This large shadow puppet depicts the monkey deity Hanuman. Hanuman was Rama's most trusted and valuable officer in the Rankien. During Rama's war against the demon king Toskanth, Rama asked Hanuman to infiltrate the court of Toskanth. Hanuman tricked Toskanth into believing that he had defected to the demon's side. Toskanth was so pleased by this that he made Hanuman the crown prince of his kingdom, replacing his son Indrajit, who Hanuman had ironi
This shadow puppet probably depicts the simian deity Hanuman. It is also possible that the puppet illustrates the demon king Toskanth instead. If it is Hanuman it portrays him during his time as Toskanth's heir. Hanuman tricked Toskanth earning the king's trust so that he could do reconnaissance on behalf of Rama. This puppet is probably made from cow leather. IT was heavily oiled when it was made to give it a black shine. It has retained enough o
This shadow puppet depicts the hero of the Ramakein, Rama. Rama, who is the crown prince of Ayudhya, is dispatched by his father to do away with demons, who are harassing a local population of hermits. Having completed his task Rama wanders further from home winning the hand in marriage of Princess Sida through a feat of strength. Exiled for fourteen years by his father under the influence of an evil wife Rama wanders far and wide. At some point h
This shadow puppet is made from either cow or water buffalo leather. It has four wooden sticks bound to the leather with twine for controlling the puppet. Most of the leather has lost its black shine and faded to a dark green. In places where the red paint was applied it has faded in various ways from a ruddy orange to light yellow. The leather is perforated with holes to create a fancy illuminated pattern around the central figure. This figure i
This shadow puppet appears to depict a tiger. It is made from eight overlapping pieces of very thin cow leather. The pieces are joined by small pieces of rope with knots on each end. This gives a pivot so each piece can move independently. The two largest pieces are the torso pieces front and back. The front torso piece has two legs attached to it and has the face painted on it. The back torso piece has the tail and the two other legs attached to
The painting appears to be on a thin canvas. The background of the painting is an olive green. In front of this background are six figures, four of whom are masked or are perhaps demons. The masks are red wit h very large eyes and perpendicular noses. The other two figures’ faces are pale, with long thin eyes and a nose that is a straight continuation of the forehead line. In the bottom left corner and across the top, encircling the top two figure
Proconsul: Known from numerous fragments adding up to almost complete skeletons, Proconsul is considered to be a very early ape, the ancestor of the chimpanzee and perhaps of the gorilla. A contemporary of Pliopithecus, it is often found with it in the same fossil site.
Ramapithecus: The easliest manlike primate found so far, Ramapithecus is now thought by some experts to be the oldest of man's ancestors in a direct line. This hominid status is predicated upon a few teeth, some fragments of jaw and a palate unmistakably human in shape.
Australopithecine sites. The African sites which have yielded fossilized remains of Australopithecus, popularly known as ape-men, near-men, or half-men. The three northern sites are in the Republic of Tanzania; the five southern sites are in the Republic of South Africa.
Homo habilis type specimen. Left lateral view of the dental arcade and body of the mandible of the type specimen of the new Olduvai hominine, Homo habilis. In this juvenile specimen, only the first two molars have erupted. The "enamel line" on each tooth is clearly defined; areas of hypoplastic enamel are well shown on the canine tooth.
Peninj jaw. Two views of the lower jawbone and teeth of a large-toothed australopithecine from Peninj, next to Lake Natron, some 80 km northeast of Olduvai Gorge. The very small front teeth (incisors and canines) and very large cheek teeth (premolars and molars) characteristic of the robust australopithecine are well shown. This mandible represents a Middle Pleistocene survivor of the African australopithecines, probably a late member of the Olduva
Buccolingual breadths (in millimeters) of the maxiliary (left) and mandibular (right) teeth of A. africanus and H. erectus. The cheek teeth (from P3 to M3) of the australopithecines are characteristically broadened, as contrasted with those of the hominines, represented here by Homo erectus.
Crown areas and length/breadth index. Ranges of size and shape of mandibular teeth in the H. habilis from Bed I and the hominine from lower Bed II compared with those of Australopithecus africanus. Left: crown areas (mm sq.). Right: the length of the tooth expressed as a percentage of the breadth. The cheek teeth (premolars and molars) of the hominines have higher indices because they are elongated and lack the characteristic australopithecine bro
Australopithecus and Paranthropus. Australopithecus: Ramapithecus and this early form of Australopithecus, the first certain hominid, are seperated by a gap of nine million years. In this time, the prehumans made great advances - they walked upright, lived on the ground and may have used stones in their defense; Paranthropus: though he stood erect and had hominid features, Paranthropus represents an evolutionary dead end in man's ancestry. A vegeta
Australopithecus was a slender four-footer, weighing under 100 pounds. Standing eret, he ran with a swaying side-to-side motion, but walked in a short-stepping plod. His jaw was slightly forward-thrusting, a result of well developed canines and incisors.
Advanced Australopithecus: Distinguished from the early australopithicenes by his increased canial capacity, advanced Australopithecus was a contemporary of Paranthropus. Primitive tools have been found with both, but whether one or the other or both produced them remains unsettled; and Homo Erectus:The first man of our genus, homo erectus is modern of limb but more primitive of hand and brain, with a cranial capacity extending only into the lower ra
Australopithecus to Homo erectus. Australopithecus: Ramapithecus and this early form of Australopithecus, the first certain hominid, are seperated by a gap of nine million years. In this time, the prehumans made great advances - they walked upright, lived on the ground and may have used stones in their defense; Paranthropus: though he stood erect and had hominid features, Paranthropus represents an evolutionary dead end in man's ancestry. A vegeta