exclude this possibility. In fact, it has been demonstrated that in the dromos
area there are no occupational levels predating the Hellenistic period.
As stated above, the volume is much more than an archaeological report: Rondot discusses in different chapters many aspects of the pantheon and
ritual at Tebtynis as well as the history of the toponym (with its orthographic
variants). His final conclusion about the main gods worshipped in the temple
is that there were two in the naos: Sobek-Geb (=Soknebtynis-Kronos) and
Sobek-Re-Harakhty. From this hypothesis he argues that Sobek was systematically worshipped in the Fayyum as a double god.11
This volume, carefully prepared according to the high standard of the
IFAO, is a substantial contribution to the study of temples and religion in the
Fayyum during the Hellenistic and Roman periods. It represents a fundamental step toward a better understanding of the urban development of the site.
University del Salento Paola Davoli
Nikos Litinas, Tebtynis III: Vessels' Notations from Tebtynis. Cairo:
Institut frangais d'archeologie orientale, 2008. 365 pages. ISBN 978 -2-7247-0467-9
This is the latest volume of the publication of the Franco-Italian excavations at Tebtynis; four volumes have appeared in the series thus far. This volume
includes 820 of the 1500 texts on vessels found at the site, those uncovered
from 1997-2003. The texts from earlier and later seasons will presumably be
published elsewhere, and Litinas refers to some of the unpublished texts in
the present volume.
In the introduction, Litinas argues for the term "vessel's notation" as an
alternative to the varied phraseology that has been used, imprecisely, in published descriptions of such objects, such as "dipinto" and "inscription." He also
presents a set of criteria that can be used to distinguish a vessel's notation from
an ostrakon; still, there is a group of texts (518-548) which could be ostraca.
In this volume Litinas gathers a list of all published vessels' notations
from Roman Egypt. In addition to a bibliographic reference and description,
Litinas annotates as necessary. I am aware of one more text from the Eastern
Desert that should be included in this list, SB 20.15371 = R.S. Bagnall and J.A.
Sheridan, "Greek and Latin Documents from 'Abu Sha'ar, 1992-1993," BASP 31
" On this topic see now G. Widmer, "On Egyptian Religion at Soknopaiou Nesos in
the Roman Period (P.Berlin P 6750)," in Lippert and Schentuleit (n. 2) 171-184.