Male baboon: Safe from predators, a male baboon adopts the posture it may keep all night long. Its ischial callosities, or callous pads, bear its weight and permit it to sleep sitting up even on slender branches.
Advanced Australopithecus: Distinguished from the early australopithicenes by his increased canial capacity, advanced Australopithecus was a contemporary of Paranthropus. Primitive tools have been found with both, but whether one or the other or both produced them remains unsettled; and Homo Erectus:The first man of our genus, homo erectus is modern of limb but more primitive of hand and brain, with a cranial capacity extending only into the lower ra
Australopithecus to Homo erectus. Australopithecus: Ramapithecus and this early form of Australopithecus, the first certain hominid, are seperated by a gap of nine million years. In this time, the prehumans made great advances - they walked upright, lived on the ground and may have used stones in their defense; Paranthropus: though he stood erect and had hominid features, Paranthropus represents an evolutionary dead end in man's ancestry. A vegeta
Australopithecus was a slender four-footer, weighing under 100 pounds. Standing eret, he ran with a swaying side-to-side motion, but walked in a short-stepping plod. His jaw was slightly forward-thrusting, a result of well developed canines and incisors.
Australopithecus and Paranthropus. Australopithecus: Ramapithecus and this early form of Australopithecus, the first certain hominid, are seperated by a gap of nine million years. In this time, the prehumans made great advances - they walked upright, lived on the ground and may have used stones in their defense; Paranthropus: though he stood erect and had hominid features, Paranthropus represents an evolutionary dead end in man's ancestry. A vegeta
Ramapithecus: The easliest manlike primate found so far, Ramapithecus is now thought by some experts to be the oldest of man's ancestors in a direct line. This hominid status is predicated upon a few teeth, some fragments of jaw and a palate unmistakably human in shape.
Proconsul: Known from numerous fragments adding up to almost complete skeletons, Proconsul is considered to be a very early ape, the ancestor of the chimpanzee and perhaps of the gorilla. A contemporary of Pliopithecus, it is often found with it in the same fossil site.
Dryopithecus: Though its skeleton is tantalizingly incomplete, Dryopithecus can be fairly described from a few jaws and teeth. First of the fossil great apes to be discovered, it was widely distributed; remains have been unearthed throughout Europe, in North India and China.
Oreopithecus: A likely sidebranch on man's family tree, Oreopithecus is believed t ohave stood around four feet tall and weighed about 80 pounds. Its teeth and pelvis led scientists to wonder if it could be ancestral to man, but apparently it became extinct some 8 million years ago.
Pliopithecus: One of the earliest proto-apes, Pliopithecus had the look of a modern gibbon although its arms were not as disproportionately long and specialized for swinging through the trees. On the basis of its teeth and skull it is now classed as an ancestor of the gibbon line.
Raw material sources, Middle vs. Upper Paleolithic. The big difference in the distances over which raw materials were obtained comes with the Uper Palaeolithic when shells, amber, and other items were widely traded. (Original teaching slide code: PM-37)