22. Graffito ornamented human shin bone hard to identify, with shell, coral, and turquoise inlayings. It is likely that it was used as a flute or "quena". It measures 0.23 M. 23. Necklace made out of hyena teeth had blue beads of porcelain. It belongs to the transition period. It has 76 teeth. 24. Necklace formed by 19 jaguar teeth intercalated with white porcelain beads. Like the former figure, it belongs to an intermediate epoch when the P
Upper Paleolithic cave art. Niaux Cave Period: Late Magdalenian, ca. 12,000 -14,000 B.P. Bison outlines cut from clay floor, carried to LS outcrops and molded by hand. 122 cm each. (Original teaching slide code: LF-9)
"Petersfels excavation 1976. Period: Late Magdalenian, c. 12,000-13,000 B.P. Site excavated by G. Albrecht, University of Tübingen, 1976-78, in narrow, dry valley below a small cave entirely excavated by early German archaeologist E. Peters in the 1920s. See above, nr. 12. Photo shows part of a stone pavement in excavation unit P3, AH (archaeological horizon) 2. Materials recovered indicate production of stone tools from locally available raw mat
France: Pincevent excavation. Period: Late Magdalenian, c. 12,000 B.P. Site discovered in the 1950s in the course of salvage excavation of early medieval site discovered in mining some of the floodplain sediments for gravel. During the 1960s, excavation of the prehistoric sites (Neolithic, Epipaleolithic, Magdalenian) began under the auspices of the Société préhistorique francaise (branch for quaternary studies), which arranged for the French gover
"Kesslerloch carved rib with reindeer. Site: Kesslerloch cave, Schaffhausen, Switzerland. Period: Late Magdalenian, ca. 12,000 - 13,000 B.P. Small cave excavated in 19th century. Two Magdalenian levels. Features include evidence of hearths. Along with Petersfels and the nearby site of Schweizersbild, one of largest/richest Magdalenian assemblages in region. Stone artifacts, jet objects, bone/antler artifacts." (Original teaching slide code: LF-
Petersfels, cave site in Germany. Petersfels jet pendant. Period: Late Magdalenian, ca. 12,000 - 13,000 B.P. Pendant of local jet (lignite) material, interpreted as schematic female figurine by comparison to other Late Magdalenian objects, including engravings and figurines, in western and central Europe. This site is one of the richest Magdalenian sites in central Europe; at this location are a small cave entirely excavated by Edouard Peters in t
Upper Paleolithic cave art. Period: Late Magdalenian, ca. 12,000 -14,000 B.P. "Vulvas" in red ochre and "plant-like forms" or arrows in manganese El Castillo Cave. Spain. (Original teaching slide code: LF-11)
Niaux, France. Sketch of horse with arrows. 17/11 A major point of interest in Niaux is the symbolism and abstract character of its subject matter. This is true even when the obscurity of the symbol or the abstraction makes it difficult or impossible to comprehend the composition.
Here a long horizontal red arrow, profusely barbed, is shown, the barbs seen on the left. Above it is the sketch of a small red horse, the muzzle pointing to the right
Niaux, France. The Galleries. Bison of the "Cups" detail. 17/6 As noted, one of these cups was chosen; it served to form the globe of the eye, and with this as the probable starting point, the admirable design of a bison unfolded. We have already commented on the sure and expert line, freely engraved in the clay. But equally remarkable is the quality of the design which developed from the point-of-departure of the natural "eye," the cup. Inspire
Niaux, France. The Bison of the "cups". 17/5 One of the major works of Niaux -- indeed, of Quaternary art itself -- is this bison. Engraved in clay, it bears witness to the technique and graphic genius of the Magdalenian artist. In its way this work calls to mind the art of a Matisse, A Picasso, or one of the great Japanese print-makers. Here we see how, on this clay surface, natural cups were formed, little hollows created by drops of water fall
Niaux, France. Trout engraved in clay. 17/4 As in the cave of nearby Bedeilhac, these clay surfaces of Niaux are rich in engravings. Unfortunately, casual visitors often failed to recognize them for what they were, trampling and frequently obliterating them. Those engravings which are preserved are the exceptions, an example being this excellent trout, measuring 11 3/4" in length and found on one of the overhangs of this gallery, before coming to t
Niaux, France. Salon Noir (III) Bull engraved in clay. 14/10 The clay on the ground was a convenient setting for sketches and even complete engravings. A good number of these must have been effaced by visitors, whether from prehistoric or more recent times.
Here-- in and area to the left of the Salon Noir at the foot of the wall overhanging so as to make passage impossible -- is the engraved sketch of a bull 18 inches long, done in an unquestionabl
Niaux, France. III Small wounded ibex. 14/4 Between and to the right of the two preceding bison is an ibex of much smaller stature. The size of the ibex may have been deliberated, to minimize its importance vis-à-vis the bison. Of the panel. (In any case, the relation of the ibex to the bison gives no clue to its comparative age. The head of the ibex seems to droop under the impact of the blows it has received: two javelins in the chest.
Niaux, France. Bison with two black arrows. 10/11 Here once more we find evidence of a sense of creativity whence issued the development of the black horse seen in the proceeding slide, but this time applied to a bison. The animal, 39" long, rests on a rocky scale, securely positioned with its front feet on one side and its hind feet on the other.
Two heavily defined ritual arrows, represented by converging lines, wound the bison in its right fla
Niaux, France. Stag in natural relief. 10/8 Here we see a most remarkable, even sensational utilization of a natural relief. In this "composition" the artist built an image about the suggestion conveyed to him by a hallow in the rock. Evidently, this concavity showed itself to him a stag's head, seen from in front, or from behind. A rocky shoulder to the right obviously suggested antlers, and it would appear that the artist forthwith defined them
Niaux, France. Ibex of the Salon Noir. 6/12 The dualism between magical imperative and aesthetic suggestion allows, according to circumstances, either a happy or a tragic solution. The little horse pierced by an arrow (6/11), placed below the bison struck by three black arrows (6/7), represents a happy solution. In passing, we note a less happy solution: the vigorous croup of the large black horse here obliterates a modest little bison, drawn with