Athletic Department (University of Michigan) records  1860-2013
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President of the Senate [subseries]

The President of the Senate (1916-1935; Reels 7-18) subseries details the evolution of the Philippine government with the filling of positions by Philippine nationals and his increasingly difficult relationship with speaker of the Philippine Assembly Sergio Osmeña for control of the legislature and the Nacionalista party. There is continuing documentation of the relationship between the Philippines and the United States with the drafting of legislation in the United States leading to independence, first the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act (which was reject by the Philippine legislature), then the Tydings-McDuffie Act which passed.

Roll   7  
 October 16, 1916-February 15, 1918

Highlights of roll 7, October 16, 1916-February 15, 1918, with notes and comments prepared by Michael Cullinane:

  • Quezon to Osmeña. Cable (June 18, 1917) re. Worcester and Visayas Refining Co.
  • Osmeña to Quezon. Cable (August 7, 1917)--more of Worcester and Visayas Refining Co., plus he expresses dissatisfaction with Nieva' s review
  • Quezon to Osmeña. Cable (August 8, 1917) "...referring to Nieva, I think very important we have our own printing plant, that could publish newspaper and magazine. If you approve idea I shall buy press and linotypes. Yangco and Fernandez can fix it."

Roll   8  
 February 21, 1918-April 1, 1919

Highlights of roll 8, February 21, 1918-April 1, 1919, with notes and comments prepared by Michael Cullinane:

  • Communications with individuals in the United States:
    • Erwin Winslow--much less now with Quezon in Philippines
    • F. McIntyre
    • Charles M. Yeater
    • General Walcutt
    • Rafferty (San Francisco)
    • J. de Veyra and Yangco (Resident Commissioners.) - extensive correspondence, especially with de Veyra re: business (i.e. hemp prices, setting up business in Philippines, etc.), some also relate to integration of Philippine National Guard into U.S. Federal Service
  • Communications with individuals in Manila and the Philippines:
    • V. Madrigal (Madrigal and Co., Manila) mostly re: building up sugar industry, includes charts, etc. (late 1918)
    • C. A. Fernandez (Negros)--re: sugar centrals in Bais, Tanjay, LaCarlota--some details concerning town and their haciendas (esp. September 28, 1918)
    • "Confidential memorandum for Governor-General" by Osmeña and Quezon (November 19, 1918)--mostly re: business and agriculture in Philippines.
    • Sergo Osmeña (much correspondence):
      • Osmeña to Quezon. Letter (Feb. 21, 1918) re: a commemoration for deceased Antonio
      • Osmeña to Quezon. Cable (May 19, 1918) re: acquiring competing coconut industry in Cebu
      • Quezon to Osmeña. Cable (June 17, 1918) N.P.'s nominating procedure
      • Osmeña to Quezon. Cable (June 21, 1918)--gives his o.k.
      • Quezon to Osmeña. Cable [rush to Cebu] (Sept.9, 1918) re: sadness in Osmeña family
      • Osmeña to Quezon. Cable (Sept. 10, 1918) re: Osmeña reply to Quezon sympathy
      • Quezon to Osmeña. Cable (Sept. 19, 1918) re: Singson's "turncoating"
      • Osmeña to Quezon. Cable (Sept. 24, 1918) re: his reply to above Osmeña to Quezon.
      • Cable to Washington (Feb. 3, 1919) "Minority party is endeavoring to have legislation pass a repel asking the U.S. and allied powers to grant Philippines a seat at the peace conference. Please cable at once what we can say and what we cannot say on this matter."
      • Quezon to Osmeña. Cable (Feb. 4, 1919) re:"..Harrison is as strong as ever with U.S..."
      • Osmeña to Quezon. Cable (Feb. 5, 1919) re: his help of D. Jakosauen
      • Quezon to Osmeña. Cable (March 26, 1919) re: cutting size of independence mission and at same time trying to avoid the cropping up of "jealousies, envies and resentments of members..."

Roll   9  
 April 1, 1919-January 5, 1921

Highlights of roll 9, April 1, 1919-January 5, 1921, with comments and notes by Michael Cullinane:

  • Communications with individuals in the United States:
    • Erwin Winslow--greatly decreased
    • Camilo Osias--occasional, mostly re: Philippine independence activities
    • George Malcolm
    • J. de Veyra and Yangco (Resident Commissioner)--mostly re: business, "coastline laws", independence issue, continual advice being given by Quezon
    • I. Gabaldon (later joins de Veyra as Resident Commissioner)
  • Communications with individuals in Manila and the Philippines:
    • E. Aguinaldo (Oct. 27, 1919)
    • Manuel Quiogue (Officer of Census) esp. 5 page letter (July 10, 1920) re: a complaint filed with Quezon presumably involving Julio de la Rosa
    • Sergio Osmeña--somewhat reduced in number, include one instance of a near rift between them:
      • Quezon to Osmeña (from Washington). Cable (April 3, 1919) with Quezon complaining that his advice is no longer being heeded as before
      • Osmeña to Quezon. Cable (April 5, 1919) Osmeña denies it, suggests it must be Quezon's bad health that causes his unexplainable behavior, he expresses ignorance of Quezon's motives
      • Osmeña to Quezon. Cable (April 5, 1919) re: a confusion in their communication procedure, which explains Osmeña's confusion about Quezon's motives, etc.--recommends a more efficient system of citing cablegrams

Roll   10  
 January 6, 1921-May 24, 1922

Highlights of roll 10, January 6, 1921-May 24, 1922, with notes and comments by Michael Cullinane:

  • Communications with individuals in the United States:
    • James A. Frear (Pro-Filipino, U.S. Representative)
    • Judge Horace M. Towner ( U.S. Representative)
    • F. M. McIntyre
    • General J. Harbord--containing personal correspondence
    • James J. Rafferty (Philippine Commercial Agent, S.F.) --mostly re: the status of Filipinos in the U.S.
    • F.B.Harrison, esp. Harrison to Quezon letter (Nov. 7, 1921) re: (in part) D. Barrows
    • General H. H. Bandholtz, Quezon met with him in Washington
    • Charles E. Russell, author and publisher (journalist?)
    • J. de Veyra (Resid. Comm.) quite heavy, much re: selection of Governor-General and Wood
      • de Veyra to Quezon and Osmeña. 5 page letter (Jan. 15, 1921)
      • Osmeña and Quezon to de Veyra. Cable (Jan. 18, 1921) re: evaluation of Wood, generally opposed to his "military" character, contends "people" will react negatively to this aspect of Wood, as like in Spanish days
      • de Veyra to Osmeña. Cable (Jan. 20, 1921) re: Wood: "Believe, however, that the objective to his candidacy is more apparent than real..."; warns that the choice could be worse
      • de Veyra to Osmeña and Quezon. 4 page letter (Feb. 15, 1921) re: Wood plus four letters that de Veyra sent to Wood (February, early April, 1921)
      • de Veyra to Osmeña and Quezon. Cable (Feb. 25, 1921) Re: Wood "...knowing his simplicity, sincerety and uprightness I can draw nothing from his attitude but a spirit of good will towards us and our aspirations." (written after a meeting de Veyra had with Wood)
      • correspondence re: Wood continues, with also heavy correspondence re: Wood-Forbes Mission--through 1921-1922
      • de Veyra to Quezon. Letters (during June, 1921) re: various attacks against Quezon in U.S. due to his alleged contradictory public and private position re: Philippine independence and also the changing mood in U.S.
      • Osmeña to de Veyra. Cable (Aug. 3, 1921 ) Osmeña recommends N. Romualdez (Leyte) to be chief justice, Philippine Supreme Court (again on Aug.6, 1921) --gives praise
      • Osmeña to de Veyra. Cable (Aug. 11, 1921) "to avoid further complications" Osmeña received the immediate appointment of Arraullo to be chief justice-can't get Romualdez
    • Isauro Gabaldon (Resident Commissioner) esp:
      • Gabaldon to Quezon. Cable (Jan. 13, 1922) re: Quezon break with Osmeña
      • Quezon to Gabaldon. Cable (Jan. 23, 1922) Quezon's reply on above
  • Communications with individuals in Manila and the Philippines:
    • F. Buencamino, esp. 3 page letter to "My Dear Casey" re: his suggestions for new Philippines
    • R. Palma. Letter (Nov. 9, 1921) from Quezon--re: political situation
    • T. Sandiko (Letter to F. B. Harrison--Feb. 8, 1921) plus note written on it to Quezon, compelling Quezon to look with favor upon Sandiko's resolution re: electoral Law-- thus Sandiko's letter plus Harrison's comment forwarded to Quezon
    • Henry D. Woolfe. (Letter to Quezon, April 21, 1922--re: complaints)
    • Mariano R. Marcos (Ladag, Ilocos Sur) re: general conditions in his province in election (April 8, 1922)
    • R. Montinola--mostly re: getting him to defect to Coleonvistas, esp.
      • J. Ross to R. M. 4 page letter (Jan. 25, 1922) Ross praises Quezon, suggest R.M. get together with him
      • R. M. to J. Ross. Letter (Jan. 31, 1922) R. M.'s response, guarded compliance
      • R. M. to Quezon. Letter (Feb. 21, 1922) re: advice to Quezon on Negros politics
      • R. M. to Quezon. Letter (Feb. 21, 1922) re: Iloilo politics, esp. Yulo to Roxas to Osmeña
    • E. Finley Johnson (Associate Justice, Philippine Supreme Court). 2 page letter from Quezon (April 23, 1921) re: Harrison's favoring Nacionalistas, a reply to Johnson
    • E. Tirona (Pres. Gen, P. Democrata), esp:
      • E. T. to Osmeña. 2 page letter (April 30, 1921) re: Democrata real desire for independence
      • Osmeña to E. T. 3 page letter (May 3, 1921) re: Nacionalistas policy, suggests a joint petition to the Wood-Forbes mission
      • E. T. to Osmeña. Letter (May 4, 1921) re: their mutual desire to form a joint petition, suggests going ahead with it
    • Elpidio Quirino, esp.:
      • "Memorandum for the President of the Colect. Party" (March 22, 1922)--to Quezon re: his candidacy in Ilocos Sur and some Colectivista problems in that province
      • "Memorandum for Mr. E. Quirino"(March 22, 1922)--from Quezon in response to E. Quirino, also re: strategy in Ilocos Sur and Colectivista action there
    • [unsigned?) Letter to Quezon (in Tagalog, the first one in the General Correspondence) (March 9, 1921) re: the writers strong desire for Filipino freedom, the Wood-Forbes, a brief review of American period, and he concludes with: "Nais ko pong makita ans ating Kalayaan."

Roll   11  
 June 8, 1922-June 27, 1925

Highlights of roll 11, June 8, 1922-June 27, 1925, with notes and comments by Michael Cullinane:

  • Communications with individuals in the United States:
    • Moorfield Storey
    • Harold M. Pitt (Oakland, California) --business
    • General H. H. Bandholtz? --mostly all personal
    • F. B. Harrison
    • James Ross
    • Clyde H. Tavenner (editor and publisher of The Philippine Reporter in U.S.)
    • Jay Lovestone (Workers Party of America)
    • Maximo M. Kalaw--studying and writing in U.S., re: mostly Philippine Party system
  • Communications with individuals in Manila and the Philippines:
    • Camilo Osias, esp.
      • Four page letter to Quezon (June 15, 1922) re: political situation in Philippines
      • Osias to Enage. Memorandum (June 23, 1922) re: his opposition to government funding of Aguinaldo's trip to U.S. (Spanish-American War Veterans Convention)--also refers to a dinner at P. Ostavera's house
    • Enage--regular corespondence while Quezon in Washington,
      • Enage to Quezon. Cable (June 20, 1922) re: Manila politics, fusion with Democratas, notes: "...Gomez has already declared Colectivista in a banquet in Tacloban...", also expresses desire to get Isagelo de los Santes to affiliate with them
      • Enage to Quezon. Cable (Sept. 23, 1924) re: again activities in Manila, report
    • Isbelo de los Santos, esp: [from Ilocos Sur]
      • Quezon to Santos (2 page letter), June 21, 1922, in which he moves to get his support
      • Santos to Enage. Letter (June 24, 1922) re: favorable response to Quezon's letter
      • Quezon to Santos. Letter (June 26, 1922) thanking him for affiliating [other correspondence explaining the role played by Bishop Aglipay in getting Santos to come]
    • Manuel Quioque. 6 page memo to Quezon (June 24, 1922) re: election
    • T. H. Pardo de Tavera. Letter from Quezon (June 26, 1922) re: Philippine and Manila politics
    • Jaime C. de Veyra. 3 page letter to Quezon (July 23, 1922)--informing Quezon, who is returning to Manila, of political situation and also an article in La Vanguardia about Democrata victories (June 13) which Veyra believes was written by an important public figure, also briefly re: Wood's stand on the election
    • T. Earnshaw. 5 page letter to Quezon (as "Chico"), Aug. 2, 1922 re: fusion, his opinion
    • Fermin Torralba (Bohol). 2 page letter to Quezon (March 11, 1924) re: his loyalty to Quezon, but his opposition to Osmeña, thus again fusion
    • E. Aguinaldo, mostly re: his mission to U.S. (March-April, 1924)
    • Manuel Roxas, heavy correspondence with Quezon while Quezon and Osmeña were not yet in Washington--mostly re: Fairfield Bill--also heavy correspondence Washington to Manila from Quezon and Osmeña when they arrive in Washington
    • I. Gabaldon. Cable from Quezon to Washington, (Nov. 28, 1924) re: Quezon's advice to Gabaldon to either return and campaign for representative or drop out of campaign in Nueva Ecija in order not to "expose yourself to a defeat"
    • Vicente Bunuan, heavy correspondence with Quezon from Washington as head of Philippine Press. Letter, March 14, 1925, refers to reports in U.S. re: a class war going on in Nueva Ecija led by Colorums and Politices
    • M. J. Cuenco (Cebu), esp. Cuenco to Roxas. 11 page letter (Dec. 6, 1922) re: Osmeña
    • M. M. Kalaw, esp. Quezon to Kalaw. Letter (Nov. 19, 1923) re: Quezon negative reaction to Kalaw's attack on him for favoring Nacs. as appointees
    • Roberto Alcantara (Democrata), esp. letter to Quezon (Nov. 22, 1923) re: his praise of Quezon for including opposition party members in his appointments
    • S. Osmeña, esp. 2 page letter from Quezon (June 17, 1925) re: the arrangements of a mass triumphant rally and celebration in Manila including Osmeña, Quezon, Roxas, etc. Quezon laments that victorious Cebu legislators will not be coming for this, he advises that they change their plans and come earlier
    • Governor-General Leonard Wood, esp:
      • [unsigned] to Wood. 3 page letter (June 3, 1924) re: Quezon's work in Washington and progress of Fairfield Bill and setting a date for independence
      • Quezon to Wood. Letter (July 3, 1923) re: a warning to him concerning the Filipino attitude toward him
      • Quezon, Roxas, Laurel, et. al to Wood. Letters of resignation (July 17, 1923)
      • Quezon to Wood. Letter (July 19, 1923) stressing the peaceful nature of their move, no need to call army or be alarmed
    • Quezon to [Minamahal na Kababayan?]--brief letter in Tagalog by Quezon (Oct. 4, 1923) re: the running of Ramon Fernandez for Guevara's seat in Senate [1st letter in general correspondence written by Quezon in Tagalog]

Roll   12  
 July 3, 1925-February 11, 1928

Highlights of roll 12, July 3, 1925-February 11, 1928, with notes and comments by Michael Cullinane:

  • Communications with individuals in the United States:
    • F. McIntyre, Moorfield Storey, Frank Carpenter, Carmi A. Thompson
    • Secretary of War
    • Governor-General Henry L. Stimson--heavy in late 1927, early 1928, much re: getting him settled in
    • James Harbord and James Ross--continuing personal correspondence; Harbord to Secretary of War (Oct. 13, 1927) with lavish praise of Quezon
    • F. B. Harrison
    • W. H. Lawrence (Attorney, S.F. California)
    • Many U.S. Congressmen, esp. Sen. William King and Sen. Burton Wheeler
    • Jose Abad Santos (Philippine Press, Washington) "My Dear Joe"
    • V. Bunuan (Philippine Press) re: independence issue and activities in Washington
    • Pedro Guevara (Resid. Comm.) much re: reorganization of Filipino movement, and U.S. Congressional activities, etc.
    • Clyde Tavenner (The Philippine Republic) esp.:
      • C.T. to Recto. Letter (July 3, 1926) re: a very anti-Osmeña attack, esp. of Osmeña's "no agitation" policy, C.T. wants more radical moves
      • Quezon to Tavenner. Letter (Dec. 15, 1927) re: removal of support from Philippine Republic and expressing animosity to C. T. for his threats, etc., breaking their friendship
    • MacArthur, esp. letter from Quezon (Dec. 25, 1925), personal, but also re: sad condition in Philippines at time
  • Communications with individuals in Manila and the Philippines:
    • Benigno Aquino (Maj. Floor Leader, House)
    • R. Palma
    • James Ross, esp. letter from Quezon (Jan. 21, 1928) re: Stimson's settling in, stress that Mrs. Stimson "must be made to meet the right kind of American ladies in the Philippines" [i.e. Mrs. Ross and her friends]
    • S. Osmeña (in Washington) esp:
      • Letter to his legislative colleagues, 25 pages (Sept. 3, 1926) re: Washington activities
      • Quezon to Osmeña. Cable (Nov. 3, 1925) re: selection of Resid. Comm.
      • Osmeña to Quezon. Cable (Nov. 4, 1925) "regarding myself, leave matter entirely to you and party"
    • E. T. Tirona, esp:
      • Tirona [Gov.] Letter (July 22, 1926) re: planned demonstration to Thompson Mission
      • Quezon to Tirona. Letter (July 29, 1926)
      • Tirona to Quezon. Letter (Aug. 3, 1926) Quezon tells Tirona of Thomas Gumez (Democrata)'s seat in Senate vacant, Tirona tells Quezon Democrata will not be putting up candidate to fill it
    • Leonard Wood, esp. Executive Order (Nov. 9, 1926) abolishing Board of Control
    • Montinola (Gov. Iloilo) (Pres. Democratas), esp:
      • Montinola to Quezon. Letter and enclosure (Feb. 21, 1927) re: suggestion unites front
      • Quezon to Montinola. Letter (March 22, 1927)--most favorable reply
    • Tomas Confesor (Representative, House), esp. letter to Quezon and reply by Quezon (early Nov., 1927) re: his split with Roxas, Quezon advises getting back together against opposition
    • National Supreme Council, esp.:
      • Quezon to N.S.C. (Sept. 22, 1926) re: effort and problem of getting a united Filipino stand on big issues, Quezon cautions: "...soy de opinion que el momento no permite que en la expresion de muestras aspiraliones se use de un lenguate que pueda dar lugar a una deble interpretacion."
    • Committee of Independence, esp. letter of Quezon to Committee (Sept. 26, 1926) re: reactivation of its activities and work for Filipino independence
    • Maximo Kalaw, esp.:
      • Quezon to Kalaw. 3 page letter (Sept. 20, 1927) re: Kalaw's joint stand with Sumulong on Independence Fund Drive, opposed to it, Quezon explains his side
      • Kalaw to Quezon. 3 page letter (Sept. 26, 1927) re: a frank refutation of Quezon's argument, says he'll publish more articles re: Filipino parties, esp. Filipino party system
    • Manuel Roxas, esp:
      • Roxas to Quezon. 4 page letter (May 27, 1927) re: a political description of politics on Capiz and Nacionalista power there, also Ledesma's power
      • Roxas to Quezon. Cable (June 22-23, 1927) re: successful election results Capiz, Romblon, and Cebu
      • Quezon to Roxas. Letter (Jan. 23, 1928) re: Stimson's settling in "...try to have our people meet the Stimson's socially. You notice he will make it a point to be in touch with us. Have Trining [Mrs. Roxas] and her friends call on Mrs. Stimson."
      • Quezon to Roxas. Cable (Feb. 1, 1928) re: Stimson socially: "Unlike Wood, he and wife desire to have social intercourse with our people and we should give them opportunity."
    • [Some correspondence in 1927-28, after Wood's death to get a favorable Governor-General and achieve, "harmony" in government. --Quezon's first choice is McIntyre but is happy with Stimson]

Roll   13  
 February 11, 1928-December 14, 1929

Highlights of roll 13, February 11, 1928-December 14, 1929, with notes and comments by Michael Cullinane:

  • Communications with individuals in the United States:
    • J. Ross, F. McIntyre, J. Harbord--continuing correspondence
    • N. Roosevelt (New York Times)--Quezon takes exception with one of his articles
    • V. Bunuan (Philippine Press--heavy correspondence)
    • P. Guevara and I. Gabaldon--mostly re: tactics in U.S. Congress
    • Guevara to Quezon. Letter (April 17, 1928) re: the controversy caused by Garaldon upon his return to Manila
    • Many U.S. Congressmen re: independence issue, campaign in the U.S.
    • Henry Stimson (after his departure from Philippines), esp:
      • Stimson to Quezon. Letter (March 3, 1929) re: controversy over Judge Opisso (Capiz); Henry Stimson favors his promotion in judiciary system, informs Quezon
      • Quezon to Stimson. Letter (June 9, 1929)--Quezon examines opposition to Opisso, late reply
      • Stimson to Quezon. 4 page letter (July 31, 1929)--gives his case for Opisso, notes that this matter is the "only subject" on which they have disagreed
    • M. Roxas, esp. letter from Quezon (April 12, 1929) re: judiciary appointments and inner Nacionalista Party feuds, esp. in 2nd district Luzon election, about who is to be speaker pro tem.
  • Communications with individuals in Manila and the Philippines:
    • Henry Stimson
    • Philippine Sugar Association--considerable correspondence re: sugar negotiations
    • Rafael Alunan (Secretary of Agriculture and National Resources)--also to Washington
    • Maximo Kalaw--mostly re: K's attacks on Quezon for work on Jones Bill
    • Manuel Roxas, esp.:
      • Roxas to Quezon. Cable (April 14, 1928) "Gabaldon arrived making statements attacking you, Osmeña, for disloyalty immediate independence laws and cooperation with Stimson, stating further: "In America, they worked only for their personal interests, while I struggled for those of our people." "If there has been treason, they have committed it." Strong statement from you necessary
      • Quezon to Roxas. Cable (April 14, 1928) "Not care to answer Gabaldon. Osmeña can do it. His attack is my deserved punishment for having supported a useless public official." See also Quezon to Gabaldon letter (April, 1928)
    • Louis J. van Schaick, esp.: letter to Quezon plus enclosures (June 5, 1929) re: his memoirs of Quezon
    • "Memorandum Para El Senador Osmeña" by Quezon (Sept. 20, 1929) re: the disposition of their official correspondence re: the early campaign in Washington about Jones Bill
    • MacArthur, Douglas esp:
      • MacArthur to Quezon. Letter (March 29, 1929) re: Quezon's and MacArthur's efforts to make MacArthur the new Governor-General after Stimson, a mutual desire
      • MacArthur to Quezon. Letter (April 30, 1929) re: above [apparently this whole plan is unknown to Osmeña and Roxas who are in Washington, seemingly working to keep all military people out of Governor-Generalship--their correspondence to Quezon stress Filipino opposition to military pro-consul]
      • MacArthur to Quezon. Letter (May 16, 1929) thanking Quezon for his efforts and his loyalty in his behalf, i.e. to get MacArthur into Governor-Generalship

Roll   14  
 December 16, 1929-July 24, 1931

Highlights of roll 14, December 16, 1929-July 24, 1931, with notes and comments by Michael Cullinane

  • Communications with individuals in the United States:
    • J. Harbord
    • H. L. Stimson
    • Senator Hawes
    • F. McIntyre
    • F. B. Harrison
    • F. LeJ. Parker (Chief of Bureau Internal Affairs)
    • P. J. Hurley (Secretary of War)
    • V. Bunuan (much)
    • M. Roxas
    • John Switzer (New York) re: immigration of Filipinos
    • Many Senators and Representatives of U.S. Congress re: Philippine Independence bills, etc.
    • Oscar Sutro (California) a 13 page letter to Quezon (Nov. 6, 1930) re: Philippine independence issue, etc.
    • Sumulong, Roxas, Briones, Guevara, Osias (Washington) to Quezon, Osmeña, Alas (Manila) (during May, 1930) re: mostly Hawes-Cutting Bill
  • Communications with individuals in Manila and the Philippines:
    • R. Palma
    • J. Laurel
    • Representative Jose G. Sanvictores (Agusan-Bukidnon)
    • Jake Rosenthal (Rosenthal, Inc.--the Rosenthal Shoe Distributor) --a"weekly letter" both informative and interesting and witty re: events especially in Manila to Quezon with "he is recuperating in California (mostly 1931)
    • S. Osmeña, esp.:
      • Osmeña to Quezon. 5 page letter (Dec. 21, 1929) re: final settlement in Philippine Legislature of a meeting between M. Kalaw and Aguinaldo--Osmeña concerned about keeping Aguinaldo on their side --also re: Gabaldon's efforts to get Agoncillo to come over to his side, again Osmeña concerned
      • Osmeña to Quezon. 3 page letter (Dec. 29, 1929) re: a speech he gave in Cebu and support for them there
      • Osmeña to Quezon. 2 page letter (Dec. 28, 1929) re: plans for "Junta Consoltina" (Advisory Council)
      • Quezon to Osmeña. Letter (Jan.4, 1930) Quezon very sick, advises Osmeña to carry out appointments to "Junta" on his own
      • Osmeña to Quezon. 4 page letter (Jan. 15, 1930) re: problems facing "Junta" especially with Democratas
      • Osmeña to Quezon. 3 page letter (Jan. 17, 1930) re: more of same ("Advisory Council")
      • Quezon to Osmeña. Letter (Jan. 20, 1930) re: same above
      • Osmeña to Quezon. 3 page letter (Jan. 25, 1930) re: Advisory Council negotiations, Osmeña trying to determine what Quezon really desires, seeking certification
    • Quezon, Osmeña, Alas to Roxas (Washington. Cable (July 12, 1930) "Nicholas Roosevelt has been mentioned as a candidate for Vice-Governor. Our people are strongly opposed to this appointment."
    • Quezon to Governor-General Davis. Letter (July 13, 1930) re: his opposition to Roosevelt
    • N. Roosevelt to President of U.S. Letter of resignation (Sept. 24, 1930) also re: his negative opinion of Filipino leaders and their exploits
    • Sumulong to Tirona. Cable (July 24, 1930) re: Quezon's undermining of the Independence campaign and his position (actually a misunderstanding)
    • Bunuan to Quezon. Letter (Aug. 28, 1930) re: among other things a transmitting of cables re: Quezon's statement about coming to U.S. in New York Times, which upset Sumulong
    • Osmeña to Quezon (Monrovia). 5 page letter (Nov. 10, 1930) re: his legislative work in Philippines
    • Quezon to Osmeña. 5 page letter (Jan. 6, 1931) re: events in U.S. and Sumulong's T. R.
    • Quezon to Parker. 3 page letter (Jan. 11, 1931) re: Secretary of War's appointments in Philippines
    • J. Laurel to Quezon. Letter (March 20, 1931) re: mostly Tayabas election problems, esp. Laurel vs. Recto, re: also Recto's negative campaign and trickiness, Laurel exhibits much animosity toward Recto, and expresses much loyalty to Quezon
    • Rector to Quezon. Letter (March 24, 1931) re: his struggle with Laurel, suggests a link with Quezon but unclear
    • Quezon to Laurel. Letter (April 16, 1931) Quezon expresses his support for Laurel and tells him to use this letter but it is not a super positive letter of support as Quezon can write
    • Considerable correspondence re: "Ang Bagong Katipunan"--begun allegedly by Roxas and Cumena--mostly negative and some fearful of its outcome--some hint that Governor-General quieted down Roxas' activities in this regard

Roll   15  
 July 25, 1931-June 29, 1932

Highlights of roll 15, July 25, 1931-June 29, 1932, with notes and comments of Michael Cullinane

  • Communications with individuals in the United States:
    • P. J. Hurley (Secretary of War)
    • F. McIntyre, J. Harbord--continuing correspondence
    • J. Switzer
    • William Montavan (Director, Legal Department, National Catholic Welfare Conference)
    • Senator H. Hawes, esp. 7 page letter, Aguinaldo to H. Hawes (July 25, 1931) re: independence issue
    • C. Osias and P. Guevara (Resid. Comms.--heavy official correspondence re: independence or autonomy issue, Osias often expresses his loyalty to Quezon
    • Osrox (Osmeña and Roxas) mission to U.S., heavy correspondence with Quaqual (Quezon, Aquino, Alas) re: work for independence bill, i.e. HHC Bill, much of it confidential
  • Communications with individuals in Manila and the Philippines:
    • Vicente Madrigal and Amande Avanlena (Nec. Ollid, President, Confed. de Assoces y Plantaduces de Cana-dulce)
    • Rafael Palma
    • A. Hurrillenu (Judge, Zamboanga) re: independence issue
    • Faustino Aguilar (Secretary of Senate) re: situation in Philippines (Manila) to Quezon (Aug. 11, 1931)
    • Walter Robb (American Chamber of Commerce)
    • George C. Butte (Alternative Governor-General) esp. 6 page letter (many drafts) from Quezon (Jan. 7, 1932) re: sugar planters and how they should get a bigger piece of the pie, more for small guy
    • Maximo Kalaw, esp. M.Kalaw to Quezon. Letter (Oct. 5, 1931) re: new Filipino mood toward independence
    • Ramon Fernandez, esp. Quezon to R. Fernandez. 5 page letter (Spanish), Jan 25, 1932, re: a concerned group of citizens who wired directly to Bureau of Internal Affairs stressing desire for immediate independence, Quezon reprimands them slightly for not going thru the mission (greeting to "Mi querido compadre")
    • Philippine Sugar Association, esp: 7 page letter to T. Roosevelt, Jr. (March 11, 1932) with charts and tables, etc., copy of letter to Quezon [much correspondence on sugar industry]
    • Antonio de las Alas (Acting Speaker) esp.: a 4 page letter from Quezon (May 25, 1932) re: independence issue and Philippine legislators' contacts with the mission
    • Juan Sumulong, esp. Quezon to Sumulong. 4 page letter (Feb. 10, 1932) re: Sumulong's opposition to the publicity fund for the Mission to the U.S.
    • Also letter from Quezon to Senator [?] (of Pasay, Rizil) long 7 page letter in Tagalog (Jan. 8, 1932) re: politics in Manila and Philippines, Democratas, Osmeña, Mission to U.S., etc. [possibly to Sumulong]

Roll   16  
 June 29, 1932-August 10, 1933

Highlights of roll 16, June 29, 1932-August 10, 1933, with notes and comments by Michael Cullinane

  • Communications with individuals in the United States:
    • Heavy correspondence with "Osrox" (Washington) re: stateside legislation, etc.
    • F. McIntyre (Philippine Trade Commission)
    • C. Osias
    • Amando Avancena (Cadiz, Negros Occidental) and other sugar related correspondence and memorandums in Quezon's possession
    • H. L. Stimson
    • J. Switzer
    • Many U. S. Congressmen (esp. Senators Hawes and Hare)
    • Roy Howard (New York)--a close friend who refers to Quezon as "My dear Casey"
    • F. B. Harrison
  • Communications with individuals in Manila and the Philippines:
    • J. L. Headington (V. Pres., Philippine Button Company) re: Philippine business
    • E. D. Hester (advisor to Governor-General)
    • C. P. Romulo
    • E. Quirino
    • F. Buencamino
    • Rafael Palma
    • J. Bocobo
    • R. Fernandez
    • Quintin Paredes (Speaker pro tem, House)
    • S. Osmeña (slight during this period, i.e. personal corresponden
    • Resolution by a Committee of American Democrats in Philippines
    • Federico Mangahas (The Tribune) re: a letter by Quezon (not sent) in response to a "vicious" attack by Mangahas in press (Dec., 1932)
  • Significant correspondence:
    • Aguinaldo to Osmeña (Washington). Letter (Aug. 12, 1932) re: his desire to know the truth about what's going on in Washington, he repeats all the anti-Mission information in Manila press
    • Osmeña to Aguinaldo. 22 page letter (September 30, 1932) a complete reply, answering each of the above accusations, explaining in detail the Mission's work and their position on H-H-C Bill
    • Osias to Osmeña 5 page letter (Aug. 22, 1932) re: a denial by Osias that he has attacked the independence mission
    • E. D. Hester to Quezon. Letter (Aug. 27, 1932) re: Philippine tariff
    • Osmeña to Quezon. Letter (Oct. 3, 1932) re: his letter and correspondence with Aguinaldo
    • Quezon to Romulo. 4 page letter (not sent), Nov. 1, 1932, re: Senate maneuvering and his alleged favoring of opposition Sen. (i.e. Relto) over his governorship
    • Quezon to Senator Teofilo Sison. 3 page letter and enclosure (Nov. 11, 1932) re: a tribute to General Luna
    • Quezon to Senator B. Aquino. Letter (Spanish), Nov. 14, 1932 re: his work in the U.S.
    • Quezon to MacArthur. Cable (n.d. but after Dec. 30, 1932) re: MacArthur's stand on Philippine independence
    • M. Kalaw to Quezon. 2 page letter (Spanish), Jan. 4, 1933, re: his desire to be ideologically reunited with Quezon, but with certain guarantees first, in Nationalista stand on independence
    • Quezon to M. Kalaw. 13 pages of drafts Jan 8, 1933, mailed Jan. 9, 1933. re: his reply with much explanation of his activities in Washington during debates over Jones Bill and Clarke Amendment, mainly re: Quezon's split with the Mission leaders
    • Luis R. de Luzuriaga (writing from Cebu) to Quezon. Letter (Feb. 19, 1933) re: sugar question and business proposal to Quezon, he is currently working for Socony-Vacuum Corporation in Cebu, was a former associate of Rafael Alunan
    • M. Kalaw to Quezon. Letter (May 29, 1933) re: common action by both legislative mission and independence mission (in Washington) over independence bills
    • Quezon to Harrison. Cable (July 2, 1933) re: obtaining Harrison's support of the "anti" view and Osmeña's prior fears with Clarke amendment
    • Harrison to Quezon Cable (July 5, 1933) --Harrison's favorable reply
    • Ramon Torres (Bago, Negros Occidental) to Quezon. 3 page letter in Spanish (July 4, 1933)--he is an "anti" and will support Quezon but wants to maintain party unity if possible, some about Negros Occidental politics
    • Quezon to R. Torres. 4 page letter in Spanish (after 5 drafts) (July 8, 1933)--Quezon's reply, explaining his opposition to H-H-C Bill, and the difficulties with Osmeña over H-H-C and why split is necessary
    • Some correspondence over financial matter is found between Murphy and V. Singson Encarnacion (Acting Secretary of Finance)

Roll   17  
 August 11, 1933-June 7, 1934

Highlights of roll 17, August 11, 1933-June 7, 1934, with notes and comments by Michael Cullinane

  • Communications with individuals in the United States:
    • Many U. S. Congressmen, esp. Senator McDuffie, Representative Sabath (Iowa), Senator King and Senator P. Harrison
    • Some copies of Secretary of War to Governor-General
    • Sugar Philippines--lobby of Philippine Sugar interests in Washington, esp.: Rafael Alunan--much on sugar in 1934
    • Creed F. Cox (Chief, Bureau Insular Affairs)
    • William Baldwin (New York)
    • F. D. R. on occasion
    • I. Garaldon (while both were in Washington)
  • Communications with individuals in Manila and the Philippines:
    • J. Bocobo (memos re: H-H-C Bill, "Plebicite", etc.)
    • V. Singson Encarnacion to Murphy re: financial matters
    • Quirico Abeto (Secretary of Justice) in Spanish
    • T. Kalaw (National Library)
    • E. Aguinaldo (mostly re: his going to U.S. with independence mission of legislation)
    • Frank Murphy
  • Significant correspondence:
    • Quezon to Osmeña. Letter (not sent) (Oct. 15, 1933) re: minority caucus in Senate headed by Osmeña and also re: H-H-C Bill
    • Quezon to Osmeña. Letter (Oct. 19, 1933) re: some questions sent by Osmeña
    • Tirona (Rep., Cavite). 3 page letter (Spanish) (Oct. 31, 1933) A very sharp criticism of Quezon, mainly due to his stateside activities as nominal head independence mission: "...en ver de asistir a las sesiones de Copgreso, y trabajar cerca del mismo por nuestra indep., se fue usted directamente a Monrovia, para to mar vacaciones a costa de Juan de la cruz..." Tirona stresses that he is unafraid of Quezon or anyone!
    • V. Singson Encarnacion to J. Vargas. Letter (Dec. 11, 1933) and (Dec. 21, 1933) re: mostly sugar and other Philippine crops and resources
    • Recto to Governor-General. 5 page letter (Jan. 7, 1934) re: constitutional problems
    • Memorandum on Philippine-American trade relations by Quezon (Jan., 1934) 17 pages
    • American Philippine policy 13 pages (Jan., 1934) 13 drafts (one to be signed Quezon, Quirino, Gabaldon, Guevara,
    • C. E. Russell to Quezon. Letter (Jan. 16, 1934) re: the failing of Quezon's memorandum (above) and how it will not get the desired results
    • Recto-Paredes to Quezon. Letter (Feb. 3, 1934) re: a resolution on Philippine independence passed by a mass meeting in Manila the day before
    • G. T. Peabody (Mindanao-Pacific Corp., Ltd.) to Quezon. Letter (Feb. 15, 1934) re: economic situation
    • Quezon to I. Gabaldon. Letter (March 24, 1934) re: Quezon's explanation to I.G. about Quezon's actions concerning the H-H-C Bill and subsequent
    • Cabrera to Quezon. Telegram (April 4, 1934) re: defeating Roxas
    • Roxas to Quezon. 2 page letter (May 10, 1934) a somewhat angry letter reacting to Quezon's quote in papers about him, Roxas explains he is a "technical man" not desiring to bother with politics, wants to go back to the farm, says he's not a "pro" or any other political classification--he then praises Quezon

Roll   18  
 June 7, 1934-November 14, 1935

Highlights of roll 18 (part), June 7, 1934-November 14, 1935, with notes and comments by Michael Cullinane

  • Communications with individuals in the United States:
    • Frequent memorandums re: economic problems: tariffs, trade, sugar, other crops, and products, esp. by V. Singson Encarnacion, and R. Alunan (P. Sugar Assoc.)
    • Secretary of War
    • Creed Cox
    • Senator Howes, McDuffie, etc.
    • William Baldwin (New York)
    • Neuss, Hesslein, and Company, Inc. (New York)
    • Cordace Institution (J.S. McDaniel)
    • Hanson, Orth and Stevenson, Inc. (London)
    • Roy Howard (Scripts-Howard Newspapers--New York)--heavy in late 1935, early 1936
    • Leonidas Dyer (Lawyer, St. Louis, Missouri)
    • MacArthur, Douglas
    • F. A. Delgado (President, Comm. from Philippines--late 1935)
    • Morgan Shuster (New York)
  • Communications with individuals in Manila and the Philippines:
    • "Don Miguel"
    • C. M. Recto
    • T. M. Kalaw
    • P. Guevara re: his running for office with or without Quezon's support depending on his stand
    • Vicente Lim re: Philippine national defense, some on Americanization of Filipinos and its negative results
    • Frank Murphy
  • Significant correspondence:
    • Senator Hawes to Roxas. Letter (Nov. 7, 1934) re: Hawes' praise of Roxas
    • Dr. [?] to Quezon. Letter (n.d.) very interesting response to a Quezon letter re: nationalist movements in Indonesia and some about Javanese nobility
    • J. Yulo to Quezon. Letter (Jan. 7, 1935) re: Quezon's appointment of him to Supreme Court, a personal explanation of why he is opposed
    • Quezon to Murphy. Letter (Jan. 8, 1935) re: (among others) the Sakdalistas in Tayabas and Laguna
    • Quezon to Malcolm. Letter (Jan. 21, 1935)--a critique of Malcolm's manuscript (book) about Quezon's political machine and other issues
    • Osmeña to Quezon. Telegram (March 18, 1935) re: coalition prospects
    • Vargas to Quezon. Radiogram (April 1, 1935) re: Sumulong's stand on coalition and some on activities of the - Sakdalistas
    • Vargas to Quezon. Radiogram (April 21, 1935) re: Sumulong's stand on coalition and some on activities of the - Sakdalistas
    • Vargas to Quezon. Radiogram (April 24, 1935) re: Sumulong's stand on coalition and some on activities of the - Sakdalistas
    • Quezon to Vargas. Radiogram (April 24, 1935 re: Sumulong's stand on coalition and some on activities of the - Sakdalistas
    • Vargas to Quezon. Radiogram (April 29, 1935) re: Sumulong's article "Highlights given" --article: "After Coalition the Decline" in Manila papers April 27th.
    • Vargas to Quezon. Radiogram (May 3, 1935) re: Sumulong's article, Quezon's stand
    • Confederate n.d.. reports to Quezon re: Sakdalista uprising early May, 1935
    • C. Rumulo to Quezon. 8 page letter (May 15, 1935) re: political situation. Report to Quezon including Sakdalista revolt, newspapers stands on day's issues --writing as the publisher of D-M-H-M Newspapers (Debate, Mabuhay, Herald, Monday mail)
    • Recto Roxas Alunan to Quezon. Radiogram (May 21, 1935)
    • Yulo to Quezon. Letter (May 27, 1935) re: national assembly for coalition and pres. campaign, enclosed a brief statement re: ones against Sakdals in various towns
    • Quezon to Sumulong. Telegram (Aug. 30, 1935) re: Sumulong's attack on him.
    • Laurel to Quezon. Letter (Sept. 2, 1935) re: Sumulong's article, he wants Quezon to deny the quote ascribed to Quezon in Bulletin (which he cites and which serves as the main thrust in Sumulong's argument)
    • Quezon to Laurel. Letter (Sept. 5, 1935): he denies above statement, says he never made it at all
    • Quezon to Paredes. Letter (Oct. 24, 1935): offers him a post as Resid. Comm.
    • Paredes to Quezon. Letter 14 pages (Nov. 3, 1935)--expresses his continued opposition to complete coalition (or fusion); also explains that he can do more as speaker of National Assembly; he explains its functions and possibilities
    • Quezon to Paredes. 19 page letter (Nov. 6, 1935)--presents his side and views regarding the National Assembly
    • Aguinaldo to Secretary of War. 3 page letter (Nov. 3, 1935) re: his particular distaste for recent election conduct, especially for Commonwealth President, where he lost, claims widespread fraud occurred, P.C. harassment, etc.