The effects of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Page  [unnumbered] '4 61 'S 1.1 I II *1. H. A.. I

Page  [unnumbered] "is piotu.wao pwOdVA-Wu u*r the wspifeS ef' 0112 by lspawm selcintl 5t5,.rn*4 eltor eMedltorll stsfts workia uwi o the mapwrvialon of 1st Lt.. Daniel A. Mc0orefte AG and Kr.Pa Do Lyr of the thzdted States Sftr&a-t. Bio big Iuvy Notice PiotureP'jt ThIS p2Ud1tieft La a PhotogapIs iye the scientifi. investigation. eondueted by lojo snot, scientists La HiroshSima e rd asaki aM presents th~eir factual frindings hA a we i signed to facilitate the study of vwriQms phae of at ac ressoareh Slwngphysia diage radiaticme hsat# blet,9 and f lash buru~ as well msted~ical. biOICis& end botazclset of the problm. lst Lt.. Air ctfiseer la IWUWN P%

Page  [unnumbered] !,-_Z~~,.~ 1 ' I.i" 7 i. 4 9t,*?. ict i,-.< 'I r z r;. ^I- I nr ' \A -K \ 0fl r DAMA&E IN CNERAL ON HIROSHIMA (ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION ASPEOTS) ( IROSHIMA) (1) From the beeinninz of 1945, the whole of Japan was within the bcmbin. range of the United States strategic air force based in the Mariannas. As the days and weeks went by, the bombings became inrcreasinzly intensified. Not only the coastal waters, but the inland regions and the hind side of Japan came under the winas of the Superfortresses. (2) Hiroshima, a city of 350,000 facing the Inland Sea, was the largest city in the Chuaoku district in western Honshu, the main island of Japan. Here was located the army headquarters for the Chugoku district. Since the time of the Sino-Japanese W ar of 1894 —95, when the Imperial General Headquarters was temporarily established, Hiroshima was an important military base. The port of Ujina, Hiroshima's outport, served as a supply and transport base throughout the war, while the neighborina town of Kure was one of the principal naval bases of Japan. LOjm, O,... (3) It was the 6th of A utuzst. The air-raid alarm which had been on from the night before throughout the 131bC I 4w I ( I~I rl cn.4~~ri *- 0.;+ -. Sot WS W. R ~T~~W~ Y (I~*C1~CI~I~C.~1 C,, -" "-~'~~ ~~slll ---. v ~ "a -- Tlk -t onraWAOV, i - - -- — 7

Page  [unnumbered] IrL 4X - A-5 I. I - I,. - " -1 - - - - -.. A&K.-, t -,. 6b.;; /I.. '000,10, E L 1o.0* Chugoku district was lifted for the time being. It was an unusually calm andelear morning. A few minutes - after eifht o'clock, two Superfortresses in formation appeared over the city. Tften a bomb came hurtling down from one of the giant bombers. (4) There was a blinding flash, then a deafening explosion. In an instant, Hiroshima was a scene of unprecedented chaos. (5) Hiroshima was instantly transfigured. There was nothing left but ruins, nothing standing to hinder a full view of the city. 0+45C.. SabCe* s Of J v^r4 (6) Every type of transportation was completely wiped out. All institutions and organizations, public and private, were destroyed. Their functions came to a complete standstill. For several days little information was available. (7) Over the radio from the United States came the announcement that the deadly weapon was the atomic bomb, the first ever used in the world. (8) As the situation quieted down, it became clear how fearful the bomb was - fearful beyond ordinary human imagination. The first casua y report gave the I V.X, 1 -.V-IC;;"rl'- iwlmw~C'~lPP).Jrrg~a~t~-' — -- - r 'lowr~

Page  [unnumbered] dead as 30,000 and the injured as g6,000. Later, it > became known that the casualties were actually much i ~ laraer. (, v C/0 are. C6 r4 P- c A rfe oesev 'E,,96, ) A Ninety per cent of the 75,000 buildings and dwellings in the city were completely destroyed by i blast and fire. I The total casualties were approximately 19q,000. Accurate figures are unknown and difficult to obtain tecause of the confusion which gripped the city for several days and because several unaccounted army; units were stationed there at the time. (9) The scope and extent of the devastation testify ( more eloquently than anything else to the enormous destructive power of the new bomb. The direction in which the trees fell offered one xfclue in locatint the c nter of destraction. Hereafter we shall call the ccener of detonation the epicenter. We epicenter was south or on the other sideAs A seen from here of the torii gateway to the Gokoku ' Shrine,, *,,! _A_. -- (10) We considered the damaged area to be within 15 kilometers from this point. t - This, for instance, is Itsukushima, 15 kilometers ( from the epicenter, or at the outside limit of the - 3 I woo-ml- A —, -m l. _L I gCo91 r' ~3s r r I- - 7 s -TT77' ~ -- r"I I. I — e

Page  [unnumbered] im ~ - i - - - - - alim m" ASAI -. - dlh" -mA-. -.;A. II - I- -.A,, iA. l'- d, - — C afflicted area. Damage here is confined to broken windows. (11) Ths is Yano Station, about 10 kilometers from the epicenter. Here, too, the only damages werek broken windows. ( C S$$)' (12) Within a radius of g kilometers, shattered windows were more widespread. At some places, tiled roofs were also damaged. (3S- <Se. K Iye U 6^Qe) (13) Generally speaking., at points about 5 kilometers from the epicenter, sides of objects which faced the blast showed more extensive damage. Damage was greater as we approached closer to the epicenter. Roof-tiles were shattered or blirj off and here and there Japanese dwellings leaned over to one side. /Os c. 0)f *9 (14) This is the Hiroshima Metecrolozical Observatory, situated on a hill at Eba, about 4 kilometers from the epicenter. Here we found evidence of the powerful atomic blast, especially in the Seismograph Room. Notice the pieces of broken glass which lodged into the wooden cabinet. (/ A w d a (15) As we drew nearer the epicenter, we saw buildings, their walls blown out and their roofs blown down. - 4 - *4 -+ — 7- -!Aolr,49 - lml~mw, -? - -

Page  [unnumbered] -- Ordinary wooden Japanese houses are supported with pillars four inch square. Upon these pillars rest wooden trusses and over them are laid roof-titles. These houses were destroyed without a sin.rle exception. At some places fires broke out, causinr more carnage. (^^S^ (^^Js^^y Ilp) (1l) Within a radius of two k loaeters, practically all buildin.s were ioRN"E.: Of the 75,000 buildings and dwellinas destroyed, SO per cent were lost by fires which started between a few minut to an hour after th atomic ex loslon. Exce r their wl, Lcrete bui dnas also were completely burned out. Steel frames an, structures ( A. which would not burn were bent, twisted or otherwise,, / fell in mangled heaps. i. - --- f/. W7ad } I S (17) This is the Japan Red Cross Hospital 1,500 meters south of tee epicenter. Here, all the surrounding wooden buildings were burned, but the main building of concrete was saved. The damaged windows indicate the power of the blast. (1I) A building of reinforced concrete one kilometer from the epicenter - a watch dqaler s store. This is the Hiroshima Gas Company about 00 meters from the epicenter. Two-thirds of its east side was 4 1 I I I ( "- -- wir s-r r O? we?-?t — A d Wo W

Page  [unnumbered] i~~~P;~ii~I~Z"b9ru-T~~+ ~-~~U~_~F~~.~~~~LF-. 1 ~.1I- U- 4A.GL- b..ii~y- -L~h~E1~I~I~ 211~C3IFi, TI+IC~t *-: 1 * ( destroyed. Upon examination of these reinforced concrete buildings, we found that in many cases faulty construction also contributed to the extent of the destruction. (E,. M), '' -., (18A)This is a section of ancient Hiroshima castle one kilometer north of the epicenter, where the Imperial -eneral Headquarters was once located. This represents *.the state of damage caused by blast on wooden Japanese structures. eo if- ''. J (19) As we drew close to the epicenter, we found that because the blast came from overhead, such perpendicular objects as the torii gateway (which is not a strong structure in itself remained erect on the ground. ( The concrete Va:jber o-f Comoerce bildirtg ear the epicenter. The damaged parapets indicate that the blast came from overhead. aThis i th Comtriercial and Inaustrial Exhibits B:ilding built of brick, 300 meters frcm the epicenter. '(n-l c. 2a^ - L 9y 4 (20 Two bridges close to the-epicenter attracted the special attention of our-survey party. The Aioi Bridge 300 meters from the epicenter. The entire sidewalk on the northside, which is further removed from the epicenter, slipped out of place by 60 to 120 centimeters. In the case of this bridge, it is U. - v - 6-4 -I i..1 I I 1 1 1 1. INMW.AW~e 4ow -a- ea 14W IT -;.. ~ a-m Y - - sw 0 pow I 1

Page  [unnumbered] I..I,.. I,,.1 7- 1 - 1. - % 2 --,.."- ;. -, d" _, -, I -.- I 1.. f w - I r,.-.,, - c - — -, - 1 - -., -, -;- 4 IM*. -.... - Zlk. i., —, 11:1 -n- r -_. P. -0- - - - -- - - 21 - - - - . —, — I 4f 6< A-1*.II believed that this wag caused by the reflectionA of the blast from the surface of the water below, Th e paveON. ment on the west side also blipped out of place. ~1(21) The Motoyasu Brid.e 1QQ ameters from the epicenter. The interesting point about tthis bridge i~s that the copestone~s of -t~he lanterns on both sides have jumped out of place in opposite directionsThisci 2tes at a glance that the epicenter lies on ailne which runs through11 the middle of the bridge.. k 3 R,~ v i ~.' d O t // ~ /~ J~?7I T i T E ' h J ysI b ~ L S j~ j e ~ ~? i % IV hI Wan; IC, t, UP (2 Je 7- - dO -,oOV o E ' 4 2 $ V Al c5:fd) "Iflaww -- — P lr;w w I Om 0%.,-w 141W lor 'W-W w - 4 dot *Mt I I.. an" NU

Page  [unnumbered] H I RxL. SH.'': hADIQACTIVITY ~;.~eG*Y - HIRCEWLAHZd - Ir n rust this was the color of bombed' irc.aha.ra n Fr ees and &ulphur were collected as we toer ~ throizh_ the ruins tf this devastated city. 7 oved f rn porcelain instlator - on electric poles. Tneee mrterials proved most useulJ in st udyii -1 5. t h car trstics of raciactivity. CE Z'i ts we -_e zade twith the Lauriteen I J E`ectriscope-~hich is se-sitsive t^ both Bet- -rays and 2 T1 ^1- r a t (ED. 3cne O-v-e) W-hen bres are t.r~ed by slow neltroons, thI;e ph s phoros in tIRcD tIco. RiADIOACTIVE PHOS2PHOROUS P-32 which emIts Beta-r av with a half-value period of 12.. das. Th-is &urve wrs reduced to the value of Auzust 6th, the dav of tI. b Cbinz. The ordinate indicates tne intensity of Beta-rays, while the aisgissa, the distance fLC. the epicenter. When b-anbard~e by fast neutrons, sulphur e -mits protons and, li.e bones, produces RADIOACTIVE PHOSPHOROUS P-32. The int nsity of the Beka-ray is indicated -V 1s,, ir *Oo-,AW4,;WVIc - W ---mm fg mw-Rwi)

Page  [unnumbered] * ~~~rVb fec2 (on t he g raph. Inti wye found the distribution - ~ of neutrons. (PICTURE) To d eterm ine the d~'=ree of the intensity with 'Which neuttcfns were- distri-.-uted ir.L the- earth in the area of th~e ep ner, mneacure:-nente were bez.un in th~e middle cf Al-:u-st, proceedin= to t he -.north and so-uth f r o - te tnc r i a'atew- rof,A tUh e 3. c-k o ki Sri: e. Mease - II 4A.zz e t T~-is zraph'~ 5h~w Te tr~te4Sity YACa;sure tent At -tr~e.Jokoku Sh;2rin1;e in Azuust it wtls 4.2 ti-nes the natural leek. Abol-ut 1.5 Kilolneters from the Shrine, the intensity in the irtpa-rt- cO Sep~tevlber was 3. L9. A.or h e c-F convenience, cn.1c,~iatione we're rae n tne bas —ils of the valu,,1e of the natural leak in Tokyo. The intensity at the ^enter was about focur ti.,c thI'e 'na~ti:r le'n's. And so the phvsic iets. announ~rced- to the public that, at;, no paein te d.e vCa-st —ate a r - di) - reexist esuch Pow7erful radioactivity as would be a-peril to human life. (PICTURE)-2 Ic I womm" ml WI", I-, -:1 M- - - - z -tf - -- - -11 "I _- - - -1 -,,.. -1 - 1 p

Page  [unnumbered] I, d. -a I ql:- ` - - I -11 W, city r-d"Imb. 00 dodw-11 -- -- - ---- - VAP- I, dL- -. I %. t-&,Ooov k. 4 I las r. i / ftommni doop '7 I -j,4LI - 9 1 ( In October, mecisurelnents we're continued with (the INEHER FLECTR0M'-ET1ER which is sensitive only to Ga-mma — rays. Hence, -measurernents w~ith this inst-rurment were entirelly different lfroon t.h~ose made 'with the LAU~RITSEN ELD1.%OZT.RSCO~PE. The st etpoint Df. int'ensit ywas eCBCzr —I n e a w itJJh,mjBre1sr a -- nt*s *:n a 'e wit",h te 1T~EMER ELZCTR"OZ1TE.0 Th,",at point was 130 eesothztetoi z-at~evfmv of th')e GcouShrine an- o the scouth side of tteShiela Hoscital. Tne epicene wsac~ie a CC c-, oif K tot t.,hIe 4inLtonsity of r L ioct vi. The vab~e W'aLs 74. 6-J. J idctsthe ine-i; t wohich one ion. -air io -a,4-e ir- a sinz~le coei n c c~ni — z t-er - a i under,~ ncmzCT t e9 tC S. SU e Q6 -taiz nas:r nt O.r ere was crwnt tU ffect of th' tfBtlo,6.ical oondition at het~e f te oi~. This was suida the Obeerv tory 4 kilcimeters f'Lro.D the einter,. The day was clear. A sIi!-ebt-U breefZze came -'roLn te southwzest. How"eve-r, the p assure-tube Ane:ao-,aeter s-opped rec o r dii*. a The av —.rap-,e time wee acout S:15 A.M. Tkie, recor.in1,Qs cof the sxanshine ic I v -4 — q)e - 1*11' A., F, I.7 (I 18 I IV -I..n4mmpv"w opwil PMOW-.awplnp"wvl J,4pgj5pFrv#, -mvk- Al w -Ion-. I - a, woolroqw.. I ilr.." 7. Insw4wo P. t -., - - - qm

Page  [unnumbered] q~IOQ, i T'ecorder were also iat~errup-Wed at",, approximately the same tirue -and sh-owe.d thL, 1-at cicuas had ap-:eared, indicatingz the tikne of. the detonation. Thirty-.-rinut4es afte-r 8:l5 A-M, ashes rained in torreuits northwest of: the city in- su-ch places as F ukusb, i -i a- cboK Xia, ano Tacs. Clothes of.,~ the ref,~uzees,were stai-ed black 'Cy t-he as'-es. -This aT~e v.r tv x a mrdvzt the LA ditse ElectrOSQ^ope iJLn SCP6epteer. Al t-h ouh a~.Leet~ oh~:W.s.e fell i he v.tC ity of o ttzteitGt ra-dioacti-vi-zy was z"c>- s.V4rcn~er at Tak~asu, 1,400 s west =aOf Koi. (FU I T ITY UDISTR.) Upon.-meaeuri; the intensity distribution alon- a life runnin:-iz east and west through the epicenter..It was fourn~d th-Iat the- point of highest- int-ensity was at the entrance to jj'e Ueno aarden''. The intensity was 3.6 tiines as much as t-he natural leak. / ih1e L II d IjLT.V w a found to1 b estil *stWroner in the hi~llsbehin...-'d tLhe Fukuzoji Ta.:.,ple, slightly north of the UJeno Garden alcnz the norIth-aouth line. -4 - II P's -fill . -..

Page  [unnumbered] -.:~, ai ( In other words, rte amount of ashes did not necessarily ( correspond wih the inte nity of radioactivity. In their search for radioactive ashes, our physicists collezted ashes which fell on roofs and collected in eave trou..gs and water tanks. Measure. with t he Lauritsen Electroscope. Scme of these ashes contained radioactivity as strong as 70 times the natural leak. (FI;. L03 CURVE) As a result of chemical analysis, it was found that the ashes were a fission product of uranium. Whnat are called ashes contained fractions of strontium and barium, the mass number of strontium being 89 with a half-value period of 51 days and that of barium 140 with a half-value period of 12 days. The ashes were found to be fission products. (PICTURE) Further measurements were madein October.and January with the Neher Electrometer. The area of strongest intensity was the hill to the rear of Takasu, the value being 22-J. ~,:..,, -.*l K - 'ts However, close study of the intensity *,,,.. c i|' ' ',.. -.-^ * —^ '-..;'^_ *,5. -i -' c..... -. - *."* '..~~~ + - -!'.X,~~L - - ii ~ -"~aLT -~'~PLJ L_~n,~ ~ -~-~ cSAI —

Page  [unnumbered] distribution revealed that activity was weak at the su'mnit of hills and other elevated places, and strong in the canyons. This is because fission products were | washed down into the canyons by rain which fell several times since the bombing. The distribution was thus quite different from that at the time of the bombing. V.L 6AONII vie also found redioactivity 1 as far away as Kure and Hiro, 26 kilometers from the epicenter. It is believed that fission products whirled U h into the sky and drifted with the wind to these distant places. C/ The discovery was also made that radioactivity in the earth did not descend below the value of 7-J however far we went. In Tokyo or Nagasaki, the natural leak was around 5-J. j To find the answer, measurements were extended to Otake, 28 kilometers to the west. The value here was 10.3-J, in other words wherever we went the value did not descend below 7-J. (6 m 6 -.-! ~ ~~n~, cs, k l- - lr~~ru~ lwao-oftC*- ~u- - - ~?'C"IP- r-D? W A -. rw

Page  [unnumbered] J x I -. L.-k. - -. i t!,. *-; - < -*. -4. -.~, ---~ r,1 9-6 1 1. I. - I Lr.~rp!S,- -ui 4 L:. a.,- -. --,R -MIA T. '" la- -,.,2L&P -. -d b. MAA;~~' Ii,;ALif —%LA i - -L: — I I, la,.;* P' -' & L -4-4&. I,- - ~~ & CI ^( I H A D O W - HIROSHIMA In this burned out area, objects could be found which were burned in a distinctly different manner from those which were burned by fire. For instance, concrete was discolored to a lizght reddish tint. Granite was scaled off. The surface o wooden amaterials were scorched black. A characteristic of these burns was that shadows were left by obstacles. What, we ask, cn be conceived from the relative positions of the shadow and the obstacle? For instance, what can we conceive from the shadows on the bridge? By the shadow of this walking 'man? Or by the shadow of such immobile objects as the railing on the bridge? This report of ours, however, was confined to one problem - -aat was to determine the direction from which the radiation heat came by a study of the relative positions of obstacles and their shadows. For instance, we suuudid th diec tion of the radiation by this shadow. We selected obstacles - 1 - a /9. -.- -- ly w P WOW M

Page  [unnumbered] 1.a 9 ' ~ ( which had shadows on both sides,. compared them and computed for the average. Lines were then elongated. By such measurements we were able to determine the direction at which the bomb detonated. - r/*' This look-out post is located on top of the Credit Association buildin- near the Hiroshima Station. The shadows found here were one of the means of determining the epicenter as well as the angle of the point of detonation. Direction ana arle were also measured by means of the shadow on the window frame of this tower at9op the Chugoku Electric Supply Building. The q - epicenter is meters north of this point. Measurement of the angle showed that the point of detonation A gLS*k11 yf9 $*E S&4 ygmeters above the around. Shadows caused by intense heat were found on the roof of the Chamber of Commerce building, 200 meters from the epicenter. The direction Qthe picenter was also measured by the shadow f handle on this gas tank. The epicenter is about 2,300 meters to the northwest.: In the compound of the Gokoku Shrine there A ' were many Rranites with shadowswhich were suitable for makinw measurements, both of direction and anale,.e o - i., I

Page  [unnumbered] From this shadow the epicenter was 350 meters; the point of detonation about 55Q meterB above the around, From the data thus gathered a chart was drawzv~to determine the epicentcr. UilveS elongated from vr.ric's points did not necessarilyr coincide at the center. However, a point within an observational error of 15:-aeters was determined ae the epicenter. This was abolut 25 meters sou:theast o th Shi-a Hcsgital. T.e point of detonation wae determinc- fas (, 6 n ter6 plus —~inus meteere a.bcve t Ie, e, rond. 4 ---- -3 — 0e O -cT( 4z VI A) ~lr 5/~/ ~R. t-~t~~oLtl F-T- 44I-~j 6 ~pao~-Fro~n~c ~ (Itti4Z)N L VAU't Olaw /6

Page  [unnumbered] '4 i ' ^^t StC - - 1 -' S'p ( H HEAT - HIROSHIMA,' W:....' - ' " -. -. '- Because of the phenomena found, the area of, the epicenter may be called the "fused zone". One such phenomena is the granite. 'And one reason why it has scaled off so beautifully is that granite is a poor conductor of heat. By magnifying the zranites surface, it can te noted that it has not only scaled off, but the mica has me te o* l. S ' rThisas natuaal granite.. The melt n; point of Mica is 900 degrees centiarade. Hence, in the case of this granite the heat applied was over 900 degrees. This the Gokoku Shrine,,350 meters from the epicenter pebbles molten like Rlass were also found at this shrine. This wall was 50 meters from the epicenter. On the surface of the andesite on the wall, it appears as if some molten substance has adhered, -but magnified it actually proves to be the effect of heat on the andesite itself. The molten condition is similar to that of the pebbles we saw..,, i The entire slurfacer hs a i ls f und at -jil~ I -i Llli~ i~ii the epicenter, has been fused. The heat which fused I "... /7 -~sr~rr~olr~ll~,~ ~r~~I~ls~ rrurl~lg~~llllll ul~e~r~l - ~,~~ ~en-l.T~~Cee??ll~R(ID~rsYIF~ i~_lrr -- linc" loop

Page  [unnumbered] m_ " mlm * v,!' —: this tile.about 1 300 degrees. This is the surface of an entirely unaffected tile showing the structure under a prism. Some of the substances shown here were fused like molten glass when sudden heat was applied. Fused tiles found at the epicenter however were all not originally the same, as the tiles were made by different manufacturers in different localities using not all tcNether the same materials. The manner in which the tiles fused differed the more remnoved they were from the epicenter, because of the difference in the angle of radiation and declinina degree of the heat.. ^... ~ Let u now compare the tiles found at different distances from the epicenter. 1. This was found at the epicenter. 2. This cne was p.iked up 300 meters away., 3. This one was found 550 meters from the ta. - epicenter... The furthest limit at which tiles fused was about 550 meters. Granites however scaled off even at this distance.; / B magnfyiAf the scaled granites, we found 'v. that the mica had melted in some portions and.carboniz( ed in others. In some instances the two phenomena -v2 --E An- Bet -it/ a

Page  [unnumbered] . e - r ~"2 were f ound tozether r the same granite. or 4A4- By our surveye found that the furthest mit at which — ro-nites scaled off extended to a point about 900 mnetemrs frcom the ePicenterL',- or much f a* he,r th.,,an the limit of. -fu-.sed tiles. V I ml.r... Oil am3, "7 Apr" -,- 71 v..!Ppl 411 volkT"P- 0 lr —,, -- Al-W . — "... 7TP" 1. 1. I. - ww"Ww.

Page  [unnumbered] ~1ft~~)~Je s~&l be~Thou tc'ri -r-u thE cueor P- hect Ca-l rceea t o'-ar d the C —,icnonte% 'In order to sec theic el~e -ts * of th&,%e QatO;"iic bc:b n1li li i v iS it an.C fr Om R icE',1I~e2As re.-oved bj~i 3>oze 6 kzilonetears frorai toi el-C. t l erc burnt out. I~toelct~ 8 lrilorieters of~~ i th l — eaves o-: te r c e 1 t s;;ere caid to have b oe n >r nt, b t t Ov.- r~ t~~e6 ~St:b Wer" u~e * vistc~ ~~rohL44 t'e*'-: pl cut~ ~Z2ej~ro~c~ h It ~o~ ~Z v4j.3 kilc.-~cteii7s'~ ~:. te —c,-t4e- h arc t;.c-,-llJ. Uilrzjjr Rio 7eOr t'-e lC; f A t — a~ V. - otb etra ~ >Ut at th t* e,.c ne~-. leavecs;zere ~e ni'r — t o 3 —rc~t co-,sicderable recovery-zr;;a — zncte'i, tTip on close observ(Atioia, Si rzs w4,e r eS sill2 i n, evidcenoe ote ampl-:ts hrad surrf.-red, Le av ez uhi c h uerce xlose to' 'to h r u d&i atao of.hal r iy ~ U~r bit f'or yllow to reddish browuPr. Parts -;hiicl 'were zshaded b7v other leuves were unharmed. mow tow"SL I - _., . '.. - J -%.: - -,, "r -, -ism 14.. ' *1 1:7 -, -.

Page  [unnumbered] I - I - I.- -. -, I I. -, - - (flc 'arais on +'-'e di-idai or bitter orwve Th its 3 kilo~te~sfror tA. Q~pi cezt ar. Th1e Ilio r-3i. chool 3 `:ilo-ctors south of t'Le a specie or auve; 44tOw' 9 in. heC', 'u c:Arnj'bur~ to4, T.&e le Z.v e L. th -1"Vl S h a~e, a- e v er, Unaftecte4. You Caiw fllek e tfKa $h34o'd4 detk OAi-v~h4, pri* *ed~L an t ~e teaves',below. ~~,kOf~, v~s cc.1~t~j ~kc'~L Cibu vinti::E ii c The tK ar eeM bo e 1 rk*,iccte eri~t bo~inii~to 70;; r~iA Uls' C;..ticLt7-1viveQ.7t"c &ub Ut ~ zvEr;4 1 ~Jicai Wgfe disrveA r 4eo G. j~ Mh i hba~ or crab c:rass IC_ ~a k-I aU o f e~g almorzlal s it —ns r~re ofser"vec iJ..i tbee SaL ts

Page  [unnumbered] -v~~ tmcbrnvt ezni tt ~'7" Po~er'2 peretru"ting a ucs,, as rQz-<s amC u f i0he t:~ JbI*..S t~' or 9a%- 4J~ ~6 Cm L~ A C- C1 viec)tic C sAU: & Vtirea wei4o% 1 4. A, %.4 ', -" 4iLes Li Z, u k.., L -.LQ 6l~bv C;C. (~ 7 IQ ' t~;~t it~b~ ~r ~t~dy~aS..4ArcA th col o e band btJsrAtoo sh aiia2 1ie as w colectu ahoed n abnorIitiei I lWll"vwpww qr""-Wop

Page  [unnumbered] GM '..a The conclusions ve have been atle to,fra- ae at pres5t under study. P;Ob,4V (g~ F) TO WI WI

Page  [unnumbered] - — T - ~ FFECTS ON OME HUMAN BODY IN OSMA MEDICAL STUDIES - HIROSHIIU9) 5) BUr"iS ON ENTIRE BODY (Red Cross HospitalT Lo..3S) 'P/, It was midsummer when the atomic bomb hit thi-V heart of Hiroshima and the people were thinly clad. Many parts of their body were exposed. In fact, quite a large number were semi-nude. First-aid stations reported that O8 to 90 per cent of the cases handled by them immediately after the bombina were burns. Burns resulting directly from the atomic bcmb were caused on the parts of the body which faced the rays. There were no. burns cn the opposite side. ( 'W:0O SOLDIERS WITH BURNS (ilitary Hospital —ZbC- df / *; RCi These two soldiers were among 2,000 others who were. at the Chiycda P,?blic School, 1,300 eeters ao-Sh of the J epclnter. The one at the right was wearing long | "trousers; the'one at the left a short-sleeve blouse -. and knickers. Burns in these cases were only on the right side as the ay came from the above right-front direction. The toes of the fellow in knickers escaped burns because of the protection offered by the slippers he was wearing at the time. ILITARY HOSPITAL O. ^IILITARY HOSFITAL BO. 2 X ( '/~ This soldier was in his barracks about 900 meters af I I I I I i 'I " M " ---- — Xp mp 4d mwr I-'-t 1!19"Sftet;"WNFT~I~ C~~CII)~~ql~ wo! r.01!. w W,

Page  [unnumbered] 3 - s - -is -- E - -- k --- atnorthwest of the epicenter. His posture at the time was somewhat like this and the ray came from the left. rear. He was wearing his uniform and his hard was bandaged in white as shown in the picture. The com-, paratively heavy uniform was charred but the bandaged hand was unaffected. WUOAN WITH BURN SHR ING PATTERN OF DRESS (Still) Color of clothes m-ade quite a difference, and the degree of the burns varied according to the color of dress. This is an example of a pattern of a dress burned on to the skin. ' L A SOLDIER (Military Hospital) The difference in the speed of heat at blast is shown here. This soldier was 1,00 meters south of the epicenter. When he saw r flash of light he immiediately fell flat on the ground. Then his cap was blown off by the blast. The cap mark around his head indicates that he was burned by the ray before the blast blew off his cap. flc PIGMENTATION (Communibations Hospital) Some of the scars show pigmentation in deep purple. On the head, ho-weer, de-pigentation is seen. 2..... l -- f ~~-r w -- y1.~, T-~,,..^ —, ^f.-:-.,, 'f- *..4, - ^..... -.i.~ -,',-,<'~-~.-,. - *.-...?.r ~".j1.- -'

Page  [unnumbered] DISTURBANCE OF FUNCTION tc- IDisturbance of function is also caused as a result of burns. SKIN from GRAFT (Military Hospital) Four c~ five days after the burn, skin was grafted the right thigh. This is the condition a week later.?IBRICHONDRITIS OF EAR (Red Cross Hospita&13 C. A case of perichoncriUi -of the ear as a result of burns. jEFECT OF AUIRICLE Pl/C The bombing occurrei when this fellow was in the lmilitary Hospital 500 meters from the epioantnr. Although he survived miraculously, he suffers from severe depilation.. T fj VCERATITIS pi C A slight case of ceratitls caused by burns. This fellow was exposed to the ray about two kilometers flom the epicenter, the ray cominz from his left front.,@; 4, -,^^ Itc N. u 1ti.S^ '7 'L. COimPOtD FCTURE. -'l( This girl was at the Toyo Steel Mills 1,500 meters west of the epicenter. Her left leg in the region of _3)_ 0 pl"!- IV" lw r s;,- lW* PAFC-;; cy T VW, - 17 ---q,"IVW. a '3 1. -w; O I-M& IVt" l IlpilZwfmPadip.P1ft -W_-l-w -IW

Page  [unnumbered] the knee was pinned under the debris when the building in which she was working oollapsed. RD CROSS HOSPITAL NO. 9 cA o So-4 l_ P/c This young Red Cross nurse was injured when the Red Cross Hospital dormitory was destroyed. A falling r pillar caused a compound fracture In the light leg. LACERATION FROM GLAQS FRAGMiENTS Red Cross Hospital)/ &-" a/t Another Red Cross nurse, working in the second floor of the hospital, suffered from lacerations caused by flying glass. Other nurses suffered from facial injuries. AERYSMA (Military Hospital) oC XC_ Tlis fellow was atanding three metere from the window of a bc:ildinz one kilometer north of the epicenter, bare from his waist up. From abcut the 10th day aneuryeam of the right radius artery appeared. I OvtRJ! T ICATIONS HOSPTAL7 /C This woman was one kilometer east of the epicenter. Although she was not burned, she received lacerations in the region of her left eye and ear. On September 6th the eyeball had to be removed on account of abcess of vitreous. On September 15th her leucocytes were 2,500: on the 22"Otb, cx~ The pro~nosis a or lb.. 9 O -,It"7 on"W"W-r. c - -. - rlvrl.~ - -- - - -- toww -1W " - WM"" W.Iql; ALI!*

Page  [unnumbered] *-^ ^^ -r-L l -/*.. < 5/. A S a i....:.^ 5"l ',ll ~. t.r —.:..L- CJA ( UKUYA DEPARTMEI STOR -2 'fC At the Fukuya Departmeent Store there was a sign: "Dcn't Touch! Infected with Contaaicus Disease.u This coresponded to t'-e report that cases of diarrhea acccmpanying high fever and bloody stool resembled dysentery. (AUTOPSY ROOM, COMMUNICATIONS HOSPITAL3 1.. ni6 sthack on the premises of the Communications _ Hispital was built as a ward for infectious diseases en the second day the bombimiecause a violent outbreak of diarrhea and vomitting created suspicion of B.nan epidemic. 5t ' ~OOMY WARDSj //C At the end of two weeks, which was the critical period, burns and cuts, which appeared to be curing suddenly worsened. Hemmhorage developed which could not be stopped. Many died and the number of deaths kept mounting from day to day. %TILL PICTURE SHOWING PURPVRA9 7/C Purpura appeared on the upper half of the body in a majority of cases and as it spread to all parts of -the body the condition of the victim became worse. U* '" ": I i - w - _;- lw - - - w -.! C. I..... I

Page  [unnumbered] ~. -.. > ' -o i ' ' ' ' " I'' * K DEPILATION (Military Hospitalj j - )P Depilation was also characterictic symptom of the critical period. This soldier was in the barracks one kilometer northeast of the epicenter. He suffered no burns, but around the 28th of Septemter, more than 7 weeks after the bombing, depilation developed, spots appeared accompanied by a fever of 59.5 degrees and diarrhea. Z / g C '47 IaILITARY HOSPITAL No.7 -C /ce Tnis soldier was about 800 meters north of the epicenter. Leucocytes were 5,000. The main symptom i is depilation. DEPILATED CHILDREN (Red Cross Hospital)7 Loc aPf A brother and sister who were upstairs in their house two kilometers southwest of the epicenter. It was reported that after about a week-they began to develop symptoms of depilation, anorexia, gingival bleeding and fever. YOTHER AND DAUGHTE Lc /tc Mother and daughter, shown here were both inside their house, two kilometers southwest of the epicenter. The daughter was injured when an ice-box fell on top of her. The mother had no visible injuries and was * -6 -VW!. rat -- w w -V -*

Page  [unnumbered] ( nursing her daughter outside of the city when, a month later, she herself became seriously ill. /f) ANEMIC FACIES (Military Hospital No.7) y,&This woman was pinned under her house 600 meters east of the epicenter. Excoriations are observed around her ears and other places. On October the 3rd leucocyt eE were 1,500; symptoms - apathic facies Her entire family died, leaving her the sole survivor. ED CROSS HOSPITAL NO.7 i rC ^ At army headquarters less than one kilometer north of the epicenter, this fellow suffered a sprain &trhis \ loins when the barracks collapsed. A case of oedemateous apathic facies with symptoms of anemia. 77 z ----, /o f'^s<rxe t ro6c 1 TILL PICTURE OF FEMsR.. The bone-marrow of the upper half of the femur is red, while the bone-marrow in the lower half is fatty. ONES lOa, 26, 21, 127 <<- The Myelocytes are practically disappearing, leaving only plasmacytes. When the condition takes a favorable turn 'myelocyte erythroblasts, macroblasts and megacaryocytes would reappear. ( -7-,> 30 ___.. ' t ---" - '',.v. 1i. '.~_ '.*.-*^rr/ —, ' " 11*.',";

Page  [unnumbered] ~ - * * * -. * ( jILL PICTURE OF SPLEE JS^"L' ~IC The spleen is generally atrophied. So also. are the lympfollicles. Vaen burns are accompanied, the fibrinoid degeneration of lym1hfollicles is sometimes seen. jLYMPHNODES? T/f Lymphnodes swell up in red, while lymphocytes are atrophied when seen through a microscope. STILL PICTURE OF SKINI PC The skin shows depilation and ulcer. The ulcer is fringed in dark purple, the central part reaching the corium with the epidermis exfoliating. / SKINJIi I)C On the scalp, hair rtcts and sweat glands are atrophied, causing depilation. LESTICLEI? p/C The spermatozenesis in the testicles has declined Hnd there are practically no spermatozoons left. Only cylindrical sortolic cells are left. / iVARY,< t /gl-In ovaries the atrophy of primordial and graafis ( follicles are observed. b A i I I I i I it C 1 'l~l-_RC; —;~4j-~r C1 -. —er u l-!i:=T IZt q.;Ti; - ~~',-~ -MV 4L. I - IIM~O~~l(a~C Y1

Page  [unnumbered] ( STILL PICTURE OF DIGESTION TUB LTOMAC3? — C On the surface of the mucous membrane of the digestion tube, necrotic pseudo-membraneous inflammation is seen. STILL PICTURE OF LUNG (Lung 23)7 IP]C In the lung, bleeding and edema were often observed. *csecondary infection by bacteria develop4 making various abcesses large and small. /0( <, /cT The liver shows muddy swelling when microscopically v seen, while the liver cells are atrophic when viewed microscopically. When burns are combined, serous extudation in the Disse's space is observed. LSILL PICTURE OF KID EY B XC In the kidney, nephrosis muddy swelling was sometimes seen with the tubulus atrophied here and there. ADRENAL GLAIDQ /D - # -C The adrenal gland was atrophied in the critical period. Histologically examined, the cortex becomes thin and atrophic. 1HYPOPHYSI S - ( 4 9 mz I I2 - -p*; t - -j- I FI --- - W b r!cM I V- -1- - -s

Page  [unnumbered] 1., -. II A&L I.A.. 6.. i ~,;;. i) W IJa" fAa. "- -..a-Z&. -ait. - 4 In the hypophysis the colloid, vacuolic degeneration of the basophilic cells, is observed. CTHYROIO GLAND 11B1 a)c In the critical period, follicles varied in size, the epithel being flat.,, *, 7r- AMIROSHIE:UA BRANCH HOSPITAL OF RED CROSS &Cf -L- 19- l - The io iaa Hoseita ot the Japan Red Cross, 1,500 meters from the epicenter, was the best hospital in the city. It was completely demolished, save for the threestoried reinforced concrete building. All the installations and equipment were destroyed. Few wards and in( struments were found in a usable condition. One hundred fourteen of the in-patients were injured. Among the hospitl1 staff and nurses under training 36 were killed, and nearly 300 injured, leaving only 36 physicians and 120 students in any condition to handle the patients. Though short-handed they did amazing work amidst the confusion which followed the bombingw- * fighting the fire and taking care of the 400 cases within the hospital itseli t thouno - H66sa n, Lo rushed here from the outside. ^I f <lHI OSHIMA.COMMUNICAtIONS HOSPITAL 410 - 35 N. W, -~~rr~ ~- mpr rlp~E~r~ II~~l~~ rC~CIIF..~)LLI~D;fr~a1s

Page  [unnumbered] ., fCQ The Communications Hospital, 1,500 meters north-east of the epicenter, also overflowed with patients. Medical supplies amounting to one hundred thousand yen (Yen 100,000) were completely exhausted on the 4th day. Out of 12 doctors and pharmacy staff, 3 were killed and 5 injured, including the director. Only seven of them, including the injured, QSgi ble to work immediately after the disaste efending the hospital from the spreading flames and treating the in3ured.. 3EjMPORARY AUTOPSY ROOa7 <RC' The shack which was built im.eciately as an isolation 4 ( ward, because of fear of possible epidemics, is now used as a temporary autopsy room. D A6& P ~ -S-L" rtI OSHIBA PUBLIC SCHOOL _ The Oshiba Public School, two and a half kilometers north of the epicenter, was used as a first-aid station. The entire neighborhood was encircled by fire and everybody was forced to abandon the place temporarily, leaving behind the seriously wounded who could not be removed. As soon as the fire was brought under control, the residents returned to resume their duties. Armor the first of them were two physicians, three dentists, two pharmacists and one midwife whose services were badly.... U.. needed! a. i I I 1 - ag~ ~ Rr~lI~Ma ~~`-~ — ~ '1P-fr ''- tp - _;Y_ - UMAPIe ~r~r~*ts~ ll?~F riAQV _M~.,4wmwqa —7~ -?~-"-r- T. 0 1lru~ I

Page  [unnumbered] KO NATIONAL SCHOOL JC The Kol public School, two and a half kilometers west of the epicenter. Victims 'h came here were in a horrible condition. Many oollapsed Wen they arrivedbivbfa*^ and died. Doctors and sbhoolteachers worked hand in band to administer treatments, and even.cook the meals. I*lc This grave post was erected in memory of the hundreds wbo died and were cremated here. K~UZATSU PTUBLIC SCHOOL XC The Kusatsu Public School 5 kilometers southwest of the epicenter. The building was only slightly damaged. f Patients were removed from first aid stations in the western section of the city and concentrated here. LECT-URE HALLJ Day in any day out, Professor Araki of the Kyoto Prefectural Medical College was engazed in autopsy work in this dimly lit warehouse. NINOSHIMA QUARANTINE STATION 7__- The army quarantine station a t Ninoshima on Hiroshima Bay, 11 kilometers from the epicenter. A field hospital was immediately established here and patients who were brought here by oat received first-aid treatment# and were given lysol baths. Two thousand patients were * - 12 -.1.,,~ --,, 4. - -'- -. -- -.'. - - --- -.

Page  [unnumbered] Ad - ( brought here on atomic bomb day alone. Eighty members of the army medical corps worked without a wink for three consecutive days and nights under the supervision of army surgeons. The hospital attached to the quarantine station containing 1,000 beds treated from 3,000 to 9,000 patients daily. C-, The tomb-post bears the words, "nTmb of a thousand persons." However, during the first seven days, this quarantine station alone handled more than 1,300 bodies of the dead., L0OOY LIFE AT TEMPORARY HOSPITALS (Fukuromachi Public }/ School, etc.) lrIC To make up for the de ciencies boiled sea water was distilled as a substitute for saline solutions. Even decoctions from persimmon leaves were made where Vitamin B was needed. Lack of medical supplies and food generally weakened the physical condition of the inmates. HATTERED WINDOWS O HOSPITA;i One hospital director told us, "People will be discharged from here, but they have no place to go. Our hospital is no longer a hospital, s it's becoming a regular sluma." ( 13,~.~. l ~ A -,.a -- -—. VWm.,w.~ _. -:-"tr.~ls 'r"e- -e- ' -I As* '~4 "- ' L m -~' 1 < ~-"''! ~ "-_["

Page  [unnumbered] -ad. -L ~ ~'I~?'j ~~ t.~ ~~~ ~; ~ ,r._ YLE~.;tif, 1 i; 'i~ 1 L. - 1 --- CY1-i~W(:~ - ~IWJil;L?zr ' ' Ai " ~4C* ~ LIC42):. ~r~. ~. Ir, LI*Zl'rL; _ t) ~ re r U d r~ I r'L I,, p^A^1AT IN 6NEKAL ON iNA^NASAKI 1Lntr. ( ENSINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS ) i (Spr- 24/ ~ i/ 2J i 1 4) ~ L —1S A P^-v-'-4 —$ /^ + nT1Ty Tor- ift/ / 1) T. (Nagasaki W Fip e-S-46<s f /V f^5$ u$^u\J / '. L T^ ^)? Z^ j~ pt >^,^ jt S 2 (2) The second tragedy visited Nagasaki, a historic _ port city in the northwest o f h island of yhu.s P A/C. le The port of Nawasaki is a deep inlet connected with the East China Sea. Surrounddd by housecovered hills, Naaesaki is, or rather used to be, i^f0. one of the most picturesiue port cities' opan, Y)(C Its population at the time of the disaster was 270,000. An old seaport, Nagasaki was also an active industrial city with shipbuilding yards, steel mills, ordnance fectories and electrical manufacturins plants. With Saseho Naval Base and (O)M l~t) thae Ort Airfieald n-ar'y-, ai.aasak.i cons ti'-u'aed a important military zone. /cI Nagasaki, if you will recall your history, was the gateway to Japan in nidi-eval tienes. Through it flowed into Japan the world's civilizations.before Japan secluded herself from the outside world for nearly three centuries. Evidences of these old.... * * amlu )

Page  [unnumbered] o 1 *., *,.. 6f ' '. ' ' ( contacts with the outside world were the many temples, whose architecture was fashioned after that of old China, and the Roman Catholic churches. ra te-s Holy Land of Japanese who embrace the Roman Catholic faith; 22,000 of Nhom lived in Nagasaki. ( Came the deluze three days after the tragedy visited Hiroshima. The date - the 9th of August 1945. _/ The day was calm, bright and windless. A hot summer sun shone upon the city. Since early morning an air-raid alarm was on in the Narasaki-Sasebo area. ( Then it was lifted. But for two hours and a half the alert warnina continued to prevail. Then, exactly at 11 o'clock, two Superfortresses appeared over the city from the northeasterly direction, flyinz at a high altitude. The first plane dropped. three objects attached to parachutes. At 11:02 to( p0 o'clock, the second plane dropped an object, its descent taking about 40 seconds. Then came a blinding flash, followed by an explosion, and a blaze. The destruction was the greatest ever wrought by man. ( ' -2-,.., ^. rr~~~~~rmn?-~~~~~~~~~ur~~~~~- *t~~*~~:;lvn*ar~. C,-:'~r"Cr~L~CI~P lC

Page  [unnumbered] - ' - p (.- -- — ~~~ ~~~I Do( The bomb missed the center of the city and detonated above a canyon to the north. 1fY^ ~ ---7 Let us now view the general scene of devastation from the top of one of the hills to the east of the city. VP) C On the other side of the hills at the left of the harbor lies the city. These hills on both sides of the city were the breaks which intercepted the atomic blast and prevented the destruction from extending to the harbor section and the heart of the city.? APh rt At the right of this narrow pass lies the area of total devastation. All builIings, save those of stout reinforced concrete, iere demolished. 1 ~/N ' The whole of this neighborhood once teemed with wooden houses and small factories. Now itts flattened out and denuded of everything. Only pebbles and broken tiles remain. C The epicenter was slightl to the north of the center of this district. We shall go to the top of the hill on the other side, the western side, to survey the destroyed area. 7 f e first view ~ i;he neighborhood of the epi( center and then the harbor and the urban center.:I. A. * ' o f J-' ' *; * * -. f. ~ i * 't *sV * >^- - -CI> +"- -, -- *er b - ' ~rl ~f4-rlwtr

Page  [unnumbered] P (t ^A/ -( Acoc-ding to-the deductions ade by the Physicists Group, the point of detonation was abou t meters above the around and above the street block numberi70) Matsuyama-cho, RA lVoi fRThe epicenter is between 30 to 40 meters across the roa tohe right of the telephone pole in the center of the picture. This pole was there before the bombing and was damaged very little, except the second cross piece which wao bent. )This indicates that sudden pressure came practically from overhead. t0,> sThe camera will now be turned 360 degrees to t view the immediate neig'htorhood of the epicenter. 'jp Thb epicente is -midway between where we are standing and the elevation in the background.,/c- Trees imnediately below the point of detonation were not blown down. Though burnt, they remained standing erect. aL-b4 Aj^l~eQ^& P? e O c SvIoL3 KI () Houses within 500 meters of the epicenter were principally of Japanese construction andwere completely destroyed by blast and by the fires which were instantly started. Concrete buildinzs in the same area were partially destroyed, but all caught e-fire, ost of the kitman beius and animals 4) ( CA,, 4an F '-? -.v C~I~I ~~ F~LP 'w, VW -~l~r ~~:~T~P

Page  [unnumbered] A s. * X ( were instantly killed. piC This is a view towarc the west. TIC Wie are nov{ lockin: southvward. C'- And this is a view toward the east. / 0 This p e e tia elevation -used to be a residential section. We called it the Hill of Death. It was densely crowded with small wooden houses which It were completely destroyed. Only broken tiles and battered pieces of concrete walls remain. p>O~ C h~42T-4B'o D p C This section swarxed with tiny work shops. Ohly parts of wrecked machine tools were left in the wake t, "of the devastation. a., WYVP)f^9PT Po? P 'ic. Contrary to expectations, many of the steel poles for trolley wires were not blown down in this area. Some were bent in the direction of the blast. But as we proceeded further away from the epicenter we found them bent or blown flat on the ground. c. The body of this tra icar, made of wood, was completeldestroyed by the blast from overhead, but did not catch fire. The same was the case with this one. 77]^ This one was blown off the rail and completely burned. Allthe passengers were killed instantly. I '. '- I.41.-...w 'W W L C (WfV,,. V IPOT —:w.T- 17 to-,lql. o W. — w *NLW7 vo *~- 7m W

Page  [unnumbered] l-,I,.. ^.: 'iV I-:~. ______________________________________ - ".- -—,- - - _\ 1C These rails were twisted when this railway bridge was struck by the blast which came from the right side above. The %irder on one side was thrown out of place lby more thanf/ meter. The penitentiary00 meters from the epicenter. The wooden buildings q.nd reinforced concrete walls were destroyed; and over 140 persons, including the inmates, the prison staff and their families were ^ ^ instantly kill*. The powerfu heat melted the --- rfce of the tiles. ', _. -- c T he Shiroyama Primary School 500 meters from the epicenter. The roadway trees below the school were broken.t their bcse. All the parts of this teinforced concrete building which faced the blast were completely demolished. The interior was burned. The entire bitilding is cracked on the side facing of the olast. Parts of the ceiling on the top floor were blcv.;n down or blown up. 4 All wooden construction withi n a radius f 1,000 meters from the epicenter were completely demolished and burned, and most of the human beings and animals were killed instantly. s ~L — t of the steel poles for trolley wree were * l -. -6 - PL'I R'lt R II PtL l 1#0 1'1 qL "-liraci~u —~rrrlurswr:7-77-ww'w — l"ll~

Page  [unnumbered] - — Jktm — II I I I I r bent. Some were broken or blown down. c Grass and underbrush on the i in the area caught fire and burned, while the trees broke or fell down in the direction of the blast. Otr5p c R7;P O%0 I-c. -- I 'm Th Chinzei Middle School 550 meters froi the epicenter. The top floor of this four-storied reinforced concrete building was smashed, while the entire interior of the building was burned..?pkThe Keiho Middle School. This school building is typical of the large wooden construction. It 7' // was completely wrecked but did not catch fire. N \v,p~-\ C PT- 70 VP ~p (/ els '- The Nagasaki Stee -and Arms Works of' the Mitsubishi Heavy Incustries Company stretching from north fL // to scuth for one thousand meters. Ti'e greater part of this plant was crushed in the direction of the blast and its steel frames were greatly twisted. Some 2,500 workers were in the plant at the time of the bombing, including student workers. Wo hundred of them were instantly killed, while some 4s0 were seriouslyinjured. RL / MAP4TC >P oJ s o- R^N, Urakami Station, north of the itsubishi Steel Works, was built of wood and was completely burned dL i down. Practically everyone here was instantly killed. A signboard facing the epicenter was not burned, 7 - 43I I I I I "R.. Ift7O -,. -WP 4; —v - VW c - — r- -", IT- - -7 ~n~ ~ 7-r - ~j.

Page  [unnumbered] but a part of the black lettering was scorched by // the heat. — // Tanno Shrine. The first stone torii archway was not knocked down, but half of the next one, was L blown down, while the other half remained standing in a precarious position. Extremely powerful preesure was applied for a maere fraction of a moment. ( E This st one lantern has been forced out of its original position at the base. - "- ^ -she College of iedicine, the Meaical Junior T * 9 nollege, the School of Phariacy and the hospitals attached to these institutions. One of the smokestacks leaned in the direction of the blast. Another smokestack in the campus was knocked down. Most of the hospital buildings, being of reinforced concrete, escaped collapse, but the interior / of many of them were burned. O A. Because eost of the hospital patients had been?,,vI a 5s y moved to other places, casualties were limited to 19E killed and 235 injured. But most of the students, LI' the faculty and employed personnel of the three p ' - schools, numbering about 7j0, died on the day of the ( bombing. or the day after. v'..:'.;:,.' -~ — 1Illc- ~"I - -- 4 —ove;.P IJ '3W~~R~1:'~ ~ arr~~"rY 4 a -.W: "

Page  [unnumbered] * The Uragami Roman Catholic Cathedral, the largest in Nagasaki, 550 meters from the epicenter. Built gCL( of brick, this church could resist the blasteend: - Ac was burned completely. Two Fathers and a dozen or more parishioners attending confession were buried I /_.0 under the debris and killed. 90 per cent of the 14,000 Roman Catholicsjwho had formed a settlement around the cathedral lost their lives. <rtP) ^^~ ec) The Yamazato Public School 750 meters from the epicenter. This concrete school building was comparatively near the epicenter but was not seriously.tmgid7 It eHpainrs t'he fact that the extent of destruction also variedLaccording to the design and construction of buildings. (/c) The engineering school, a large wooden building1 L1, collapsed, but did not catch fire. Hov V C\~qs 4 9 ' '. (10) In the area between 1,000 and 1,500 meters of the epicenter, practivally all wooden structures 'l / were destroyed by the blast and the fires which followed. (1IC The Morimsaci P + of 4 itsubii Or ( -. _ g _ 4645 Irl'-wr'lwm- -It No "w ~(J w I V W L &P~H l " crrr c~.W.11!~w~~~ l~~ra - -

Page  [unnumbered] ( " ' ' ' 1' -T Factory. The greater part of this rinforced-concree structure was destroyed, while arched concrete ceil- eL) ings supported by many pillars collapsed for the most part, * ~ T This gas tank at Ohashi-machi, was hit by the blast from left side above. It contained such a, (L -2 small quantity of gas that the tank did not i6i te * s' fire-and explode. ~ The Ohashi Plant of the Mitsubishi Ordnance Factory. greater part of the plant which was at L ''. right angles to the blast was destroyed. The vari5 -1d ous units constituting the plant were mostly built ' of reinforced concrete, but were mangled and twisted f( t 1 in a mighty heap. Incidentally the aerial torpedoes used at Pearl Harbor)which marked the first shots of the Pacific War were manufactured in this very t9 L ( plant. Of the 7,500 regular and student workers were in this plant on the day of the bombing, 6,200 were killed, injured or missing. -(~ ) — Steel poles for transmission wires on a hill 1,300 meters from the epicenter were completely bent in, the direction of the blast. The underbreush L on the nearby hills eaukht fire and started a mountaib fire. J -10- 4

Page  [unnumbered] -,P -age RT Air~5e gY5CS7 -:f _( rL- Wooden buildings in an ar g tendin two kilometers from east to west and three kilometers from..1 -north to south;'were4mpletely destroyed by blast aQnd fire. 1Al oden buildin's in an area squarJ e k ilometersj 42 kilometers from east to west andL3 L kilometers from north to south, were ls completely * I e rLoeAL destroyed by as a fireA 1 wooden buildings in an area 20 square kiloraeters, 4 kilometers from east to west and 7 kilometers from north to sough, were completely destroyed by fire alon In short, /V pproximately 11,500 houses were lost.. ( - 1PP/e~a, (sPcln -t+Tc)(~c_ The broadcasting station, 2,400 meters from te epicenter,.Se burned, but there was no damage to the antennae'. IPZc. Most. of the wooden buildings of the Nagasaki railway station were burned. yAWh The Nakamac.i Church, built of brick, was burned by fire. ('c) The Prefectural Government Office. Parts nearer the epicenter caught. fire instantly, but parts further away caught fire from 10 to 20 minutes ( later. The brick building of the prefectural office 4) -11 -- 437!-VW MA!11M Pr,.R"067 - - WAIW-. -'?'

Page  [unnumbered] r-'.....-:.n -. --- -.. o. ( burned down about an hour and a half later, after" i L / the flames had spread all over it. This fire then spread to other'wooden buildings nearby and started a general conflagration in the entire neighborhood. AVsP1Y Cag e j- 5r#.. IT Some of the buildings in areas which escaped complete destruction by blast and fire. were damaged. Areas which suffered partial destruction extended t LI- | as far as 15 kilometers from the epicenter..::',..A TPic) A casual glance at these houses makes it seem R as if they escaped damage...r ~ t most of their roof-tiles were destroyed. dt<jiz, | Ev ent r istancee considerably emoved from the L)jepicenter, the extent of the damage varied according to the position of the building and the topography * Houses standing on the project'aart of this hill. suffered more,=er_- s than others in the ighborhood. < L\ F.c Wooden fences with little resistance were also smashed,.... Cc Let us examine a typical wooden house. The window frame has been blown off. The roof tiles are also partly blown off. The ceiling has been wrecked. ( Sliding windows have been shattered. -12 - *W.w-J -;l 'w fa vS-W I I I * I i

Page  [unnumbered] j -,L,,;A I *&.1 — -I -' * I,^,. j- i,* -,. - -W`-. --- I o l: ' IT ---, r. _AW " -. 4,x, -. - - iR *t1+ -i —S y / I / '6.... I I *,, SHAA D0 'W S GASA - 77-cr: ---- - --- - 5-:- 5CliPJ)I 5> Sfi&^| Ce k. -sVOr aDry- yos^iio rlA /5^ m# IJ - I EI-OI rMii 7 tc YWhere was the epicenter? Before we began eur L studies, the newspapers reported that the bomb drop- 3 ped on.Nagasaki was much more powerful than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Now what were the phenomena caused by radiation originating from such a powerful bomb? What kind of shadows were produced? Ore of the replies was the discoloration of concrete. The dical College Hospital. From the windows facing the north-west the direction of the epicenter was measured. The angle was measured from the pent-roof. Shadows such as this were not found in Hiroshima. \ The Sh'royaa. Primary School. O/L X No matter what building we went to, shadows fnr pprposes Cf -sa8suento, were ouiu in abundance. Ir-^^' *?^ r 'ne Yxaasato Primary School. The epicenter was 700 meters from here. The epitaph at the Urakami Cathedral. This shadbw on the base stone was of great value in measurina the epicenter from the noth-east. ffl14t chlAkr I/b %.-.,9 r1 c ',4r By duawing elongated lines 'rom these various - 1 -., *r; w~

Page  [unnumbered] .uajt -. __________ b -au.,W - I:.v ( points, it was determined' that -the epicenter was south of the penitentiary at a point slightly east of thte - cross-road at Matsuyarna-.cho. The' observational error in this case was,, about 20 metars in radius. _____ a o t of detonation. Mesurements were made fr cm f 1oints.' KLl3 1. One point was the Shiroyarna Primary School.e 2. An16otJ-h erwas tbe VAedicailC clle~-e Sap i al8. 1LI 3. Still another was the!Aitsubishi ordnance plant. 4., And t1UIne f ojrth point was the "Fit subtshi. 4 LI3 Steel and Arms "Torks. The alt itude of the point of detonation averaged,rneters, pius-minus meters. In other words, it was lower by meters than the point of L3 detonation at Hiroshima. I I I II I I I.I I 5 OM&c a.ift7 4.4 A140 rPArv 4 Sm 2 4e r - M. - lw4wwwr -

Page  [unnumbered] ~'t~' ~\I;-r p 1~I-. I i ~i 'Y F -Itl:~. u, I i~re i.i ~I*-,Fus:AF '-e it2) is ':~ C;'JI r~ U' -c,. L = ( S^ rlgriJc S fi6AJ(So/v EDA T7K^^T14JE A T - NAGASAKI IO F-S s5- K-Yo Roof-tilles found ih the zone of the epicenter indicated that radiation heat was received directly from above. 9 The fused surface of the roof-tiles showj several characteristics which could not be found in Hiroshima. > For instance as shown here the glassy matter on the fused surface flowed downward. d o The scratch on this tile must have been caused when scme object was blown a-sinst itby the blast. Countless pieces of stone fragments are seen tuck on the s rface. -~ — - A comp rison of the tiles folnd at N2aasaki k an, ircshima sh-ws that those in Na-;asaki were fused to a far eater etent. This ile is from Hiroshima As the di.sance between''the detonation point and the epicenter:s.-nmuch closer at Nagasaki than at Hiroshima, it ouldxbe lmore proper, in comparing the hea, to select ojects in both cities which were ound at the same distane from the point of de^nation. Tiles picked up at the epicenter in Hiroshima 1I 14,w 1 - 5/ -t — %op-x" W- 40 4 — _ w ~ 4 I r t,,.. -. I 1:

Page  [unnumbered] 4.' () f~~~ h*r r I. 3 L.. I -... ~r 4, 1,. - - 1 i I. I, 4, I " -,~ -. ' ^ y, - I i.'.* *,.,. -. - *. - -.*-, -; f A - -.Af - - - - - Y i rr -- _-n ICIIIII and 300 meters from the upicnte't Nagasaki were found, upon comparison, how similar characteristics. It is obvious fro his comparison that the effects / of heat we reater in Na-asaki.., — - ExLamination of tiles made of concrete showed that whereas lead paint remained on the surface which RL was not exposed to the heat there was no trace of it on the surface which faced the heat. The fused surface when maified. when magnified. f Asbestic slates have been. scaled off. Let us magnify the edges of the scaled and unscaled portions. The scalinz- was not caused by- blast, but by the effects of heat. o This concrete road leading to the penitentiary is about 200 meters from the epicenter. The entire surface of the road has been beautifully fused- a phenomenon which could not be seen in Hiroshima. The same was the case with these concrete blocks. The surface of the aside stones were also Rc' I (L Af fused. This is the fused portion of the andesite magnified. This is a sandstone, its fused portion /Li magnified. - 2 - " *- *W W W"V I 'IrAsr. -' "- " 11 "'Ir m T- ny - i

Page  [unnumbered] - I I l.... FIW. *"..- -: or- IL 11 I - j-. 4;; li - -1 I -d -.. i -.'IF - -1 - __ _ 11) I., 1-. "- -. " - - -. - - 1!1': I -'... y - I. - - 1 AdLmLm f Another example of a fused andesite. Scalin7 ofO this kind was found in some of the stones in the. embankment of the Shimonokawa river lov which flow-s south of the epicenter. The streax being near the epicenter, stones on both sides show the )meat I-Liles fpi-in6. abcut 10 eterc dcwtra an.,d 3200,meters from the epi"cen-,tc_-r we're sccrled in thp. manner shcwn here. Th~is tile waLrvOd 0 me te rs zor On j-the epicentet' ti one wac — 500.meters from th^- epicente'r. - w -ns ni cked,O p 6OO n metCersa frocm th e -e Pi c t er at the tirak-am-i Cat-hedral. Let ~is nnaznif y i t an d s ee b ow i t it ~'used. It- v-ery closely resemnbles thme. tiles f ou-n d at th.,e. elpicentc-ar -4n Hirosh 4ma. This is a tile:,Ercin Hiroshima T h is i mna~eo %mae Cf ea n~~ de-ite~ is s-cal1e din one part by heat an4 fPused in anoth-e,. The pillars at the frcntu entrance to the cath~edral are made of r —n it e Th-e mica in the,granite melted in the maniner shown here. -We found evidences of scaling and melting,of mica on the granite tonii gateway tof them- Sa=4o Shrine, as far as 850 meters f1r"oze the epicoenter., RLIj )LI (p polo* 3 - i i I I I I ammw v swoltow - " -W -t -1 a- - JFEW.,%W- WM' -- -.1 -. 0 = I - m '-wrimpow -.9 V- - ". "I " w9m W..

Page  [unnumbered] (only aslight effects of he atwr observed on tiles in this 950 meter area. This tire was picked up near the tirakanistation. ab ouit'I,loo meters frocm the epicenter. Thi s was about the it.-nit of the ef.fect of heat-on tiles. We beprceded -Fu1rthIer away~ from the epicenter in search of 7ranite and other roc&.hs. 3,csling on ad ee ite s uch as this was ondat t-he -ce,^metery be~ 4ndthe Cat1hedral 1,2;00 mnetezrs 'Orc' the epicent-er. Th lcihspots on t-he peridot-it-e shown here ar.e orTdin Ar bC.T1IlY li r.ht' yellowish bC ILirow, nb ut + the heat cbnan-ea t-he: to a 6rk -reddish'color. They ranit-e-t ~twyt h vh Shrne,1,7~-0metrsfrora the epicenter shows only s1i2'ht traces of scalinv. This was about the furt-hest li-mit of scalinv. 570 F t vIt~yAdI' 6~ACe~L or& d hV7/ cAIzA.>7~217~A vrfttAo -pv*4- wwwo" I.IWAGW - I q I -VW -ROM —.AIR^ -&W- -. qb-"w I T-"; Arab!,-" lrpft - - i. m 47 z F -'-7..r''p wrap R"Ww W

Page  [unnumbered] T ~~~B L A -S T NjA "ASAK3 "It i s impossible to know what kind of pcwer was brougnht 'Into play at t-he Epicenter,. Tress st1-arndin, — here. were split in two, s'2sizthat~ thte P r e ssuar e camne frcn above, B ut tIdh is does not inldicatCe the power of the rsue:This is a w,-all of"I t -be Beit COnt4-6a r. -,3 `C:P-eters from h En-Aic.en ter.3 The-f t in-ch bcars i side the Con.cr30et e 'irca tc.rn b y t he t en;Lsio cn. The S powucr which toreZ these baAre, is only a estall.A excression 'Jof the enormous -,-o;er- of- th —e blast. "Tebrick struCture of th'-,e U~akxa-.i Cathned-ral, 6'oo ~neteWrs from the Epicenter,1 f.-id not sizply collapse ~(itse2lf. B ef re it ~1c llapa s CJ e, thenire c re"AtthMiebsi St~eel anc A.:-Woks 300 to 1,5'00 meters efrom the Ep icentr, all structures w-hich tocok the blast on, their side co:,zplet-ely fell over. ( -wise to the blast Still stfft'ds on the zround, Only(; IM j a. t: ao-o - VP" W-1111 ? -9urw Vr

Page  [unnumbered] the iron-sheete whichIN w-e're,; up around the buildingaez we're blowin oan d the f:-anes were Unffected The difference betnt, wobildin-..r is -rcu~rhly the l extent I) to whch t1he s tZrIuctu ar Cs cocul1d wi7t~h ta-nc the kat ac ontluil te i-ro-n rz,.eets `-a6 een t crn off. IfA si~.ple example. in-aicatiaz tI.he power o7tn a.t we ~OU a in thi wall at theYaaeato Fro.:- C)Sohool700 *eer 'ro-A thei Epioenter. 152 cc: iters in 'ih t, 62 c ni. tJL-etier s in1- "11:iG, a eu~~,vrto;esa ~ otc~ c2ae as A hw ee t ~s-e-mtly inoved 5 rneters to, the. rea W I-,. a-,-id. 610 oeni~tv t "In the cemzetery in the hills to the rear of the TUrakami Cathedral, severail.A tombstones were knocked down. A-,nonR them there was just- one left stanidina on its foundation. ThiB; indioate's that the -3Aa + had ap roached its Maximum limit of -effectiveness, ~This araph shows the measurements of the size of -the tombstones and the extent to whicoh tlhey move.d cuto of positionJ (Tc "This water-tank on the r oof of the Mitsu-2I "5VW

Page  [unnumbered] rp -. - — I i;,... I-..!- I.' -, ";';x fo.. "- - x % W. 4 " - -. -,I,.I-.. 1. " I -- 6 % " - - IV -. -;.& -.;, %Ptg-, -.. - - - ---- - - -1- L-n- A, kV-st"- - it Fail _:Ll- A"It bishi Ordaanoe Plant, 1,300 meters from the epicenter, iB si~tuated S m N30 te t er abov thed~zo'id "it was kjr4' by t,'he Blast, sand the wuelded portions were cracked as seen here. efr "A&, t-he EDice:nt-er" at i1~~ ~ is R It I by hills, and exaiuinration oT t11Pr1 ho-ultd. p rorv idte - an answer.3ras to the.. ef,:fect1Vs of-" bClast cat hi-aDher.altit-udes. "The-L- i t o-f" this mountain, Inasa is 280 m et"- e r hihah itnef h pcne,5 Shacks on the summit collapsed in the manner shown here. Exec ils",-Lakbuilt after the. b If-Obt- ng5 all.! 6A. A LI- buid"ns o the is," mBI tj 'were blown down. In other words, the blast was no less at this altitude on the level below; Ap. il pp 460. w 1 d - -. -..~ - - P R

Page  [unnumbered] lit onk In this vioinity, the only objects spared from the effects of the blast wee limit ed,,to houses which were protected by hills9 I I 4'Ac.,P The. q:estGion now ariseso. To what s iaa:c e did t' e efc t s ofI t h.e J ls~jextenld? Ie, ccn,-,Lducted ou'r survey in three direct iond.. I Va4 A t Ta a.i, 6kilo trssutestAh el-1 inR~s were blown up ahid walls Were cracked. Ifl)A.Q hfT+ThAt Futarmii 9.5 kilo-meters,, ceilinegs also were blown up an-d paper slidin- doors broken., Al Tone, 15= kiloiL ters paper arnd;.la zs slidingR doors wzeblown off and broken. * ~At Iso jc~hdi-machi, a/ few window panes were broken ikt each houee,. However, evidences showed that the blaszt was diverted by t-L-he mountains to a greater eA t C ent in thi.-s area thn ain others. 4,It could be een froiii the air t-hat i miediately aft er the earth was hit by sudden heat- of t'rerwendouls.intenkity, it wasSB4 *t~~b nalpwrul blast whihbew pastU threse 8~ia~gyunafCfected houses 'and,9 I I pI I I I I I I ( -14... 6., "I!r, i I- VA k-,, %Ww-. VW- -- - -— wonawlaimppma

Page  [unnumbered] 1.-: r.~ I~~ -;r~; ~ " -~tr~L-4.. ~ H1_: I.L? * i. ~ t after affecting everything it touched on its way, finally wound up in the sea. '.5,; C Wz'r RL i I I (g ~~~~_prq~~C f,~~5~CiTI~~~~CC~~C ~~l.':~ ~JIIFI I

Page  [unnumbered] -Ink~~y D' 0 VITY NGA1"A * Lii) 5CP *5si Ns40 -/VS-#rI ro!- K4 -YK_4C RA.IOA0IVTYA),A3A-wl r* l aI.- ) - A= 14-h.m Ik4' 0 (FIG~ This curve repreeents the re3sults of measure*A ments aMade on Sept. 10tUh., Radioactivity of bones col2et ed. at cert4ain distances were exa~uined withthe Lauritsen Electr'oscope on a sa,,iple Of 10:fral's each. (%CTJORVE) Acti vit y f ound in the. bone-s obtLained at. the 0W epicl^enter was 4.2 til(.es the natural leak and. was tiiaes weaker" than th —at found in Hivoshim-a. 9% (CURIE) Intc:.-sity of radiaitiona cc-iing frcm the Pzroufn Ic was appro"xiimately the sa.ne as at- Hiroshi,,'ia-, bult th1,at at.riiroshima wl.as s1i~htl1Y w eakr The value atth epiceanter was 4. ti.nes the natural-lea'k while the liaiit cif radis:-51ctivity was f~ou-nd to beat abou-1t. 800 C) aeters froma the center. measure~i-ents ofl~ radiations frmthe g-rround - were also Made with the Neher Electrom~eter in Dece-,nter 1945 And January 1946. From the resiDul.1ts we were able to see the gaeneral trend' of dist ri"ti1'on. (Pic*) *Calculations were made in th&4 manner;1'5 determine the' epicenter., The drete-rmination was made aloWt h ~h:Elecrmtr, fe rough t a -

Page  [unnumbered] I.r

Page  [unnumbered] had already been made by Dr. Shinihara, and his party. Dr. S4inmhara located the epicenter at "A" which was t taken at the starting point of the i4eher Electrometer measurements. The intensity at this point was 39.6 J and naesurements was successfully made at point Alphabetically indicated. By these measurements the epicenter was fixed at point "1I", the intensity being 44.8 J. The center was determined fromq the shadow on scorched surfaces lies at point "K". How then was the effect of neutrons extended into the ground — to answer this question, a square hole 2 X Z meters was dug at the epicenter. Mleasurements of radioactivity intensity was made at various depths, up to one meter, but no more, as subterranean water prevented measurements beyond that depth Results show that intensity drops severly to a depth of 30 centimeters and then eased off. in the viishiyama district, about 3 kilometers from the epicenter, rain and ashes fell at the time of the detonation. -2- Retyped by DAMIcG to replace lost page 2 Page 61 6/

Page  [unnumbered] ii-L L 7aaak reIfectural Goverznme"..t a t the t iae lot h is trfe CI~ia d au-h t er. Ia-A s h'.wuse, located 300 meters froma tIhe e-' te ' wied out b-r th cexposon "'termniLaed to S ta y wo r e h i ho- se '-ad stood,- he -lanted buokm.heal in his:Tard on- Au-ust 3. ony 4 davrs f t er th4&e daisas e '!he b'cz-heat is '-;~rcwi i vto~tson, h ~as ii of abnor"mality. S il.C e toFILraino has pla~tc~d ~eia;ind o, on i o, d t>S too is; Owinx ror-..,. ~ermetalgaden,ercstrtd in va~rious places in. 1'F&ib:t aEcul + - kiU ~r 77h., - A. OI A,0v 7 T" 'V.-'%s SU -IT:11 effect of rLA-io-aot C i, r&+~ ofte ~o~n~;eo~a f no& dri bomb-ad eo J-en intl'e vcinity t -JJ 01s noI+o4cb.ba.A. e -IL e v i e12:)i".1"-0 E0

Page  [unnumbered] is:r t It' n'l Ac ~2i: shed ~ -1 - I I- - *:" -'*:U^ Pz^ ^^7 - r ftewh f ^7 ( the detonation. Measurements were made in the same manner I here as in the corresponding district of Takasu in Hiroshima. (MAP) This is the result of measurerments made with a Lauritsen Electroscope. Radiation.as strong as 260 times the natural leak was found here cating that ashes with far stronger radiation fell here O dv A7 Z QpBata w.- Takasu in Hiroshima where the radiation Rll/ was only 5 tiqes the natural leak.Radioactivity at Nishiyama aecayed with time,. Curve A was obtained by successive measuremete at diffe=ent tises. Tle half-valVe period was 44 days. ^I Curve B indicate5 radioactivitv in +'hnc, ar Rt'L n A - - -- - -" W 64 1 VAc..LA at the epicenter. Radiation at the epicenter was caused by direct tombard!aent by neutrons; at Nishiyamaa by fission products. This may explain the differenne,question is yet to be clarified. Radioactivity of the earth was measured with samples taken from arroof, shown by Curve C, and from ~r ' sheet iron, shown by Curve D. Although a definite explanation of the dif 5~~~ flL.rb -3 - v. S,. ~1. Pr~l C~~r'~P" ICc P- C. 'iIr- = -~~i -- ~ C- h~l

Page  [unnumbered] .. 1;;: I. 4,-,4vr.,";,.., 'II....-, l-, I,, i ~, I t — -, - "', I -,.- - -. - 1 I - - -.",.. -*Co, -, 4, ' ' I, -.. I:c - I ' '-,., -L A m 1-\ ference is difftouult, a probab Q is th~t the earth taken from the roof Was washed by rain and lost its original composition. (MAP) We know that the radioactivity at Nishiyama was duie to the fission products of the atomic bomb which were brouzht down to the ground by rain. it is an interestin- question how far such radioactive dust exten fover the Shiwabara Peninsula. To answer this question the intensities of radiation einitted by the zround were measured a11 over ~ he peninsula with tbe Neher Electro:neter - i )2?4() To t-he northwest, at Tokit-su the value was 1.I.~eJ. IC, ~va-9 To the south, at Mo0iaohi, the value was 4,.9 J. pi -ftp CA b'Mmt~ Since all these values were about the same as the natoura-l le akrv. ol our Neher Electroneter,. we concluded t1hat radioactive dust did not fall either /17 to the north or to the south of the ppicenter. ~344~5~t~ r) ~oC~ T, Because the westwizA prevailed in this district at the time of the detonation, we extended ou&r obaervatonsn towGd the et and ourud thnat radio&otivity extended all over the Shimabara Peninsula. i 630 I 0,,7 -.q 7 — - - -. 3~~llC~~I r, I.II - l e~l~e~ _ r - IPc-c. - 'I-,ollJ-mC, lf I- - -*IIJ-( I~ I

Page  [unnumbered] -11-W ll- wt-IIII V~Ls-1 jYe JJ (Vi&)Starting fro m Nishiyama, we proceeded toward the east to Unfen, &4as far as ShimDabara and then A4 *encircled the enti're penins~ila. {~~Q Ftrdm7the results we saw tat the strcn.et radioactive point was at Nishiyavna; that on procee'ding eastwuard the intensity gradually decreased at f'irst and then. increased avain, showing a second maximum of '55.4.4 at Yagaini, 9 kilometers fromt the epicenter. The intensity then decrleased e9.ain as we wenI-t eastward until we came t~o Shirnabara, 47 kil.Io- et"ers fnroyn the epicenter, where weC found the t16hird maxirnum of 16.4.4.e RIPG~ From these'result'Ls, wve conclhded that the radioactive dust of the ato~aic bomb was blown high up in the'A air, and the:n cdIPfted with the then prizevaili n w e st wi nadt w a rc!t he e aast. Soime of. t he duet, f ell o n the izro,-na ~w-he way. From our measureme~nts, we surmise that the dust cvossed th-e Ariake Sea a~nd that r a dioact-ivity c —'' probably be found even in the - Kumamoto area. /4 @1k D 16 4M 5m I

Page  [unnumbered] :9 1_:.^ A A;:S -a; //^.Q ^..47 1;- -;f r 4 \^^ t - ' -!:;..t -.- ~ -.. EC ffFC S ow THE HUMAN BDDY iN NAtrAStI 7~T_'. (LEDICAL PHASE -- INAASAKIE ) pr. SE4 fE- L 2I/-$ 'Pc Effects on the human body observed here in Nagasaki were similar to those observed in Hiroshima. TIC~ First aid work was carried on in the large buildings,i which escaped destruction and at hospitals in neighboring 17 towns and villages. This is the condition we found at the SHINKOZEN public School where treatments were continued over the longest period. More than 3,000 patients were treated here. Later, patients were asked where they were at the time of the atomic explosion and whatever else they remembered. Blood corpuscle tests were also madet and me- /7 dical observations and studies were carried on simultaneously with the treatments. Many patients were brought for treatment, from MJ i. f ', '. '~ - -' Cj ~ -tueiCe, efrom houses which escaped destruction. This is a caas —e.4.f.x. This is a-oase of burns on the hands and face. And here is a case of laceration caused by flying glass fragments. I- 1 -. hI ' /7 4/'.7 ( - -..- --- -sW PM lwm W " ir a-a- t g-.... -- aow motuw- -.0

Page  [unnumbered] ~; ~r ~ 21.. u~, I ~j;T i ~ 'r ~~., -rl~ r'~ r --.. )r. c: " ne UI;,'.e -r c~ i~ i 'I L I-i rfJllb?hrif,;reL.~_~ — rtu- tr~cr,yo~rr.r --- ---- ---------- I - -- -- --— T --- —- --- r, 4' The serious cases and homeless patients were accom-- ' 17 mcdated in m schoolrooms which were used as wards. Burns cn the right thigh. Burns on the feet. A girl 10 years old who was 400 meters from the epicenter. She shows symptoms of anaemia. Leucocyte2~A 1,600. Four finaers of her left hand are about to fall ft off on account of severe burns. Like her sister, she is losing her hair as a result of radiation. This woman s80o shows anaemia, and depilation caused by radiation. 'I r f I T is 15 year old girl has lost practically all her hair. This little girl of 4 was 500 meters from the epicenter. For about 14 days she was as lively as she could be, but gradually she lost vitality and r0t ppm n / /7 Rg/ /7 ( A case ofl Thor-d, caused by fracture of the / bone, and anaemia. /7 This boy of 11 wa 2,000 meters from te epicenter. Leucocyte 5,900. Depilation, extreme anaemia and asthenia. /7 -2-, ~? m-~~~rla Il~~l~$ra.~ ~ _^ w*^w,*.-^Y^- nw**r -'-^^ -. ^^*

Page  [unnumbered] ( ~This young man of 19 suffers from burns and anaemia ( and shows serious symptoms. This boy of 6 lost his resistance power and 4 developed noaia. He die vthree days after this photo-an( graph was taken. -3m. - 0 47 -aw — f r% 4 I mpqpp — -- I'm "P es.10 -spaww"Prim - - lopopowl"w APINNOW ft MW, I 'W-wr. -.-. -W. I -.., -- 1 a W.- -- r... ft-. - - 7 ' - - -,% -. - Jr,,..,

Page  [unnumbered] l6i"l.-l-.r"l -1. 'l-l upy.- - V7 '-e- I -, -- I..- I,., "-. 1.4 IV.?, -- - -.- - - I I ". 11.11, I M. - ir -.0- -,.... -,, I I _Al, a I - -1 -..Li -1 -, - L, 1: -, - -:, ',. - -,, 'At I- I I L z L. I -. - I.. A"-A I IL; V - ',4' aided ' - —,&, - - A-, IV - Aillho I kt —. v __ __ ( Sci A.i Ti PI C.SOV5~4 774 —E I 3ICLOG'I".L' 6 LT'Di3 AT i ~tL2 7 The city of lia-UsaA- is narr orw- ad exteads from rnort'.a tosiih i il lni~ bg-th sides of tecity, are, for the mot partJ,~ fri~a a~ 3cause th epic-nter was not in the cenater of th-e cityr b'xl~ in the outskirts to the nor&th twhere b1,Ji~ldin~;s;;Iere, C-I-aTaratjVcly few, tihe- effects of fire VI'C Irle i as i~ni ~fic &,:t, a.ri2 cieiont opjort-Uitty to stu&-? th - ffe-cts of penetrati-2 rays AoCOrdin t~ Un ~aeric-ii a, o —vnccmrczit thie 'bo:b use d i a I47a -a s &Ii va-s- amc overful t>"-..n th! —e oaie ~'1.s~e;d ~Tron p h irtLression r~e ec uive dL at T1a~as aki i S tha 'a the epiccz.ter almost'I ever"y vuariJety ofvctzio &.cvd abnorm.alities. TU ILjzoShi>j-.a, a b n o r:a -1:t s ~e r e f oun d i n an ar ea: wth'11in 3. kilomceter or zcfrom the cjcete. i 17acasaki, liovTever, th'-e r a S ri exteadiin&. to olle an-d a h11.alf kiloraeters.We!~ cwsee, a Jfew v ale of ab."ormal jplants* At "the foot of the hills ~tSairwyriaumachi, abo)ut%# I kil.6ometer from the e-riceinter, we f ouiid a Lield cf taref. ( Wen thit- atomic bor-b '-,it.6~sI. teetie ufaeo the tare field vwaon burnt- cut, I lal tOL ie Io.. nwi a 0 i.0 I i i I i I j i I i f I I I. I I w

Page  [unnumbered] into v-K Po spror-Ateal since then. *reenish yellow7 patterns appeared. ' The, zirp~ jr~.Tesae o.f" the leaves La h:ed j.sa dimi-isiedi ahOrjj, Th.-e su~n f lo;.,er. I ii. thi).s cr oup. o f su.,n f o; er t he leae*.ec z liveld an d sho~ w ~.~;;hio cau s zd b-r -enetratinj- rayrs. I Trhe castor C-eVn m.i Ant. Like tL ---se seen in.!Tiroshiia, t~ ae >as C; ~d &adtr eae r shrxiveic~d, J -)u- sa ur lo- sen:, As in 7th leaves show v;hic UePatch4-es. T~razhi aataa1-j or vile.Ku 3rrl. ijto dots an2 shrIA.i voleC le 1 ~s k i a pat ou the stuff J tr e0c f a~il:J 1 Th-,ese patches ar e o ft'en fu uconralcon(iton LJutU th'e seaeb-I lieved to have, bI-,,een caused by7 ~e.e t r at in.... s Tt e the thite patches between t-he stern and. the leaf. ral~idoshi, of. th-,.e Mnit fu=nily. A ao th 11. exaiple of ~ I W7hite patches. They are often foun"d under natural conditions too. S:twee 320tao lea-ves with patchies. ~ ~ Th-e sedg,,e, There ar& leaves with vhi'Ate lines an white.,r4,101,91,r jwq APW

Page  [unnumbered] q. -. I4I —,", I. - J~iz; - l 0-1/. those is.i" have e utire ly turre d whte. Parts v~here active cell division is tai~ lace are this illustration -6ecn see theI Posi&'tion'0 of thre tpof the subterranean- sten- which1A zAz O cO X d to;;ntta~ radiation.*,a First with' regard to trees. lnte e iC enter ar eoA t-rees -,-;ere ccm.-letc 1l - i, by perxlhe- t Asth blast c'-.-e dirnctly fro-i4 overhead, te t reesC S::i1O't fal L11 r~eiiained' t,~ ere ct In te hills Theh-ind thc*!ed-'cal, Coilek., Sc~ SC C Lietea".s ~fr oa the icenter, rz which lobt their 1eaves w~ere b-e-inn~in to sprodut" -Le t o;;ez, bDut onl1y on thie side no t fci~.tecieer Sh'i r oyma-iaciab out 1,1 00 metersfonte pcetr Tere new 1%-Z~vk-s.ere sproutirl even on thie sid acz thle epicenter. it,, A L"t I I II II v I Ina t his vi-Lc in:it i we d i s o v erie ( ~Viitr,sult*an'IS parasol, whose side facin& tepicenter was cc alete ly burnt4k The epicenter is around there. (On t he ba n ks o~ th."1e streem b-elow- the r%'fo-A t -t1 $00 meters east of the epi ce-nteru fud h '70,

Page  [unnumbered] -Z 4k -44 -e edinly shrt vearn onl'y B ez-.-t ir e t e r s. s proceeded upstream s:.. farthcr av;y ron the epicenter, we f o uud the steusiceail lo~rjer. At Point B. 2. kilo-:aetcr 1- ~r % A ejcrtr'hcu stem —s averar-ed 22. cc-tireters., 0' t0 500 ztr 'thr bey,,ond, '%.~e Ifou0c1 th4t7s n.I havin1z thelnorrial len-thn of 46 cei-1tin-.eters on thle avcrac~c. iCc fild losest:G to tha e-iceziter cb l"z~a~. bj 3iA.c'IO Abnout 2.00 meters further, rice plats re;; o —nly sj:Z.rsely., /bIiXLt sonh araedt r;'o~bear Kr- J: An~hr 8 00 met r S e v en f''.ur thebey~?ond, cr 2.ilo::'eter from thle e-ice-Ater, ~h 'o.h~ eaI'c ti&quit W r; but evea thsara1 oojetol v v.n whe7n thI-c jtcrc b omb fell If you comb thre ~tal'cs, burnt leaves c~ e founamone-1em N..~r t "ae p r is on -w 4ich.&. was close to the oyi.c - uC-',,t e" r. Th is svieet. potato foield is- coL-,plo —tely burnLf; b i if you ig ntothearond vo~can fid sweet potatoes still aliLve, but"u -their siz~e remains the same as-at thie tA.Im —e of theu atomic.bombingo '74 2/ A* '-S.aw- - r, -mp '.PA ',* Nw '-wv "w.

Page  [unnumbered] I - -it- ic The bntire hill behind the- cathledral, 700 nacters froma thlie e-T iae~at er, is covcred with sweet potato tields., -Feeblyo-loolzi~n~, stems were bezianirlti: to Shoot out' in this Vijlt. If' you dic vo -old-:Atat steric k;hch existed at tho tic- or th ato cc:~cs'on vwerebr o"ltl thLat r-ew ste-Eas ~re,,-ro o-uir.-c L.t o f'the j~otatoes theriiscives Mhere were al14so marny def'orne leaescidstI ~i d- -2 ae r e To add a r ev; rears In- iVe 31'eet — otaitc f icla's in th,-e re-ar of' teC.atl..edraJ., various St-udi. Es;e re -osoiblec as to thIe e f''Ccts oS O enctratin- radiation, on. sweet, pot -toe s.:~ITiet hlfi tthtt re Slojsf'v;im ers 'Duev~t Ariedreitly ' fon,3cd:I-,vr4~' id Thth all bc' Qo - 3 kilo *4 dl I vs vaCol2e L~ mete tron tA.~etr icset;tt seswr r u.L b hetUu hoehdo I:jth e ndwer aiv Crd e eihae jre cte f r Om tien, TheerI a Co:arai&y od!tx. ruru~ao c-ief' of t'ic -ri.cul-t-iJsoiao'te ', y *;j %.AO. aI J -

Page  [unnumbered] I..-,,.,,, - - - -W, "., J;,.4 - I.. - J- I,.,- 1, -:1, L '-.. IL ---=-,:=-;WOLI, V:, I - I -- - 'A' Al" V9P 9 PO' ',r^ 17. IV ZW, in;L i it mlJ r — dr — jo r4VA ( aPa: refecturai1Goverz-=met a t the t 111a los hi:v %.A da1t0 l0i sh~ue oated 300 meters from tl-he,centor~ ""as wip~ed out by, the1 6eXplosion* -Determiuied to stuY W!","re hizs house %had sto.c-, h )a u tc Cbuokv.-heat in his:'r~ard on Au -st 13, oi~.y 4 da-;.s este t e-e C ia at er. ~h ~h.ctis Nrvi. ot Sho ~rte le Si 3i2 of abnorriality. Siance tlFriOhspato~ ~eia 2i n d o~ oi:,&itstoo,is go~snri1y ~peim':t~lg~de:swere started irL vc-rims places irn r~s~ci b:~ the Eculy o0k~utr: u ~ ~ ~ L( 4( bY h z:,o. th r;t z; ed,~ais;.itc r LS., at:~ s~o;~x;;l a Ci iS,no tlc horb '1 e,o ~&llen L the vicinit-y. MO.--, 0.-. lw, j I -:, 04IN" -w- f- - ".,, " it, - opopollhoXv -.,

Page  [unnumbered] L'..~.r r;~wr ru ~ ~' r 1ic j,, r. - " ft.-. Abi6r.,.V - SI P EPILOGUE T. DESTRUCTION IS N0 MOR.,^ ^ ^ RoL-~ 14 The cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki for a moment tragic scenes of devastation have begun to recover with the passage of time. Slowly but surely} efforts toward construction are being made. Insufficient though the studies of the scientists may have been, they have given hope and light to these cities and their citizens. The day may come when atomic energy, used for the first time in the world for strategic military purposes, will te utilized toward the ends of peace and the happiness of all mankind. So is it desired. So is it hoped. And so it is believed. I \ W I - z 6 E A m " f — ( 7-7, 0 -.I4 I -..: (c-LLe5 S/ /-/ ' b ~. % % 'Y -li qp..O.. ** - v~ q