7 3,18,1169,1175.92, 1209 Kawaguchi Matsutar6 'i r'74 ~ 13a,281, 637, 1161, 1167, 1237, 1239 Kawahigashi Hekigoto IT * T/* 01i7 b 48, 50,51, 52,53, 54, 294, 1175. 91, 1193. 8 Kawai Eijir6 P"T /',1194 Kawai Suimei ~f ~,27, 331, 638, 1175. 89, 1181, 1241 Kawaj i Ryiik6 I t~- 4,23,25,27,331,359,639, 1175. 89, 1181, 1241 Kawakami Haj ime T -Lf,,e 640 Kawakami Kikuko i r-h- 3-,/ 641 Kawakami Otoj ir6 'F1~ -L - 14 Kawakami Tetsutar6 qf + I44-;& Y 7f, 12a, 158, 162, 199, 221, 229, 253, 642, 1159, 1160, 1175. 95, 1194, 1243. 13 Kawamori Yoshizo ifT~ 3 12a,275,351, 643, 1175. 96, 1194 Kawamura Kary6 Ft d 1170 Kawasaki Ch6tar6 f'1 -ti yKY 3, 10, 247, 256, 644, 1173, 1175. 88, 1177. 57, 1205,1243. 53 Kawatake Shigetoshi 1 98,163,645 Kayama Shigeru *~ k-t, 13d Kazamaki Keijir6 W.- ~ 85, 646 Kerr, John D., 13d Kida Minoru ~ <,647,1175.88,1232 Kigi Takatar5 - r, 13d Kihara. K~ichi A -,32,1154 Kikuchi Kan ~ ~ j,1,5,6a,13a,13b,15, 16, 246, 265, 277, 281, 308, 363, 648, 1165, 1166, 1168, 1174. 31, 1175. 27, 1177. 31, 1178, 1179, 1193. 3, 1194, 1198, 1225, 1232, 1237, 1243. 33

Page  201 APPENDIX II 201 Kikuchi Sh6ichi q t $-, 203, 1159 Kikuchi Yiuho 5 -,, 1168 Kikumura Itaru i, 649 Kikuoka Kuri 2 ~ 1, 20, 29,31, 32,650, 1175. 89,1241 Kikushima Ryuzo6 ~ -, 1217 Kikuta Kazuo 4 7 -, 19,20,651,1169 Kimata Osamu t t fl, 44, 46, 103, 159,219, 652, 1175.90, 1190.3, 1190.6 Kimura Kenko 7 f t, 1194 Kimura Ki * f. |t, 13a, 240,653 Kimura Shigeo ft f 4, 654 Kimura Sohachi j ft _,A, 4a,1193.6 Kimura S6ta 4 4t fA, 3 Kimura Tomiko 7 ft 4 -, 655 Kin Genki t 4, 323 Kin Nanten 4/ rf7, 323 Kin Ryusai ) -~ %, 656,1210 Kin Shiry5o, 323,657 Kin Tatsuju 4 A l, 11,272,323,353,658 Kindai Bungakusha A -V' y ~r 4, 99,659 Kindai Tanka Jiten Kank6kai L ^t {. * f -. '1 1T 4, 103 Kindaichi Ky6suke 4' (M - T, gf, 1179,1192,1193.1 Kinoshita Junji * 1 rT I -, 20, 141, 245,247, 280, 285,660, 1169, 1175. 50, 1195, 1209, 1232, 1243.24 Kinoshita Keisuke T A. 4, 1217 Kinoshita Mokutar6 7- T I /, p, 4a, 15, 24, 35,324,661, 1174. 35, 1175. 17, 1177. 21, 1192, 1193. 1, 1232, 1241, 1243. 25 Kinoshita Naoe 7 T' 7, 6 introd. Kinoshita Toshiharu 4 - f [ T, 4c, 34,39,40, 1189, 1190.4 Kinoshita Yuji 4 T '7 ~, 662 Kinumaki Seiz5o 4 4 =, 663 Kishi Yamaji 4 h j, 13a, 350,664, 1174.62, 1213 Kishida Hideto I T Q 77, 1194 Kishida Kunio 4 (~7 ~1 -, 13b, 16,18,19,20, 246, 261, 265, 276, 277, 333, 352, 379, 665, 1169, 1170, 1174. 50, 1175. 33, 1177. 51, 1193. 4, 1198, 1209, 1225, 1232, 1243. 30, 1245 Kishida Ryiisei 4 3 'J N, 4c Kishida Yoshiko f-,, 666 Kiso Ryuichi T 4 f -, 63,172 Kitabayashi T6ma JL f ~., 13a Kitagawa Fuyuhiko f t, ~ 4, 28,30,31,32, 154,243, 271,331, 349, 667, 1175. 89, 1201, 1210, 1241 Kitahara Hakushiu -ft /. f- 7 A, 4a,23,24,25,27,35, 37, 38, 39, 44, 45, 244, 324, 331, 668,669, 1175. 15, 1181, 1189, 1190. 3, 1193.5, 1201, 1206, 1232, 1241,1245 Kitahara Takeo t /. A ', 9a, 13f, 259,269, 670, 1159, 1173, 1175. 88, 1177. 56, 1232, 1233, 1243. 53 Kitamachi Ichir6o L - --, 1191 Kitami Shioko 3J b. 4J +, 44,1190. 7 Kitamura Hatsuo ib,t -m7,, 1175.89 Kitamura Hisao t fi t., 307 Kitamura Komatsu -t tt. ^, 307,324,1191,1237 Kitamura Tar6: t, 32, 1154 Kitamura T6koku t t2,, 2 Kitani Rikka -,6 x, 50 Kitazawa Rakuten -4t - T x, 295 Kitazono Katsue 4t (I] { f, 28, 30,32,260, 671,1175.89,1241 Kiyama Shohei 4 4 ~1[ -~, 367,1175.87 Kleist, Bernd Henrich Wilhelm von, 20 Ko Ei,, ^&, 672 Ko Haruto * / A/, 12b, 673 Koana Ryuichi,j- ' ft -, 674 Kobayashi Hideo,) t 4 3, 675 Kobayashi Hideo 4 t - I i, 7b, 7f, 9b, 12a, 133,139,140, 158,164,165,166, 167, 187, 199,208, 221, 249, 269, 301, 304, 361, 365, 380, 676, 677, 1160, 1175. 42, 1194, 1243. 13, 1245 Kobayashi Ichiz6o /J' - -, 1193. 12,1194 Kobayashi Issa 4| t -4,52 Kobayashi Takiji / t A - '- -, 6a,6b,153,162, 175, 177, 199, 200, 337, 347, 678, 1165, 1174. 62, 1175. 38, 1177. 43, 1198, 1206, 1232, 1243.6 Kobayashi Tatsuo '1 i 3- 3., 12b, 679 Kobori Annu 4I- 1/ -fr,382 K6da Aya -4 UH <, 680, 1245 K6da Rohan 4 - 4it, 329,380,681,1174.8, 1175.3, 1177. 3, 1177. 39,1177. 60, 1194 Koeber, Raphael, 1174. 57 Koga Sabur6o W - = j, 13d, 1186 Kogure Masaji '- w ~. <, 46, 1190. 8 Koide Tsubara /I' I,;, 33 Koizumi Chikashi ' 3 -1- _, 36, 39,244,669, 682, 1175.90, 1189, 1190.2 Koizumi Shinz6o /,1 4 =- -, 683, 1192,1193.12, 1194, 1243.27 Koizumi T6ozo,I- 4. -, 41,236,1190.6 Kojima Kikuo j 4/, - t, 4c Kojima Masajir6o,/J. / _, 13a, 101,324, 363, 684, 1161, 1187 Kojima Nobuo '' f 47 I, 685 Kojima Takashi 4' / R, 1165 Kojima Usui 4, j t, 1193.6 Kokubun Ichitar6o l] ' - ', 153,578 Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan 4, 64 Kokusai Shich6sha 1J |? 4-, 67 Komada Shinji.j ( 4, -, 8b, 12b, 686 Komai Taku,,' 4, 1193.11 Komatsu Kiyoshi /]j 1,, 310, 382 Komatsu Tar5o. Ai,, 687 Komiya Toyotaka,). ~ 4, 4b, 4c, 313,688, 1194, 1243.25 Komiyayama Meibin /I-, ALi X-, 1175. 94 Komuro Kutsuzan /,. 1 t/ Li ~ 2 la Kon Hidemi /> &, 7b, 7f, 13b, 689,1162, 1175. 88, 1243.53 Kon Toko /k ) L, 7a,261,279,1175.86,1177.43 Kond6 Azuma (i. O, 30,690,1175.89,1241 Kond6 Keiichi 4 -, 1170 Kond6 Keitar6o 5 t p / tk, 691 Kond6 Tadayoshi t t f, 168,692,693 Kond6 Yoshimi 4 6 t, 46,244,694, 1175.90, 1190.8 Konishi Shigeya '1 t i' 4, 695 Konno Dairiki & f - t, 696 Konuma Tan,1- -], 697 Kori Torahiko,. f4', 4c K6riyama Hiroshi 4) k t 4., 360,698,1236 K6so Tamotsu 4 g, 260, 699 Kosugi Hoan,), 1193.9 Kosugi Tengai, t S fl, 2,1168,1174.53, 1175. 56, 1177. 6 Kotani Tsuyoshi '/], j' 'j, 342,700,1152 Koyama Itoko ' I. L, -, 13a, 363, 701,1175. 87 Koyama Kiyoshi,1, 169, 702,1205 Koyama Ydshi 4/,, -j, 18,20,141,330,703, 1169, 1175.92, 1209

Page  202 202 202 ~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE ANT) RESEARCH MATERIALS Kozakai Fuboku 4,13d, 1201 Kubo Inokichi 3 f~ 34 Kubo Sakae Zk fT 6b, 11,17, 19, 20, 141, 3 51, 704, 705,2 1175. 50, 1195,2 1232, 1243. 24 Kuboi Nobuo ~,j —:~f*~ 44 Kubokawa Ineko y ~ } (see also Sata Ineko), 270, 1244 Kubokawa Tsurujir6 a f, 6a, 6c, 7e 29, 162, 170,171, 172, 310, 340, 353, 706,707, 1159, 1160, 1175. 95, 1210, 1215 Kubota Fuj iko 2i 4W Tj, 39 Kubota Kei L, {4 W,, 1215 Kubota Keisaku t v,oj 32, 708,1242 Kubota Mantar6 4T.- w,,, 4a, 10, 15, 16, 18, 20, 52,324, 709, 1169, 1174. 44, 1175. 29, 1177. 21, 1177. 35, 1195, 1209, 1232, 1243. 30, 1245 Kubota Masabumi L- {J~ tV i- V —, 46, 99, 100, 103, 126,7 203, 306, 353, 379, 406 Kubota Sh6ichir6, 1175. 90,1190. 4, 1190.8 8 Kubota Utsubo U5t~J', 35, 37, 41, 710, 711, 712, 1175. 90, 1189, 1190. 4, 1193. 8,1232 Kujci Takeko Z 4 -i\,34, 1190. 3 Kumne Masao,Z L~,3,4b,5,13a,13b,15, 101, 263, 265, 277, 281, 333, 713, 1168, 1173, 1174. 32, 1175. 25, 1177. 32, 1193. 4,1232, 1237, 1239, 1243. 53 Kunieda Kanj i f, 13a,1170,1237 Kunieda. Shir6 ~,13a, 1186 Kunikida Doppo ~J i ~ 2, 101 Kuno Toyohiko rT I - k -, 7b,7d,412,1175.86 Kurahara Korehito,f / IVt 14, 6a, 11, 128, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 182, 194, 196, 199, 336, 338, 347, 353, 383, 714, 715, 716, 805, 1159, 1175. 78 Kurahara Shinjir6 f I, 31, 717, 1175. 89, 1241 Kurahashi Kenkichi j ~,718 Kurahashi Yaichir6 -j- -,719 Kurasaki Kaichi ~ r~~ 254 Kuramitsu Toshio,-,720, 1152 Kurata Bunjin 7,1217 Kurata Hyakuz6 It~ ~v _ 4c, 721, 1170, 1175. 74, 1193.4, 1194, 1243. 45, 1245 Kuribayashi Issekiro tt - f, (also wrote as Kuribayashi Tamio), 53, 56, 722, 1175. 91 Kuribayashi Tamio f ~,, 353,1159,1197 Kurisu Kei T, Y 353 Kuriyagawa Hakuson ( & 1175. 93 Kuriyama Osamu j LI 4a- 1154 Kuroda Chiijir5 i.n 56 Kuroda Kiyotsuna W 33 Kuroda Masatoshi ~ E ~,1163 Kuroda Sabur6.5 f 32,1154 Kurosawa Akira 3T -> fsl 1217 Kuroshima Denj i W. If, 6a, 264., 267, 300, 336, 723, 1165, 1175. 86, 1177. 40, 1243. 53 Kuroyanagi Fumi fflt, - - 724 Kuryti Sumio fr Ft t, A k, 725 Kusabe Norikazu it-4 -, 198 Kusano Shimpei f k' -Tf-, 29,31,32,154, 233, 331, 726,v 1175. 89, 1232, 1241, 1245 Kusatao (see Nakamura Kusatao) Kusuda Toshir6 4] (B7~ 371 Kuwabara Takeo 4~ /) -~~& 12a,59,152,153, 324, 345, 578, 727, 1159, 1175. 96, 1194, 1197, 1198, 1233 Kuwaki Gen'yoku. x 7 1163, 1193. 1 Kyo Nanki t-~ y~ 323, 728, 1236 Ky6d6 Shuppansha!J/1 Wf~ -L, 73 Ky~d6 Shuppansha Hensambu 4q i # Ky6goku. Kiy6 e-F 55, 1175.91 Ky~oshi (see Takahama Kyoshi) L Lawrence, D. H.,1 359 Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 21a M Mabuchi Miiko, ff & 32, 729 Machida Kash6 fqTF -f~ * 730 Maeda Akira - f w -t, 2, 1193. 3 Maeda Fura (-v +i- 51, 731, 1175. 91 Maeda Shozan ~ E LI,1186 Maeda Suminonri 8b, 732 Maeda Ydigure P)f EE7 37,39,42,43,733, 1175. 90, 1189, 1190.4, 1193. 5 Maedagawa Kd'ichir6 01 1-!I, 300,734, 11 73, 1174. 50, 1175. 77, 1177. 40 Maekawa Samio R (i I /(,-~, 43,45,373,735, 1175. 90, 1190. 7,1218 Maeterlinck, Maurice 4a 4c Mafune Yutaka -A- -~ -i, 19,20,286,9736,1169, 1175. 50, 1209, 1243. 53 Majima Fuyumichi 37~ -~~ 33 Makabe Jin ~T -,737 Maki Itsuma!k,308, 363,738, 1201, 1237 Makino, Shin' ichi q~ F-jf i 1- 232,265,38,39 1165, 1175. 34, 1177. 44,2 1201, 1238, 1243. 53 Makino, Tomitar6 ft$ ~ Wf A ~ 1193. 11 Makiyama Katsuji $Z ji,740 Malraux, Andre", 7e Mamiya. Mosuke r0o] 9? 2~~ 297,741,1177.58 Manet, Edouard, 4c Maruoka Akira tu 179,324,742,1173,1175.87, 1177. 57, 1243. 53 Maruoka Hideko -~L IN~ - 280 Maruyama Kao ru -uiJ * 31, 32,271, 349,743, 1175.89, 1201, 1241 Maruyama Rimpei t_, 102 Maruyama Shizuka kiL~- 152, 744 Maruyama Yoshiji 4j_ z - 6b Maruyama Yutaka fLP-~ 745 Masaki Fuj okyfi LE- /T @ ~z 13a, 1192, 1193. 2 Masamune Hakuch6 iL- /Ti 2,10,12a,209, 222, 253, 274, 284, 290, 329, 355, 378, 746, 1166, 1169, 1170, 1173, 1174. 21, 1175. 14, 1175. 67, 1177. 12, 1177. 14, 1177. 37,2 1177. 60, 1194, 1195, 1198, 1201,1232, 1243. 34, 1245 Masamune Tokusabur6 Th - T,j - ~ 11 93. 9 Masaoka Shiki -L E-J- 4b, 36, 39,44, 47, 48, 49, 50,51, 121, 294 Mashita Shin' ic hi j11 1233 Masugi Shizue A4,Fl 101, 1173,1175. 87 Matsubara Jiz6son *2, /4~~ ~, 57 Matsuda Tokiko 1 7 2- 29, 747 Matsuda Tsunenori ~ iz 748,1175.90, 1190. 7 Matsueda. Shigeo k,113 Matsui Sh66 fl;~~ 1175.92 Matsukura Yonekichi ~, 1175. 90, 1190. 8 Matsumoto Seich6 A 3 - 2 749, 1205 Matsumoto Takashi,55,750, 1175. 91 Matsumoto Tar6 jr4 357

Page  203 APPENDIX II 203 Matsumura Eiichi Pi, IIY * -, 37, 41,372, 1175. 90, 1189, 1190. 4 Matsumura Kazuo,1233 Matsumura K6jir6 >i k,~ 8b Matsunaga Nobuz6 $ i,1165 Matsune T~y~j5 4~ ~ J,1175.91 Matsuoka Yuzuru $ ], 1193.3,1198, 1201 Matsuse Seisei '-,52,54,1175.9' Maupassant, Guy de, 2,13d Mayahara Shigeo, f,751 Mayama Seika l —,2, 15, 19,752,1165, 1170, 1175. 56, 1177. 12 Meredith, George, 4b Merker, Paul, 90 Midorikawa Mitsugu rf 4,8a Migashima Yoshiko g7 )p, 39,44, 1175. 90, 1189, 1190. 1 Mii K~shi Jt Z-,1189 1j I) Mikami Otokichi.~.., 13a,. 281,334, 1168, 1186, 1193. 4,1237 Miki Kiyoshi - 4,6c,753,381,1163, 1175. 94, 1193. 11, 1194, 1245 M iki Rofii r*~ 24,25,331,1181, 1175. 73, 1193. 5,1232,1241 Miki Torir6 - 13c Minakami Takitar5 7/<~ k~- A 4a, 324, 754, 1165, 1175. 29, 1177. 21, 1232 Minami Hiroshi r~j~7 1194 Minami Tatsuhiko f#7!L/4 1191 Minamikawa Jun r4j 7 4 7f, 13a, 297, 324, 755 Minato Kuniz6 k, 13a Mino Konton ~ b.4.,756 Mishima Yukio k, I 12b, 20, 141, 204,215, 221,235,247,255,2 90,298, 757,2 1162, 1169, 1175. 83, 1177 suppl. 3, 1195, 1205, 1209, 1231, 1232,9 1233, 1243. 23 Misumi Kan ~- ~,13a Mitamura Engyo A k, 1193. 8 Mitani Akira,57,59,352 Mitani Eiichi m ~~-,106 Mitomi Kyiiy6,1175. 89 Mitsuhashi Takajo ~ /-,1175. 91 Miya Shiiji,44,46,758,1175.90,1190.8 Miyagi Kikuo y ~4;~ 29 Miyagi Otoya t -,1194 Miyagi Karoku t 4 i, 6 introd., 1177. 30 Miyajima Shinzabur6 E- 'K, 378 M iyaj ima Sukeo,6 introd., 759 1177. 40 Miyake Daisuke - C,760 Miyake Setsurei,1174. 5 Miyake Shiitar5 ) ~ K tF I 227,324 Miyake Yasuko ' },1168 Miyamoto Kenji,6,128, 180, 181, 182,301,336,337, 761, 762, 1175. 94, 1198, 1233 Miyamoto Sabur6 5 97 Miyamoto Yuriko,~ ~ 1,6a,6c,11,101, 133, 139, 144, 157, 168,. 175, 181, 199, 221, 223, 229, 254, 272, 280, 301, 334, 336, 337, 353, 374, 762, 763, 1159, 1160, 1173,9 1174. 56, 1175. 35,9 1177. 29, 1177. 30, 1177. 55, 1194, 1198, 1206, 1232, 1233, 1243. 8 Miyano Murako, I ~ 13d Miyauchi Kan' ya,2,764 Miyazaki Hiroshi -,1191 Miyazaki Mineo,765 Miyazawa Kenji 2 ~W~ 6b,931,154,9221, 233, 766, 1175. 24, 1232,2 1241, 1243. 14 Miyazu Hiroshi 1 ~ 767 Miyoshi Jdr6 }~ 19, 20, 29, 141, 768, 1175. 50, 1198, 1210, 1233, 1243. 24 Miyoshi Tatsuji —:- ~ A_ 30,31,32,154,166,219, 233, 243, 269, 349, 769, 1175. 43, 1194, 1201, 1232, 1241, 1245 Miyoshi Toyoichir6 3& 3 32, 7 70, 11 54, 1175. 89 Mizuhara Shd6shi 7K- /,R fA ~ 54, 55,57, 59, 294, 771, 772, 1158, 1175. 91 Mizuki Ky6ta 7 < - /- s, 324, 1169 Mizuki Y~ko 7/K 4,1217 Mizumachi Kydko FJ~ T ~, 1190. 5 Mizuno Akiyoshi 7K- V!-j oN~, 203,323 Mizuno, Y6shd /zK wt - -4, 35 Mizushima Niou I~ Av, 1193. 9 Mizutani Jun 4,13d, 773 Mizutani Saiko 4K, W, 59 Mochida Katsuho f FF 1 - 44 Momota S -ji ~ F 5774,1175.89,1181, 1193. 5,1201, 1235, 1241 Morand, Paul, 7a Moni Kenji 4- - 290 Moni Michinosuke 4 - ~',1210 Moni Michiyo 4- i —,613,1173 Moni Ogai 4- 4a, 15, 21a, 23, 101, 324,378 Monr Oto 4 P,1192,1193.2 Morikawa Yoshinobu 4 (I,1154 Morimoto Kaoru 4 ' 2 18, 19, 20, 775, 1169, 1175. 92, 1209, 1243. 24 Morishita Uson -f wl 13d, 356 Morita S~hei 1, 4a,4b,329,776,1174.42, 1175. 22, 1177. 17, 1201 Mo rita Tama 4 --, 777,1179,1232,1245 Morita Yoshir6 4-, 36 Moriyama Kei 4 Aj-,6b,7e,29,310,350,778, 1175. 86, 1177. 55, 1247 Moriyama Teisen 4-A -iT If 39, 779 Motoki Shizuko -,f * c -v } ~ 1177. 36 Motoyama Tekishii i -fr - 1186 Mud6 (see Hashimoto Mudo Muneta Hiroshi I~ F -~ 8b,780 Murakami Genz6?fi-o ~ 13a, 781, 1167 Murakami Kaita ~i - ~,1245 Murakami Kij6 tJA 52,782,1175.91 Murakami Namiroku ~i ~ ~,1186 Murakami Seigetsu J- ~-!X, 48 Muramatsu Masatoshi -pq,I, 6a Muramatsu Michiya 43p Muramatsu Sadataka p p,258,783, 1198 Muramatsu Sh~fii *I,13a,784, 1186, 1193. 10, 1237 Murano Sabur6 t~ ~ 3,341 Murano Shiro, 30, 32, 260, 331, 359, 1175. 89, 1241 Murayama Tomoyoshi tt 4-i -, 6c, 17, 19, 20, 300, 336, 347, 383, 785, 1174. 62, 1175. 77, 1177. 43,* 1243. 24 Mur6 Saisei 1 5,10,24,25,27,247, 255, 331, 340, 352, 786, 1173, 1174. 44, 1175. 27, 1177.,34, 1177. 47, 1181, 1193. 4,1201, 1232, 1241, 1243. 39 Murobuse K6shin. $F 4K1 It, 1193.6 Musansha, Kajin Remmei - - -r T# _, 787 Mushak6ji Saneatsu fi'A' Ar,I X, 4c, 15,16, 20, 53, 255, 313, 352, 382, 788, 1166, 1170, 1173,91174. 26., 1175. 19, 1175. 72, 1177. 23, 1193. 4, 1194, 1198, 1205, 1206, 1225, 1232, 1240, 1243. 12

Page  204 204 204 ~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS N Nabeyama Sadachika ha,6c Nabei Katsuyuki- 4, 1193. 6 Nagai Kaf ii ijt~- U, 2,4a,10,24,153,209, 221, 222, 246, 274, 275, 355, 374, 789, 1166, 1174. 22, 1175. 16, 1177. 20, 1177. 38, 1177. 60, 1193. 3, 1194, 1198, 1232, 1243. 5,1245 Nagai Takashi -T,790 1175. 81,1177. 57, 1205, 1232, 1243. 53 Nagamatsu Sadamu ~7 ~ ~,256,439,577 Nagamatsu Shiijir5 jr, 7 92 Nagami Tokutar6 t., 1193. 10 Nagao Kazuo -f ~)) 793 Nagashima Miyoshi -r a-~T, 32 Nagata Hideo - ~ ~,4a,15,19,23,24, 324, 794, 1174. 35, 1175. 92 Nagata Mikihiko -f ~,4a,324,795, 1168, 1174.43 Nagatsuka Takashi y~~ 4b,36, 39,244, 1189 Nagawa Sakutar6 /k1,A 796 Nagayo Yoshir6 #~~,4c,10,271,291, 313, 797, 1170, 1173, 1174. 44, 1175. 28, 1177. 28, 1193. 3, 1198,2 1232, 1240, 1243. 32 Nagon Taihei. A-,13d Nait6 Meisetsu il tV, 48, 1175. 91 Nait6 Toten ~ ~,1175. 91 Naka Kansuke x4', 32,311, 798,1175. 75, 1177.17, 1232, 1241, 1245 Naka Keiz6 'd 799 Nakada Mizuho 4 -D',57 Nakae Yoshio 4 a,800,1169 Nakagawa Kazumasa 4',1193. 9 Nakagawa Mikiko 4 ~ ~ 1190. 8 Nakagawa Yoichi T 4' i7 -f, 7a,8a,261,330, 801, 1174. 61, 1177. 43, 1193. 3,1232, 1243. 49 Nakagiri Masao 4' #p # k., 32, 1154 Nakahara Ayako 4' f 4 ~-, 1190.6 Nakahara Chiliya t ' t& 31,154,233,802, 1175. 89, 1198, 1241, 1245 Nakajima Air6 4i YL,1 1190. 5 Nakajima Atsushi 47 7f, 249, 803,1175. 79 1177. 54, 1232, 1243. 35 Nakajima Eijir6 ' 8a,330 Nakaj ima Kenz6 C)4~, 12a, 82, 104, 159, 160, 183, 184, 185, 210, 624, 625, 804, 805, 806, 807, 808, 809, 1159, 1160, 1175. 96, 1194, 1198 Nakaj ima Takeo # 59,1175.91 Nakaki Teiichi -,1170 Nakamoto Takako 4'4 j 810, 1175. 88 Nakamura Goichir6 4'1-*- 358 Nakamura HakuyO 'N ~ - 1193.4 Nakamu ra Ikoji 4'N,341 Nakamura Jiheli ' 8a,330,811, 1175. 87, 1177. 57 Nakamura Kenkichi 4'1 36,39,812,813, 1189, 1190. 2 Nakamura Kichizd ' 15, 151,1174. 31 1175. 92 A Nakamura K6suke 4' 814, 1218 Nakamura Kusatao 4 cf,55,59,199,294, 815, 1175. 91, 1198 Nakamura Masatsune 7b4~ 1,T, 13c, 816 Nakamura Mitsuo 14' -p tY <, 3,Y 7f, 12a, 13b, 119, 127, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 221, 249, 259, 275, 290, 407, 817, 1160, 1175. 95, 1175. suppi. 1, 1198, 1243. 16 Nakamura Mizue 4 b1J7,818 Nakamura Murao 4 Irk ~ 2 3,7b,279,307, 351, 819, 1168, 1178, 1193. 4, 1201, 1237 Nakamura Sanzan 4'N LA 57 Nakamura Seiko 4'NY- 2,6b,378,1177.15 Nakamura Shin' ichi r6 i-A - ~, 7c, 12a., 12b, 32, 162, 210, 251, 276, 298, 306, 311, 631, 820, 1159, 1175. 96, 1177 suppl. 3, 1198, 1200, 1231, 1233, 1243. 53 Nakamura Sh~ji t4' F, 44,46,1190.6,1190.8 Nakamura Teijo t'#~< -4:-, 55,382,821,1175.91 Nakamura Toshisada 4'N 97 Nakanishi God6 '~ 32 Nakanishi Inosuke f'~.9 300 Nakano Hideto 4'W ~,366,822 Nakano Minoru 4 t,13c, 823, 1191, 1239 Nakano Shigeharu.4 6a,6c,11,12b, 29, 32, 83, 93,128,139, 143, 154, 158,160, 177, 185, 194, 195, 196, 199, 204, 209, 215, 218, 229, 233, 253, 259, 305, 337, 338, 340, 347, 353, 715, 807, 824, 825, 826,? 1159 1173, 1174. 62, 1175. 38, 1175. 78, 1177. 43, 1177. 48,9 1198, 1201, 1202, 1210, 1232, 1233, 1241, 1242, 1243, 1244 Nakano Suzuko, 4''T 350,827,1235 Nakano Yos hio F'~j', 12a, 152, 153, 578, 806, 828, 1159, 1160,1175. 96, 1194, 1197 Nakatani Takao 4';b-~ 8a,330,1175.87 Nakatogawa Kichiji 4' ~ - 829 Nakatsuka Ippekir5 4'Y-~~ 52, 54,830, 1175.91 Nakaya Ukichird 4',- 831,9 1194 Nakayama Gishi~i 4' A 4-, 7fY 8b, 9b, 10, 247,2 249, 263, 333, 357, 358, 832, 1152, 1162, 1173, 1175. 44, 1177. 49, 1177 suppi. 2, 1198, 1232, 1233, 1242, 1243. 40, 1244 Nakayamna Masao 4'k T L- 8b Nakayama Sh6zabur6 4' AA~ 833 Nakayama Tar6 4'd- L A 1193. 8 Nakazato Kaizan 4' ~ ~,13a, 15,834 Nakazato Tsuneko, 4'2~~ 352, 835,1152, 1173, 1175.87 Nambara. Shigeru.~it 1194 Nambu Shdtar6 4i- - p,324 Nan' e JirO 4j,836 Naoki Sanj igo ik ~ ~,13a,265,837,1186, 1187, 1201, 1237 Narasaki Tsutomu 2I 7b,351 Narishima Ryffritsu,Ap i-,292 Narumi Yokichi r'.~,40 Narusawa Reisen \'- ik,1193. 6 Naruse Masakatsu 1\ ~jj 160,214 Natsume S6seki ~ ~~,4b,48,101,294 Nawa T6ichi, t Q 1233 Nihon Bungaku Ky6kai j -,107, 197, 838 Nihon Bungeika Kydkai 1 - VA 82, 1159, 1160, 1161, 1185,1195, 1246 Nihon Chosakken Ky~gikai El - 4 A 10 8 Nihon Engeki Ky6kai a 8 ~ 86 Nihon Gakujutsu Kaigi t, 65 Nihon Gendai Bungakushi Kenkydkai;( ~, 198,839 91 5,

Page  205 APPENDIX II20 205 Nihon Kindai Bungaku Kenkyiikai 0 jff~ 4t' 1 T4!, 4 1117 7 Nihon Pen Kurabu 0,* -\': 7 -7 7' 1173 Nihon Puroretaria Geijutsu Remmei 0 /7 r7 L 7 41 # ~q 11223 Nihon Puroretaria Sakka. D~mei Ei 7 cz - 4 ~ f:-] _, 84 0 Nihon Shuppan Ky6d6 Kabushiki 0 6 ~ # ~ ^T., 75,109 Nii Itaru -PT -ft f-, 841,1175.94 Niij ima J6 fT A, 1174. 52 Nishida Kitar6 tii o, 84 2 Nishida Tenk6OE W;k, 1174. 52 Nishide Ch5f ff E-7 +, 40 Nishij ima Bakunan fff ~ 1175.91 Nishikawa Iss6tei i' -,1193. 10 Nishimura K6j i t&i 12a, 1175.96 Nishimura Mitsuji tf- )t )L,k 271 Nishimura Y6kichi tvv;, -- 40, 42, 43,371,843, 1175. 90, 1189 Nishino Tatsukichi tf-7 r1 K- ~ 844, 1205 Nishio Minoru 00 rk, 10 5, 10 7 Nishishita, Ky6ichi vi -, 110 Nishiwaki Junzabur6 tR7 Q~ r ~ 30, 32, 1 54, 3 24, 84 5, 11 75. 8 9, 119 3. 11, 124 1 Nishiza-wa Rydiji Oti 31,340,1215 Nishizawa Y6tar5 tky 2 A3 286 Nitta Jun f -v i, 7f,289,297,328,382, 846, 1173, 1175. 87, 1177. 56 Niwa Fumio -R '1- $J, 7fI 8b, 9a, 10, 12a, 13b, 13e, 130, 158, 183, 186, 199, 204, 215, 218, 221, 226, 256, 266, 284,2 289, 290, 332, 352, 847, 1159, 1160, 1161, 1162, 1167, 1173, 1175. 47, 1177. 49, 1177. 59, 1225, 1232,2 1233, 1242, 1243. 46, 1244 Noda Hisao I'V, w, 85 Noda K~go fT~ W 1217 Noda Utar6 V-W v %.p, 259,848 Nogami Akira WF L T 1169 Nogami Toyoichir6 ft' ~t -,1 1192, 1193. 1 Nogami Yaeko VT' i- 3 t 3, 4b, 6c, 10, 849, 1173, 1174. 56, 1175. 28, 1177. 29, 1194, 1243. 32 Noguchi Fujio fj' czy g ~ k, 8 50 Noguchi Uj6 Tfp ITgAt, 1181 Noguchi Yonejir6 l rD t4c,' 25, 1174. 57, 1175. 73, 1181, 1193. 5, 1201, 1241 Noma Hiroshi Tfr7~, 7c, 11, 12b, 32, 139, 152, 153, 178, 199, 215, 238, 255, 272, 285, 298, 305, 306, 329, 353, 366, 578, 716, 851, 1160, 1175. 82, 1177 suppl. 3, 1198,' 1212,' 1221, 1231, 1232, 1233, 1236, 1243. 29 Nomoto Yonekichi Tt 4~* +,', 11 1 Nomura Kiyoshi jj',-, 852 Nomura Kod6 I!f T- Xfl r 13a, 13d, 853, 1161, 1167, 1186, 1187, 1196, 1239 Nomura Shurind6 w t -~c v - 5 53 Nozawa Fumiko!F 8~ - 854 Numazawa Tatsuo.,7)*r 83, 237,855 Nuyama Hiroshi )r~ v 7_, 29,y32,856, 1210 0 Oda Takeo 1,a, 256, 367, 859, 1152, 1165, 1175. 87, 1177. 57 Odagiri Hideo ), fF -V71- 12b,46,99, 153, 160, 161, 172, 178, 199, 200, 201,202,203, 272, 306,323, 333, 353, 707, 716, 860, 861, 1159,1160, 1175. 95, 1233 Odagiri Susumnu '1' wi t/7 jL 203 Odaka Tomoo / - AjT 346 be Kenj i K& > V, 1165 Oe Mitsuo &,29, 31,350,360, 862, 1175. 89, 1241 de Ry6tar6 k F, 863 Ogasawara Ch6sei + ft,1193. 12 Ogata Kamenosuke )E jv-~! ~p,31,1175. 89, 1241 Ogata Takashi,8a, 330 Ogawa Masako '/1, pT.3 864 Ogawa Mimei 'I * 92, 94,378, 1165, 1175. 70, 1177. 15, 1177. 30, 1232 Ogawa Shinkichi '1' - ~, 8b, 865 Ogihata Tadao,~ ~~ ~,46 Ogiwara Seisensui 5 j.4-. 50, 52, 53,p 56, 866, 1175. 91, 1193. 5 Ogiya Yoshio 4~j ~- -A-, 3 2 Oguma Hideo i,j p 31, 278, 350, 360, 867, 1175. 89, 1210, 1227, 1241 Ogura Kinnosuke 4' /,X I -~,9 1194 Oguri Fiiy6 4', T -7, 2, 186 Oguri Mushitar6 4' t /, 13d Ohara G en 4 2t (L197 Ohara Tomie Ai k- 1165 Ohashi Matsuhei kz ~ ~,868, 1190. 5,1190.7 Ohashi Raboku ~!,53 Qi Hiroshi ~k 4~ 1190. 8 Oi Hirosuke &.1 278,869,1175.95 Qikawa Hitoshi,p 32,870 bike Tadao,375 Oka Asajir6 -fY-> >1~ 1192,19. Oka Fumoto 2J~ 36,39,244,871, 1175.90, 1189, 1190. 1 Oka Kunio la1 ~f34 381, 1193. 2 Oka Onitar6 /*, 51,101174.35, 1175. 92,Y 5 9 10 Okabe Fumio -b - l 1218 Okada Sabur5 6 7b,279,872, 1165, 1177. 36, 1177. 57, 1201, 1238 Okada Seizd 6 rB ~~8 b Okada Shachihiko MJ w, 13d Okada Tetsuz6 VT, ff 3, 1193. 1 Okagami Suzue VY~J ~i-;x, 92 Okakura Shir6 fjM, ~131 Okakura Yoshisabur6 It)~ fb a ff 1192, 1193. 1 Okamoto Ippei INJ 4 - -7f 1193.9 Okamoto Jun F1J 41 -;fq 28, 31, 32,353, 873, 1175. 89, 1210, 1241 Okamoto Kanoko PI 4 e4'v (also wrote as Onuki Kanoko), 35, 144, 158,232, 874, 1165, 1175. 45, 1177. 53, 1190. 3, 1193. 7, 1232, 1243. 38, 1244 Okamoto Kid6 N~ 4 JAY 4i, 13d, 15, 19, 875, 1170, 1174. 43, 1193. 10, 1175. 56, 1187, 1211, 1245 Okamura Shikd IN tt $+ ix, 1170 Okano Naoshichir6 IN7 Wt & -e+ 41, 1175. 90, 1190. 5 Okawa LHakuu -K-,q 876 Okawa Shiimei K~, "I Elm 877 Okayama Iwao (J 4 1175.90,1190.6,1190.7 Okazaki Sabur6 ~ji4 pi~ 271,Okazaki Seiichir6 1)A*]i- 30,31,1175.89, 1241 Oba Hakusuir6 A~ 857 Obayashi Kiyoshi Z4, 13a Obi Jiiz6 ' 1' /if" -- 1152 Ochiai Naobumi -~ ~ ~~ 21a,34,35 Ochiai Sabur6 Fp''L-~ 1 174. 62 Oda Kanke i '1 FD, 119 0. 8 Oda Sakunosuke, ~ - Up, 9a, 13f, 215, 259, 333, 858, 1159, 1165, 1175. 81, 1177. suppi. 1, 1232, 1233, 1243. 53

Page  206 206 206 ~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Okazaki Yost Oki Atsuo Oki Minoru Okina Kyflin Okino Iwasab Ok6chi Kazuc Okubo Yasuo Okuma Ch6jij Okuma Nobuy 1190. 6 Okuno Shinta. Okuno Takeo Okuno Tamio O~machi Fumi Omachi Keig4 Omori Jir,5 Omani Yoshit Omoto Seijir~ Onchi Terutal 360,885,12 Onishi Haj im, Onishi Kyojin Ono Minoru Ono Nobuo Ono Rinka hie r6 A 7uki FloJI N-' y~ 878, 1208 'i k,31,879,1175.89,1201,1241 I31,880,1175.89 y7b ~~ ~~, 1168., 1193. 7 ~ -~,346,354 881. ~~~,y882 A i~~ ~, 43,322,1175.90, r6 -~~4Ap,12a -~ ~ ~, 204, 883 ie fp 1-~ 1192,11193.2 etsu &,21b A, 1215 tar6 A 4 121 884,1175.94 ke 4 ~,29,205,339,350, 10, 1214.e fR,378 '1 Ft ~ 342 )t T4 Otsubo Sunao A:fA ~~,1d Otsuji (see Osuga Otsuji) Otsuji Shird A, iL JeI 1 13c Otsuka Kinnosuke $-4 - -P, 322, 898 Otsuki Jorai ~c-~ ~,292 Ouchi Hy6e L~t 9.~,346,899,1194,1243.37 Ouchi Takao Y 900 Oya S6ichi; L -,901,) 1175. 94 Oyama Ikuo A LL 1194 Qyama Teiichi K ~,, 1194 Oyama Tokuj ir5 )~ jrI, 41,372,902, 1189, 1190. 2 Ozaki Hirotsugu ~ ~k ~,207, 903 Ozaki H~sai /. I',,, j 53,904,1175.91 Ozaki Kazuo / OT t 3,10,256,284,290, 905, 1152, 1165, 1173, 1175. 40, 1177. 52, 1232, 1233, 1243. 42 Ozaki Kihachi,r -c i 4c, 25,154 906 11 75. 89, 1232, 1241 Ozaki K6y6 /f, 4 t 14,49,380 Ozaki Shir6 rLj1'jd:1:J 7b,8b,13b,266,279, 907, 1162, 1175. 48, 1177. T6, 1177. 51, 1232, 1238, 1243. 28, 124490 Ozawa Fujio /V?, A, 90 Ozawa Kiyoshi >,11,909 Ozawa Takej i,j ~ ~,53,56 Ozeki Sakae ~ *7 ~,247 Ozu Yasujir6 i 1217 P Ono Shachiku k~,-,49 Ono Shunlichi k T 30 Ono T~sabur6 4 rip 1 ~ yc 28,31,32,206,886, 1175. 89, 1236, 1241 Onoe Kikugor6 (the f ifth) / I-..L1 14, 227, 325 1189, 1190. 4 Onuki Kanoko A s} (also wrote as Okamoto Kanoko), 35 Qoka Sh~hei /k hi -_-4,f 8b, 12b,13d, 20,153, 187, 204, 218, 290, 343, 357, 374, 380, 888, 1175. 83, 1177 suppl. 3, 1198, 1231, 1232, 1243. 23, 1245 Origuchi Shinobu 4J-r ri 4=rk (also wrote as Shaku Ch6kii), 163, 331 Osada Tsuneo -9 W, 260,1235 Osanai Kaoru 'V ~ ~,4a, 15, 16,17,277,324, 380, 889, 1168, 1174. 35, 1175. 17, 1177. 21, 1245 Osaragi Jir6 Az, f'~ f7 ~ k, 13a, 352, 890,1161, 1162, 1167, 1174. 60, 1178, 1179. 80,1186, 1195, 1196, 1201, 1232, 1237, 1243. 17, 1245 Osawa Mikio 2 ~ ~ 20,89 1 Oshika Taku (f.4i,892, 1165, 1175. 87, 1177. 56, 1241 Oshima Hak5 7C 3 341 Oshita Udaru A T,13d, 1186,1201 Osuga Otsuji A 'i 52 Osugi Sakae A,6 introd. Ota Chizuo #7-, 1 16 5 Ota Masao 4B y,23 Ota Mizuho /A,.9, 39,41,43,44,46,893,1175.90, 1189, 1190. 2 Ota SaburC6 A 894,1193.9 Ota Y6ko A, R + 8b,357,895,1165,1175.88) -1198, 1243. 53 Otake Jir6kichi A K 348 Otake Yas uko A 4-,896 O~taki Shigenao Ak;5j-I j 1165 Otani Fuj iko < ~~~,144, 328, 1165, 1175. 87, 1177. 55 Otani Kubutsu ]4', 48 Ote Takuj i;k;- t. 897, 1175. 89,v1241 Pascal, Blaise., 166 Pater, Walter, 4a Peters, Ulrich, 90 Poe, Edgar Allan, 13d, 380 Poetoroa,'- -T- F 'U 7' Prehanov, 174 Proust, Marcel, 7c )910 R Rafuaeru Kdberu (Raphael Koeber) ~' 77, - IL,-, Rai Sekiyu.F A 911 Raku Hinki,323 Rekiteisha;~, 912 Rembrandt (Rembrandt Harmens Van Rijn), 4c Renard, Jules, 349 Ri Inc hoku 92-I, 323 Ri Taishun 4 4,323 Richardson, Dorothy M., 7c Rikka (see Kitani Rikka) Rilke, Rainer Maria, 359 Rimbaud, Jean Arthur, 164 Rinji (see Yokoyama Rinji) Rodin, Auguste,. 4c Holland, Romain,. 6 introd., 4c, 20 Rubens, Peter Paul, 4c Russell, Bertrand, 346 Ry6kan K P., 41 Ryd Kankichi,~ 318 Ryil Shintar6 ~ j.,913, 1194, 1243. 37 Rydtanj i Ya 4,i,7b,301,412,914, 1174. 61, 1175. 86, 1177. 45

Page  207 APPENDIX II20 S Sasazawa Yoshiaki -)- 5' f ~f 30,91,260,936, 1175. 89, 1241 Saeki Takao ft 4 A,341 Sata Ineko 11 7 '6 -, W6 11,144,291,338,340,937, Saig6 Nobutsuna 1 13 11.0 5213,7 1173,1175.39, 11~7.41, 1177.55,1205,1232,1233 Saigusa Hiroto 4, -f -- 1247 Sat6 Hachir6 t 7 " t~,13c, 1191 Saigy6 V-T4, 165 Sat5 Haruo 4 ~ ~,3,4a, 5,10, 12a,24,,26, 27, SaiJ5 Yaso tfE I+ A +, 24,26,341,915,1175. 89, 32y324y340,349)3521669)938i939, 944, 1160, 1166, 1168, 1181, 1201, 1232, 1241 1173, 1174.30, 1175.93, 1177,,34, 1177.35, 1181, 1193.4, Sainte-Beuve, Charles Augustin, 232 1194, 1198, 1201A9 1232, 1241, 1243.39, 1245 Saisho Atsuko ~.~- ~ - 233 Sat5 Ichiei 4-k -~ 30, 31, 1175. 89 Sait6 Fumi,45, 46, 916,1175. 90, Sat5 Kib5 4f T,-,,~ 1175. 91 1190. 5 Sat6 Kiyoshi 4 ~,940, 1175. 89, 1193. 11 Sait6 Kiyoe, 163, 917 Sat5 K5 roku 4S 816,17.513 Sait6 Mokichi ~ c ~,36,39,43,44,45,46, Sat6 Masaaki,808 195, 215, 244, 377, 669, 918, 1174. 58, 1175. 23y 1189, Sat Mimpo _ t, 6 1190.2,19.1,19 99Sat6 Saku 4t 30,382,941 Sait6 Ryi RC I 91 Sat6 Satar5 41i, 44,45,46,942,1175.90, Sait6 Sanki ti, 57,59,1175.91 1190.2, 1190.6 Saitd Sh6z6,239, 240, 1193. 10 Sat S6nosuke 1#~ xs 25, 26, 1175. 89,21181, Sait6 Tadashi -.g,296 901193. 5,1241 Sait6 Takeshi y-~, 2 Sat6 Toshiko, 116 Sakaguchi Ango -j* r -~7 —, 13d, 13e, 13f, 133, 139, Sat6 Yoshimi 3~' 158 209, 215, 278, 332, 343, 351, 921, 1159, 1173, 1175. 49 Satomi Ton W- A 4c, 358 f 0 5,99 4,94 1177. 54, 1177 suppi. 1, 1205, 1232, 1233, 1243. 53 1166, 1168, 1169, 1170, 1173, 1174. 29, 1175. 25, 1177. 24, Sakai Hiroji -i4,44 1177. 35, 1201, 1225, 1232, 1237, 1240, 1243. 33 Sakai Kosen 4 l (also wrote as Sakai Satomura Kinz6 7- fi 6a, 270, 945, 1165, Toshihiko), 6 introd. _1175.86,1177.40 Sakai Toshihiko ~-q- J (also wrote as Sakai Sawa S,5ichi -;4 - * -, 6b, 946 Kosen), 1174. 39 Sawaki Kinlichi -)~ 59,1175. 91 Sakakibara Yoshifumi,85 Sawaki Kozue f ~,4a Sakakiyama Jun fi Li, -74 8b,922,1175.87, Segawa Haruo s4,947 1177. 56, 1244 Seiho (see Awano Seiho) Sakamoto Etsur6 V k ~ 30, 31, 260, 923, Seisensui (see Ogiwara Seisensui) 1175. 89, 1241 Seish~nen Engeki Kenkyiikai -~ rJJ-~ Sakamoto Ry6 tk.~ 924, 1241 1226 Sakamoto Setch6 t&~ /t, 1193. 8 Sekai Bungaku Kenkyiikai ft~.,- U L-, 112 Sakamoto Shih6ta i& A,48 SeaTugiJtnHnhiu i Sakanaka Masao 7 18,925,1169, * Jt -r$', 1 13 1175. 92, 1209 Sekai Gendaishi Jiten Henshffbu gV - X- -P - Sakisaka Itsur6 +i -"K ~ 1194,114 Sakka D6mei 4,1216 Sekillideo r I,92 Sakka D~mei N6min Bungaku Kenkyiikai 1' -~ — Sekiguchi Jir6 ~ 1170, 1175. 92 #, fc ~-v% p ~- 9 26 Sekine Hiroshi 7 t,1233 Sako Jun'ichirO (IL ~~~ 208,9127 Senke Motomaro x,,4c, 25, 1175. 73, 1181, Sakurada Tsunehisa j i4,921521241 Sakurai Chiion~ 4~ ~. ~, 113. 2 Senuma Shigeki * -,12a, 91, 159, 160, 210, Sakurai Katsumi ~ 2211, 212, 213,948, 1160, 1175. 95, 1198 Samukawa K6tar6 %,991521787 Serita H,5sha U L 53 Samukawa Sokotsu tt 48 Serizawa K6jir6;F -~, A.:h, Th, 301, 307,2352, Sanetomo, 165 949, 1173, 1175. 86, 1177. 45, 1232, 1243. 49, 1244 Sano Manabu ~(L ~,6c, 300, 930 Seto Eiichi -~" -,1170 Sano Takeo A)~!y jj~,t 3 39 Settsu Mowa I 1191 Sarashina Genzo. 931 Shakespeare, William, 1, 16, 21a Sasakawa Rimpui~ 1193.11 Shaku Ch6kd ~ ~ -,32,39,44,46,215,244, Sasaki Hirotsuna AI:- 3370,669,950,17.61189,1190.1,1194,1241,1243.43 Sasaki Kiichi A4~ 12b, 99, 126, 128, 152, Shestov, Lev, 7e 153, 197, 209, 248, 306, 353, 366,406,408,932, 1160, Shiba Fukio -i- L T- ~-~,55, 57, 951, 1175. 91 1175. 95, 1233 Shibaki YoshikoY L $ ~ --, 952,1152,1175.87 Sasaki Kuni 4t~:-4 13c, 1178, 1187, 1191, 1201 Shibata Minoru 1 l% 1190. 7 Sasaki Mitsuz6,~, 13a, 13d, 1186, Shibukawa Gy6 ~4iZ- 7f, 328, 1175. 87, 1177. 56 1201, 12~7 IShibund.6 ~-9 L,214,953 Sasaki Mosaku 'I 4: iF 261,265,279, Shibusawa Hideo -;'- ~ ~,1194 1177. 36, 1238 Shibuya Eiichi -,954 Sasaki Nobutsuna AI:4rz 4,093 Shibuya Teisuke AL,955 1175. 90, 1189,11190. 4p3394 Shidai Ryiiz6 j-] A-\~ W -= 100 Sasaki Takamaru [t~- ~,;4: 4, 3b283,34 7 Shiga Masaru k.,;I, 382 Sasaki Toshir6 Ij ~I-t_ / -,k 6b,7I 268307 Shiga Mitsuko w, Pi,, + 1175. 90, 1189, 1190. 8 935, 1165. 2,1175. 86

Page  208 208 208 ~~A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS Shiga Naoya tz, 3, 4c, 10, 12a, 83, 84,95, 133, 164, 193, 215,222, 232, 253, 255, 275, 301, 302, 345, 361, 367, 377, 382, 956, 1160, 1166, 1173, 1174. 25, 1175. 20, 1177. 24, 1177. 27, 1193. 3,1194, 1198, 1201, 1206, 1225, 1232, 1240, 1243. 7, 1245 - Shigetomo Ki I, 957 Shiina Rinz6 7c:_, 7c, 12b, 20, 141, 196, 204, 229, 255, 298, 316, 366, 374,826, 958, 1175. 82, 1177 suppl. 3, 1195, 1198, 1217, 1231, 1232, 1233,9 1243. 29 Shiki (see Masaoka Shiki) Shimada Kazuo w} -~,W 13d Shimada Kinji i ) Wq7 z 12a,214 Shimada Masao w, 353 Shimada Seih5 57 Shimada Seijir6,959,1168 Shimagi Akahiko ~ z 63,3241189 Shimagi Kensaku ~ Kf %,6b, 6c, 10, 139, 157, 158, 166, 189, 226, 252, 333, 352, 960, 1175. 46, 1177. 48, 1177. 58, 1232, 1243. 38, 1244, 1245 Shimamura H6getsu 4 J, 2, 23, 378 Shimanaka H~j i d~~7~274,275 Shimanaka Y-usaku,66 Shimao Toshio.~,~ 12b, 204, 285,961, 1233 Shimazaki T6son y,1, 2, 6 introdL, 22, 186, 215, 331, 378, 380, 962, 1165, 1166, 1168, 1174. 16, 1174. 36, 1175. 8, 1175. 61, 1177. 8, 1177. 10, 1177. 37, 1181, 1193. 3, 1206, 1225, 1232, 1241, 1243. 51 Shimba E iji 1 963,51242 Shimizu Ikutar6 pl I~ A K~ 1194 Shimizu Kikichi > -,965,1152 Shimizu Shin -7rK4, 42 Shimmura, Izuru 4-j i,1174 58, 1179, 1192, 1193. 8 Shimomura Chiaki -~ ~,13a, 247, 966,1175. 86, 1201 Shimomura Etsuo *,1186 Shimomura Kainan j~~} ~,1193. 12 Shimomura Kojin ~ i-~,1232, 1243. 58 Shimozawa Kan i~~ —~,13a, 1237 Shinchosha V,967 ShindS Kaneto ~(- ~,1217 Shin-haikujin Remxnei T-{ 1172 Shinj6 Yoshiaki - k- 28,6 Shin-Nihon Bungakkai 285 968,1199, 1234, 1235, 1236 Shinoda Tar6 /V, _969 Shinoda Teijir5 i,57, 1158 Shinohara Bon 1+ 1175.91 Shinowara H6saku ~ ~~~j~,57,242,1175.91 Shinowara Seiei,8b Shinowara Toshiyuki 1 275 Shioda Ry~hei fl, pj y 160, 163, 970 Shioi UkS t~ 4 - ~y21b Shiojiri K6mei J0 971,1194 1237 Shiraishi Jitsuz6 1:-7, 1193. 10 Shiraishi Yasushi 0 358 Shirakawa Atsushi y 328,972 Shirasu. K6suke I,,973 Shiratori Sh6go L -,25, 331, 974, 1175. 89, 1181, 1201 Shirayanagl Shilko bI,4 ~ - 1175. 94 Shishi Bunroku, 3-,10, 13b, 13c,246, 363, 975, 1161, 1162, 1167, 1179, 1187, 1196, 1198, 1232, 1243. 4 Sh6no Junz6 9- ji M 5:%:7, 976 Shd~shi (see Mizuhara Shii6shi) Shuppan Nyfisusha tP, Rk -:-,,t~ Shiison (see Kat5 Shiison) y76 Shuzui Kenji Id 1 116 S6gensha ~ ~,977 S6kyii, *L,47 S~ma G yofd 19 ~ rr., 2,4c,23,35,351,378, 978, 1175. 94, 1189, 1190. 1, 1193. 5, 1201 S~ma Taizd 3-~, A-, 2, 1 177. 3 6 Sono Ayako i~ TT *4-+ 324,979 S6sh5i (see Takaya S6shii) Sotomura Shiro -~ 3-3 - t~, 980 Sta~l, Mine. de, 4a Stammier, Wolfgang, 90 Stenclahl (Marie Henri Beyle), 12b Strindberg, August, 4c Suekawa Hiroshi 4f, 1194 Suematsu Kench6 57, 33 Sugahara Takashi Pr, 18 Sugamo Tankakai,981 Sugawara Tsilsai Vi-F SI-q - 1191 Sugi Toshio A~ k_ 982 Sugie Shigehide 13 i'- A L 983 Sugimori Hisahide 7-4,~ 259 Sugita Hisajo 3-p) W 55,984,1175.91 Sugiura Mimpei P) -'1f ~ 152,215,306, 985, 1159, 1175. 95, 1197 Sugiura Suiko WY-, 39,44,21175.90, 1190.5 5 Sugiyama Heisuke j~J -~4,216,324, 986, 1175. 94 Sugiyama Hideki 3 —L- ~4,381, 987,1175.94 Sugiyama Makoto 43 -2~ 137 Sui Haj ime 3~1R 6b,988, 1175.86 Sujdl (see Takano Sujil) Sunouchi T6ru -~J 2-,~ * 8b,989 Susukida Kyiikin - 2 I2,9,17.8 1181, 1193. 5,1241 Suwa Sabur6 ~.~-,308 Suyama Atsutar6 dA,1241 Suzuki Bunshir6 4 O 1193. 12 Suzuki Daisetsu 4-,1194 Suzuki Hanamino j ~ ~,51 Suzuki Hatsue 4-,1235 Suzuki K~suke,4.,46 Suzuki Masao ~4 ~,20 Suzuki Masashi 44* jz w 348 Suzuki Miekichi j~,4a,4b,313, 991, 1174. 42,2 1175. 22, 1177. 17, 1198, 1232 Suzuki Mitsugu I-V~ 247 Suzuki Murio, f, 1175. 91 Suzuki Ryfisuke 444 -, 1153 Suzuki Senzabur6 7, 277,1170, 1175.92 Suzuki Shinj i 44~ ~ i 992 Symons, Arthur, 4a,38 T Tabata Sh~iichir6 W ~ -,256,993, 1175. 79, 1177. 54, 1243. 53 Tachibana. Sotoo 4 -$,13a, 1191 Tachihara Michiz6 r- 6,4 31,154,215, 221, 233, 994, 1175. 89, 1232, 1241 Tada Hirokazu 74,~ ~~- 995

Page  209 APPENDIX II 209 Tada Michitar6 304 __W 153 Tada Ytkei,1152 Tagawa Hiroichi rfB 247 Taguchi Kikutei kW r-7 j 351 Taguchi Takeo ~ 7, 18,286, 996,1169, 1209 Takada Ch6i ~ '7 1175.91 Takada Giichir5 -,7 1193.2 Takada Mizuho ~ 85, 163 Takada Tamotsu, 997, 1179, 1194, 1243. 42, 1245 Takagi Akimitsu I 13d Takagi Hidekichi,998 Takagi Hisao ~~-, 999 Takagi Ichinosuke, 113 Takagi S6kichi 7 8b, 1000 Takagi Taku ~j 4 1001,1175.87,1177.56 Takahama Kyoshi - ~ ~,4b,48,50,51,52, 54,55, 57,294, 317, 1002)1174.40, 1175. 66, 1177. 18, 1193. 5, 1194, 1197, 1198, 1243.43Y1245 Takahama Toshio t-7 ~ JJ i, 55,294 Takahashi Kiyoj i.L- 290 Takahashi Munechika 4,,32, 1154 Takahashi Shinkichi ~ -,28, 31, 1003, 1175. 86, 1175. 89, 1241 Takahashi Takeo,1195 Takahashi Yoshitaka,12a, 1004, 1175. 96, 1233 Takahata T~zai,1193. 10 Takaki Hiroshi ~.,1247 Takako (see Hashimoto Takako) Takakura Teru 7/U ~ 272,1005 Takakuwa Gisei, K71186 Takakuwa Sumiao, 1233 Takami Jun O-K,~ 6c, 7f, 8b, 9a, 13f,) 32, 139, 217, 218, 2226,253, 259, 269, 278, 297, 328, 333, 351, 1006, 1159, 1162, 1173, 1175. 46, 1177. 48, 1198, 1225, 1232, 1233, 1243. 52 Takamori Kario,355 Takamura K6tar6 t j &l 4a,24,25,27, 32, 35, 219, 271, 331,? 349, 359, 1007, 1008, 1009, 1175. 24, 1181, 201, 206, 241, 1243. 22 Takano Sujl -I- 4'j -F f 55,57,1175.91 Takano Tatsuyuki IT _,1010 Takaoki Y~z5 1247 Takasaki Masakaze lot, 33 Takashi (see Matsumoto Takashi) Takashima Beih6 ~ ~,1193. 7 Takashima Masao ~ Lf~,8b Takashima Takashi,1011 Takashima Zen' ya,1233 Takasu Baikei vrli-l, 351 Takasugi Ichiro I,' 8b, 10 12, 123 2 Takata Namikichi 39, 44,1013, 1175. 90, 1190. 5 Takaya Soshii V, 57, 59, 1175. 91 Takayama Tsuyoshi Az,1160 Takayanagi Shigenob u ~ - 1175. 91 Takayasu Gekk6 -%- 15, 1 170, 1201 Takayasu Kuniyo,1014 Takebayashi Mus6an ii2~/K- i 1175. 70 Takeda Rintar6 &\A 6c, 7f,1l3b,187, 229, 246, 248, 278, 29 7 349) 1015, 1174. 62, 1175. 46, 1177. 43, 1177. 56, 1198, 1225 1232 1243. 52, 1244 Takeda Taijun ~'Al 7, 12b, 139, 204, 247, 285, 290, 298, 316, 333Y 354) 374) 1016, 1175. 83, 1177 suppl. 3, 1198, 1205, 1231, 1232 1233 1242, 1243. 35 Takeda Toshihiko 03 ~K13a,1187,1239 Takenaka Iku fi Thi- 30,1017, 1175. 89, 1241 Takenouchi Shizuo Pr~ t-,1018 Takeo Chilkichi k/LA,1190. 5 Takeshima Hagoromo;6~ I 21b, 1181 Takeshita Kazuma VIk VL, ly 113 Takeshita Shizunojo (