Northern Nigeria - Nok style, various sculptures. Plate X: Terra cotta, elephant, Nassarawa Div. Plate XI: Terra cotta head, Katsina Ala. Plate XII: Terra Cotta, loins and legs, Nok. Plate XIII: Monkey, Nok.
"African genesis". The story of early man in Africa is told in this chart. Gray bars in the center represent fossil and tool-bearing sites: those on the left are Beds I and II at Olduvai Gorge in East Africa; those on the right side are South African caves. On the left hand edge of the diagram are absolute dates obtained from Beds I and II by the potassium-argon method. South African dates are known only by cross-checking animal fossils there with
Olduvai hominid sequence. Schematic representation of the lower half of the Olduvai sequence, showing the approximate vertical position of hominid fossils (numerals enclosed in squares). The potassium-argon dates are indicated near the left margin (m = million years).
Crown areas and length/breadth index. Ranges of size and shape of mandibular teeth in the H. habilis from Bed I and the hominine from lower Bed II compared with those of Australopithecus africanus. Left: crown areas (mm sq.). Right: the length of the tooth expressed as a percentage of the breadth. The cheek teeth (premolars and molars) of the hominines have higher indices because they are elongated and lack the characteristic australopithecine bro
Buccolingual breadths (in millimeters) of the maxiliary (left) and mandibular (right) teeth of A. africanus and H. erectus. The cheek teeth (from P3 to M3) of the australopithecines are characteristically broadened, as contrasted with those of the hominines, represented here by Homo erectus.
Peninj jaw. Two views of the lower jawbone and teeth of a large-toothed australopithecine from Peninj, next to Lake Natron, some 80 km northeast of Olduvai Gorge. The very small front teeth (incisors and canines) and very large cheek teeth (premolars and molars) characteristic of the robust australopithecine are well shown. This mandible represents a Middle Pleistocene survivor of the African australopithecines, probably a late member of the Olduva
Homo habilis type specimen. Left lateral view of the dental arcade and body of the mandible of the type specimen of the new Olduvai hominine, Homo habilis. In this juvenile specimen, only the first two molars have erupted. The "enamel line" on each tooth is clearly defined; areas of hypoplastic enamel are well shown on the canine tooth.
Australopithecine sites. The African sites which have yielded fossilized remains of Australopithecus, popularly known as ape-men, near-men, or half-men. The three northern sites are in the Republic of Tanzania; the five southern sites are in the Republic of South Africa.