Pearl L. Kendrick Papers: 1888-1979 (bulk 1930-1970)
Summary Information
Title: Pearl L. Kendrick Papers
Creator: Kendrick, Pearl L., 1890-1980
Inclusive dates: 1888-1979
Bulk dates: 1930-1970
Extent: 7 linear feet
Abstract:
Bacteriologist with the laboratories of the Michigan Department of Health, 1920-1951, and resident lecturer in epidemiology at the School of Public Health of the University of Michigan. Files relate to her discovery and testing of a vaccine for whooping-cough; files concerning activities with the American Public Health Association and the Michigan Public Health Association; consultant's files relating to her work with vaccination programs in foreign countries under the auspices of the World Health Organization; correspondence, course and research materials; and photographs related to her career; also papers of her father, Milton Kendrick, a Free Methodist clergyman.
Call number: 85242 Aa 2
Language: The materials are in English.
Repository: Bentley Historical Library
1150 Beal Ave.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2113
Phone: 734-764-3482
Fax: 734-936-1333
e-mail: bentley.ref@umich.edu
Home Page: http://www.bentley.umich.edu/
Finding aid prepared by: Karen M. Mason

Access and Use
Acquisition Information:

The bulk of the collection (Donor no. 5681) was donated by Pearl Kendrick in 1979. A smaller accession was received from the estate of Dr. Grace Eldering in 1988.

Access Restrictions:

The collection is open for research.

Copyright:

Donor(s) have transferred any applicable copyright to the Regents of the University of Michigan but the collection may contain third-party materials for which copyright was not transferred. Patrons are responsible for determining the appropriate use or reuse of materials.

Preferred Citation:

item, folder title, box no., Pearl L. Kendrick Papers, Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan


Biography

Pearl Luella Kendrick (1890-1980) was born August 24, 1890 in Wheaton, Illinois. She was the daughter of Ella (Shaver) Kendrick and Milton H. Kendrick, a Free Methodist (Holiness) preacher in New York state. Pearl Kendrick attended high school in Sherburne, New York, graduating in 1908. She enrolled in Greenville College, Greenville, Illinois, in 1910 but after her first year transferred to Syracuse University, from which she received a B.S. in 1914. Kendrick taught in rural schools after her graduation from high school and for five years after graduating from college she taught science and served as a principal in New York high schools. In 1919 and 1920 she worked as a laboratory assistant in the division of laboratories and research of the New York State Department of Health.

Kendrick moved to Lansing, Michigan, in 1920 to work as a bacteriologist in the Michigan Department of Health laboratory. In 1926 she was appointed Associate Director of Laboratories and Chief of the Western Michigan Branch Laboratory of the Michigan Department of Health in Grand Rapids. She pursued a graduate degree during leaves of absence and earned an Sc.D. from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health in 1932.

Kendrick's most important work was done at the Michigan Department of Health, where she carried out extensive studies on the diagnosis and prevention of whooping cough. Whooping cough was one of the most serious diseases of young children in the early 1930s, claiming approximately 6000 lives annually in the United States. Kendrick and her colleagues undertook an investigation of the pertussis bacillus, the etiologic agent of whooping cough, and in 1934 began a series of field trials to test the pertussis vaccine. Forty years later Grace Eldering, Kendrick's colleague, longtime companion, and successor as Chief of the Western Michigan Branch Laboratory of the Michigan Department of Health, recalled tramping the streets of Grand Rapids to gather specimens for the study:

As soon as the laboratory closed in the afternoon, we set out to find new patients. The early 1930s were years of the great depression, and we learned about the disease and the depression at the same time. Many of the families we visited were very poor and their living conditions pitiful. Our watchword became 'Round to the back and up the stairs.' We listened to sad stories told by desperate fathers who could find no work. We collected specimens by the light of kerosene lamps, from whooping, vomiting, strangling children. We saw what the disease could do.

Although a pertussis vaccine had been prepared in the first decade of the twentieth century, confidence in its efficacy had declined because of the lack of adequate testing. Kendrick's field study demonstrated the effectiveness of pertussis vaccine and also helped establish the field trial as an important method for measuring immunization. In 1940 the Michigan Department of Health started general distribution of the vaccine.

Because of her success with the pertussis vaccine, Kendrick was asked to act as a consultant on immunization projects and pertussis studies in a number of foreign countries. In 1940 and 1942 Kendrick assisted with whooping cough studies being carried out by the Ministry of Health of Mexico. Between 1949 and 1965 Kendrick served periodically as a World Health Organization consultant to various countries--most often in Latin America--setting up immunization programs. Kendrick was also a member of the Immunology Delegation that visited laboratories in the Soviet Union in 1962 as part of a United States-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics exchange program.

From 1951 until her retirement in 1960 Kendrick was a lecturer in the Department of Epidemiology in the School of Public Health at the University of Michigan. She continued her study of the pertussis vaccine at the University, and also worked to develop multi-purpose vaccines. Kendrick was active in professional associations throughout her career, serving as chairman of several committees of the American Public Health Association. She died in 1980.


Collection Scope and Content Note

The Pearl L. Kendrick papers date from 1888 to 1979 and measure seven linear feet. The papers are arranged in nine series: Personal, Correspondence, Correspondence--Foreign, Michigan Department of Health, University of Michigan, Consultant Files, Professional Associations, Speeches and Articles, and Visual Materials. The collection is strongest in its documentation of the national and international network of public health practitioners, physicians, and scientists who corresponded with each other about their studies of various diseases and their prevention, in particular whooping cough. This voluminous correspondence reflects Kendrick's reputation as one of the world's foremost experts on pertussis. The collection is relatively weak in its documentation of Kendrick's work as an instructor at the University of Michigan.

Subject Terms

This collection is indexed under the following headings in the finding aid database and catalog of The Bentley Historical Library/University of Michigan. Researchers desiring additional information about related topics should search the catalog using these headings.


  • Bacteriologists -- Michigan -- Ann Arbor.
  • Clergy -- Michigan.
  • Epidemiology.
  • Public health -- Michigan.
  • Whooping-cough.
  • Women bacteriologists -- Michigan -- Ann Arbor.
  • Laboratories.
  • Soviet Union.
  • Women.
  • Diaries.
  • Photographs.
  • Videotapes.
  • American Public Health Association.
  • Kendrick, Pearl L., 1890-1980.
  • Michigan. Dept. of Health.
  • Michigan Public Health Association.
  • University of Michigan -- Faculty.
  • University of Michigan. School of Public Health.
  • World Health Organization.
  • Atwater, Reginald Myers, 1892-1957.
  • Bayne-Jones, Stanhope, 1888-1970.
  • Cockburn, Charles.
  • Cohen, Barnett, 1891-1952.
  • Cummings, George Donald, 1904-1967.
  • Doull, James Angus, 1889-1963.
  • Eldering, Grace, 1900-
  • Evans, David G.
  • Frost, Wade Hampton, 1880-1938.
  • Kendrick, Milton.
  • Lacey, Brian.
  • Pillemer, Louis, 1908-1957.
  • Pittman, Margaret, 1901-
  • Verwey, Willard Foster, 1913-1979.
  • Williams, R. E. O. (Robert Evan Owen)
  • Young, Clifford Caudy, 1885-1944.
Contents List
Request materials for use in the Bentley Library
Container / Location Title
 
Personal 1888-1979 [series]

The first series, Personal (1888-1979), includes biographical information, vitae, material relating to Kendrick's employment, correspondence with family and friends, and diaries of a personal nature. Also in this series are journals, reminiscences, accounts, and sermons of Kendrick's father, Milton Kendrick, a Free Methodist (Holiness) preacher.

Box   1  
Biographical and Genealogical Information
 
Correspondence
Box   1  
General 1942-1966, undated
Box   1  
Family 1922-1979, undated
Box   1  
Curriculum Vitae
 
Diaries
Box   1  
1920s-1960s, undated [fragments] 1920-1969, undated
Box   1  
[trip to London] 1936
Box   1  
[fragment] 1940s
Box   1  
1957
Box   1  
[trip to Europe] 1958
Box   1  
[trip to Europe] 1959
 
Education
Box   1  
University of Michigan 1924, 1930
 
Employment
Box   1  
Letters of Recommendation 1914-1919
Box   1  
Teaching Positions 1914-1919
Box   1  
New York State Department of Health 1920, 1923
Box   1  
Honors and Awards 1958-1978 (scattered)
 
Kendrick, Milton
Box   1  
Journal 1888-1901
Box   1  
Journals and Accounts (2 volumes (in 1 folder))
Box   1  
Sermons and Miscellaneous Notes
Box   1  
Newspaper Clippings
Box   1  
Miscellaneous: Excerpts from Major Tripp's Letters to Mrs. Tripp 1944
 
Correspondence 1950-1969 [series]

Correspondence dates primarily from the 1950s and 1960s and consists of correspondence, both incoming and outgoing, with academic and commercial laboratory scientists and public health practitioners. This correspondence relates largely to Kendrick's research and teaching at the University of Michigan and includes requests for cultures and sera, discussion of laboratory techniques and biologic products, and, more generally, certain diseases and their prevention. The series is arranged alphabetically by correspondent.

Box   1  
A-Bl (2 folders)
Box   1  
Blodgett Memorial Hospital 1963-1968
Box   1  
Bo-C (2 folders)
Box   1  
Communicable Disease Center 1951-1970 (2 folders)
Box   1  
D
Box   1  
Difco Laboratories, Detroit 1952-1957
Box   1  
E
Box   1  
Encyclopedia Britannica
Box   1  
Eveland, W.C. 1959-1961
Box   1  
F
Box   1  
Francis, Thomas 1957-1963
Box   1  
G-H (2 folders)
Box   2  
Hospital Infections Committee
Box   2  
I-L (4 folders)
Box   2  
Lilly Research Laboratories 1951-1962
Box   2  
M
Box   2  
Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories 1953-1957
 
Michigan Department of Health
Box   2  
General 1951-1970
Box   2  
Anderson, H.D. 1951-1963
Box   2  
Cummings, G.D. 1951-1965
Box   2  
Eldering, Grace 1952-1966
Box   2  
Ferguson, William 1951-1958
Box   2  
N
 
National Institutes of Health
Box   2  
General 1951-1968
Box   2  
Pertussis Symposium 1963

(see also: Pittman, Margaret)

Box   2  
New York State Department of Health 1952-1961
Box   2  
O-P (2 folders)
Box   2  
Parke, Davis and Company 1953-1966 (scattered)
Box   2  
Pfizer (Chas) and Company 1962
Box   2  
Pillemer, Louis 1952-1957
Box   2  
Pittman, Margaret 1951-1979 (2 folders)
Box   2  
R-S (2 folders)
Box   2  
Siebold, H.R. 1968-1969
Box   2  
T-V (2 folders)
Box   2  
UNICEF 1952-1954
Box   2  
Venereal Disease Research Laboratory 1955
Box   2  
Volk, V.K. 1952-1970
Box   2  
W
Box   2  
Wilson, Robert J. 1959-1968
Box   2  
X-Z
 
Correspondence: Foreign 1939-1970 [series]

Correspondence--Foreign (1939-1970) is comprised of correspondence with doctors and scientists in foreign countries, mostly on the subject of pertussis vaccine. Most countries, with the exception of England, are represented by only a few items; the British subseries includes substantive correspondence with several eminent scientists and physicians over a span of years. The series is arranged alphabetically by country.

Box   2  
Argentina 1954-1955, 1963
Box   2  
Brazil 1955-1970 (scattered)
Box   2  
Canada 1952-1968
Box   2  
Costa Rica 1960-1965
Box   2  
Denmark 1953-1963
 
England
Box   2  
General 1939-1966 (scattered) (2 folders)
Box   2  
Cockburn, Charles 1952-1958
Box   3  
Evans, David G. 1951-1959
Box   3  
Lacey, Brian 1953-1959
Box   3  
Whooping Cough Committee 1943-1952 (3 folders)
Box   3  
Williams, R.E.O. 1952-1953
Box   3  
France 1952-1966 (scattered)
Box   3  
Germany 1952-1969
Box   3  
Hungary 1954-1961
Box   3  
India 1954-1966
Box   3  
Iran 1953, 1967
Box   3  
Israel 1952-1955
Box   3  
Italy 1954-1961 (scattered)
Box   3  
Japan 1951-1970 (scattered)
Box   3  
Mexico 1952-1970
Box   3  
The Netherlands 1952-1968 (scattered)
Box   3  
El Salvador 1955
Box   3  
Scot 1952, 1958-1965
Box   3  
South Africa 1949-1952
Box   3  
Spain 1952-1955
Box   3  
Switzer 1953-1959
Box   3  
Taiwan 1952-1966
Box   3  
Turkey 1953-1954
Box   3  
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1969
Box   3  
Venezuela 1966, 1970
Box   3  
Yugoslavia 1953-1965
Box   3  
Miscellaneous Countries
 
Michigan Department of Health 1920-1953 [series]

Michigan Department of Health (1920-1953) consists for the most part of correspondence, together with some research notebooks, relating to the pertussis field studies in Grand Rapids and the work of other scientists on pertussis.

Box   3  
General
 
Correspondence
Box   3  
General 1934-1946 (scattered)
Box   3  
Breed, Robert S. 1945-1946
Box   3  
Young, C.C. 1926-1944 (2 folders)
Box   3  
Employment 1920-1951 (scattered)
Box   3  
History
 
Pertussis Studies
Box   3  
Code Manual 1939
 
Correspondence
Box   3  
General 1934-1948 (scattered)
Box   3  
Alexander, Hattie E. 1937, 1945-1952
Box   3  
Bayne-Jones, Stanhope 1932-1933
Box   3  
Bunney, W.E. 1939-1953
Box   3  
Cohen, Barnett 1940-1950 (scattered)
Box   3  
Densen, Paul M. 1950
Box   3  
Doull, James A. 1936-1945
Box   3  
Evans, David G. 1946
Box   3  
Fraser, Donald T. 1937-1952
Box   3  
Frost, W.H. 1936-1938
Box   3  
Lawson, George M. 1933-1948 (2 folders)
Box   3  
Miller, John J. 1934-1952 (scattered)
Box   3  
National Institutes of Health 1946-1947
Box   3  
National Research Council 1934-1938
Box   3  
Perkins, James E. 1940-1942, 1950
Box   3  
Pittman, Margaret 1945-1950
Box   3  
Ramsey, George H. 1935-1938
Box   3  
Toomey, John A. 1946-1948
Box   3  
Vaughan, Henry 1938
Box   3  
Verwey, W.F. 1942-1946, 1951-1953
Box   3  
Weiss, Edward S. 1941-1942
Box   3  
Zozaya, Jose 1940
Box   4  
Density Comparisons 1943
Box   4  
Funding 1942-1951, 1972
Box   4  
History 1936, 1971
Box   4  
Mouse Protection Test 1945-1946
Box   4  
Outline of Work 1946-1951
Box   4  
Pertussis Committee 1951-1953
Box   4  
Pertussis Medium 1948
Box   4  
Plans I--Review by Dr. W.H. Frost 1936-1937
Box   4  
Plans II 1934-1938
Box   4  
Research Notebook 1940
Box   4  
Salaries 1937
Box   4  
"Whooping Cough Prevention: A Review," 1938
Box   4  
Works Progress Administration 1936
 
University of Michigan 1952-1975 [series]

University of Michigan (1952-1975) consists of material relating to Kendrick's teaching and research at the University of Michigan in the Department of Epidemiology. Only a few of her lectures are included.

 
General
Box   4  
Annuitants' Society 1962-1972
Box   4  
Women's Research Club 1953, 1967
 
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health
Box   4  
Annual Report to the Dean 1965
Box   4  
Correspondence 1952-1970
 
Delta Omega
Box   4  
General 1968
 
Delta Omega Lecture
Box   4  
Marston Bates: "The Population Explosion" 1960
Box   4  
James Dixon: "Public Health: The Art of the Possible" 1963
Box   4  
Employment Information
Box   4  
Epidemiology Lectures and Syllabi
Box   4  
Gudakunst Lecture 1975
Box   4  
Memoranda and Reports 1955-1959
 
Research
 
Experiments
Box   4  
1956-1961
Box   4  
Pertussis 1963-1964 (2 folders)
Box   4  
Saginaw Study of DPT-Polio 1963
Box   4  
Miscellaneous
 
Procedures
Box   4  
Fluorescent Antibody Procedures 1959, 1961
Box   4  
Gel Diffusion and Immuno-Electrophoresis 1966-1967
Box   4  
Miscellaneous
 
Consultant files 1940-1970 [series]

Consultant Files (1940-1970) includes correspondence, diaries, and reports of Kendrick's work for the World Health Organization and as an independent consultant on pertussis. The series is arranged chronologically by assignment.

 
General
 
Mexico Department of Health 1942
Box   4  
Correspondence 1940-1946
Box   4  
Reports 1942
 
United States-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Exchange 1962
Box   4  
Health Services Delegation: Report by David Sencer
 
Immunology Delegation
Box   4  
Correspondence 1962-1964
Box   4  
Diary
Box   4  
Report 1962 (1 volume)
Box   4  
Report 1962
 
World Health Organization
 
Correspondence
Box   5  
General 1949-1970
Box   5  
Pan American Sanitary Bureau 1950-1956, 1966-1967
Box   5  
Statistics 1930-1950
 
England and South America Trip 1949-1950
 
Correspondence
Box   5  
General 1949-1954
Box   5  
Brazil 1950-1956
Box   5  
Chile 1950-1956 (2 folders)
Box   5  
Colombia 1950-1954 (2 folders)
Box   5  
Eldering, Grace
Box   5  
Eng 1950
Box   5  
Peru 1953-1954
 
Diaries
Box   5  
Eng 1949-1950
Box   5  
South America 1950 (4 folders)
 
Dubrovnik Conference on Diphtheria and Pertussis Vaccines October 1952
Box   5  
Correspondence 1953
Box   5  
Diary
Box   5  
Draft Report
Box   5  
Kendrick Talk May 1953
Box   5  
Notes
Box   5  
Working Papers
 
Mexico Trip 1961
Box   5  
Correspondence 1960-1962
Box   5  
Report to World Health Organization 1961
Box   5  
Schedule and Minutes--Working Group on Whooping Cough 1961
 
Working Group on the Latin American Common Market for Biological Products Meeting August 1964
Box   5  
Reports
 
South America Trip 1964-1965
Box   5  
Correspondence 1964-1966
 
Countries Visited
Box   5  
Brazil
Box   5  
Chile
Box   5  
Guatemala
Box   5  
Panama
Box   5  
Uruguay
Box   5  
Venezuela
Box   6  
Diaries
Box   6  
Report to Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) 1965
Box   6  
Staff Meeting in Ann Arbor March 24, 1965
 
Professional Associations 1936-1972 [series]

Correspondence, minutes, reports, and related material make up the Professional Associations series (1936-1972), documenting Kendrick's membership in various professional associations. The bulk of this series relates to her work with the American Public Health Association, particularly its Multiple Antigen Committee and other committees.

Box   6  
American Academy of Microbiology 1957-1969
Box   6  
American Association for the Advancement of Science 1969
Box   6  
American Institute of Biological Sciences 1962-1964
 
American Public Health Association
Box   6  
General
 
Committees and Sections
Box   6  
Antigen Committees
Box   6  
Committee on Administrative Practice 1936-1938, 1948
 
Committee on Research and Standards 1951-1956
Box   6  
Correspondence 1947, 1951-1956
Box   6  
Minutes 1951-1956
Box   6  
Committee on Whooping Cough 1936
 
Coordinating Committee on Laboratory Methods
Box   6  
General 1951-1956
Box   6  
Correspondence 1950-1958
Box   6  
Meeting Notes March 1948
Box   6  
Nominating Committee 1955-1957
 
Epidemiology Section: Technical Committee on Immunization
Box   6  
Correspondence 1962-1966
Box   6  
Minutes 1961-1966
Box   6  
Historical Sketch of Immunization and Multiple Antigen Committees
 
Laboratory Section
Box   6  
Correspondence 1951-1970 (scattered)
Box   6  
Public Health Laboratory Directors--Conference 1968
 
Multiple Antigen Committee
Box   6  
Correspondence 1951-1961 (4 folders)
Box   6  
Meetings 1954-1964 (2 folders)
Box   6  
Reports 1956-1961
 
Subcommittee on Diagnostic Procedures and Reagents
 
Correspondence
Box   6  
1953-1955
Box   6  
1959-1962
Box   6  
Memoranda 1953-1954
Box   6  
Subcommittee on Enteric Phage Typing 1948-1954
 
Correspondence
Box   7  
General 1954-1958
Box   7  
Atwater, Reginald 1951-1957
Box   7  
Elder, Francis 1951-1958
 
Executive Board
Box   7  
Meeting Notes February 1947
Box   7  
Special Committee on Future Policies 1950-1951
Box   7  
Lasker Awards 1953-1960
 
Pertussis Study
Box   7  
Annual Reports 1942-1955
Box   7  
Correspondence 1938-1955 (2 folders)
Box   7  
Early Plans Toward Standardization 1952-1954
Box   7  
Final Report 1954
Box   7  
"Why Join the APHA?" by Pearl Kendrick 1947
 
American Society for Microbiology
Box   7  
General 1968-1971
Box   7  
Michigan Branch 1969-1972
Box   7  
Clinical Laboratory Association, Mexico 1961
 
Conference of Public Health Laboratory Directors
Box   7  
Annual Meetings 1961, 1965, 1968
Box   7  
Correspondence 1950-1954
Box   7  
International Congress for Microbiology 1958, 1970
Box   7  
Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 1955, 1968-1970
 
Michigan Public Health Association
Box   7  
General 1969
Box   7  
Annual Conference 1965, 1967
Box   7  
Correspondence 1966
Box   7  
Laboratory Division 1969-1971
Box   7  
Newsletters 1967-1971 (scattered)
Box   7  
Resolutions Committee 1971
Box   7  
Michigan State Medical Society: Child Welfare Committee--Subcommittee on Revision of Immunization Procedures 1942-1943
Box   7  
New York Academy of Sciences 1956, 1965
Box   7  
Society for General Microbiology 1966-1967
Box   7  
Society of American Bacteriologists 1957-1961
 
Speeches and Articles [series]

Reprints of articles by Kendrick and Grace Eldering, along with a few speeches and unpublished articles, comprise the Speeches and Articles series.

 
Reprints
Box   7  
Collected Reprints of Pearl L. Kendrick and Grace Eldering (1 volume)
Box   7  
Miscellaneous Reprints
Box   7  
Speeches 1954-1976 (scattered)
 
Visual Materials [series]

The final series Visual Materials includes photographs from her career and travels, and a videotape of a lecture given in 1977 relating to whooping cough and the World Health Organization.

 
Photographs [subseries]
Box   7  
Career
Box   7  
Family
Box   7  
Portraits
Box   7  
Travels
Box   7  
United States--Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Exchange: Immunology Delegation 1962
 
Videotapes [subseries]
Box   7  
Videotape of lecture by Pearl Kendrick and Grace Eldering relating to whooping cough and the World Health Organization (U-matic, ca. 60 min.)
Additional Descriptive Data
Related Material

Researchers may also wish to consult the Grace Eldering papers at the State Archives of Michigan in Lansing, as well as numerous collections at the Bentley Historical Library documenting the University of Michigan School of Public Health and its faculty.