Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): In the silts covering the archaeological site numerous leaf casts were found. The species has not been identified but they may belong to the genus Ficus. Very probably groves of trees grew along the sandy channel and their shade may have been among the attractions leading to hominid occupation of this spot.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): A plan of the location of in situ finds at KBS. The excavation has revealed part of a patch of discarded material some 12 - 15 inches in diameter. The left-hand portion was destroyed by erosion before discovery of the site. Part has deliberately been left unexcavated so as to be available for future research.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): A representative series of the 129 artifacts which have been recovered from this site. Top row, angular fragments (= broken flakes without a talon). Second row, split and snapped flakes. Third and fourth rows, whole flakes. Bottom row, core-choppers, polyhedrons, discoids, etc.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): Shows the base of the pale grey tuff dust layer being "peeled" off the tuff sand layer to expose the archaeological horizon at the interface. Excavators, Mr. J. Barthelme, University of California and Mr. Msau of the National Museum.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): The consolidated deposits are dug in 5 cm increments by tapping a small chisel. The lumps and crumbs of tuff are broken on a board with a rubber mallet and then sent for screening. Almost all material is found while still in place as excavation proceeds. Excavator, Mr. J. Kimengech of the Kenya National Museum.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): Excavation in progress. The consolidated fine, grey tuff dust that fills the swale left by the abandoned channel is being gently chipped away to uncover the top of the sandy streambed.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): (Fx Jj1)- View of the site from the adjacent gully. The beds in the foreground are deposits laid down in lagoons and swamps at the lake margin. The pale outcrop above is the KBS tuff which here fills an ancient distributary channel system that was established over the swamps as the lake retreated. The early prehistoric occupants of the site camped on the sandy substratum provided by the tuff filled channel.
Site HAS- plans and sections of the findings. Left: a plot of the location of bone specimens including the hippo bones on the surface. Right: a plot of the location of stone artifacts. Center: two slices through the site showing how the material forms a horizon representing an old ground surface.
Site HAS (Fx Jj3)- volcanic ash (tuff) has filled in delta distributary channels which can be traced winding amongst floodplain deposits which were laid down just inland of the former lakeshore. Eroding out of the uppermost deposits of the channel are the bones of a single hippopotamus carcass. The volcanic ash is the KBS tuff.
Part of the terrain in which the hunt for fossils and archaeological remains is carried out. In the foreground area the brown-sandstone-mantled outcrops of the Lower Memer with the find spot of the hominid skull 1470 being searched and sieved. In the background is the Farari escarpment, formed by the more rapidly eroding Upper Member deposits (Area 131).
The Koobi Fora expeditions have been made by the large number of well-preserved hominid fossils discovered. The mandible of a juvenile hominid just appearing at the surface as its matrix of sands are eroded away.
The success of the Koobi Fora expeditions in discovering a wide range of important new fossils is largely due to the existence of a highly trained and very skilled team of fossil hunters. Their activities are coordinated by Richard Leakey and they are lead in the field by Mr. Kamoya Kimeu, who has been professionally engaged in this pursuit for more than 15 years. Here the fossil hunting team is seen in the field.
The complete skull of a fossil crocodile cleared by Dr. Abell and ready for transport to the Kenya National Museum. It is hinged open with the mandible on the viewer's left and the palate on the right.
The modern lakeshore floodplains of Lake Rudolf support a distinctive community of animals that are dependent on the lake for water and some grazing. There is one such species- the topee (Damaliscus lunatus).
An air-view of the modern shoreline of Lake Turkana and the delta of the Il Eriet River. Many aspects of the situation are the same as when the fossil bearing sediments were deposited; a sandy bottomed watercourse winds its way through a silt covered floodplain to build out sand and silt banks at the river mouth. Fossils occur in situations representing all these environments of the river, but in Pliocene to early Pleistocene times, the rivers appea
A block diagram of the Koobi Fora (East Rudolf) area. This shows in greater detail the physiography of the area that is yielding fossil evidence of early man. Plio-pleistocene sediments are exposed over a large part of a shelf-like strip of terrain between the lake and the rim of Tertiary volcanics. The area is approximately 50 miles from north to south and 15 to 20 miles from east to west. The director of the National Museum of Kenya, Richard Lea
Satellite photograph of the north end of Lake Turkana (Rudolf) showing the Omo River winding southwards to reach the lake by way of a birds-foot delta. Lake Turkana occupies the lowest part of a Rift Valley trough (graben). To the east of it a shelf-like area of pale-colored terrain can be seen. This is the area in which sedimentary deposits from the time range 4.5 to 1 million years are eroding so as to reveal their contained fossils and artifacts