Site HAS- plans and sections of the findings. Left: a plot of the location of bone specimens including the hippo bones on the surface. Right: a plot of the location of stone artifacts. Center: two slices through the site showing how the material forms a horizon representing an old ground surface.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): (Fx Jj1)- View of the site from the adjacent gully. The beds in the foreground are deposits laid down in lagoons and swamps at the lake margin. The pale outcrop above is the KBS tuff which here fills an ancient distributary channel system that was established over the swamps as the lake retreated. The early prehistoric occupants of the site camped on the sandy substratum provided by the tuff filled channel.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): Excavation in progress. The consolidated fine, grey tuff dust that fills the swale left by the abandoned channel is being gently chipped away to uncover the top of the sandy streambed.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): The consolidated deposits are dug in 5 cm increments by tapping a small chisel. The lumps and crumbs of tuff are broken on a board with a rubber mallet and then sent for screening. Almost all material is found while still in place as excavation proceeds. Excavator, Mr. J. Kimengech of the Kenya National Museum.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): Shows the base of the pale grey tuff dust layer being "peeled" off the tuff sand layer to expose the archaeological horizon at the interface. Excavators, Mr. J. Barthelme, University of California and Mr. Msau of the National Museum.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): A representative series of the 129 artifacts which have been recovered from this site. Top row, angular fragments (= broken flakes without a talon). Second row, split and snapped flakes. Third and fourth rows, whole flakes. Bottom row, core-choppers, polyhedrons, discoids, etc.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): A plan of the location of in situ finds at KBS. The excavation has revealed part of a patch of discarded material some 12 - 15 inches in diameter. The left-hand portion was destroyed by erosion before discovery of the site. Part has deliberately been left unexcavated so as to be available for future research.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): In the silts covering the archaeological site numerous leaf casts were found. The species has not been identified but they may belong to the genus Ficus. Very probably groves of trees grew along the sandy channel and their shade may have been among the attractions leading to hominid occupation of this spot.
Site KBS (Kay Behrensmeyer Site): A schematic reconstruction of the paleogeographic setting of the sites KBS and HAS in a delta floodplain just inland of a swampy lakeshore with lagoon (this reconstruction is subject to some revision as a result of more recent geological work).
The eastern shores of Lake Turkana (Rudolf) are inhabited by mobile groups of fishers, the Gal-dies, who are a segment of the mainly pastoral and agricultural Dassanetch. A fisherman in a dugout canoe.
Excavating a Gal-dies camp that had been buried by sand a short while after occupation had ended. The fishing group had chosen this spot because the ephemeral water course provided comfortable sand to sit on. The small stream then flooded, burying the discarded flood refuse and the hearth. The situation involves many parallels with the KBS site. Ms. Diane Gifford (left rear) conducted the study and will publish detailed reports.
View from the north end of Lake Natron. The active volcano Lengai can be seen in the far distance. The modern delta of the Peninj River can be seen projecting into the lake from the right. The flower is a desert rose (Adensonia sp.)
Air view of the escarpment that runs parallel to the western shore of the lake. The faults creating this scarp have moved mainly since the deposition of the Peninj fossiliferous beds. The plain above runs through a gap to join with the Serengeti at Olduvai Gorge, which is only about 30 miles away.