Site HAS- plans and sections of the findings. Left: a plot of the location of bone specimens including the hippo bones on the surface. Right: a plot of the location of stone artifacts. Center: two slices through the site showing how the material forms
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): (Fx Jj1)- View of the site from the adjacent gully. The beds in the foreground are deposits laid down in lagoons and swamps at the lake margin. The pale outcrop above is the KBS tuff which here fills an ancient distrib
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): Excavation in progress. The consolidated fine, grey tuff dust that fills the swale left by the abandoned channel is being gently chipped away to uncover the top of the sandy streambed.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): The consolidated deposits are dug in 5 cm increments by tapping a small chisel. The lumps and crumbs of tuff are broken on a board with a rubber mallet and then sent for screening. Almost all material is found while st
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): Shows the base of the pale grey tuff dust layer being "peeled" off the tuff sand layer to expose the archaeological horizon at the interface. Excavators, Mr. J. Barthelme, University of California and Mr. Msau of the Na
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): A representative series of the 129 artifacts which have been recovered from this site. Top row, angular fragments (= broken flakes without a talon). Second row, split and snapped flakes. Third and fourth rows, whole f
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): A plan of the location of in situ finds at KBS. The excavation has revealed part of a patch of discarded material some 12 - 15 inches in diameter. The left-hand portion was destroyed by erosion before discovery of the
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): In the silts covering the archaeological site numerous leaf casts were found. The species has not been identified but they may belong to the genus Ficus. Very probably groves of trees grew along the sandy channel and t
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): A schematic reconstruction of the paleogeographic setting of the sites KBS and HAS in a delta floodplain just inland of a swampy lakeshore with lagoon (this reconstruction is subject to some revision as a result of more
The eastern shores of Lake Turkana (Rudolf) are inhabited by mobile groups of fishers, the Gal-dies, who are a segment of the mainly pastoral and agricultural Dassanetch. A fisherman in a dugout canoe.
Excavating a Gal-dies camp that had been buried by sand a short while after occupation had ended. The fishing group had chosen this spot because the ephemeral water course provided comfortable sand to sit on. The small stream then flooded, burying the d
View from the north end of Lake Natron. The active volcano Lengai can be seen in the far distance. The modern delta of the Peninj River can be seen projecting into the lake from the right. The flower is a desert rose (Adensonia sp.)
Air view of the escarpment that runs parallel to the western shore of the lake. The faults creating this scarp have moved mainly since the deposition of the Peninj fossiliferous beds. The plain above runs through a gap to join with the Serengeti at Oldu
A closer view of the fault scarp plus a Pleiocene volcano, Mozonik, that projects through a flood of lavas. Behind is the active volcano Lengai which has been built up entirely since the period in which the Peninj beds were deposited.
The fault scarps cut the Lower Pleistocene Peninj Group sediments so that some outcrops are down in the Natron trough as seen here, while others over large areas of the plateau above. The Peninj australopithecine jaw was found in the eroded area seen her
Diagrams illustrating the stratigraphy and dating of the mandible. It was stratified below one lava dated at 1.3 million years and also below another one with normal polarity. This suggests Olduvai event age 1.8 - 1.6 million years (see Isaac and Curtis
An Olivine basalt flow in Humbu Formation tuffs. These tuffs are equivalent to the tuffs just above the mandible. The potassium-argon age of the lava thus helps to date the mandible (Isaac and Curtis, 1974).